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Vatican II Church Council:
The Second Vatican Council occurred between 1962 and 1965 to demonstrate the liveliness and hope of the Church to continue serving the world. As an initiative of Pope John XXIII, the Council was a huge success as evident in its proceedings and its sixteen documents. However, one of the major questions in the aftermath of the Council is whether it was accorded reception by the universal Church. Secondly, there are concerns on whether the Council should have equipped the post-Conciliar Church in its mandate to people. Through its very nature, the Vatican II Church Council was a ramified progression of occurrences from the moment it was announced by the pope.
Origin of the Vatican II Church Council:
Both the Church and the world were surprised by Pope John XXVIII in January 25, 1959 following his announcement of a general Council for the Universal Church (ilde, p.…… [Read More]
Human moality and law should theefoe not be at odds with each othe, but wok togethe in ode to pomote the divine pinciple of life. Accoding to the document, moal teaching enfoces the intenal human conscience, while govenment law enfoces extenal behavio. These should then wok togethe fo the pepetuation of natual life.
Beyond the document, the Chuch has also issued declaations in tems of othe issues elating to sexual conduct, conception and maiage. Accoding to the chuch, and also mentioned biefly in the Abotion Declaation, sexual conduct should occu only within maiage, and with sufficient esponsibility in ode to pevent unwanted pegnancy. The Vatican is vey stongly against abotion meely because the child is an "inconvenience" as a esult of pemaital o iesponsible sexual conduct. In this, the Chuch concedes that moden society is not in geat favo of big families, as the case was in the past. The…… [Read More]
Of course, such hurried indifference was seen within the Council from start to finish.
The primary order of business was to set the sequence of schemas to be discussed. Complementary to this business was the matter of choosing bishops and periti to sit on commissions for the drafting of schemas. Though the proposed schemas had already been drafted, the liberal element was able to persuade John XXIII to abandon them since they did not have the support of the majority of the Council. John XXIII overturned Council regulations (which stated that the majority must be at least two-thirds -- which it was not -- for proposed schemas to be abandoned). Lefebvre, who helped draft the initial set of schemas, illustrates the haphazard manner in which the Council was begun:
I was nominated a member of the Central Preparatory Commission by the pope and I took an assiduous and enthusiastic part…… [Read More]
Vatican City in ome. Vatican City is actually a city-state located within the city of ome, Italy. It came into existence in 1929, and is governed by the Pope. As a city-state, it is considered a country, making it the smallest country in the world, with only 800 residents. Before 1929, Popes had been living in the area that is now Vatican City since the 1300s, so the area has been considered holy for centuries.
omans referred to the area known as the Vatican by that name since ancient times. It was a marshy area near the capital, where there were several villas and buildings. It gained religious importance because St. Peter was supposed to have been martyred in the area, and his tomb was built there (in St. Peter's Basilica) ("Vatican City in the Past"). Peter's tomb is the most ancient structure in the Vatican; it started construction around…… [Read More]
Vatican Council II (1962-1965). Seven Sources.
Vatican Council II (1962-1965)
In the forty years since the completion of the Vatican Council II, the controversy has yet to cease. There is still passionate debate between church conservatives, who feel the council went too far, and liberals, who feel church politics has prevented the original vision from becoming a reality. One side feels that the council was inspired by the devil, while the other side feels betrayed.
Many feel the Council brought changes that were long overdue, while others feel it was short of heresy. Nevertheless, roughly three generations of Catholics have grown up under Vatican II and it remains a point of contention with church leaders and parishioners worldwide.
Vatican Council is the name of two ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church that were held in Vatican City in Rome. An ecumenical council is a meeting of church leaders called…… [Read More]
As the chaplain gives communion, this is a position that cannot yet be held by a woman in the Catholic Church.
A Eucharistic minister in the Roman Catholic Church must be a priest, therefore it is a position that must be occupied by a male. In other churches, the Eucharistic Minister refers to the person who assists the priest and is licensed to administer both the bread and the wine during communion. Furthermore, they are licensed to administer communion to the homebound, incarcerated or sick and therefore cannot attend Mass.
A Lector is another position within the Catholic Church. Its responsibilities include reading the first and second reading during a Catholic Mass. In order to become a lector, one must be committed to their faith, and go to confession. There are seminars and training classes available in preparation of this position.
A Chancellor of the Diocese in the Roman Catholic…… [Read More]
Second Vatican Council and the Traditionalist Backlash
The Second Vatican Council is unique in the Catholic Church's near 2000-year history. From 1962 to 1965 the massive council met in Vatican City to update the Church's stance on liturgical and theological matters. By adopting what Popes John XXIII and Paul VI called a "pastoral attitude" toward the fulfillment of the needs of modern man, the Council attracted media coverage unparalleled by past councils.
The Council was enormous. It had eleven times as many members from fourteen times as many countries as the First Vatican Council. It was an occasion of "shock and awe." Those who anticipated "an event" were awed; those who anticipated the assertion of Catholic theology were shocked. For example, when Cardinal Larraona wrote to Pope Paul VI in preparation for the Third Session concerning the schema Constitutionis de Ecclesia, he said, it "brings us…inaccurate, illogical, incoherent and encouraging…… [Read More]
"Good evening viewers, it is on this day that history was made within the Roman Catholic Church. In today's bulletin, I will take through information in relation to the appointment of the new pope, his first days in the office, and historical perspectives of the act. I am your reporter Pelletta Vendetta, welcome to the show."
"On Saturday, Pope Benedict XVI and the incoming Pope Castel Gandolfo shared a lunch with reporters waiting outside at the hilltop villa for the examination of the historical event between a Pope and his predecessor. The content of the encounter was not clear without any information provided by the Vatican officials. According to a spokesman of the Vatican, "the first embrace was wonderful." According to the information circulating in Italy, this meeting or the Saturday's lunch is a form of rehearsal for cohabitation. Vatican officials focus on expressing their affection and gratitude…… [Read More]
Their template deals with subjects such as what women found satisfying and frustrating about work. Also the committee heard show do they balance home and work responsibilities and fit in volunteer activities, how do they find time for spiritual activities. In addition, how does the spirituality affect work and vice versa (Bishop's Committee on omen in Society and in the Church).
ith regard to birth control, more a more liberally minded Pope could base relaxation of birth control based upon the results of the 1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control. This Commission voted 30-5 to relax the concerns on birth control (1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control).
ith regard to priestly marriage, it would be well for the Church to examine the Eastern Orthodox Rite where marriage for priests is allowed. ith regard to poverty, the Church could build upon Rerum Novarum and a pile of Church encyclicals that deal…… [Read More]
Archbishop of Sydney, Cardinal Pell (2005), admits, "the teaching of religion has become more difficult through the past decades," (p. 4). Because of the various impediments and challenges to maintaining a religious foundation, educators and administrators are working extra hard to deliver a quality curriculum that infuses the young mind with spirituality and devotion to God. The goals of a religious education are clearly outlined by the Archdiocese of Sydney in its curriculum guide. Goals include an enhanced understanding of scripture, the cultivation of faith, and the development of habits such as prayer that foster a religious lifestyle and attitude. The Diocese of Paramatta echoes these same goals. On its website, the Diocese of Paramata ("eligious Education," n.d.) states the definition of religious education as, "more than formal instruction; it is a conscious pathway to the development of the whole person as a model of Christ and permeates all facets…… [Read More]
As Jeffrey Stout has it, following James' "Will-to-Believe," "We need not agree on all matters of moral importance to agree on many, and where our judgments happen to coincide we need not reach them for the same reasons." (Fackre, 2003)
Fackre states that there are five pluralist views as follows:
View 1: Common Core. At the center of all the great religions of humankind is found a common core of divine (however conceived) doing, disclosing and delivering. Each faith approaches it through its own heroes, expresses it in its own language, celebrates it in its own rituals, formulates it in its own rules of behavior, and passes it on in its own communal forms. While the rhetoric of each religion may claim that its way, truth and life are for all, these absolutist professions are, in fact, "love talk," the metaphors of commitment, not the metaphysics of reality. Jesus is,…… [Read More]
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…… [Read More]
Like Pope John Paul II, Pope enedict wanted to emphasize the mystery of the Eucharist, and to help the Church community put the Celebration of Mass and Sacraments into a context by which to move forward in time.
It is clear that both Pope John Paul II and Pope enedict XVI stand firm on maintaining the Traditions of the Church, both Sacramental and political, and with as little change to them as possible. It has long been the position of the Church that consistency in Tradition follows the path of God (YOUR TEXT TITLE, EDITOR, DATE).
There is certain symbolism associated with the liturgy that serves to link the community or laity to the tradition of the Celebration of the Eucharist; and that symbolism is the altar, the minister or priest, the cup that holds the wine or the lood of Jesus; the read that is the ody of Christ;…… [Read More]
Concealing to Confronting Sex Abuse
It is one thing to consider child sexual abuse from the perspective of the criminal offender. Sexual abuse almost certainly qualifies as an anti-social behavior that is transmitted from generation to generation. Although this issue was not discussed in any of the articles, there is simply far too much evidence that child sexual abusers are very likely to have, themselves, been abused as children to ignore the idea that this behavior is transmitted from generation to generation, abuser to victim. In fact, child sexual offenders seem to have a modified version of the subculture of violence, but the subculture is actually one of sexual violence towards children. In this isolated culture, the sexual victimization of children is normalized. That explains the prevalence of child pornography and groups like NAMBLA. In fact, the offender may minimize the damage that he experienced at the hands of his…… [Read More]
ased on the gospels of the New Testament, Jews acted as the murderers of Jesus Christ who in Jewish history is claiming to be the Son of God. Criticizing today's Christian practices such as idolatry which is purely against time old philosophy of the scripture continually arouses negative notion on the true authority of Jesus on his teachings.
Most of the parables of Jesus written in the gospels of the New Testament have survived and prospered in the heart and mind of all Christians. The parable of the Prodigal Son and the parable of the lost sheep are some of the parables that depict the importance given by God towards mankind.
The growth of the early Christian Catholic Church have sporadically developed worldwide since its founding after the death of Jesus Christ with Apostle Peter as the first Pope. The church traces its origin from the 12 Apostles in their…… [Read More]
Beginning with the major arch of the Stanze that frames the entire piece, there recedes a series of concentric circles that focus down to the archway that frames the two central figures. This can be seen as a nearly literal rippling effect of the wisdom of these two great thinkers off into space, and into the mind of the viewer. Working from largest to smallest, we can see that the pattern is ultimately infinite since it ends with the focal point discussed in the previous paragraph. This seems to reflect the philosophy that the more focused a philosophy comes, and the finite the topics, the closer it gets to circling back again into the infinite.
The integration of a dialectic of ideas is achieved through an intricate working of visual lines. The strong diagonals of the heads of the two statues and the heads of the two major figures creates…… [Read More]
What is Michael Walsh's view of Opus Dei? Do you think he is justified in this?
Walsh has a decisively and divisively denigrating view of Opus Dei. His cynicism might be connected with general distrust of the Catholic Church because of its historic secrecy and overt hierarchical structures that prevent the free flow of information. Moreover, Walsh's criticism is launched against the conservative social trends and values that Opus Dei represents. Walsh therefore uses a diatribe against Opus Dei to confront broader ills in the Catholic Church.
Whether I think Walsh is justified or not is irrelevant. If what he says is true, and it might be, then it would not surprise me. The author is certainly justified in expressing his opinion, and even more so if that opinion is rooted in fact. It is true that the Catholic Church operates Opus Dei as a secretive arm, and…… [Read More]
Ethical Theories & Dilemmas in Ovarian Transplantation
In the age of innovations and technologies, it is not uncommon to be introduced with new procedures in the medicine and health care. Indeed, medical technologies are the foremost beneficiaries of new advancements in science and technology, primarily because these innovations aim to provide people with better services and options to increase their chances of survival or being treated for an illness or disease. Take, as an example, the process and medical procedure of ovarian transplantation. Conducted initially in the early 20th century (1900), ovarian transplants do not only include transplantation of ovaries, but also of ovary tissues in order to cure illnesses not directly related to the reproductive system of the human body. As a relatively new procedure, ovarian transplantation involves serious implications not only in the health, but also in the psychological well-being of both donor and recipient (of the ovary).…… [Read More]
" Moral righteousness is an outward sign of human dignity. Dignity depends on moral action. In contrast, any immoral action or sin is an affront to human dignity. Sin "has diminished man, blocking his path to fulfillment," (section 13). Also, the voice of conscience is akin to the voice of God. If a person ignores his or her conscience, that act is explicitly a sin. Not only is conscience a reflection of higher law; the conscience provides an opportunity for an individual to enhance human dignity through the Word of God. A moral action reflects God's love for the world. The human being who acts with dignity and moral righteousness is one who becomes a beacon of light, a steward for God's will. On the other hand, a person who acts with sin directly affronts God by ignoring moral law as well as the inner voice of conscience.
Pope…… [Read More]
It is also recorded that the first utterances of Jesus in the public was that where he proclaimed that he had been anointed to preach the good news to the poor. In that public speech, Jesus also gave a warning to the rich that they have already received their consolation. In a parable, Jesus also warned his followers against greed and the reliance on riches when he narrated the story of the man who had his life taken away from him when he tried to secure wealth for himself (O'Brien & Shannon 71). The story of Lazarus and the rich man is also used as a warning against excessive riches. The pope John Paul II used this parable as a warning to the rich and prosperous. He warned them not to be blind to their great poverty despite their numerous possessions.
The Roman Catholic Church has adopted practices pertaining to…… [Read More]
Spear of Destany
The history of civilization is full of legends and myths that have cut across cultural barriers and are nowadays some of the most well-known stories related to the old times of religion and civilization. One of these myths include, among others, the Holy Graal, the Shroud of Turin, or the Spear of Destiny, both of them linked to the life and death of Jesus Christ.
The present research provides a detailed account of the history of the Spear of Destiny, or the Holy Spear, which is considered to have been the one that eventually killed Jesus on the Cross. The accounts of this artifact is important and to some extend crucial for the history of Christianity in particular because of the role it played in the final hours of Jesus' life and, at the same time, due to the mysticism and meaning that has been attributed to…… [Read More]
Book Chapter: A Theology of Communion for the Contemporary Catholic Parish
The study of ecclesiology is the study of how the Christian church, the ever-expanding body of believers, has evolved over time to respond to new political and social realities. Ecclesiology also takes into account the way organizational structures, hierarchies, and roles within the church have changed and reflect the nuances of a cultural milieu or historical epoch. In addition to all that, the study of ecclesiology also comprises the church’s relationship with surrounding community organizations. How the church forms strategic alliances with secular political, social, and economic institutions is also part of the complex array of issues that impact ecclesiology. Although some aspects of the church must remain stable over time to reflect scripture, church polity and organization remains one of the most dynamic aspects of Christianity and the role it plays in the world.
As MacDougall (2015)…… [Read More]
Direct IMPACT that Catholic Voices had on the media contributing to the perceived success of the Pope's visit in 2010 amidst the volatile negative climate surrounding the Catholic Church in that year
Even if people are interested in knowing about various religions and getting inspired from them, a lot many get put off from the topic when religious intolerance begets riots and uproars in a city, an instance that was observed in America when the issue of burning the Korans arose. Also, the issue of the New York Islamic centre sparked a number of controversies (Ingebretsen, 2005). One way that the Catholic Church and Pope have been able to avoid such criticism in the past is by befriending the media. One of the most recent examples of this is the formation of the group -- Catholic Voices -- the primary purpose and objective of this group was to "amplify the…… [Read More]
The Pope and the leadership guide us in our interpretation of scripture and tradition.
As stated previously, Roman Catholicism is truly a lifetime experience. From cradle to grave, Holy Baptism to the Anointing of the Sick, we are surrounded by these life giving and soul building acts and rarely appreciate them fully. This investigation has not only, truly deepened the author's knowledge of the sacraments by choosing Holy Eucharist, Baptism and Penance. They are an organic whole that represent the totality of our lives and with the spread of the Church's doctrines will hopefully encompass humanity as a whole.
Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2009/documents/hf_ben-xvi_ang_20090614_en.html
Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.htm
Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha/data/aud19861001en.html
Knox, James, & right, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved…… [Read More]
According to Elwell this group of fourteen works, all of which have been translated into many languages including English form "the most monumental evangelical theological project of this century." (151) Elwell goes on to describe the works as, "written in an almost conversational style, these volumes deal with topics of theological concern, such as divine election, faith and sanctification, Holy Scripture, and the church, rather than presenting a tightly argued system of thought." (151) Finally according to Elwell and despite Berkouwer's shift in theology regarding human dealings, i.e. regret for spreading lack of tolerance for human differences of opinion Berkouwer, "never wavered from his commitment to the principles of Scripture, faith and grace alone." (151)
Berkouwer also wrote works of criticism against other theologian, most notably Karl Barth and Catholicism which are well read and famous in their theological arguments and as representative of his mid life shift in thought.…… [Read More]
religion is handled in the movies "Stigmata," "Dogma," and "Going My ay" Discussed: how each movie is different or similar in its portrayal of religion, what make each film good or bad portrayals and how each reflect America. Cite reviews of films.
Portrayal of Religion in Film
Religion in movies is usually portrayed, for better or worse, by the Catholic Church. Due to its global influence, its power and its ancient rituals, The Catholic Church is perfect for religious overtones, or the main subject in movies. Until, the last few decades, the Church was always depicted as all-knowing and all-loving. Given, the recent news articles concerning sexual abuse within the Church, it makes movies such as, "Going My ay" seem rather naive, and gives credence to the meanings in movies such as "Stigmata" and "Dogma."
Going My ay" was released in 1944. It is the story of a new younger…… [Read More]
ethnography of the local Traditional Catholic community which practices at a nearby church. This group is very dissimilar in appearance and behavior from the surrounding neighborhood, even from the surrounding mainstream Catholic or "novus ordo" Catholic community, as the Traditional Catholic community calls it. This difference is rooted in the belief system that the community holds, which informs their practices, behaviors and modes of dress. Their main concern is with being "traditional" in all things. Thus, their appearance has a very dated look to it (a kind of 1950s style of dress among the men and women) and their worship is very Old World in terms of being in Latin and having lots of statuary in the church. However, they are easy to talk to and they seemed to have a sincere interest in converting me, which was flattering in a way. This paper discusses these people, their culture and…… [Read More]
Discussing "The Deputy" by Rolf Hochhuth is perhaps one of the most difficult tasks ever and I would consider it almost as difficult as discussing Niezsche's "Antichrist" or any other controversial works, modern, contemporary or from any past period of time.
It is not easy discussing a book that accuses a pope, representative of Christ on Earth, of tolerating genocide and ethnical purification, of tacitly approving them and of thus being part to one of the most terrible and tragic things humanity has been forced to witness throughout its history. Indeed, modern culpability has been, in some way or another, been associated with the extermination of the Jews during the Second World War. Over 6 million Jews have died during that period. The number itself is overwhelming, however, we also need to consider that this came as a result of a systematized and concerted process of extermination. Over 25…… [Read More]
OLMC: A Non-Profit in KY
Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Seminary is a non-profit organization located in Boston, Kentucky, that specializes in teaching and training young seminarians in the methods and styles of the Traditions of the Catholic Church. It is not your average Catholic seminary, however: it is not part of the local diocese and is not overseen by the local Bishop. It has not received permission from Rome to open its doors to young seminarians. In fact, the priests who established this seminary operate it illicitly as far as the authorities in Rome are concerned. Having opened its doors to international students in 2012, the seminary has been training young men from all over the world -- Brazil, Argentina, Africa, England, Asia, and America. Its aim is to produce priests and teachers who can go out into the world and spread Traditional Catholic doctrine. To understand what this…… [Read More]
Similarly, no one can deny that this Pope's message of peace and tolerance was more than Papal doctrine and became, instead, Vatican Foreign Policy, delivered in person by someone who "walked the walk and talked the talk." Precisely because of this, the book gives the contemporary reader insights into a tenuous time -- a time of Cold War tensions, a time when the economic stability of much of the world was unknown, and most especially a time in which many feared the coming millennium.
Ironically, one of the final public scenarios presented in the book deals with the then Cardinal atzinger, prefect for the Congregation of the Faith, authoring and espousing the primacy of the Catholic Church. Despite the seeming arrogance of such a statement, the Pope called the documents "close to my heart" and explained that, "our confession . . . . isn't arrogance that deprecates other religious but…… [Read More]
Of course, since these views are ased on those who are high-ranking memers of the church, Hennesey's narrative is somewhat iased, yet it does provide an excellent overview of many important topics related to American Catholicism.
Hurley, M. (2002). The unholy ghost: Anti-catholicism in the american experience.
Huntington, IN: Sunday Visitor Press.
In this carefully-documented study of prejudice against Catholics in the United States, Bishop Mark Hurley examines the entire history of prejudice from the 1700's and up to the present day. There are three sections to this work, eing 1776 to Vatican II, post-Vatican II and a final section which focuses upon the issue of aortion and how American Catholics feel aout this very controversial topic.
McAvoy, T.T. (1942). The catholic church in the United States etween two wars. Review of Politics, 4(4), 409-431.
Although somewhat dated, this essay examines in great detail and with much insight how the…… [Read More]
Dulles proposed five models of the Church in his former book "models of the Church.' The first model sees the Church as "a divinely established society with definite articles of belief and binding law" (254). As a single, organized, visible order, salvation can be found in only one place -- the Church, inside it and not external to it, and to Roman Catholics inside one place and one place only and that is the RC church.
The second model postulates that the church is the communal site for an atmosphere of love and grace that is wrought through the Holy Spirit and is evidenced both between the community members themselves (between fellow and fellow) and also between worshipper and God.
According to the third model, the Church embodies within itself the Grace and spirit of Christ. In that sense, it serves -- or is -- a sacrament, a visible sacred…… [Read More]
This led him to start the second major religion in Germany -Protestantism. This makes it clear that there were views of religion being also something other than pure belief in a path to reach God even in those days.
The strength of the Protestants increased in North Baden and northeast Bavaria, and was not at a very high level till Germany was unified under Prussian leadership in 1871. The leaders of Germany at that time were under Otto von Bismarck and he was seeking a method to weaken the leadership of oman Catholics and their influence. This led to the start of Kulturkampf in the early 1870s. Other direct steps were also taken like prohibiting the Jesuit order in Germany and expelling the members of Jesuits from Germany. The entire procedure was outlined in Prussia under the "Falk laws" which were named after Adalbert Falk who was the minister of…… [Read More]
Belief that Christ is present in the Eucharist is rooted explicitly in Scripture, while the devotion known as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament was not practiced until the early 14th century (McBrien). hile the belief in Christ presence will forever remain a part of the deposit of faith as a Tradition, the tradition of Benediction may disappear without consequence (McBrien).
The Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation teaches that Scripture and Tradition form one sacred deposit of revelation and that Tradition encompasses the "whole life, witness, teaching and worship of the church," thus Tradition is a living, dynamic reality that "develops in the church with the help of the Holy Spirit" (McBrien).
According to Catholic theologians, Tradition is never independent of Scripture, therefore is something is not found in Scripture, then it is not in Tradition, even if it is a legitimate tradition of the Church (McBrien).
Catechism of…… [Read More]
"Knowing what you stand for limits what you fall for."
Gandhi stood for liberation through non-violence. Consequently, he could not be goaded into returning violence with violence and could not be dissuaded from his goal of India's freedom from British control (BBC, 2011).
hat contributed to the development of his focus?
The development of Gandhi's focus on liberation through non-violence was developed by being an East Indian lawyer who was still treated like a third-class citizen; also, his stress on non-violence was largely developed by his Hindu religious roots (BBC, 2011).
hat was his one thing?
Gandhi was the first to apply non-violence to large-scale politics, which led to the liberation of India from British rule (BBC, 2011) and inspired later leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin:
a. "Knowing what you stand for limits what you fall for."
De Chardin…… [Read More]
When it comes to prominent religious figures throughout time, many people pay attention to the Pope and, for the most part, other men. However, there are many women that do and should stand out from the rest and Mother Theresa is one of those people. This brief report will be a chronicling of her life, her faith and her work over the course of her life. She has been gone from this earth, at least physically, for a good amount of time now but her legacy lives on. While many are dismissive of her contributions and/or some of the words she had to say, Mother Theresa has a permanent place etched in the history of the Christian church as well as world history in general.
As many are aware, Mother Teresa was a nun. She was the founder of what came to be known as the Order…… [Read More]
Peter Mullan's 2002 movie The Magdalene Sisters depicts the dark side of Irish culture, church, and history. From the late nineteenth to the late twentieth century, the Sisters of Mercy in Ireland ran profitable asylums for women. The laundry businesses allowed the convents to earn money while keeping socially scorned women behind bars. Yet far from being a place of spiritual refuge, the Magdalene laundries often became torture houses closely resembling concentration camps. As Mullan shows, spirituality was completely superceded by cruelty, greed, torture, and manipulation. The brutality shown on screen reveals a chilling behind-the-scenes glimpse of what actually did occur regularly in Magdalene asylum laundries.
The culture that supported such institutions was an inherently sexist one, as many of the interred women committed no offense other than having shamed their families or being attractive. Although a fictionalized account, The Magdalene Sisters shows what mental and physical abuse…… [Read More]
The Bible is an interesting book when it comes to trying to explain the existence of beasts on the planet prior to the time of the making of all that is "very good," namely the shaping of Adam and Eve their role in shaping humanity's nature. Not surprisingly, some of that interest when it comes to the beasts that we know of as dinosaurs, real problems exist. Math problems exist, for example, as there seem to be many more numbers of types of such creatures than biblical translations account for. Science problems also exist, given the ways in which fossils are aged and time is documented. Medical problems exist, since the remains of the once living beings contain evidence of diseases and unhealthy biological designs, which weren't supposed to happen. And even logistical problems arise, such as whether dinosaurs could fit on the Ark.
Yet to at least…… [Read More]
Machiavelli, Luther, And Muntzer
Must a good politician be morally bad? In the context of the Reformation, this question revolves around how Christians would define what is "morally bad" had become suddenly and seriously complicated by competing definitions of what constitutes "morally good" behavior. The rhetoric very often yielded more heat than light: Luther's and Muntzer's apparently sincere eschatological belief that the Vatican was to be identified with the hore of Babylon in the Book of Revelations made the question of cooperation with wicked temporal powers more than a purely academic one. Yet it is arguably the religious situation of Roman Catholicism in the first place that leads to the ethical differences in the political philosophies of Machiavelli, Luther and Muntzer. Indeed, the religious distinction that Luther upheld against the Vatican -- insisting on salvation sola fide, by faith alone, rather than by deeds -- indicates that in response to…… [Read More]
The existence of human suffering poses a unique theological problem. If God is omniscient, omnipotent, and all-loving, then why does suffering exist? Indeed, this difficulty is confronted in scripture itself: perhaps the most important look into the problem of suffering comes in the Old Testament story of Job. Mainstream Christianity continues to have a variety of ways of approaching this theological question, although historically Christians had a much broader spectrum of responses. For example, today's mainstream Christianity is a result of the establishment of orthodoxy in the face of Gnostic Christians, who used the existence of suffering as a way of questioning whether God was indeed omnipotent or all-loving. Gnosticism instead posits a "demiurge" or "alien god" that created this world and its suffering without being omnipotent or good. ut the oldest mainstream form of Christian orthodoxy today -- represented by the Roman Catholic faith…… [Read More]
At the time, the question-and-response format seemed an ideal way of instructing converts and children 'correctly.' The text originally began as a preacher's reference, rather than was intended as a pedagogical instrument (25). As pointed out by Herbert Lombaerts, the catechism arose as a reaction to the Protestant eformation -- as a way of purifying the new Catholic faith, and distilling its very essence from the trappings of the cult of the saints and papal authority. The catechism itself, however, became a kind of holy relic, and the words and structure of the text took on symbolic value, beyond their actual meaning (Lombaerts 1986: 5).
Studying a mid-1970s classroom text for use in Australian Catholic entitled Here and now reflects a far different concept of the student than the rote repeater of dogma of the pre-Vatican II era. In the textbook, the student is asked to make a list of…… [Read More]
The beauty of the human body is bought into derision by its wearing socks and the loss of hope for the earth is represented by the gas mask. Adam is no longer necked, his wardrobe consists of a mask and socks. An imaginary character is bringing him to life, while two cans of spray lay beside him. The central character in the episode of creation does not life too seriously since it did not even take the socks out. Adam's whole attitude is the very expression of carelessness and a certain degree of laziness. He leaves himself in the hands of a cartoon character to save him from destruction.
Five centuries later, the Creation episode of the istine Chapel becomes a motif for a pop artist who wants to present the world with the results of its foolishness and lack of better judgment. The capital of "western Christendom" was presented…… [Read More]
In 1976, three years after Roe v. ade, the Court ruled that a married woman did not have to have her husband's permission to get an abortion, if she wanted one (Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth).
Do the policies of the executive branch of government - the hite House - go past just merely being "pro-life" - and into the realm of sexism? That is a good question because military women serving overseas, under the Bush administration, cannot receive safe hospital abortions, even if they pay with their own personal funds, according to NO. hy? To make the point that this administration opposes abortions, Bush restored a Reagan-era policy, and now military wives and women in the service must "travel long distances" to have abortions. They must also get the permission of their commanding officer, which is almost always a man.
Abortion Law Homepage. (2006). Overview.…… [Read More]
In 1924, the American Congress greatly reduced immigration with the Immigration Act, but this system was removed in 1965 which allowed for a huge wave of immigration from parts of Asia, such as the Philippine Islands, Japan and China; also, immigrants from Haiti and Mexico flooded in and greatly increased the population of American Catholics. With the arrival of the 1960's, five events are of high importance. First, John F. Kennedy became the first Catholic President of the United States in 1960 which "due to his popularity, charisma and personal integrity reassured non-Catholic Americans that Catholicism was legitimate and that Catholics could be trusted" (Emerson, 256).
Second, Pope John XXIII who had been elected as Pope in 1958 became one of the most popular and beloved Catholic Pope in modern history, due to his attempts to bring Catholics and non-Catholics together in friendship and appreciation. Third, John XXIII also convened…… [Read More]
attle of Monte Cassino during WWII with focus on the Allied decision to bomb the ancient monastery at Monte Cassino
An Analysis of the Allied Decision to omb the Ancient Monastery at Monte Cassino
On this day... In 1944 the battle of Monte Cassino ended as Allied troops finally captured the old fortified abbey (Europe's oldest monastic house), after more than three months of bombardment by shell-fire and air attack. -- Cyril Leslie eeching, 1997
The brief epigraph above does not do justice to this historic World War II battle, since the stakes were high and the decision to attack the "oldest monastic house" in Europe could not be made lightly. In fact, the destruction of the monastery at Monte Cassino, more than any other episode from the Italian campaign of 1943-1945, remains a source of heated debate. This paper provides an overview and background of the events that took…… [Read More]
Ethics and the Internet
As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)
The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…… [Read More]
Christianity and the Environment
Despite the popular view that many Christians believe environmental issues to be unimportant and indeed incompatible with their core beliefs, there are many more who believe quite the opposite. Many Christians today take environmental issues to heart (McDermott 2011), believing that it is not only the right of the faithful to inhabit and "rule over" the earth, but also their duty to protect this environment. In fact, the majority of Christians have embraced the idea of environmental protection and action to curb climate change without feeling that such action is incompatible with their basic faith. Hence, despite the historic tendency to exploit the earth and its resources under license of their "special" place in creation, Christians today believe that the biblical idea of "mastery" also means protection. Even prominent institutions such as the Vatican believe in the importance of protecting the earth, while the faithful on…… [Read More]
Silvio A. edini's book "The Pope's Elephant," Hanno, the elephant in question manifests the corrupt, cultural and oftentimes ridiculous papacy of the early 1500s under the reign of Pope Leo X (1513-1531). Through the travails of Hanno, edini provides a remarkable insight into the traditions and pageantry of the Vatican in the early 16th century. edini also manages to show the human face of God's appointed representative on earth as well as the cruelty that existed in that period. As Hanno becomes the vehicle to convey the massive accumulation and application of wealth, privilege and power thoroughly enjoyed by Pope Leo and his supporters to the reader, the pachyderm also began to symbolize this excess, becoming part of the concluding chapter of what they termed the Golden Age.
efore tackling this issue, a summary of "The Pope's Elephant" needs to be proffered. edini provides a captivating and insightful study into…… [Read More]
hurt your children; I love your children.' So thundered Fr. Percival D'Silva, trembling, in his sermon at the lessed Sacrament Church in Chevy Chase, MD," wrote Maureen Dowd in her weekly column in the New York Times (Dowd, 2002). Fr. Percival has been one of the few to speak out against the defensive attitude of the Catholic Church -- one of obfuscation, dishonesty and callousness to the victims. Fr. Percival called for Cardinal ernard Law of oston, co-indicted in several child abuse cases, to resign.
The Catholic Church has been rocked recently by allegations of sexual abuses -- especially against children. The problem is not isolated but all pervading. The cases of child, sexual abuses are about the same percentage as the general population. Most of the cases are not, in the strictest sense pedophilic -- sex with pre-pubescent children, but ephebophilia -- abuse of adolescent children. In a comprehensive…… [Read More]
St. Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, and was consecrated in 1626 (Saint). It is among the largest of the world's churches and is considered to be one of the holiest of Catholic sites on the planet. The church's namesake, St. Peter, is buried there, as well, and believed to be located directly below the altar (Saint). There has been a churched located on that site since oman Times, which is part of the reason St. Peter's in seen as so valuable when it comes to architecture and its place in the Catholic Church. Liturgical functions are held there, and it is also a common and very famous place for pilgrimage.
When the Pope gives services there, several times per year, between 15,000 and 80,000 people come out to hear him speak (St. Peter's). Even those who are not Catholic or religious in any way have often heard of…… [Read More]
Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel
The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel was painted by Michelangelo between the years of 1508 and 1512. The chapel -- built in the 1470s for Pope Sixtus IV (the chapel's namesake) -- includes the works of many different Renaissance artists -- but it is Michelangelo's work on the ceiling that stands out above all the rest. Commissioned by Pope Julius II, Michelangelo's ceiling tells the story of the Old Testament -- the laying of the foundations of the world and the coming of Christ. The nine central panel scenes describe, for example, God separating the light from the darkness, the creation of Adam, and the exile from the Garden of Eden. The centrals are framed by a painted architectural framework that adds dimension onto dimension, and the images therein are of Old Testament prophets and pagan sibyls -- both of whom, according to the Roman…… [Read More]
Non-Profit Healthcare Organization-A Comprehensive Study
Catholic Health Initiatives (CHI) is a non-profit organization that consists of four separate national Catholic health systems that were combined under CHI over the past three decades. CHI offers assisted living services, nursing home services, memory care, rehabilitation care, hospital care, adult day care services and many other health care services around the nation. One example is the Madonna Manor in Northern Kentucky, which was founded by the Benedictine Sisters in the 1960s, then operated by the Sisters of St. Francis as a subsidiary of CHI in 1998. CHI clearly identifies itself as a non-profit organization on its main website (CHI, 2019) and its mission, vision and values align with the standard idea of what a non-profit should be. This paper will describe the history, leadership and mission, vision and values of the organization to show how it is consistent with non-profit healthcare.
Mission…… [Read More]
Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.
President ush -- Speeches and…… [Read More]
In 2003, new procedures were created and they state that "companies accredited with receiving money relating to public subscription in securities must take all necessary measures to ensure the legality of the sources of the money used in the payment of such securities, in compliance with the provisions laid down in the Prevention and Prohibition of Money Laundering and its Implementing egulations" (Terterov and euvid, 2005).
Banking institutions are also focused on reducing money laundering and the principal actions they implement in this endeavor are those of fully complying with the regulations imposed by the central banks and the legislations in their home countries. More recently, the banks can access technological innovations to fight money laundering, such as LexisNexis's Bridger Insight XGTM (Tech 4 Law). But since the access to technologies is different at each bank, a conclusion is drawn that the internal reactions to money laundering are different. The…… [Read More]
Only those who can blindly accept what is put on their plate are unable to benefit from the Cursillo Movement. You are a creative and dynamic person. You are someone who needs to see Christianity in action, through the words and deeds of your fellow human beings. Like I said, the Cursillo Movement is a highly practical one. You will see results in the ways non-profit organizations help build homes for the poor to the ways ethical bankers lend money without interest. When you see your friends or your teachers doing good for the world, that is when you see God in action. When you feel love for your friends and relatives, you understand that is God in action. I also know that when you start your own business or whatever you decide to devote your energies to after you graduate from collage, you will
I am not asking you…… [Read More]
" The point made by the poet is similar to the poem above. The reference to John,
The Father of our souls, shall be,
John tells us, doth not yet appear;
is a reference to the Book of Revelations, at the end of the Bible.
That despite the promises of an Eternal life for those who eschew sin, we are still frail and have the faults of people. We are still besought by sin and temptations and there's really no escape. People are people. No matter what we say or do, we find that life is not so simple. Consider this reference, which really refers to a person's frame of reference or "way of seeing."
Wise men are bad -- and good are fools,
This is a paradoxical statement: there is large gap between spirituality and reality. Those we consider wise or bad, might make decisions that are globally profound,…… [Read More]
Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.
Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.
In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…… [Read More]
He made over 170 visits to 115 countries in the twenty years between 1979 and 1999, and in those visits he reached out to people of all ethnicities and all political beliefs, including Fidel Castro of Cuba.
n May 1981, John Paul was shot and critically wounded in St. Peter's Square by a Turkish gunman named Mehmet Ali Agca. By the time John Paul was rushed to the hospital he had lost about three-quarters of his body's blood and was unconscious. The bullets that struck him narrowly missed his mesenteric artery and his abdominal aorta. The Pope required five hours of surgery to stop the bleeding. He survived thanks to the Grace of God and in a gesture that followed the teachings of Jesus Christ, he forgave his attacker.
ndeed, two days after Christmas, 1983, John Paul visited the prison where Mehmet Ali Agca was serving his life term. He…… [Read More]
The orthodox idea that Christ's sacrifice is both an acceptance of the goodness of the world and a rejection of the world was not always present within all of Christianity's branches, as is evident in the Gnostic gospels. However, simply because the debate about canonization and how to interpret Christ's sacrifice and the creation of the world was more pluralistic than debates between Christians does not mean that there is or was a gigantic 'cover up.' The diversity among Christianity pre-canonization makes the divisions between Christians pale in comparison to our own era, and that is what is truly surprising to modern eyes, according to brown.
Brown's work also lacks a true historical foundation in the cultural and political situation of ancient Israel. The Dead Sea Scrolls were not Christian documents, contrary to Brown's version of events. Rather they were produced by a radical sect of world-denying Jews who were…… [Read More]