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Video games should be used to assist with education. While video games are often not considered valid as educational resources, there is no question that they have a unique ability to engage children and teenagers. This means that they can be used to improve education, and there are a number of ways in which this can be done.
Video games have merit as educational tools. They are interactive, which engages young children in a way that passive learning cannot. Games mimic how young children learn about the world because of this interactivity.
In one study on the use of games in 1st and 2nd grades, it was found that games can help improve students' learning of math, reading comprehension and spelling. There is increased motivation for the students because of the game situation, and there were improvements in classroom dynamics as well. This indicates that for younger students in particular,…
Dickey, M. (2005). Engaging by design: How engagement strategies in popular computer and video games can inform instructional design. Educational Technology, Research and Development. Vol. 53 (2) 67-83.
Gee, J. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. ACM Computers in Entertainment. Vol. 1 (1) 1-4.
Rosas, R., Nussbaum, M., Cumsille, P., Marianov, V., Correa, M., Flores, P., Grau, V., Lagos, F., Lopez, X., Lopez, V., Rodriguez, P. & Salinas, M. (2003). Beyond Nintendo: Design and assessment of educational video games for first and second grade students. Computers & Education. Vol. 40 (2003) 71-94.
Squire, K. (2005). Changing the game: What happens when video games enter the classroom? Journal of Online Education Vol. 1 (6)
Video games wall days. I, admit, killing, abuse women, utter destruction amazing. But ? After, people buy . But games played children. As introduction, Call Duty 2: Black Ops Parcheesi, games involve things varying degrees unpleasantness opponent's game pieces; Parcheesi pieces seldom deliver realistic- innards game board, thing.
The effect of violence in video games
There is presently much controversy regarding video games and the effect that they have on people, given that numerous parents have reported that their children started putting across violent behavior as a result of playing certain video games. Considering that both demand and offer of video games involving exaggerated violence are constantly increasing, it is only natural for parents and video game designers to consider the effects that such games can have on vulnerable individuals. ith technology having experienced a rapid advance during the recent years, simulated violence in video games has reached new levels…
Silverfarb, B. "Supreme Court to hear ultra-violent video game case," Retrieved May 17, 2011, from The Daily Journal Website: http://www.smdailyjournal.com/article_preview.php?id=144737
Takahashi, D. "Opponents make their case on violent video games before the Supreme Court," Retrieved May 17, 2011, from the Venture Beat Website: http://venturebeat.com/2010/11/02/opponents-make-their-case-on-violent-video-games-before-the-supreme-court/
Waddington, D.I. "Locating the wrongness in ultra-violent video games," Ethics and Information Technology, Volume 9, Number 2, 121-128, DOI: 10.1007/s10676-006-9126-y
The second way is that individuals, specifically children can become desensitized to violence. This is because, daily exposure to violence may make one lose their emotional impact on them. Apparently, when one becomes emotionally numb, it becomes easier for them to engage in violence (Harding).
The General Aggression Model
This is a model that attempts to explain both the development of aggression an individual differences in susceptibility to the influence of video games that are violent, (Kooijmans). This model operates on the theory that both situational and person logical variables interact to affect a person's internal state that comprises of cognition or thoughts, affects or feelings and arousal or physical. These aspects influence each other and they all affect a person's interpretation of an act that is aggressive. Once the brain completes its interpretation, a process for making decisions starts taking place. This model states that violent video games have…
Anderson, C.A., & Dill, K.E. "Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78.3 (2000): 772-790.
Ballard, M.E., & Weist, J.R. "Mortal Kombat: the effects of violent video game play on males' hostility and cardiovascular responding," Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26.8 (1966): 717-730.
Carnagey, Nicholas L., Craig, Anderson a. And Brad, Bushman J. "The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence" Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43.4 (2007): 489 -- 496.
Cesarone, Bernard. Video Games and Children. 22 Jan. 2003. 18 May, 2010.
Robert thought that this was actually very cool. He liked the idea of picking all of his favorite characters from all of his favorite games and making up his own new game. That would be so cool. And then he could make all of the characters do exactly what he wanted them to do. Like the Viking Warrior standing in his room. He could take out his laser sabre and just blow her away. Just blast her. Watch her head just explode and her brains drip down the walls. Wouldn't that be cool.
Even though the person in his room still looked like a Viking Warrior -- although his friends and he called them something a lot less polite than that -- he figured out that it was his mother. He staggered out of bed and gave her a hug. He really liked his mom. She was nice and smart…
The methodology that will be employed in this study will be a desk survey of existing studies. The data complied by the studies will be analyzed, as will be the processes and methodology used in those studies. The data compilation and yield will be discussed in comparison between studies, and an attempt will be made to take the information and use it in an overall presentation that shows that the data yields produced the same outcomes, demonstrating and supporting the hypothesis of this study.
There is no need to develop tables and perform experiments when previous studies have done that, and the information that exists is pertinent to the hypothesis of this study. What does need to occur in gathering the data from other sources, is that that data needs to be coordinated and presented together here in a way that the results are more visually comparable. It should,…
Dietz, T.L. (1998). An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications for Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 38(5-6), 425+. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001342230
Gillespie, T. (2000, Summer). Violence, Games & Art. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 9, 16. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002362726
Heckel, R.V., & Shumaker, D.M. (2001). Children Who Murder: A Psychological Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101018967
Herzfeld, N. (2004, May 4). Video Shootout: The Games Kids Play. The Christian Century, 121, 22+. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006860992
inning a game activates a cerebral reward center, in a way that 'teaches' players to be violent in a Pavlovian way, so the players associate acting violently with gaining a reward. This thesis has been supported by recent MRI scanning research examining the brains of children who have just played violent video games: "A new study employing state-of-the-art brain-scanning technology…say that brain scans of kids who played a violent video game showed an increase in emotional arousal -- and a corresponding decrease of activity in brain areas involved in self-control, inhibition and attention" (Kalning 2006). Rather than enhancing the types of personality traits that are desirable in a harmonious society, video games numb the qualities that make us social animals.
Advocates of video games, however, note that the games have been used in positive ways: "Several studies cited by the ESA [Entertainment Software Association] point to games' potential benefits for…
Kalning, K. "Does game violence make teens aggressive?" MSNBC.2006. September 9, 2009.
Walsh, David. Video Game Violence and Public Policy. National Institute on Media and the Family. 2001. September 9, 2009.
It would seem that on the basis of the causation rationale that age restrictions on violent video game content is no more logically justified than other types of overly broad restrictions (Olson, 2004).
In the 1950s, several instances occurred where young children watching the original Superman television series fell to their deaths after trying to emulate the star character's leaping takeoff from high-rise building windows. The series was not cancelled or changed to an adult time slot; instead, public service announcements were produced using George eeves, in character and costume as Superman, expressly warn children not to try to emulate their hero. That approach solved the problem of inappropriate and dangerous behavioral emulation among children too young to distinguish entertainment from reality.
Much more recently, movie theaters began restricting entrance to movies with violent content or expressly sexual themes and imagery based on age; however, those restrictions are flexible enough…
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) "Media Violence" Pediatrics Vol 108.5
Olson CK. "Media Violence Research and Youth Violence Data: Why Do They
Conflict? Academic Psychiatry Vol 28 (2004):144-150.
How much of an influence do violent video games have in terms of making young people aggressive? An article in the scholarly journal Aggressive Behavior (Barlett, et al., 2007) (titled "Longer You Play, the More Hostile You Feel: Examination of First Person Shooter Video Games and Aggression During video Game Play") states that 70% of college students are "avid" video game players. Also, video game sales are "steadily increasing, reaching 2.9 billion dollars in 2004" (Barlett, p. 486). The most frequently rented games are violent, very often including sexual themes, the article states. Moreover there is frequently a great deal of "blood and gore" associated with these games, and adolescent children prefer violent video games to more mellow or sports-related games. Add to that the fact that video games are becoming much more realistic, some are in 3-Dimensional formats, and they have "an addictive quality," Barlett writes.
Barlett, Christopher P., Harris, Richard J., & Baldassaro, Ross. (2007). Longer You Play, the More Hostile You Feel: Examination of First Person Shooter Video Games and Aggression During Video Game Play. Aggressive Behavior, volume 33, 486-497.
Fehd, Amanda. (2008). Video game sales up 37% to $1.12B in May. USA Today.
Retrieved December 4, 2008, at http://www.usatoday.com .
Godinez, Victor. (2008). Thriving video game industry hits right buttons in troubled
Video Games, Violence and Aggression
The Effect of Video Games on Violence and Aggression
Numerous arguments over video games primarily center on topics such as sexism, nudity, racial profiling, sex and criminal behavior as well as other provocative material. Many conflicting results have been brought out of research and study of the relation between video games and its assumed effects of violence and aggressive behavior. Here, aggression is defined as behavior intended to harm another individual who is motivated to avoid that harm. Emotion, effect, or aggressive thought, plan or wish are not included .This means it includes attempts to harm regardless of if the harm was committed or not. Violence on the other hand is refers to extreme forms of aggression, such as assault and murder. In essence, all violence is aggression but the reverse is not true.
According to Anderson & Ford, 1986, Ballard & Wiest…
Dopamine is a pleasure inducing chemical that is secreted whenever an individual engages his/her mind in the playing f video games. The New brain research that was conducted years back (artholow,
ushman & Sestir, 2006) was the first to show that the playing of violent video games results in bad health of the players. The emphatic responses of the brain to the simulation of certain real-life violence such as shooting with a gun and bombing are also elicited. It was also explained by Walsh (2004, 2006). That the exposure of a teenaged brain to video games results in certain violent long-term effects.
In Steven Johnson's book, Everything ad Is Good for You, he argues that video games in fact demand far more from a player than traditional games like Monopoly. To experience the game, the player must first determine the objectives, as well as how to complete them. They must…
Beckett, K.L., & Shaffer, D.W. (2004). Augmented by reality: The pedagogical praxis of urban planning as a pathway to ecological thinking. Under review by Journal of Educational
Braun, C. & Giroux, J. (1989). Arcade video games: Proxemic, cognitive and content analyses. Journal of Leisure Research, 21, 92-105.
Dill, K.E., Gentile, D.A., Richter, W.A., & Dill, J.C. (2005). Violence, sex, race and age in popular video games: A content analysis. In E. Cole & J. Henderson Daniel
" (Eagleheart, 2000) Eagleheart (2002) notes that violence does constitute a primary concern for children, particularly in schools. ather than contributing video games as a cause of violence in children, she encourages educators and others to look deeper and consider that violene has goals; that the particular goal will depend on the individual.
At times, goals of violence may be evident, conscious choices from a child is playing now wants. Other times, goals may not be evident nor conscious. Possible examples of goal from violence, Eagleheart (2002) suggests, include but are not limited to:
child's need to try to secure power and control;
child's expression of painful emotions (anger, fear, despair) that he/she may be experiencing;
child's method of protecting him/her;
child reenacting and experience to try to obtain a different result;
child displaying behavior but he/she learned from others.
Trouble? America's youth, particularly boys, are in trouble. According to…
Amendola, a.M., & Scozzie, S. (2004). Promising Strategies for Reducing Violence. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 13(1), 51+. Retrieved October 5, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005820977 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006659851
Aspy, C.B., Oman, R.F., Vesely, S.K., Mcleroy, K., Rodine, S., & Marshall, L. (2004). Adolescent Violence: The Protective Effects of Youth Assets. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82(3), 268+. Retrieved October 5, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006659851 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001861394
Borzekowski, D.L., & Robinson, T.N. (1999). Viewing the Viewers: Ten Video Cases of Children's Television Viewing Behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43(4), 506. Retrieved October 5, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001861394
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved October 6, 2007, from www.bartleby.com/66 / www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000928576
Behavioral and Cognitive Consciousness and Cognitive Behavior Treatment
In this modern era, technology has made us its slave. Life has never been this flexible and convenient bringing efficiency and speed too. The technology has certainly altered our methods of communication, socializing, entertainment and maybe the way we behave. In this research paper, both popular sources and scholarly sources will be employed to discuss the possible effects of video gaming on youth. The evidence is irrefutable while the popular opinion is different and favors gaming. Video games are alleged to cause violent behavior while society believes that different factors are at play.
Video games appeared in the entertainment industry 65 years ago. It was a simple 'Cathode ray tube amusement device' completely changed the way gamers play games today. There are multiple gaming platforms. These platforms are diverse ranging from computers, video game consoles, smart phones and arcade games which…
Clock, Cheryl. Video games & violence . 25 Oct 2010.
Craig A. Anderson, Brad J. Bushman. Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. 11 Dec 2011.
Craig A. Anderson, Nicholas L. Carnagey. Causal effects of violent sports video games on aggression: Is it competitiveness or violent content? 4 May 2009.
Darrall, Stephanie. Violent video games DO make people more aggressive. 27 Nov 2011. 2 Jan 2012.Christopher J. Ferguson, John Colwell, Boris Mlac-ic, Goran Milas. Personality and media influences on violence and depression in a cross-national. 1 Feb 2011.
, 2000). Specifically, the fact that video games portray extremely violent actions without a human cost can lessen a person's natural response (including empathy) in addition to promoting reckless conduct in real life.
It is not necessarily that teenagers consciously believe they can "do" what they see in the games the way children sometimes come to believe that they can fly. But they may absorb unconscious images that inhibit their ability to anticipate real-life consequences of certain choices and behaviors (ilson, Smith, Potter, et al., 2002). According to the Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children presented to the Congressional Public Health Summit July 26, 2000 by several very prominent pediatricians and child psychologists:
"At this time, well over 1000 studies - including reports from the Surgeon
General's office, the National Institute of Mental Health, and numerous studies conducted by leading figures within our medical and public…
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) "Media Violence" Pediatrics 108.5: 1222(5)
Buchanan, Alice M., Gentile, Douglas A., Nelson, Daniel A., Walsh, David A., Hensel,
James, A. "What Goes In Must Come Out: Children's Media Violence
-Onge, Keller, and Heymsfield, children are spending a lot of their time performing a wide range of sedentary activities including but not limited to playing computer games and watching television (qtd. In Stern and Kazaks 97). Lack of physical exercises has been identified as one of the contributing factors to obesity. It therefore follows that sedentary video game activities effectively increase a child's chances of being obese.
In seeking to offer a balanced view of the issue at hand, it would be prudent for me to take into consideration the other side of the debate. To begin with, one of the arguments that has been fronted in an attempt to deny any link between crime and violent video games claims that studies seeking to prove the said link are out to use video games as a scapegoat (Gaines and Miller 60). In the opinion of the authors, this…
Bidgoli, Hossein, ed. The Internet Encyclopedia: Volume 2. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. Print.
Gaines, Larry K. And Roger LeRoy Miller. Criminal Justice in Action. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
Stern, Judith S. And Alexandra Kazaks. Obesity. Santa Barbara, California: ABC -- CLIO, 2009. Print.
To the extent that it is important for the general public to appreciate the serious consequences of military conflict, exposure to thee games, especially among young people who are so impressionable, may be contrary to the interests of society in principle.
Community Response to Military-Sponsored Video Game Centers
The connection between computer-based video games and real-world knowledge about military weapons systems and tactical combat operations has not been overlooked by the U.S. military either. Various state and local laws strictly prohibit military recruiters from approaching individuals under the age of 17. Partly to get around these restrictions, the U.S. military has established video gaming centers in several states where middle school-age students and high school-age students can play the latest computer-based video games for free. These centers are festooned with military-oriented artwork and memorabilia and staffed by military personnel in civilian clothes who do not approach underage players. Nevertheless, critics…
The problem is heroes on TV often resort to violence and are appreciated for that, which generates an unhealthy connection between aggressive behavior and social gratification (Dowshen, 2005). Add to the violence, TV images showing illegal or problem-causing behaviors, such as abuse of sex and substances or smoking. Children receive a questionable education when they are witnessing, at a young age, explicit sex, drinking and doing drugs in detailed images. To support the idea that image has an immense power of suggestion and persuasion, studies have shown that "teens who watch lots of sexual content on TV are more likely to initiate intercourse or participate in other sexual activities earlier than peers who don't watch sexually explicit shows" (Dowshen, 2005).
And yet, violence isn't the only threat to children's normal development. Video games and TV can be damaging in other ways too. At an age when individuals should exploit their…
Barbour, W. (1994). Mass-media.Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Clarke, a. (2007). Television and Children's Development; How Bad is it Really. Retrieved February 19, 2007, from EnzineArticles Web site: http://ezinearticles.com/?Television-and-Childrens-Development;-How-Bad-is-it-Really?&id=193410
Dowshen, S. (2005). How TV Affects Your Child. Retrieved February 19, 2007, from KidsHealth Web site: http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/positive/family/tv_affects_child.html
Neergaard, L. (2006). The news for multimedia babies is good, and bad. Retrieved February 19, 2007, from USAToday Web site: http://www.usatoday.com /tech/news/2006-05-15-babies-multimedia_x.htm
Interactivity in Video Games and Movies
Information technology has changed the way we live in today's world. Everything from our television to our cell phones are connected through network medium. Computers define the way we do many of the things in our lives, such as, how we maintain our bills and expenses to even conducting business activities online. Therefore, it comes as no surprise to know that the gaming industry is worth over nine billion dollars worldwide. This paper is a dissertation, which aims to compare the interactivity of games to movies and how their consumers view them.
Chapter I The ise of Video Games
Chapter II Games as a Major Form of Entertainment in Today's World
Chapter III Studying Games
Chapter IV Games, Media and Interactivity
Chapter V Exploring interactivity in video games and movies
Chapter VI Home Entertainment Networks
Chapter VII Violence in Games
Chapter VIII Are Games…
Story of Virtual Creation, available at http://www.techtv.com/news/internet/story/0,24195,3372818,00.htm, accessed on: February 28, 2003
Bill Robertie: backgammon genius or stylistic hustler?, available at http://www.uglx.org/robbackgammon.html, Accessed February 28, 2003
But in the end, they're still nothing more than video games by Jewels, available at http://www.jivemagazine.com/content_articles.php?ID=104,accessed on: March 1, 2003
Celluloid heroes: Some video games are more fun than the movie, available at http://www.post-gazette.com/interact/20000420moviegames2.asp , accessed on: February 28, 2003 fe - new digital media, available at http://www.frozenembryo.co.uk/r_games.htm, accessed on: March 1, 2003
violent video games do not promote violent and aggressive behavior among children, teenagers, or young adults. This hypothesis has been derived from the research that is available that disputes the claims of increased aggressiveness and violent tendencies from those who play violent video games. Previous hypotheses have suggested a link between school shootings and whether the shooter played these types of games (Ferguson, 2008, p. 25). There has been no proven correlation to support these hypotheses. In the case of the Virginia Tech shooter, Seung-Hui Cho, it was found that he "had little to no exposure to violent video games" (p. 26), therefore, there were pre-existing violent tendencies that were not influenced by video games.
Additional studies, such as the one performed by Chory and Goodboy (2011, p. 192), attempted to identify the personality types that were more inclined toward playing violent video games according to the Five-Factor personality model.…
Chory, R.M., & Goodboy, A.K. (2011). Is Basic Personality Related to Violent and Non-Violent Video Game Play and Preferences?. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 14(4), 191-198. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0076
Ferguson, C.J. (2008). The school shooting/violent video game link: causal relationship or moral panic?. Journal Of Investigative Psychology & Offender Profiling, 5(1/2), 25-37. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip , uid&db=aph&AN=35678191&site=ehost-live
Magic Circle: Good or Bad
The so-called "magic circle" is the phenomenon whereby the lines between the video game world and the "real world" are blurring or even disappearing in multiple ways. The question posed and to be answered in this report is whether or not this is a good thing or a bad thing. As with most things, there is no single answer that is correct all of the time. hile there is nothing wrong with a healthy escape at one point or another and while there are extremely healthy and fun outlets that can be realized and experienced in video games, too much of a good thing can always turn bad beyond a certain point.
As should already be clear from the thesis, there is nothing wrong with a life that involves video games, even if it is to a fairly heavy degree. However, there is a tipping…
Jenkins, H. War between effects and meaning: rethinking the video game violence debate. Buckingham, D. (ed. et al.) Digital generations 2006 Chapter 2 pp 19-31
Turkle, Sherry. Alone together why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books, 2011. Print.
VIDEO GAMES AND STUDENTS' LEANING
Whether video games should be introduced into schools and used to help educate students
Introduction of Video Games into Schools to Help Educate Students
In the contemporary field of learning, several scientific domains deal with both multi-dimensional and abstract phenomena. This present a number of difficulties to the students, making it uneasy for students to comprehend or apply their knowledge content. In order to grasp these abstract scientific concepts, students should be capable of building elastic and testable learning models, which may aid them in easy understanding. Most often, students are subjected to developing accurate mental scientific models, which hold no real-life references. In order to incorporate such invisible factors, concepts, or complex abstractions into easy and understandable concepts, there is a need for visual instructions to students. I, thereby, support the introduction of video games into schools and their maximum utilization in student instructions…
Anderson, J.L. & Barnett, M. (2013).Learning physics with digital game simulations in middle school science. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 22(6), 914-926.
Anderson, J.L. & Barnett, M. (2013). Learning physics with digital game simulations in middle school science. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 22(6), 914-926.
Bourgonjon, J., De Grove, F., De Smet, C., Van Looy, J., Soetaert, R. & Valcke, M. (2013).
Acceptance of game-based learning by secondary school teachers.Computers & Education, 67, 21-35.
Summary of “Playing with Prejudice”
In “Playing with Prejudice: The Prevalence and Consequences of Racial Stereotypes in Video Games” by Burgess, Dill, Stermer, Burgess and Brown, the issue of racial stereotypes in gaming is discussed. The researchers state that by examining video games, they “were interested in whether Whites would be more likely to be portrayed as engaged in socially sanctioned violence compared to minorities” (Burgess et al. 293). Socially sanctioned violence would be violence conducted by military, trained combatants, for example, as opposed to non-sanctioned violence such as street violence and crime conducted by criminals. The researchers were also interested in seeing how racial groups were presented in games, whether minorities were predominantly presented as either criminals or as athletes and the manner in which white video game characters were presented. The findings of Burgess et al. showed that video games do in fact reinforce a racial stereotype of…
Burgess, Melinda CR, et al. “Playing with prejudice: The prevalence and consequences of racial stereotypes in video games.” Media Psychology 14.3 (2011): 289-311.
In Patrick Jagoda’s (2017) essay “Videogame Criticism and Games in the 21st Century,” the author makes a number of claims about the nature of videogames and the meaning that can be inferred from them. Jagoda’s main arguments are that 1) videogames today have varied functions (exhibited by the various genres proliferated in the platform) and cannot be seen as representing the same elements that characterized them in their infancy many decades ago; and that 2) they represent a complex and highly nuanced form of life that is beyond the means of any simple critique or analysis. As Jagoda (2017) states, videogames “manifest a form of sociopolitical intervention, an element of everyday life, a form of personal expression, and a medium for artistic production” (p. 9). In other words, videogames are a dynamic form that cannot easily be boxed or labeled as representing a specific set of values, ideals, tools, outcomes,…
Jagoda, P. (2017). Videogame Criticism and Games in the 21st Century. American
Literary History, 00(0), pp. 1–14.
Video Games and Violence
The level of integration of video games into the culture of the youth in the United States could not be clearer. One estimate stated that ninety-seven percent of twelve to seventeen-year-olds played a video game in 2008 (ESA, 2009). These figures suggest that virtually everyone in that specific demographic play video games. The economic result of the demand for video gaming has resulted in over an eleven billion dollar industry (2008) which is continually expanding (ProCon, N.d.). However, many of these games contain graphic violence and sexual content that deemed in appropriate for this demographic.
It is argued that this violence in the digital world can cause a host of negative implications in real life as well. hen children are exposed to violence then this can work to desensitize them to the use of violence and violence can even be perceived as an acceptable way to…
Anderson, C., Sakamoto, A., Gentile, D., Ihori, N., Shibuya, A., Yukawa, S., . . . Kobayashi, K. (2008). Longitudinal Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggression in Japan and the United States. Pediatrics, 1067-1072.
ESA. (2009, May). Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry. Retrieved from Entertainment Software Association:
Video games: Are video games morally dangerous?
One of the most controversial forms of new technology is that of video games. Authors such as Grant Tavinor have lauded video games as unique pieces of 'interactive' art while opponents of video games such as Stephanie Partridge have condemned video games' violent images and the fact that they encourage the viewer to distance him or herself from the consequences of those actions. There is concern that because of their all-absorbing, interactive nature, video are uniquely 'dangerous' for the user, which for their proponents is actually what makes them so fascinating.
Tavinor clams that in additional to the artistic component of the video game experience, video games are themselves art because of their 'gaming' component. If various games such as chess have been called 'art' throughout the ages because of their use of dynamic strategy and what they demand of the viewer, why…
Video Games -- Artistic Medium
Our media-rich environment, in which digital technologies are proliferating faster than our cultural, legal, or educational institutions can keep up with them ... addresses our culture's contradictory imperatives for immediacy and hypermediacy" (Bolton, et al., 1999).
Should video games, which are interactive and bring a sense of immediacy to the participant, be considered an art form? Is it pushing the envelope too far to assert that video players are not only having fun and engaging in friendly competition, they are participating in an art form? This paper delves into that subject and points to the available scholarly literature that supports the idea that video games constitute an artistic medium.
The Literature on Video Games as an Artistic Medium
In the scholarly publication Library Technology Reports (LTR, 2006) the writer notes that increasingly "all types of libraries" are adding the phrase "gaming and libraries" to their…
Bolton, J.D., and Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media / Introduction:
The Double Logic of Remediation. Retrieved June 8, 2016, from https://monoskop.org .
Hall, S. (2008). Video Games as Collaborative Art. Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 88(1), 19-19.
Hecker, C. (2001). Why Games Will Be the Preeminent Art Form of the 21st Century.
Video Games on Children
Owing to the advent of digital media over the past few decades, technology has taken over many dimensions of the world and given the media a 360 degree turn by entirely switching the way it previously worked. The computer era not only changes the way transactions were done, documents were prepared, statistical tools were used and made the world global but it also changed the way sports and games were played. It converted the physical playground into a virtual one to quite a great extent and now, computer video games have become an increasingly important phenomenon of today for the entertainment of kids who now believe in virtual playgrounds (Anderson, Gentile, & Katherine E, 2007).
Every new change brings its pros and cons with it, and he computer era was a boom towards the video game industry which is still a significant use of computers…
Franciss, M., & Subramanian, A. This Is Not Just a Game Anymore. Mumbai: Diligent Media Corporations Ltd. 2012.
Anderson, C.A., Gentile, D.A. & Katherine E. Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Public Policy. Oxford University Press. 2007.
Associated Press. Monitoring video game violence - Expert's advice to. Ontario: The Guelph Mercury. 2006.
Billings Gazette, The (MT). Studies show children get hooked on addictive. The Billings Gazette 2011.
Sexism in Video Games
Video game characters are iconic in youth popular culture. Their influence goes far outside of the realm of the game, so that even youth who do not play games are exposed to video game characters. For example, it is common for products to use video game characters in their marketing campaigns when targeting young adults. Moreover, it is not unusual for there to be an overlap between video games and other forms of popular culture. Video games may be spun off into books, cartoons, films, and television shows. There is nothing inherently wrong with the presence of video game characters in so much youth-oriented popular culture. However, while video games may seem like harmless fun, it is important to understand the content of those video games and the message that content sends to young players, in order to understand the potential negative impact of these games.…
Cass Communications. "Student Robert Parungao Finds Video Games Rife with Stereotypes."
Arts Wire. 13 May 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
Dill, Karen. "Do Anti-Social Video Games Foster Sexism and Violence against Women?
Research on Sexist and Pro-Rape Attitudes among Gamers." Wordpress. 2008. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
This term seems to have been coined in the 1990s when researchers were attempting to describe a constellation of behaviors observed in persons using the Internet to such an extent that it began to cause other aspects of their lives to become dysfunctional. The DSM-IV disorder most similar to the pattern of behaviors observed with overuse of video games is pathological gambling. Presumably, the more colloquial term addiction was derived from the similarities to gambling addiction. For this report, this pattern of heavy video game playing is referred to as "video game overuse." (Khan, 2007) Kahn additionally relates that: "Symptoms of time usage and social dysfunction/disruption appear in patterns similar to that of other addictive disorders. It is not clear whether withdrawal symptoms are associated with video game overuse; some excessive users do not exhibit "cravings" for the games if they are unavailable, while other users insist they cannot reduce…
Hauge, Marny R. And Gentile, Douglas a. (2003) Video game addiction among adolescents: associations with academic performance and aggression - Presented at Society for research in child development conference, April 2 -- 3 Tampa Florida.
Special Report: Video Game Addiction (2005) New Orleans WDSU.com. 24 Feb 2005. Online available at http://www.wdsu.com/news/4160216/detail.html .
Khan, Mohamed K. (2007) Emotional and Behavioral Effects, Including Addictive Potential, of Video Games. Report of the Council on Science and Public Health. CSAPH Report 12-a-07
Computer Games Addiction (2005) National Institute on Media and the Family. Online available at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_gameaddiction.shtml
Pervasive Video Games as Art
The form and function of art has evolved and changed quite a bit over the years, decades and millennia. Paintings and sculpture have been artistic mainstays for much to most of the world of the civilized human race. However, with the technological revolution that has roared up over the last fifty years or so, new forms of art have bubbled to the proverbial surface. Digital technology has enhanced prior forms of art e such as photography. Beyond that, completely brand new forms have art have been created and the latter is what this report is assessing in the form of pervasive video games. The depth and breadth of this art and the effects it has on its users and fans when done will are worthy of massive study and analysis both in this report and elsewhere.
Chapter I - Introduction
Video games, at this point…
Blizzard. "World of Warcraft." World of Warcraft. http://us.battle.net/wow/en / (accessed
May 29, 2014).
Bogost, Ian. Persuasive games: the expressive power of videogames. Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press, 2007.
For instance, an outcast child has a high possibility of gaining his/her social stand only because he/she is devoted to playing video games (Marino n.p.). In addition, as the evolution of the high-tech devices continues, the involvement of the children in playing video games gives them the high opportunity and assistance necessary in releasing their frustrations and stress in a safer manner and in a controlled environment hence a chance to manage any hostile characters rather than encouraging them. For instance, a child who do not play video games frequently, can significantly benefit from releasing stress by spending approximately 15 to 20 minutes in playing video games (Marino n.p.). Moreover, the change in technology by it self is a good thing for the children generally as there is a continual development of video games that bring new challenging tasks/characters that enhance more thinking and creativity (Robers, "positive effects of video…
Marino, Jonathan. Positive effects of video games, article base. 28 March 2009. Web. 19 April
Robers, James. The positive effects of video games on children. Associatedcontent.com. 8
January 2010. Web. 19 April 2010.
Violence in video games and the role of culture.
The video game industry is a multi-billion dollar industry representing about $9.9 billion dollars in retail sales in the U.S. alone in 2004 (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). In this paper, video games refer to electronically controlled games played on any platform including console units, computers, internet, hand-held devices or various technology toys. In recent years, video games have redefined leisure activities among children as studies conducted in U.S. estimated that 99% of boys and 94% of girls play video games (Whitaker and Bushman, 2009), with children age 2-7 years spending an average of 3-5 hours a week playing games, while 8th and 9th grade students spend an average of 9 hours per week (Greitemeyer and Osswald, 2010). According to Whitaker and Bushman (2009), violence in video games is also commonplace with violent content available in over 85% of video games.
Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annu Rev Psychol, 53, 27-51.
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1679-1686.
Dill, K.E., & Dill, J.C. (1998). Video game violence: A review of the empirical literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3(4), 407-428.
Funk, J.B., Buchman, D.D., & Germann, J.N. (2000). Preference for Violent Electronic Games, Self-Concept, and Gender Differences in Young Children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(2), 233-241.
Violence in Video Games
Unlike movies, video games are not regulated by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is ironic because there are a wealth of studies indicating children do not distinguish between fantasy and reality in a gaming environment (Ferguson, 2011). Simply put, the more time children, adolescents and teenagers spend playing a video game the more they see their reality as the gaming environment (Boyle, McLeod, ojas, 2008) (Hartmann, Vorderer, 2010). To argue that games are not as powerful of an influence on children is ridiculous, yet ironically the FCC regulates who can see a movie by its content alone and has refused to take action on games (Soh, Tan, 2008). In June, 2011 the Supreme Court struck down a California law that fined retailers $1,000 for each occurrence or infraction of selling or renting violent games to anyone under the age of 18 (Lemmens, Valkenburg, Peter, 2011).…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.
Boyle, M., McLeod, D., & Rojas, H.. (2008). The Role of Ego Enhancement and Perceived Message Exposure in Third-Person Judgments Concerning Violent Video Games. The American Behavioral Scientist, 52(2), 165.
Beth Snyder Bulik (2008, May). Despite recession, video-game industry shows massive growth. Advertising Age, 79(20), 6.
Cliff Cheetham (2008, April). Marketing strategies in the gaming community.
The United States Army, however, eventually introduces its recruits to a real battlefield, whereas the America's Army video game does not. Participants in the "SeeMePlayMe" multiplayer online tournament of America's Army do not use real machine guns when they shoot at enemy troops and do not lose any limbs when they are shot in turn. hen people play America's Army, the shoot and kill enemy troops in a virtual world. They don't have to contend with any psychological trauma or long-term effects such as post-traumatic shock disorder, which army veterans often do experience. Finally, playing the America's Army video game does not expose players to any hazardous chemicals, whereas the Untied States Army does expose its troops to a number of toxic substances.
America's Army players can play when they want for however long, and don't have to follow anyone's orders except perhaps their parents'. In fact, one of the…
What is America's Army." Retrieved October 6, 2005 at http://www.thearmygame.com
Violence in Video Games
Guiding Question: Should the government have to be involved in legislation regarding video game content?
Proof 1: Explain how First Amendment ensures freedom of speech, including video game content.
"It is not the government's job to forbid content in media. It is the responsibility of the parents to decide what their children should play.
Body Paragraph 1: Music censorship case and ratings system for video games
Body Paragraph 2: Research evidence
Body Paragraph 3: Sociological implications and blaming
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution insists that citizens of the U.S. have the right to free speech. This Amendment has been utilized by artists from a wide variety of genres and talents to preserve their right to express themselves and prevent any form of censorship. Most calls for legislation regarding censorship have actually come from the parents of America's youth. Rather than take responsibility for…
Anderson, Craig (2003). "Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions."
Psychological Science Agenda.
Benedetti, Winda. (2008). "Playing the Blame Game." MSNBC. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23204875/
Chalk, Andy. (2007). "Inappropriate Content: a Brief History of Videogame Ratings and the ESRB." The Escapist.
Technology has emerged and pervaded the lives of many people as it becomes more advanced and more a part of society. A good and prominent example of this is video games. Even with the leisure and perceived positive effects of video games, their effect on the brain is a cause for concern among many in the scientific and academic communities. While many of the effects could absolutely be good, there are other effects that could be bad with age and stage of brain development being important factors to keep in mind.
One factor that clearly aggravates the situation of people playing video games and it might or does affect the brain is the fact that the younger people who still have the development of their brains in motion. As such, verifying whether or not there are effects on cognition and that development of the brain structure is an important item…
Violence in Video Games
The cultivation of violence in video games: causal or correlational?
Studies on media effects have always included the influential role that television and new media technologies such as the computer and Internet (ICTs). With the proliferation of both mass media, there is greater penetration of its content to children and the adolescent youth, who are frequent TV watchers and ICT users. Among the concerns of parents and scholars about the proliferation of this mass media is its unintended effects -- the cultivation of violence and development of violent behavior of the child through TV and ICT content. Focus is especially given to the youth who actively engage in video gaming, either through the TV, computer, or Internet. Parents and mass media research claim that video games harness an individual's violent behavior, resulting to aggressiveness and development of hostile attitude towards other people.
In this paper, the…
Brody, M. (2001). "Playing with death." Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, (16)11.
Gaziano, C. (2001). "Towards a broader conceptual framework for research on social stratification, childrearing patterns, and media effects." Mass Communication & Society, (4)2.
Lynne Eagle, L., S. Bulmer, and A. de Bruin. (2003). "Marketing communications implications of children's new electronic media use: a survey of parental opinions and perceptions." Journal of Marketing Communications, (9)3.
Wagner, C. (2004). "Aggression and violent media." Futurist, (38)4.
Classical Experiment on Violence in Video Games
I a design a classical experiment Violence video games, Elements include: • Identify components • What research question? • What hypothesis? • How select subjects assign a group? • How conduct experiment? Describe procedures.
Design of a classical experiment on Violence in video games
The game will involve the use of the following apparatus. They include;
A video game for example, a Nintendo 64 game system
Appropriate game cartridges, including one violent video game (wrestling) and one nonviolent video game (basketball). In the wrestling game, the human violence should be prevalent in that the object of the game is to punch, kick, and use blunt weapon and other wrestling moves to subdue the opponent. While, the basketball (NBA LIVE '99), game is meant to have no violence since the player is not supposed to hurt the opponent and if it happens, the…
Funk, J.B. (2005). Children's Exposure to Violent Video Games and Desensitization to Violence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(3), 387-404. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2005.02.009
Uhlmann, E., & Swanson, J. (2004). Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 41-52. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.10.004
The video game industry forms a significant part of the leading companies worldwide currently. The huge diffusion of the internet and associated information technologies over the recent years has raised the need of increased security. Advancement in technology consequently leads to the advancement of video games as well as associated security risks. Some of the common threats and vulnerabilities involving this industry include: misuse by human, hacking, fraud, virus attacks, among others. Such factors can facilitate adversities such as information loss and alteration, and unauthorized access. This paper identifies and assesses potential threats, malicious attacks, and vulnerabilities expected by the organization. It also gives the control procedures to mitigate the mentioned risks and vulnerabilities.
The Threats and Vulnerabilities
There are a number of dominant security threats involving technology and information that affect the organization. Such threats poise a serious disruption to the business continuity planning (BCP) cycle of…
Syed, R and Morh, S. (2011). IT Security Issues within the Video Game Industry. The International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology. Vol. 3, No. 5.
First, a thorough secondary literature review and an assessment of available dissertations and theses on the subject, the goal will be to determine the cause-and-effect of prolonger video game use on the psychological stability of children. These are to be clear not children who play for a few hours each day, they are the ones who are playing for up to eight to ten hours a day. Second, the research from the dissertations, thesis and published journals discovered during the first step will be summarized into a table of results. The intent of this effort is to define the cause-and-effect factors that lead parents to allow their children to be some detached and consumed in these games. Third, an action plan will be defined for how to raise public awareness and assist parents in setting better constraints and parameters for the use of video games in the future.
video games have on short-term memory. esearchers normally study action games, but quest/puzzle games were also included in this study, to allow for direct comparison of different game types along with a control group. In this research, we looked at three different types of short-term memory, the visual-spatial dimension, verbal and numerical. We examined some correlations between improved memory and video game usage. However, not all of the null hypotheses were confirmed in this study, meaning that there is room for future study. In particular, it has been established that quest/puzzle games are correlated with higher visual-spatial and verbal short-term memory, but it has not been determined if differences between baseline abilities amount the study participants might have influenced this result. This, therefore, would be one avenue for future study that has been opened up. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge with respect to the influence that…
Amladi, S., Andrist, S., Ducommun, M. & Leabo, L. (no date). Using action video games to train working memory in students with working memory deficits. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~sandrist/pdf/MBE_FinalPaper.pdf
Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. Cyber Psychology and Behavior. Vol. 10 (4) 552-559.
Anderson, C. & Bushman, B. (2001). Effect of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, psychological arousal and prosocial behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 12 (5) 353-359.
Applebaum, L, Cain, M., Darling, E. & Mitroff, S. (2013). Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alternations in visual sensory memory. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from http://people.duke.edu/~mitroff/papers/13_AppelbaumCainDarlingMitroff_APP.pdf
Video Games Available on USB Instead of CDS
USB are moveable storage devices and people use these devices to store huge amount of data. These devices are also called flash memory data storage devices. One can also store games in these devices and can directly run these store games.
Normally games are available on CDs or DVDs. But there are many limitations associated with these CDs like most of the games are available on multiple CDs, so carrying these CDs is difficult while on the other hand video games available on USB flash drives are very easy to carry.
USB devices are very useful. People are also using these devices for backing up PS2 games. According to data of 2010, these devices can store data of up to 128 GB (gigabytes). USB drives are also very easy to carry and can be carried even in pocket. The installation process of…
"COMPACT DISC." www.wong-sir.com. 13 JUNE 2011
Gerry. "The Benefits Of Portable USB Drives." 26 DEC 2010. xbox360kinectreviewed.com. 13 JUNE 2011
Plambeck, Joseph. "As CD Salezs Wane, Music Retailers Diversify." 31 May 2010 The New York Times. 13 June 2011
Sony had several strengths when it entered the video game console market in 1995. It had a strong brand image from its consumer electronics business, which translated to the console, as that was also seen as consumer electronics. The company also had excellent distribution channels, again based on its pre-existing consumer electronics businesses. Sony also benefitted from scale, in both production and marketing, as it was a large global conglomerate. So there were several advantages that Sony enjoyed, and these advantages allowed it to gain access to the market, and leverage a strong brand and marketing muscle to gain traction with the consumer base. While it didn't realize it at the time, there is tremendous crossover opportunity between Sony's movie properties and games, and vice versa. Sony countered this by working with many game developers, including the largest ones in the industry. Sony's reputation gave it instant credibility with developer,…
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to support this theory -- several prominent school shootings have been ostensibly linked to video game playing -- but real scientific evidence is also emerging that suggests a more subtle but similar effect. In one study, college-age participants who had spent time playing olfenstein 3D, a first person shooter computer game, "punished" their opponents by subjecting them to loud noises of high intensity more frequently and for longer periods of time than participants that had played a non-violent computer game. In the words of Dr. Craig Anderson, one of the psychologists and researchers who conducted the study, "violent video games provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations."
Basically, time spent playing violent video games is time spent learning life skills that could be detrimental and counter-productive in real world situations, and could even replace more socially valuable skills sets…
American Psychological Association. "Violence in the Media - Psychologists Help Protect Children from Harmful Effects." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://www.psychologymatters.org/mediaviolence.html
Gunter, Barrie. The Effects of Video Games on Children. Wiltshire: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd., 1998.
Jenkins, henry. "Congressional Testimony on Media Violence." Accessed 13 July 2009. http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/jenkins_ct.html
Kirsh, Steven J. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. London: Sage Publications, 2006.
e. those that are contrary to the intent of the marketing material) are taken (Wesley & Barczak 2010). Psychological knowledge has allowed this balancing act in video game marketing to be much more finely tuned than it would be otherwise.
The first three principles discussed herein relate to the efficacy of various marketing efforts, and the considerations that must be taken into account in order for marketing to reach the people intended and be responded to in the desired manner. When it comes to the ethical principles of marketing it is less about direct efficacy and more about the overall social benefit and cultural values being upheld in marketing materials and efforts. The ethics of marketing are essentially limiting factors on the types and precise design of marketing materials that can be utilized for a given product or industry, but viewing them only as limitation does not really…
Carroll, R. (2010). "Video games business and marketing,." Accessed 8 August 2010. http://vgbm.blogspot.com/
Global Media. (2010). Principles of marketing. New York: Global Media.
Higgins, L. (2009). Principles of marketing. Accessed 8 August 2010. http://www.principlesofmarketing.com/
KnowThis. (2010). "Consumer buying behavior." Accessed 8 August 2010. http://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/consumer-buying-behavior/
Additional studies show these effects last." (Ibid) the following statistics are stated in the study of Walsh, Gentile, Walsh and ennett (2005) relating to the parent's belief and the actuality as reported by their child.
Differences between parents and children reports related to video games
How often does a parent/do you:
Play computer or video games with you/your child?
Talk to you about the video games you play?
Help decide what video games you may buy/rent?
Have to ask permission before playing video games?
Does your family have rules about how much you may play?
Does your family have rules about when you may play video games?
Source: Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & ennett (2005)
IV. The Future of Video Gaming
Positive applications for learning have emerged from video gaming capabilities. A Computer Research Association report entitled: "Cyberinfrastructure for…
Fischer, P.; Guter, S.; Frey, D.; Kubitz; J. (2007) Virtual Driving and Risk Taking: Do Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Cognitions, Affect and Behaviors" Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied 2007 Vol. 19 No. 1 12031. American Psychological Association 2007.
Walsh, D.; Gentile, D.; Walsh, E.; Bennett, N. (2006) 11th Annual MediaWise Video Game Report Card. National Institute on Media and the Family, 28 Nov 2006. Online available at http://www.mediafamily.org/research/report_vgrc_2006.shtml .
Ainsworth, S.; Honey, M; Johnson, WL; Koedinger, K.; Maramatsu, Pea, R.; Recker, M. And Weimar, S. (2005) Cyberinfrastructure for Education and Learning for the Future: A Vision and Research Agenda. Computing Research Association. Online available at http://www.cra.org/reports/cyberinfrastructure.pdf
Gaming Advances as Learning Tool: For Some Educators, Computer Games are Serious Business" eSchool News Online. Available at http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showStory.cfm?ArticleID=6799 .
The I/O structure is of great importance because of the reason that it makes the connection between the computer and the player. It consequently is the message of the designer sent to the player with the help of the computer. I/O is created out of input and output. The output of the game refers to the graphics and to the sound coming from the computer and the speakers. Designers are dedicated to having the graphics of games as good as they can because of the fact that people generally pay more attention to visual effects than to sound effects.
The input of the game refers to the player's interference in the game with the help of the contact that the player has with the keyboard, the mouse, or the joystick. Game designers had often failed from having a success with their games because of joysticks which had not been…
Bellis, Mary. Computer and Video Game History. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from About.com Website: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blcomputer_videogames.htm
Crawford, Chris. (1997). The Art of Computer Game Design. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from Washington State University Vancouver Website: http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/peabody/game-book/Coverpage.html#TOC
Player-centric design. Retrieved November 26, 2008 from a series of Tubes Website: http://aseriesoftub.es/blog/2008/1/26/player-centric-design
Quite to the point, television, film, pop music and video games share in common a proclivity to promote that which yields prosperity. Thus, there is little regard from the computer gaming industry for indications that "a meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults." (Anderson & Bushman, 353)
In spite of this, revenue for video game produces revolves on role-playing titles such as orld of arcraft, which promotes fantasy world combat, simulation games such as Grand Theft Auto, which glorifies violence and antisocial behavior, Halo, the simulated first-person shooter game, and Madden Football, which portrays in detail the often brutal sport of football.
Connecting absorption of such media with the commitment of violent crimes remains a challenge however. Famously, the two minors responsible for the massacre at the Columbine High School in 1999 were noted for playing such…
Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.
Harding, a. (2009). Violent Video Games Linked to Child Aggression. CNNHealth. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/family/11/03/healthmag.violent.video.kids/index.html
The more violent teens might also be more apt to wear black rather than white t-shirts, but that does not mean that the act of wearing a black t-shirt makes a teen more predisposed to act violently.
The authors of another study did attempt an experiment that would suggest causation rather than mere correlation. In an experiment involving 210 college students, students who played a violent video game were more likely to 'punish' the opponent by inflicting a noise blast upon the opponent of greater intensity and for "a longer period of time" than did students who played a nonviolent video game (illenz 2009). However, the idea that inflicting a loud noise upon an opponent after playing a loud, noisy video game is analogous to committing acts of physical violence in the real world also seems like a tenuous causal argument.
illenz, Pam. (2009). Violent video games can…
Willenz, Pam. (2009). Violent video games can increase aggression. American Psychological
Association (APA). Media Release. Retrieved August 8, 2009 at http://www.apa.org/releases/videogames.html
Speed (NFS), the popular racing game that has arrived, I think, at its eighth version already (without mentioning sidetracks such as Need for Speed Underground). The game is highly successful and it incorporates what we may refer to as "role-playing," although not in the meaning generally associated with another category of videogames.
First of all, Need For Speed is not about driving, but about racing, something we all must enjoy doing once in a while, because it is on the edge and, perhaps, also because it is illegal. It is still illegal in the game, with cops chasing you when you pass the legal limit, however, as the greatest advantage of any videogame, even if you are caught, nothing happens to you in real life.
So, as a first observation, NFS was created as a predictable reaction to the outside restrictive environment (we will see later on whether there are…
Massive Multiplayer Online Game
Some people believe that videos games are pointless activities, and only teenagers waste their time playing these games. These people will be surprised to know that the average of video game players is somewhere around 26 years. In fact, teenagers account to only 25% of the video games players. According to the demographic statistics of the players of these games, 50% of them are full time employees. Around 36% of them are married; meanwhile 22% of them have children (Flew and Humphreys, 2005). Therefore, it will not be wrong to say that the demographic of video games' players is quite diverse. From high school students, to early professionals to retirees and middle-aged home makers, people are quite fond of playing these games. If stated in other words, it can be said that video games are not appealing to the youth subculture, but people from every…
Flew, Terry and Humphreys, Sal (2005) "Games: Technology, Industry, Culture" in Terry Flew, New Media: An Introduction (2nd edn), Oxford University Press, South Melbourne 101 -- 114.
Castells, Manuel (2001), "The Internet Galaxy," Oxford University Press, Oxford pp. 9 -- 35.
Stewart, D.W. & Zhao, Q. (2000). Internet marketing, business models, and public policy. Journal Of Public Policy & Marketing, 19 (2), pp. 287 -- 296.
digital games is quite relaxing, as no adequate research has been carried out yet, so nearly anything goes. Writing, in general, about gaming and games is also very much similar. Sadly, and with startling cumulative consequences, games are under-theorized. Although there is the work of authors such as Ehrmann, Huizinga, and Caillois, game theory, philosophical ideas such as the work of Wittgenstein, and libraries teeming with research on board games, one can not get far into the field of computer games using only the above resources. As well, if there is, or will be, a proper computer game research field, it can also be said to be at risk of colonization and intrusion from existing scholarly tribes (Eskelinen 2001). Computer games have to be secured against the colonizing effect of textual and narrative analysis. In the case of semiotics, the idea of "text" generalizes to everything in material existence; however,…
Adams, Ernest. 1999. "Three Problems for Interactive Storytelters.." Gamasutra.
Engberg, Maria. n.d. Markku Eskelinen. Accessed July 14, 2015. http://www.elmcip.net/person/markku-eskelinen.
Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "The Gaming Situation." The international journal of computer game research.
Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "Towards Computer Game Studies, Part 1: Narratology and Ludology." Helsinki.
75, p < .000. Ho: Mean IQ = 100. The mean difference of the sample from the test value of 100 (the average of the general population) was 29.25, with confidence intervals of 24.9 and 33.6, indicating that there is a 95% level of certainty that the true mean difference lies between these two numbers.
Ha: Mean IQ > 100
Level of significance: .05
This is a one-tailed test because our hypothesis has a built in direction (we are hypothesizing that the average IQ of the group of video game players will be higher than the average IQ of the general population).
Z Score = X -- X
Z Score = 129.25 -- 100 / 11.86
Z Score = 2.4 -- thus, the average of the data set has a Z score of 2.4
Sketch and shade the rejection region.
A z score of 2.4 has 49.18%…
It is due to inadequate "civilized amenities," meaning, that people are subjected to drinking water that is contaminated by feces. It can also be treated with lots of fluids and electrolytes, but these countries do not have the knowledge or resources to save people from dying from cholera.
8. John Updike Down the River In what respectis Uncle Tom's Cabin superior to Huckleberry Finn?
Because the black man, Jim, in Twain's story, is a more realistic person. He is responsible, and has dreams of buying his deaf daughter's freedom, while experiencing his freedom on the raft. Uncle Tom is not a genuine character.
9. Elizabeth Kolbert Dead Reckoning Why have the Turks refused to acknowledge the Armenian genocide?
The Turks are afraid of losing their identity as a nation. They do not want to admit that their existence as a nation is the result of war crimes.
They want the…
Video Games and Their Effect on Children
Video Games were first introduced in the 1970s and rapidly caught on as a major leisure activity especially among children within a decade. Children these days spend more time watching TV or playing video games than any other activity save sleeping. Since video games are a relatively recent phenomenon research about its effects on children cannot be considered conclusive. However, most studies so far indicate that video games can have both positive and negative effects on children depending on the time spent in the activity and the type of video games played.
The Positive Effects
Most early researches in the effect of video games on children indicated that they had an overall positive effect on children.
Introduction to Computers
Video games were a friendly way to introduce children to the use of computers and improved their hand-eye co-ordination. Some older studies also indicated…
Cesarone, Bernard. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest. 1994-01-00. [Available Online] December 6, 2002 from http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed365477.html
Clements, David. "Video violence too close to the real thing." Sterling News Service [Available Online] December 6, 2002 from http://www.media-awareness.ca/eng/med/home/artvidgm.htm
Mitchell, Edna. "Video Games Visit Harvard Yard." September 1983. Antic Vol. 2, # 6.
Available Online] December 6, 2002. http://www.atarimagazines.com/v2n6/videogames.html
lockbuster has 2800 video stores in 28 countries around the world, many of which are franchises. Its membership is thought to number 40,000,000+ people. lockbuster manages $5 billion in annual sales, and is the top retailer for movie rentals in the U.S. Recently, however, it has been facing tough competition, in view of the fact that the five major Hollywood movie studios are planning to rent movies to college students directly, and in view of the fact that new web-based movie-rental companies are starting up, for example, Netflix, which offer more flexible, movie-on-demand services. We will be discussing more about this competition that lockbuster faces later.
In view of this, lockbuster has therefore had to radically rethink its marketing strategies, and its pricing policies, in order to try and keep its existing customers, and to attract new customers to use its services. The first way it did this was to…
Blockbuster takes on Netflix. www.cnnmoney.com May 29, 2002.
Olsen, S. (2002). Blockbuster takes on Netflix. www.cnetnews.com. August 8, 2002.
Patsuris, P. (2003). Blockbuster takes on new strategy vs. Netflix. www.forbes.com/business. April 21, 2003.
Siklos, R., Anderson, S. And Browder, S (1999). Blockbuster Finally Gets it Right.
Music Videos Promotional Devices or Products in Themselves
Music Videos: Promotional Device or Separate Product?
Music videos are constructed in many different ways, but many of them involve the artist and others singing and dancing to specific songs. Some also tell stories or provide other background dealings that make the music video much like a television program. An example of this would be Michael Jackson's 'Thriller,' which was a very long video that involved much storytelling and other information as opposed to just the song. Some of these story type videos are still done today but this seems to be more popular in country music that it does in rock-and-roll.
No matter what genre is dealt with, however, the debate as to whether music videos are promotional devices or a separate product in and of themselves has been continuing for many years. In 1981 music television first began broadcasting music…
Disrupting by Imagining: ethinking Early Childhood esearch
Early Childhood esearch
This research highlights four teachers who work in early childhood classrooms who have chosen to implement the use of video-observations of their teaching in conjunction with the reflective process. Each teacher profile will include discussions and interviews about their teaching and change implementation. The ideas for change will be based upon their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions along with evidence from the recorded and observed videotapes. After viewing their own instruction, practitioners began the process of implementing change for individual students as well as for their class overall. Teachers shared this experience with others in their school and provided information regarding their results based on the following three areas: 1) Analysis: individuals and/or groups in the process of reflection (grade level teams); 2) Strategies: offers other teachers and/or programs ways to introduce concepts to a group of teachers and/or school;…
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freedom.
Brophy, J.E. (2004). Using video in teacher education. San Diego, CA: Elsivier.
Copa, A., Lucinski L., Olsen, E, & Wollenburg, K. (1999). Promoting professional and organizational development: A reflective practice model. Zero to Three, 20(1), 3-9.
Cross, N. (2011). Coaching: Seven reasons to go to the tape. ASCD Express, 7(1).
Media outreach is significant to create awareness, which the founder and his staff has done by managing a Facebook account, blog, and twitter page. In particular, the site's blog creates a more in-depth description about products and on-going games. The posts are complemented with stunning visual pictures, videos, details about teams and their players. However, media broadcasting goes further by being connected to YouTube, Foursquare, and Flickr. The workings and maintenance of a business online can be improved by acknowledging the experience of consumers. As a result, Rei permits product reviews, testimonials and an email to contact the company. Patrons and companies live in an age of advocacy, where a positive experience can create more business for a company like Rei's, while an opposite account may result in abysmal failure. Thus, the connections made on Digg and Stumbleupon can foster the former or latter relationships.
The commodities relating to soccer…
World Soccer Shop. Bernard Rei, 2001. Web. 17 Mar. 2011. .
Today, the Paralympics are widely regarded as being the second-largest sporting event in the world after the Olympic Games themselves and there is growing recognition of the extraordinary abilities of athletes with disabilities as a result (Davis 2012). This paper provides a review of a commercial video, "Meet the Superhumans," that was used to promote the 2012 London Paralympics on a local television station, including an analysis of the brand being marketed, the targeted market segments, the key objectives of the video, and the video's key integrated marketing communications messages. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the "Meet the Superhumans" video are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Analysis of the video as a sport product promotional tool
Brand being marketed. The brand being marketed in the subject video is the 2012 Paralympic Games. Originally established by Sir Ludwig Guttman in the late 1940s…
Brunello, A (2013, January-March). 'The Relationship between Integrated Marketing
Communication and Brand Equity.' International Journal of Communication Research,
Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 9-15.
Davis, RW (2012, March). 'Introduction: The Paralympics Advocate for, and Build Awareness