Vitamin Supplements Essays (Examples)

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Vitamins Supplement

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38728281


The body does need a certain amount of vitamins and minerals to maintain its vital organs and promote system functionality. Most of these vitamins and minerals can be acquired through a healthy diet. Therefore, many Americans are taking vitamin supplements unnecessarily. The reasons why Americans may be taking vitamin supplements unnecessarily include misinformation, trend, and clever marketing making some vitamins "in vogue," (Nierenberg, 2014).

Taking vitamin supplements may be necessary in some cases, as when a patient cannot absorb a certain vitamin or mineral due to a preexisting condition or dietary allergen. In other cases, patients may need temporary dietary supplements. Pregnant women, for example, often need to supplement with iron, calcium, magnesium, or zinc according to their specific needs. Without supplementation, as many as 75% of pregnant women would be deficient in at least one vitamin and even with supplementation, an average of 20-20% of women suffer from…… [Read More]


Hovdenak, N. & Karam, K. (2012). Influence of Miller, A.M. (2012). Popular but dangerous. U.S. News & World Report Health. Feb 12, 2012.

Nierenberg, C. (2014). Getting too much of vitamins and minerals. Retrieved online:

Perharic, et al. (1994). Toxicological problems resulting from exposure to traditional remedies and food supplements. Drug Safety 11(4).
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Vitamin C And Nutrition the

Words: 1399 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23830382

This work by the Harvard School of public health states that while small trails have indicated that the amount of vitamin C contained in a typical multivitamin and taken in the beginning of the development of a cold "might ease symptoms" however, for the "average person, there's no evidence that megadoses make a difference or that they prevent colds." (2009) It is related as well that studies examining Vitamin C supplements and "heart disease, cancer, and eye diseases such as cataract and macular degeneration also show no clear patterns." (Harvard School of Public Health, 2009)

III. lock, et al. (2008)

The work of lock et al. (2008) entitled: "Vitamin C in Plasma is Inversely Related to lood Pressure and Change in lood Pressure During the Previous Year in Young lack and White Women" states "The prevalence of hypertension and its contribution to cardiovascular disease risk makes it imperative to identify…… [Read More]


Block, Gladys, et al. (2008) Vitamin C in Plasma is Inversely Related to Blood Pressure and Change in Blood Pressure During the Previous Year in Young Black and White Women. Nutrition Journal. 7:35 2008.

Naidu, K. Akhilender (2003) Vitamin C in Human Health and Disease is Still a Mystery: An Overview. Nutrition Journal 2003 2:7.

The Nutrition Source: Vitamin C (2008) Harvard School of Public Health. Online available at:
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Vitamins Jaret Peter 2006 Oct

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4477820

Patients unfamiliar with any or all of them will learn much and have a valuable starting point for conducting their own research online or through their health care providers. Fourth, the author plays up the importance of deriving nutrition from whole foods and when possible or necessary offers dietary tips such as which vegetables contain the most beta carotene.

In spite of its value for a general audience, however, the article fails to provide sufficient scholarly research to help health care workers make clear informed decisions regarding their patient's nutritional care. Health care workers may be stymied by the conflicting information available on nutritional supplementation even after reading the article. Moreover, the article focuses on only five supplements and neglects to address a whole set of important vitamins and minerals that patients may either be lacking in their diets or simply curious about taking.

Although limited in scope and written…… [Read More]

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Vitamin D Supplementation Health &

Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35223853

On the other hand, too much of a good thing can sometimes be even more harmful than too little. In that regard, it is very important to understand the role of vitamin D, both because of its role in maintaining our health, as well as because of the potential for harm associated with excessive supplementation.

Unlike other vitamins and minerals, vitamin D is not readily available through diet because its primary source is natural sunlight. The U.S. FDA recommends a daily dose of 200 IU, which according to medical authorities, is sufficient to protect against osteomalacia, a medical condition characterized by softening of the bones. However, because vitamin D requirements fluctuate depending on how much sunlight a person receives and are difficult to satisfy through diet alone, 200 IU is considered the RDA in the absence of regular exposure to natural sunlight.

Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption…… [Read More]

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Vitamin D in Treatment of Asthmatic Children

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72125251

Asthma has emerged as one of the most common health problems and chronic diseases that affect children worldwide. Healthcare practitioners have become concerned with the increased prevalence of asthma among children. This study focuses on examining the role of vitamin D in prevention and/or control of asthma among children. The evaluation is conducted on the premise that vitamin D has been positively linked with enhanced control of asthma and decreased exacerbations of the condition. The study seeks to fill gaps in knowledge regarding the role of vitamin D in asthma, which remains relatively unclear. The discussion also demonstrates the clinical implications relating to the use of vitamin D in treatment of asthma.

Background and Significance

Asthma is regarded as one of the most common diseases and long-term health conditions that affect children. This condition is basically defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways involving several cells and cellular…… [Read More]


Somashekar, A.R., Privthi, A.B. & Gowda, M.N.V. (2014, October). Vitamin D Levels in Children with Bronchial Asthma. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8(10), 4-7.

Tachimoto et al. (2016, January 30). Improved Control of Childhood Asthma with Low-dose, Short-term Vitamin D Supplementation: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 71, 1001-1009.

Trollvik et al. (2011). Children's Experiences of Living with Asthma. Fear of Exacerbations and Being Ostracized. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26, 295-303.

Yadav, M. & Mittal, K. (2014, July). Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Moderate to Severe Bronchial Asthma. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 81(7), 650-654.
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Supplements Fatigue and Lethargy

Words: 1207 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59874048

Supplements, Fatigue and Lethargy


Vitamin E (p 1- 1.5)

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant, which inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species or ROS when fat is oxidized (NIH, 2013). The body produces ROS when it converts food into energy. As an antioxidant, Vitamin E protects body cells from the ill effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules containing an unshared electron. They damage cells and contribute to the development of heart diseases and cancer. Unshared electrons are very active and quickly react with oxygen to form ROS. Health experts conjecture that limiting the production of free radicals may, alone or through other mechanisms, help prevent or delay the formation of these dreaded chronic diseases associated with the action of free radicals. Vitamin E may serve that function (NIH).

As an antioxidant, it also plays a role in the immune function of the…… [Read More]


Bain, J. (2001). Andropause: testosterone replacement therapy for aging men. Vol. 47,

Canadian Family Physician: Janvier. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from 

NIH (2013). Vitamin E Office of Dietary Supplements: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from

Watson, S. (2014). The causes of women's fatigue. WebMD Magazine: WebMD LLC.
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Vitamin D Is a Group of Fat-Soluble

Words: 1823 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39271463

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules known as secosteroids. Vitamin D itself is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not available in many foods. However, photochemically, it is produced when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger Vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D externally, though, is biologically inert in the human body, and "must undergo two hydroxylations in the body. The first occurs in the liver and converts Vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (VanDen Berg 1997, S76). Although called a vitamin, Vitamin D is not actually an essential dietary vitamin because it can be synthesized in more than adequate amounts from sunlight. Typically, an organic chemical, or group of chemicals, is known as a vitamin when it must be obtained through diet or other means, and cannot be synthesized through bodily processes.

Vitamin D…… [Read More]


Vitamin D (2012). Office of Dietary Supplements -- National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from:

Balasubramanian and Ganesh. (2008). Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 127 (2): 250-55.

Dryden, Jim. (2005). Sunlight Exposure May Help Prevent Periodontal Disease. Washington University St. Louis -- News and Information. Retrieved from:

Feldman, D., (2012). Vitamin D, Volume 1. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
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Supplements for Athletes Ripped Fuel &Copy Is

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928638

Supplements for Athletes

ipped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand…… [Read More]


Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from ipped-fuel-capsules-do/

OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from  -legal-and-illegal-supplements
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Vitamin C For Common Cold What Is

Words: 1164 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82371923

Vitamin C for Common Cold

What is Vitamin C?

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble ingredient that is essential for the health of human beings. It is essential for normal growth and development and it has consumed regularly. Since Vitamin C dissolves in water, the excess amounts leave the human body through urine and this means the body needs a constant supply of this vitamin everyday. The body cannot store vitamin C in any form.

One of the primary role of vitamin C is to repair the body cells and tissues and to prevent free radicals and toxins from getting accumulated in the body. It repairs wounds and makes them heal faster. The free radicals are known to play a role in cancer and heart diseases and good amount of vitamin C everyday helps to prevent any damage.

Sources of vitamin C

Most fruits and vegetables…… [Read More]


Frances Sienkiewicz Sizer, Leonard A. Piche, Eleanor Noss Whitney. Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Kentucky: Cengage Learning. 2011.

Weber, Olaf; Eccles, Ronald. Common Cold. New York: Springer. 2007.
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Vitamin D Supplementation Safety and Concentration

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28980052

Vitamin D Supplementation

Vitamin supplementation has long been a popular way of ensuring that people receive the sufficient amount of vitamins. However as it pertains to Vitamin D, there is some amount of controversy as it pertains to Vitamin D supplementation (25-hydroxy) concentration and safety. The literature review will discuss the need for vitamin D supplementation and the findings of various studies and Vitamin D trials.

An article entitled "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety" the daily allowance of vitamin D is 200 IU. The medical community has established that this amount will prevent the softening of the bones known as osteomalacia. However, there is also a consensus that more vitamin D is need to avoid other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis.

In fact an article found in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics confirms that the proper amount of vitamin D can reduce the chances of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ALA-HOUHALA, M., T KOSKINEN, A TERHO, T KOIVULA, AND J. VISAKORPI. Maternal compared with infant vitamin D Supplementation. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1986, 61, 1159-1163

Alouf B., MD and Grigalonis M. Incidental Finding of Vitamin-D Deficient

Rickets in an Otherwise Healthy Infant -- A Reappraisal of Current Vitamin-D Supplementation Guidelines. Journal of the National Medical Association. VOL. 97, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005

Bjorkman, Mikko. Sorva A., Rejo Tilvis. Responses of parathyroid hormone to vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review of clinical trials. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 48 (2009) 160-166
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Supplements There Are Many Reasons That Supplements

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53415536


There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.

Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong: 

FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO: 

WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD:
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Vitamin D Deficiency Annotated Bibliography

Words: 1652 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44446402

Vol. 4. 145-56.

In this article, Drs. McCann and Ames of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, California, discuss their findings made in several important studies related to the suggestion that since "Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States," it seems that the elderly and African-Americans are at a particularly high risk" of vitamin D deficiency (145).

o support this suggestion, McCann and Ames explore three specific topics -- first, the biological functions of vitamin D relevant to human cognition and behavior; second, the effects of vitamin D deficiency on human cognition and behavior, and third, the activity of vitamin D "relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction" (146).

McCann and Ames then conclude that "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function;" however, the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on cognition/behavior in…… [Read More]

Taylor, S.N., et al. (Autumn 2006). "Vitamin D Status as Related to Race and Feeding Type in Pre-Term Infants." Breastfeeding Medicine. Vol. 1 no. 3: 156-63. As a leading member of the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina, S.N. Taylor examines yet another aspect of vitamin D deficiency in the American population, specifically, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-term African-American babies which currently remains unknown, thus prompting Taylor to write this article.

His overall objective was to "evaluate the vitamin D status of pre-term infants through the first month after delivery" and then compare the evaluations "by race and feeding type," in this case through breastfeeding. Taylor's results showed that "black infants had a significantly lower level" of vitamin D as compared to white infants over a period of almost a month since delivery (157).

Taylor's conclusions are rather interesting, for he declares that the differences between black and white infants "were significant through the first 2 weeks after delivery" and that infants which received breast milk "did not have significantly worse" vitamin D deficiencies than those infants fed formula. Thus, Taylor argues that there does exist some type of correlation between race and feeding method when it comes to infants being deficient in vitamin D (163).
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Vitamin D Supplementation Increases Voluntary Physical Activity

Words: 1572 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50924869

Vitamin D Supplementation increases Voluntary Physical Activity Levels in Nursing Home Patients

Over the course of a semester does vitamin D3 supplementation, and the resultant increase in muscle strength and bone density, lead to increased physical activity in nursing home residents in the absence of added encouragement?

The elderly often suffer from low serum levels of vitamin D, reduced muscle strength, and decreased bone density (reviewed in: Hamilton, 2010). Muscle biopsies have revealed that the muscle fibers most affected in the elderly are type II, the 'fast twitch' fibers. When a person begins to fall they instinctively attempt to prevent or break their fall and this reaction depends heavily on fast twitch muscle fibers. The elderly therefore suffer from an increased risk of falling down and bone fractures. Although conclusive evidence has yet to be found that low serum levels of vitamin D cause this condition, there is a large…… [Read More]


Hamilton, B. (2010). Vitamin D and human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 182-190.

Williamson, J.D., Espeland, M., Kritchevsky, S.B., Newman, A.B., King, A.C., Pahor, M., et al. (2009). Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: Results of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot study. Journal of Gerontology, 64A, 688-694.

Semba, R.D., Houston, D.K., Ferrucci, L., Cappola, A.R., Sun, K., Guralnik, J.M., et al. (2009). Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling women. Nutrition Research, 29, 525-530.

European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (2010). QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Retrieved from
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Supplements Too Often People Do

Words: 458 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95815615

FDA must receive the text of the structure/function claims within 30 days of putting the product on the market. The labels must also include Product labels containing such claims must also include a disclaimer that reads, "This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease."

The bottom line: It is important to do research and be careful about the supplements one takes. Although they can be helpful in providing additional minerals and vitamins, they can be a detriment. The best of all worlds is to eat the right foods, so these supplements are not needed.


Food and Drug Administration (2003). Claims That Can Be Made for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements. Website retrieved July 4, 2006.… [Read More]


Food and Drug Administration (2003). Claims That Can Be Made for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements. Website retrieved July 4, 2006.
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Vitamin in the Body Various

Words: 390 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84582949

For example, serum beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels rose in autumn months. Vitamin C serum concentrations were higher in the winter and spring.

Male participants revealed higher serum retinol concentrations than females, although male and female respondents already differed in terms of age. Younger respondents did have higher levels of beta carotene. Smoking had a stronger effect on lowering serum levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene than on retinol. In some cases, smoking tobacco had a strong effect on lowering serum levels of vitamins. In short, the current research suggests connections between lifestyle habits, age, and diet on blood concentrations of vitamins and can be used for health care workers to advise patients on their diet and lifestyle choices.

orks Cited

Faure, H., Preziosi, P., Roussel, a.M., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Favier, a. "Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the French participants…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Faure, H., Preziosi, P., Roussel, a.M., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Favier, a. "Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the French participants of the SU.VI.MAX trial." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006 Jun; 60(6):706-17. Retrieved Feb 17, 2007 from PubMed:
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Positive Effects of Taking Vitamins

Words: 2458 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12787912

For instance, British researchers of late administered natural Vitamin E supplements at the rate of 40-800 IU daily to men and women who had suffered a heart attack. Following an average of eighteen months, people who got Vitamin E were seen to have 77% less heart attacks compared to those given a dummy tablet. An additional example can be taken of Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD of Victoria, Canada who has been treating terminal cases of cancer with a severe potency vitamin/mineral regimen. He began performing this several years back to treat their depression and tension associated with the diagnosis of cancer. He observed that 30% of the patients in early states who were long-term users of vitamin supplements have survived ten-year more than comparable patients who were given solely conventional treatment which is a stupendous success. Hence the message drives home that vitamins can reverse cases of very serious diseases.…… [Read More]


Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Cheraskin, E. The Health of the Naturopath: Vitamin Supplementation and Psychologic State. 

Dharmananda, Subhuti. Do herbs, Vitamins and antioxidants adversely affect cancer therapies. 

Icheku, Vincent. Degenerative Diseases of Ageing: Causes and Prevention. De-Ichekus (UK)
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Dietary Supplements Calcium to Supplement

Words: 927 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85219961

Moreover, the study did not take into consideration the fact that certain persons are more at risk for later bone loss due to osteoporosis, because of frame size and genetic history (Caucasian and Asian women are at particular risk), or because they cannot take in enough calcium through normal food sources, due to lactose intolerance. Rather than attempting to prevent fractures later in life, after bone mass is already on the decline, it might be better for a nutritionist to stress the need to get enough calcium, early on, when bones are still being built. "At this time, the most effective treatment of osteoporosis is prevention. The stronger the bones are when people are young, the less likely they are to fracture easily later in life," and one preventative method is meeting the individual's daily calcium needs, along with weigh-bearing exercise, to aid in the development of bone mass. (Heinz,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Dietary Supplement Pyramid." (2006) Council for Responsible Nutrition Retrieved 18 May 2006 at 

Heinz, Agnes. (1 Aug 1992) "Osteoporosis." American Council on Science and Health. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at

Study Shows Unexpected Outcomes for Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation." (15 Feb 2006) Press Release: Council for Responsible Nutrition. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at
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Positive Effect of Taking Vitamins

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67952730

I noted also how hard work pays off: which is the central idea or thesis of the narrative essay. Because a narrative essay is by definition less formal than an expository one, the baseball scholarship piece is not as structured or divided into sub-sections. However, I do use transitions between paragraphs in the form of clauses like "Before I stepped up my training..." Those clauses helped enhance the flow of the narrative in the same way transitional words and phrases helped the flow of writing in the vitamin essay.

In the sports narrative, I also employed stylistic techniques that would have not worked in an academic essay like the one on vitamins and health. For example, in one paragraph I used a series of parallelisms that serve as a literary device such as those used by poets: "I started to lift weights and train rigorously. I watched what I ate.…… [Read More]

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What Sort of Protein Supplements Are Good for Athletes

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23944683


Whole Plant-Based Protein: Whole Greens Hemp from

his product does work: it is a protein formula containing protein-rich plant-based ingredients, relying upon hemp for a protein basis that is comparable to that found in the human body. he product essentially meets the needs of the human body by providing a natural supplement. his is an excellent way to give the body what it needs. Not only does hemp have proteins akin to those found in people, it also contains essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Plus, hemp has a wealth of fiber, minerals and vitamins. he formula contains "all 20 amino acids used in the human body," a recipe that includes the 10 essential acids.

scoop, or 30g, equals one serving size. One serving size gives the user 120 calories, 15 grams of protein, 3 grams of fats (or 5% of the recommended daily value). here is zero…… [Read More]

The beneficial aspects of this product can be found in the way it helps the user to produce energy and rapidly support muscle growth and stabilization. As the body goes through exercises, muscle tissue is destroyed and regenerated so this product helps to support that process by giving the body an extra boost of proteins needed for such regeneration.
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Supplement Evaluation

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36232677

vitamin and mineral supplement products which are presently used, and compare and analyze its' amount of nutrients with the generally established nutrient guidelines per day, specifically by considering the DA or AI and UL of the nutrients in question as related to women from 19 to 30 years of age, together with evaluating the daily use of those two products of choice.

The first supplement brought into question is Caltrate 600+D3, whose quantity of nutrients in a single tablet amounts to 800 IU of vitamin D3 and 600 mg of calcium. According to a 2010 re-evaluation of dietary reference intake, the Council for esponsible Nutrition agreed that the adequate value of calcium nutrient for women aged 19 to 50 falls between the AI of 1000 mg and the UL of 2500 mg (Dickinson, 2012). Thus, the recommended dose of one tablet of Caltrate 600+D3 per day would provide 60% of…… [Read More]


Dickinson, A. (2012). The Benefits of Nutritional Supplements. Washington, DC: Council for Responsible Nutrition. [Online]. Available: . [2013, July 9]

A.D.A.M.. (2012, August). Vitamin C In The New York Times. [Online]. Available: [2013, July 9]
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Vitamin D -- and if'so Which

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11045009

Vitamin D -- and if so which level of Vitamin D -- would prevent risk of falling of elderly.

The problem is that elderly are at great risk of falling and, consequently, injuring themselves. Injury, sometimes, leads to death. There is a high rate of falls amongst the elderly

Vitamin D may prevent and reduce quantity of falls. Most studies seem to point to this, but there are contradictory results. The level of Vitamin D too that is effective in preventing falls is unclear.

Analyze the literature review.

The literature review is summarized, succinct, and pertinent to the subject. The authors cluster their research -- they do not deliberate on them in depth singling out studies and describing or analyzing those studies. Rather they take a cluster of related studies, mainly from the last five to ten years and show how they point to Vitamin D being a feasible solution…… [Read More]

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Vitamin E Can Be Useful

Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11279613

These research findings were very significant because all the men who were studied in this were smokers. The researchers of this study admitted that vitamin E surely reduces the risk of prostate cancer. This study was used in a relatively low dose of 50 IU of the prostate but higher dose of 400 IU does have a greater benefit to the heart and prostate. (Challem, 37) Further a study published in the Journal Nutrition and Cancer 2000 states that natural vitamin E or d-alpha-tocopherol arrests the growth of the two types of prostate cancer cells and causes these cells to self-destruct. (Challem, 38)

However though vitamin E is a free-radical scavenger and is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, men with a history of bleeding problems or who take blood thinners should surely discuss the use of vitamin E with their doctor before consuming them. (Heaney; Ellsworth; Gill,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Health-Prostate Cancer. Retrieved at . Accessed 5 November, 2006

Heaney, John A; Ellsworth, Pamela; Gill, Oliver. 100 Questions and Answers about Prostate

Cancer. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003.
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Vitamin D And Hypercalcemia

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25283348

Calcifediol Supplementation Toxicity

Vitamin D Supplementation: Concerns about Toxicity

Vitamin D (calciferol) is so essential to health that all vertebrates can produce this nutrient endogenously when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light (Hoffmann, Senior, Mager 2015; Standing Committee et al. 1997). Vitamin D can also be obtained from fish and modern-day fortified food products. When exposed to sunlight, 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is converted to previtamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and then vitamin D3, which is then hydroxylated by liver enzymes to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3; calcifediol). The biologically active form is finally created when calcifediol is hydroxylated once more by a mitochondrial enzyme in the kidneys to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D; calcitriol).

The two most common forms of dietary vitamin D supplementation are cholecalciferol and calcifediol, but the biological activity of the latter is 5 times that of the former (Standing Committee et al. 1997). The downstream effect of 1,25(OH)2D…… [Read More]


Deluca, HF, Prahl, JM & Plum, LA 2011, '1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is not responsible for toxicity caused by vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamine D', Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 505, no. 2, pp. 226-230.

Hoffmann, MR, Senior, PA & Mager, DR 2015, 'Vitamin D supplementation and health-related quality of life: A systematic review of the literature', Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, published online ahead of print 6 Jan. 2015, pp. S2212-S2672.

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board & Institute of Medicine 1997, DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Available from U.S. Department of Agriculture. [18 January 2015].
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importance of vitamin c in body

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58942352

Vitamin C is not endogenously created in the human body, which is why it is essential that human beings receive enough Vitamin C in their diet. Diseases like scurvy can result from inadequate intake of Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid. Vitamin C performs a plethora of functions in the human body. It is an antioxidant, it is involved in protein metabolism, and is "required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters," (National Institutes of Health, 2016). Because of the role of collagen in wound healing, it can be said that Vitamin C facilitates wound healing (NIH, 2016). Because of its antioxidant functions, Vitamin C is also critical for optimal immune system functioning (NIH, 2016). Vitamin C also improves the absorption of plant-based iron, or nonheme iron (NIH, 2016). Vitamin C is water soluble and is excreted in the urine.

Absorption rates are optimal at moderate levels…… [Read More]

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Theory of Using Vitamin a As Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Words: 1547 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67763224

Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder

The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…… [Read More]


Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6

Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536

Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112

Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358
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Dietary Pills and Dietary Supplements

Words: 2207 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78892272

Any weight loss, say doctors, is good weight loss. If there is some minor contribution the medication gives to the whole process, then that's positive. If taken strictly according to instructions, at worst, diet pills are harmless for the most part.

Effects of Dietary Supplements

The FDA regulates dietary supplements only in that it is required to ensure their safety. A manufacturer is not required to register a supplement or have it approved prior to going to market with it. They must only make certain the product is safe. It is the FDA's post-sales responsibility to keep them safe. Manufacturers must ensure that the label on the product is accurate and not misleading in any way.

There are definite benefits in taking dietary supplements per directions. They can assist anyone in obtaining nutrients not consumed through a balanced diet. And some can reduce the risk of certain diseases even though,…… [Read More]

Bibliography "Dietary Supplements." 2008. Internet FAQ Archives. 19 July 2009 . "pills." n/d. 19 July 2009 .

Saper, R.B., D.M. Eisenberg and R.S. Phillips. "Common Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss." 1 November 2004. American Academy of Family Physicians. 19 July 2009 .

Tank, C. "Should I use over-the-counter diet aids?" 14 May 2008. 19 July 2009 .

Zeratsky, K. "Nutrition and Healthy Eating." 14 February 2008. Mayo Clinic. 19 July 2009 .
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Export of Vitamins to South

Words: 1256 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65142854

6%. The literacy level of the total population is 97.9%. South Korea's education expenditures reach 4.6% of GDP.


There are several local manufacturers of vitamins in South Korea. Consumers in this country favor local manufacturers. This is because their prices are obviously lower than the prices of international vitamins exporters to South Korea. Another reason for which local manufacturers are preferred over foreign ones consists in the attachment of local consumers to national brands.

However, there is still room for new companies exporting their products on the South Korean market. This market sector is currently in full growth and development process.

Product Specific egulatory Considerations

Government regulation

Vitamins are considered to be dietary supplements and are not legally treated as drugs, but as foods. This classification attracts several consequences regarding the management of this activity. For example, vitamins' producers are entirely responsible for the safety of these products, and…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Introduction (2009). The Merck Manuals. Online Medical Library. Retrieved April 26, 2009 from

2. South Korea (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from .

3. Vitamin (2009). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from

4. Vitamins driving South Korean OTC market (2003). Decision News Media. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from
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New Suppliers of Health Supplements a Promising

Words: 1932 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16092922

New Suppliers of Health Supplements

A promising new addition to the company's current line of health supplements was identified during a recent trip to Bangkok, Thailand, to meet suppliers of a promising antioxidant, coenzyme Q10. A growing body of research suggests this antioxidant is effective in improving cardiovascular function and may also be useful in alleviating the symptoms of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, high blood pressure, moderate gingival disease, congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired immune systems. Based on the documented efficacy, high quality and low costs of the health supplement offered by this vendor, this report provides the background and an overview of the supplier, a description of the health supplement, and current applications for coenzyme Q10. A summary of the business trip and meeting with the company's president is followed by recommendations and a brochure illustrating various aspects of the product.

esults of Business Trip to…… [Read More]


Cerrato, P.L. (1999, June). Coenzyme Q. And heart disease. RN, 62(6), 61 -- 62.

Chalmers, A.H., Blake-Mortimer, J.S. & Winefield, A.H. (2003). The prooxidant state and psychologic stress. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(1), 16.

Complete-Pharma Co., Ltd. (2011). Retrieved from / th107560976.html.

Freeman, M.S. & June, C. (2005). The Harvard Medical School guide to lowering your cholesterol. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Does Vitamin D Supplementation Improve Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetics

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32651185

Diabetes and Vitamin D Studies

Evaluation Table

Clearly Focused Issue

Appropriate Method to Answer the Research Question

Acceptable Recruitment Methods

Acceptable Method of Selection of Controls

Minimization of Bias

Were the Confounders Accounted for in the Study Design

Are the Results Believable

Are They Applicable to Other Populations (Generalizable)

Do the Results Fit with Available Evidence

Witham et al., 2010

This is a follow-up study. The issue is whether patients with a vitamin D level of higher than 250 HD will gain a benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

A positive result is defined by reaching a level of 75 nmol or above. This is considered the level for optimum health.

Patients for the study were selected from general practice and diabetes specialty offices based on a positive type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis in accordance with the requirement set forth by the World Health Organization.

The group was divided into three…… [Read More]

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Does Vitamin D Supplementation Improve Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetics

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4347328

Acceptable Recruitment Methods

Acceptable Method of Selection of Controls

Minimization of Bias

Were the Confounders Accounted for in the Study Design

Are the Results Believable

Are They Applicable to Other Populations (Generalizable)

Do the Results Fit with Available Evidence

Jorde & Figenschau, 2009

Yes, as reflected from the title: Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not improve glycaemic control in diabetic subjects with normal serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels

Yes, because patients with poor glycemic control were randomly assigned to control and case group. Also appropriate dosages of Vit. D was used

Place of recruitment was not specified.

Patients were randomly assigned to both groups.

Variables were clearly defined.

Yes, the control group was randomly selected from the actual population

No blinding method used. Compliance was assessed by asking patients to return unused capsules.

Yes, they were: BMI, smoking status, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, serum calcium, creatinine, lipid profile and…… [Read More]

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Dietary Supplements

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53766866

FDA egulations

The FDA is responsible for the regulation of both dietary supplements and dietary ingredients. They are not regulated as food products, but are governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). The companies that market these products are responsible for ensuring that they are correctly branded and that they are unadulterated. However, the FDA does not regulate them as drugs (FDA, 2014).

I believe that this approach is adequate. I do not believe that supplements should be regulated in the same way that drugs are. There are several reasons for this. The major reason is the cost-benefit. The FDA exists to protect the public. The cost of the new drug approval process is tremendous -- it can take years and millions to bring a new drug to market, and the costs to the FDA are not inconsequential. With pharmaceuticals, this is a necessary process…… [Read More]


ACS (2015). Dietary supplements: What is safe? American Cancer Society. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from

FDA. (2014). Dietary supplements. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from
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Nutrition What Was Eaten One

Words: 1730 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79584787

In short, I am eating too much of what is not beneficial, and not enough of what is. In order to address this problem, which could develop into a full-blown health crisis in a few years if I do nothing, I must make drastic changes to the way I eat. For example, one of my first goals must be to increase the amount of fruits and vegetables that I eat each day. According to Canada's Food Guide, my intake of fruits and vegetables should be roughly around 875 ML. I can achieve this goal by drinking 100% juices and eating more salads and leafy vegetables. Similarly, I must increase my amount of milk alternatives by drinking more milk and eating more cheese. Perhaps I can limit my intake of diet soda, replacing it with milk. By changing these eating habits, I will achieve to meet more of the recommendations of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Canada's Food Guide." Health Canada. (2007). The Canadian Government. 9 July 2008. .

Hidgon, Jane. "Vitamin C Deficiency." Micronutrient Information Center. (2006).

Oregon State University. 9 July, 2008.

Enker, Warren. "Bowel Function and Dietary Fiber." Continuum Health Partners. (n.d.).
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Sports Nutrition the Stuff of

Words: 1524 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70597020

Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).

Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).


usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…… [Read More]


Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from;col1

Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited

ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from;col1
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Rickets Is a Nutritionally Related

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93813101

(Kirchner, 2000)

Summary and Conclusion

However, even in the developed world, rickets is not as rare as one would hope. Mothers who breastfeed must be aware that, despite the rhetoric about breastfeeding being the best way to feed a baby, they must still give their children supplements. Children must have adequate supplementation, nutritionally dense diets, and adequate exposure to sunlight. The balance between covering up with sun protection and getting sunlight, between breastfeeding and vitamin supplements may prove difficult to communicate to the public -- as well as the fact that what are widely-regarded as 'healthy diets' such as vegan, vegetarian, and macrobiotic diets may not be appropriate for children, or even for many adults, espeically if they have absorption complaints.

orks Cited

American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at

Goldenring, John. (14 Jul 2004) "Rickets." ADAM. URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission ( Last updated 11 Oct 2005. Retrieved 22 Oct 2005 at

Kirchner, Jeffrey. (15 Jan 2000) "Calcium and Vitamin D in the Treatment of Rickets." American Family Physician. Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 at

Morantz, Carrie & Brian Torrey (1 Jun 2003) "AAP Guidelines on Rickets and Vitamin D Supplementation."American Family Physician. . Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005
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Nutrition & Cancer Rates

Words: 3994 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73183034

In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:

Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.

Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.

Selenium…… [Read More]


American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.

Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.

Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at:

Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
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Nutritional Therapies for Ulcerative Colitis

Words: 1255 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16125933

These biologically-based practices of alternative medicine include the use of vitamins, herbs, and food supplements found in nature, chief among which are probiotics: the living, beneficial bacteria found in the intestines. These benign bacteria counteract the presences of the malignant variety, which often cause digestive problems if allowed to overpopulate. Probiotics can be obtained as supplements or found in certain foods, and have been known to prolong periods of remission in ulcerative colitis patients, with no sever side effects.

The use of fish oils is another alternative medicinal treatment for ulcerative colitis. Fish oils contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties (Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, 2011). Omega 3 fatty acids are found in certain green vegetables and in nuts, salmon, sardines and herring, as well as in oral supplemental form and are used to treat intestinal inflammation when ulcerative colitis is active. Aloe Vera…… [Read More]

Reference Page

1. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America. (2011). Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from

2. Life Extension. (2011).Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from

3. National Digestive Diseases Clearinghouse. (2006) Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from

4. Street, Erin. (2010, December). Nutritional Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from
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Nutrition for Pregnant Woman

Words: 1805 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91385762

Good nutrition and healthy lifestyle are important to a better quality of life, but both can be crucial during pregnancy. Inspection of the research indicates that sound nutritional practices during pregnancy have always been considered important in the development of the unborn child Allen, 2005). However, good maternal nutrition may also be an important factor in the development of the fetus before the mother becomes pregnant and the effects of maternal nutrition on the fetus may extend well beyond childhood into adulthood (Barker, 1992).

Obviously the use of alcohol and certain drugs is not recommended during pregnancy. The consequences of alcohol and drug use during pregnancy have been well-documented and need not be discussed here (e.g., Streissguth, Barr, & Martin, 1984). With respect to pre-pregnancy plans, the National Institute of Health suggests three things that should be undertaken before a woman becomes pregnant: (1) both prospective parents should have physical…… [Read More]


Allen, L.H. (2005). Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: An overview. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(supplement), 1206S-1212S.

Barker, D.J.P., (Ed.) (1992). Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: British Medical Journal Books.

Godfrey, K.M & Barker, D.J.P. (2000). Fetal nutrition and adult disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (5), 1344-1352.

Institute of Medicine. (1990) Nutrition during pregnancy. Washington DC: National
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Teams Win 9 Keys to

Words: 2680 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1721570

Specifically, feedback is a necessity for assessing the immediate needs of the team, for evaluating both individual and team performance, for enabling individuals to improve their performance, and for enabling teams to improve their joint performance and teamwork.

Where the sports analogy breaks down again is in the different level of immediacy that applies to feedback in the realm of sports and professional business. In sports, feedback loops exist on a momentary basis at the operational level, whereas in business functions, it is very rare to have such immediacy of feedback. However, other than the temporal difference, feedback loops provide many of the same essential functions in both realms. In general principle, teams without efficient feedback mechanisms are destined to remain at their current levels of performance and success. Conversely, teams that succeed do so partly by accurately evaluating past performance with the express purpose of implementing the changes necessary…… [Read More]

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Role of Diet in Managing ADHD

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65113780

Managing ADHD with a Diet

Diet has attracted considerable attention in the healthcare sector with regards to its significance and role in addressing childhood and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As shown by recent research, this increased focus on diet is influenced by the fact that ADHD's development is strongly linked to nutrition since it's characterized by deficiencies in minerals, omega-3 fatty acids. There are reports that improved nutrition through intake of mineral and vitamin supplements. While this evidence is yet to be fully determined scientifically, there are proofs that omega-3 fatty acids could have impacts on a child's behavior. The other dietary factors that allegedly have significant effects on behavior include refined sugars as well as food additives and allergies (Collingwood, n.d.).

The role of omega-3 fatty acids in enhancing the behaviors of ADHD patients, especially children, has been strongly supported by evidence that show the link between…… [Read More]


Collingwood, J. (n.d.). Managing ADHD with Diet. Retrieved February 18, 2017, from
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Watch Your Health Course Name

Words: 2331 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64972784

This means that the entire interview process will take a period of one month. It should be noted that an allowance has been given for the differences in geographical areas as each interviewee will represent a different city.

Participants will be expected to answer questions derived from the information already gathered in the desk research. On top of this, the staff members hired for the research will also come up with special questions designed to address issues that had not been fully covered in the primary research such as personal preferences.

espondents could possess knowledge about GNC as a company and its health products or they may not. However, it will imperative for these participants to have at least used a heart beat watch or to have purchased once so that they can have adequate knowledge about it.

The research will be done through random probability sampling. However, the sample…… [Read More]


Bartlett, J.E., II, Kotrlik, J.W., & Higgins, C. (2001). "Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size for survey research," Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1) 43-50

Bradley, Nigel (2007) Marketing Research. Tools and Techniques.Oxford University Press, Oxford,

ConsumerLab Multivitamin and Multimineral Supplements Review - Testing Method." 15 June 2011. Retrieved from:

Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches; Sage Publications
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Economic Models and Analysis Healthcare

Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98909868

C. revealed some factors affecting healthcare costs. This includes (Francis, 2003).

Drug companies who are spending roughly as much on advertising and promotion - $20 billion a year - as they do on research and development of new drugs.

American pharmaceutical firms employing one sales person for every physician in the country. They also pick up the tab for doctors to attend seminars promoting their products.

New technology - from diagnostic devices to surgical techniques - which usually accounts for more than half the rise in total healthcare spending in the past three years.

Profit margins on healthcare products and services, including health insurance, have been continuously going up - rapidly - rather than down.

How to Solve the Issue

hat's to be done about rising medical costs? Here are some suggestions by experts (Francis, 2003).

Provide more information to consumers on what drug works, what procedures are best, which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cost Studies. 2004.

Francis, David R. Healthcare costs are up. Here are the culprits. December 2003. Christian Science Monitor.

Keeping Quality Health Care Affordable. 2004.

One in three families with young children can't afford basics like food, housing, and healthcare, report shows. 2004. Economic Policy Institute.
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Restless Leg Syndrome Is Found

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61583215

At best, LS is considered a puzzling problem which leads to an "overwhelming need to move the leg to relieve the discomfort." There is no pain involved and hence patients can be cured with simple changes in diet. Vitamin supplements can help especially ones with folic acid and iron. It can also be treated with some herbs, leg massage or simple yoga exercises. Where it is not a neurological disorder, LS is not a cause of concern. It can come and go and may not even be a cause of major sleep problems unless it becomes persistent. LS is fairly common as one in twenty persons will experience some form of LS.


David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)

Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z eference to Hundreds of…… [Read More]


David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)

Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies. Avery Trade (January 10, 2002)

Hoffman, p. 56

Balch, p. 390
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Vonnegut Kurt Vonnegut -- an

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63795871

Thus science and discussions of scientific phenomena with his brother also formed the backdrop to his early life, another reason why technology featured so prominently in his literary works.

Vonnegut is credited with helping to elevate the genre of science fiction, once considered a staple of pulp magazine racks, to that of high art. Cat's Cradle tells the tale of scientists trying to create 'ice-nine,' a crystal that could turn all water solid and thus destroy all life on the earth. In 1963, Cat's Cradle slowly developed a readership as Cold ar Americans were increasingly receptive to a book that showed the dangerous potential of science and technology to develop faster than ethics and morality ("Novelist Kurt Vonnegut dies at 84,", 2007) the novel, takes its title from an Eskimo game in which children try to snare the sun with string (Smith, 2007). Although its first printing sold only…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Inskeep, Steve,

Renee Montagne & Neda Ulaby. "Novelist Vonnegut Remembered for His Black Humor." 12 Apr 2007. 9 May 2007.

Smith, Dinita. "Kurt Vonnegut, Writer of Classics of the American Counterculture, Dies at 84." The New York Times. 2007. 11 Apr 2007. 9 May 2007.

Novelist Kurt Vonnegut dies at 84." Published by the Associated Press.
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Violence and Death in Slaughterhouse

Words: 2292 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76103801

This idea appears repeatedly. hen Billy proposes marriage to Valencia:

Billy didn't want to marry ugly Valencia. She was one of the symptoms of his disease. He knew he was going crazy when he heard himself proposing marriage to her, when he begged her to take the diamond ring and be his companion for life, (ibid p.107).

However, he was trapped in his life, for better or worse, such as the fact that Billy knew when he would be killed, yet didn't try to do anything about it. His death is compared with mankind's fate.

At one point Billy discusses the problem of war with the Tralfamadorians (p.117). They tell him that war is inevitable and he is stupid to try to change it. Humanity is trapped in his human nature, to create war and wreak death. Some people want peace, but they are naive and are unaware of human…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brifonski and Mendelson (Eds). Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.8. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1978.

Riley, Carolyn (Editor); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.1. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1973.

Riley, Carolyn and Barbara Harte (Editors); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.2. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1974.

Vit, Marek. "The Themes of Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse Five." Kurt Vonnegut Corner.<
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Doha Rounds the Decade Long

Words: 2043 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35390653

" Wessels Living History Farm, Inc.Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .

"Agriculture and War." Answers. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .

"Doha Round: U.. Presses China, India and Brazil." BBC News. BBC, 03 Feb. 2011. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .

"The Doha Round...and Round...and round." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 31 July 2008. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .

"Agricultural Policy." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .

Mohan, Raja C. "A Doha round." - Indian Express. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .

"Rich Nations Distort Global Trade: BRIC." - Indian Express. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .


"The Doha Round's Public Health Legacy: trategies for the Production and Diffusion of Patented Medicines Under the Amended TRIP Provisions." By Frederick Abbott, Jerome Reichman. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .

evilla, Christina. "The WTO Doha Development Agenda."…… [Read More]

Sevilla, Christina. "The WTO Doha Development Agenda." U.S. Department of State. Web. 9 Apr. 2012. .

"Copenhagen Consensus." Copenhagen Consensus. Web. 9 Apr. 2012. .

"Copenhagen Consensus." Copenhagen Consensus. Web. 9 Apr. 2012. .
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Norton v Argonaut Insurance Company There Was

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53556256

Norton v. Argonaut Insurance Company, there was a staffing shortage on a pediatric ward of Baton ouge General Hospital. An administrative nurse was filling in for the regular pediatric nurse, and carried out the physician's order which read, "Give 3.0 cc lanoxin today for one dose only." The nurse did not contact the physician to confirm the directions and her previous experience had been with injectable Lanoxin only. She gave the dose intramuscularly instead of orally, as intended, and the infant died. The nurse was found negligent for administering medication in which she was unfamiliar and for neglecting to clarify the order the prescribing physician. The nurse questioned two physicians who were not treating the infant, but failed to mention that the order was written for elixir of Lanoxin. The nurse, the original physician and the hospital were found liable (Norton v Argonaut, 1962).

Mistakes in the Situation- Nurses have…… [Read More]


Norton v. Argonaut Insurance Company. (1962). 114 So. 2d. 249, Court of Appeal of Louisiana,

First Circuit. Retrieved from: =1962393144So2d249_1357.xml&docbase=CSLWAR1-1950-1985&SizeDisp=7

Aetna, (2012). Avoiding Medication Errors. Retrieved from:
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Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Is

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5158408

The sores may last 3-10 days and are infectious. ecurrent infections are usually mild and caused by stress, sun, menstrual periods, trauma or physical stress. Oral and maxillofacial are not significantly involved in their cure. However they do treat herpes when they become more problematic and dangerous such as with HIV or cancer-related immune suppression

6. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS)

This is when there is a burning sensation on lips, teeth, mouth, or gums. It has been linked to various conditions such as menopause, dry mouth and allergies and often occurs in middle-aged women. Derivatives may be anxiety, depression and social isolation. The field of oral and maxillofacial pathology still has found no cure for this and treatment includes hydrating agents, pain medications, vitamin supplements or the usage of antidepressants. (Elad et al. 2010).

This condition is indicated by the tongue being fissured and is often common in smokers and…… [Read More]

References Dentistry Definitions.

The Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (AAOMP)
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New Issues to Light in Terms of

Words: 786 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37385160

new issues to light in tems of knowledge and infomation. The Intenet, SmatPhones, and technology have inceased the ability fo infomation to be both pocessed and disseminated. Howeve, this is challenging because it equies that the infomation be vetted, and that individuals can citically analyze soucing and context. This is paticulaly tue now that almost eveyone has access to health infomation fom websites, popula pess, and even blogs (Health on the net, 2013).

When we examine souces, though, we need to take into account the vetting (bias, pupose, etc.) but also the obustness and quality of the souces. The coe aspect of this tend in analyzing infomation is to use citical thinking skills to pocess infomation. In geneal, the basic aspect of citical thinking is to analyze the souce mateial and decide upon its veacity and elevance. Cetainly, it is not as easy to ead, wite, and pocess citically, one…… [Read More]

references, is not selling anything, and has clinical practice guidelines. This should be a credible source; 2) Kidshealth is part of the Nemours foundation, established in 1936 and affiliated with a number of hospitals. While there are no citations, the language used is layperson friendly, with illustrations appropriate to share with children. This would be a valid site to scan for basic information, knowing that it may not always be written by medical personnel.

The key with clients is to allow them to understand sourcing of documents. Many have never been asked to vett sources, many simply believe what the read on the internet. By providing a skilled set of critical thinking strategies, one can alleviate a number of dangerous misunderstandings.


Austhink. (2008, September 8). Critical Thinking on the Web. Retrieved from 

Health on the Net Foundation. (2013). Information. Retrieved from:
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Strategic Review Over the Last

Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34699088

This is challenging, as it will require Whole Foods to continue to adapt in order to make themselves stand out. Prices can have a negative impact on the firm's bottom line results. This is occurring through increasing costs on the wholesale level and tremendous amounts of discounting. Over the course of time, these factors can hurt the company's earnings and ability to maintain their competitive position. ("Global Food etailing Industry," 2013) (Burch, 2007) ("Annual Stakeholders eports," 2012)


Clearly, ABC should integrate with Whole Foods. This will allow the company to maintain its market share and augment the products they are selling into the firm's strategy. At the same time, the management team could help Whole Foods to more effectively address the challenges they are facing from: increased competition and pricing. This will enable both firms to take advantage of each other's cost structure and create a unique atmosphere which…… [Read More]


2011 Supermarket Trends. (2011). Seeking Alpha. Retrieved from: 

Annual Stakeholders Reports. (2012). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: 

Company Info. (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: 

Global Food Retailing Industry. (2013). Reporter Link. Retrieved from:
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Polypharmacy Health Politics Polypharmacy Is

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89509747

The majority of nurse practitioners commit themselves daily to help provide compassionate and comprehensive healthcare that focuses on disease prevention and health promotion within a cost effective format. Our elders deserve the respect of appropriate and successful treatment and preventative measures to help reduce the risk of complications associated with polypharmacy. As such, the goal of policy aimed at reducing this practice tries to formulate a more active plan for keeping track of patient records and keeping costs of medications down in order to prevent patients from skipping doses (Lorenz, 2012). In order to provide effective policies and practices to reduce risks associated with polypharmacy, many organizations have turned to using computer-based recording as a way to help keep track of medications prescribed across specialist and doctors (Bushardt et al., 2008). Additionally, federal health care programs, like Medicare and Medicaid are working continuously to help improve policies and help make…… [Read More]


Bushardt, Reamer, Massey, Emily B., Simpson, Temple W., Airial, Jane C., & Simpson, K.T. (2008). Polypharmacy: Misleading, but manageable. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 3(2), 383-389. Web. 

Lorenz, Joan M. (2012). Polypharmacy and the elderly. Advance for Nurses. Web.
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Gordon's Functional Health Pattern Teen Adolescent Summary

Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41375479

Gordon's Functional Health Pattern (Teen)

Adolescent Summary - Gordon's Functional Health Pattern

Biographical Data

Date of Visit: 8/31/2012, 10:30am.


DOB: 3/2/1999

ace/Gender Hispanic, Female

Weight: 34 kg.

Height: 4ft. 7 inches

BMI: Normal ange 16.6 kg/m2

Phone [HIDDEN]

eason for Visit: Evidence of exasperated asthmatic conditions. (Not an acute asthma attack). Became overexerted at school, 8/30/12. estless night and complaints of tightness in chest and inability to catch breath. Slight wheezing can be heard during exhales. Potential asthma complications; albuterol has proven slightly ineffective in easing symptoms and discomfort.

Financial History: Patient is fully covered under parent's insurance. Mother works; serving as informant and escort to physician. Single parent household.

Past Health History: Patient is fully immunized and receives all routine health and wellness physicals and exams as appropriate. Last physical exam 5/30/2011, prior to beginning of summer camp. History includes struggle with exercise-induced asthma (albuterol use via bronchodilator).…… [Read More]


Hull, J., Hull, P., Parsons, J., Dickinson, J., & Ansley, L. (2009). Approach to the diagnosis and management of suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by primary care physicians. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 929.
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Healthy People Who Self-Select for

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7523299

As a result, it is not stable to say that the balance of benefits and harms of routine use of supplements of vitamins a, C or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease (U.S. Preventive Services ask Force (USPSF).

From other evidence, it does not seem that the experiments of this article were not conducted long enough to prove its thesis because supplements do not help with cancer. If they were trying to prove supplements did not help, their testing would be valid. As it can be seen from other evidence, the objective can be proven false because other research prove tat their thesis cannot be accurate.

he Canadian ask Force on Preventive Health Care (CFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease…… [Read More]

The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population and in male smokers (Grade I recommendation) ("MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study," 2002 [I, good]; de Gaetano, 2001 [I, fair]; Virtamo et al., 1998 [I, fair]) (the role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer).

The most important outcome of the report will be greater recognition that it is time to concentrate on teaching nutrition, promoting regular physical activity, and strongly encouraging smoking cessation and particularly increasing outreach to women of racial and ethnic minorities. From there, although vitamin E is not a successful primary prevention strategy for women, one should not make the mistake of concluding that it will not turn out to be beneficial for men. There is the importance of recognizing biological differences between the sexes in cardiovascular research by providing valuable sex-specific data on primary prevention (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy Women)

Despite the fact the objective was proven false, the article did make good points about women's health. "A total of 999 cardiovascular events were reported during the trial. For the composite outcome, vitamin E was associated with a nonsignificant 7% reduction in events. Vitamin E also had no significant effect on total rates of MI or stroke when each of these outcomes was examined individually. However, study subjects receiving vitamin E were 24% less likely to die from CVD, a significant difference attributable in large part to a reduction in sudden deaths and other CVD deaths besides MI and stroke.Vitamin E appeared to have a stronger effect in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death as the study progressed from years 6 to 10. Noncompliance did not appear to alter the study's main findings, nor did randomization to receive aspirin or placebo (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy). Even though the article proves that vitamin E does not help to some degree, it can be concluded that further evidence needs to be provided in order to prove further prevention.
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Controlled Experiments Are Those in Which Groups

Words: 942 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98199912

Controlled experiments are those in which groups are separated into control and experimental. Neither group knows what they are receiving, so they may or may not be receiving a sugar pill or something else. The control group is essential for comparisons -- what happens in the control group often determines how the experimental data is interpreted (Scientific Control Group, 2008).

A double blind experiment is one in which some of the participants are prevented from knowing certain information about the study that might lead to bias (conscious or subconscious) thus skewing the results. Blinding can also be imposed on researchers, subjects, funders, or any combination in which one wishes to protect the data integrity. In the use of new drugs, blinded experiments are necessary because a patient might feel better if they think they are receiving a powerful new medicine -- the placebo effect. It is impossible, however, to double…… [Read More]


Double Blind Experiment. (2008). Retrieved from:

Scientific Control Group. (2008). Retrieved from:
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Physiological Perspective the First Trimester of Pregnancy

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79022915

physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).

Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…… [Read More]


Blackburn, ST. (2007). Maternal, fetal, and neonatal physiology: A clinical perspective. St. Louis: Elsevier.

Childress, J. (1997). Practical reasoning in bioethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
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Does Creatine Really Do What it Says it Does

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49925848

Plant-Based Protein: Whole Green Hemps

The claims made by Whole Green Hemps are supported by the study by Furhman and Ferreri, who state that "plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health [as well as] improved athletic performace" (233). Their study indicates that alternative plant-based protein supplements like Whole Green Hemps is good for the body and does provide the system with essential fatty acids. The fiber and vitamins plus the minerals in hemp protein are exactly those used in the human body, so there is the natural association. Furhman and Ferreri, however, do raise one objection as they indicate that a diet consisting solely of plant-based products would not be entirely beneficial for a balanced system. But Whole Green Hemps is not intended to replace an athlete's normal diet, as it is only used as a supplement; therefore, this objection is…… [Read More]

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Milk by Products and There Effects on Growth in Poultry

Words: 3810 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60683277


Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical

Assistance, 1990.

Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).

Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,