Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Consumers today are faced with a myriad of information concerning vitamin supplements. Should they take them, should they not? Are they helpful or are they harmful? Are consumers simply wasting their money, flushing it down the toilet so to speak? One day the experts say one thing and the next day there are new studies by other experts. This all creates quite a dilemma for those who are trying to do the best for their bodies. However, through the years there has been a steady stream of overwhelming evidence proving that vitamin supplements are helpful and beneficial for physical health, and moreover, may affect behavior.
Many in the medical community have advised their patients for years that taking multivitamins only gives them expensive urine, since severe vitamin deficiencies such as scurvy and pellagra are all but unheard of in industrialized countries (Gorman 2001). However, evidence amasses that they…
Cal State Criminal Justice Expert's Nutrition Research Reveals Link Between Vitamin
Supplements and Reduced Violent Behavior." Ascribe Newswire. July 07, 2002. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Ascribe_Newswire&puburl=0&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=&title=Cal+State+Criminal+Justice+Expert%27s+Nutrition+Research+Reveals+Link+Between+Vitamin+Supplements+and+Reduced+Violent+Behavior++&date=07%2D07%2D2002&query=vitamin+supplements&maxdoc=30&idx=0.(accessed 10-16-2002).
Gorman, Christine. "The Great Multivitamin Debate: The effects of the pills, if any, are modest and may require taking them for decades. But that's good enough for me." Time. December 31, 2001. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Time&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~pathfinder.com~S~time&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Christine+Gorman&title=The+Great+Multivitamin+Debate+The+effects+of+the+pills%2C+if+any%2C+are+modest+and+may+require+taking+them+for+decades%2E+But+that%27s+good+enough+for+me++&date=12%2D31%2D2001&query=vitamin+supplements&maxdoc=30&idx=15.(accessed 10-16-2002).
Natural Vitamin E Supplements Could Save Millions in U.S. Health Care Costs." PR
Leon Schurgrs and Cees Vermeer of the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands hinted at the superiority of MK7. This is the ability to activate specific vitamin K proteins to bring calcium to the bones rather than the arteries. The recommended daily dosage at this time is 105 mc. Patients taking anticoagulant medications, such as Coumadin, should first consult with their doctors before taking in Vitamin K supplements. They are contraindicated (Zucker).
Prevents Risks of Congestive Heart Failure
According to another experiment, Vitamin D supplementation could reduce the risk of congestive heart failure or CHF (Schleithoff, Zittermann & Tenderich, 2006). Congestive heart failure is a chronic condition, which is characterized by dyspnea and fatigue. Irregular heart function reduces its ability to supply enough blood flow and oxygen to the tissues and organs. Approximately 5 million Americans and 10 million Europeans have been living with CHF. No improvement in the management…
Downey, M 2003, 'Advice for the really confused,' Better Nutrition, PRIMEDIA
Intertec. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOFKA/is_9_65/ai_106647187?tag=content;col1
Dye, D. 2008, 'Stress factures reduced by calcium and vitamin D supplementation,' Life
Extension, LE Publications, Inc. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6839/is_2008_July/ai_n30936831?tag-=content;col1
It is also charged with ensuring that the body's blood cells and nerves are healthy. Over 30% of elderly people are at risk of developing deficiencies in vitamin B-12, due to the changes occurring in their digestive tract. Combined with the lack of other vitamins, lack of vitamin B-12 contributes to Alzheimer's disease. Early correction of this deficiency is important, and it will help the elderly people to continue with a normal life Giovannucci, 2005.
The correction of this deficiency can only be through prescribed vitamin supplements, as the cause of its deficiency was not because of an unbalanced diet.
Studies have reported that elderly people require more than the recommended dosage of vitamin E daily. This higher level will assist in boosting their immune system which is weakened as they age. By using prescribed vitamin dosages, the elderly people can increase their vitamin E daily intake thus improving their…
Beitz, R., Mensink, G.B.M., Hintzpeter, B., Fischer, B., & Erbersdobler, H.F. (2004). Do Users of Dietary Supplements Differ from Nonusers in Their Food Consumption? European Journal of Epidemiology, 19(4), 335-341.
Enstrom, J.E., & Pauling, L. (1982). Mortality among Health-Conscious Elderly Californians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 79(19), 6023-6027.
Giovannucci, E. (2005). The Epidemiology of Vitamin D and Cancer Incidence and Mortality: A Review (United States). Cancer Causes & Control, 16(2), 83-95.
MacLennan, W.J., & Hamilton, J.C. (1977). Vitamin D Supplements and 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentrations in the Elderly. The British Medical Journal, 2(6091), 859-861.
Vitamin D and Asthmatic Children
USE OF VITAMIN D. AND ASTHMATIC CHILDEN
Literature eview & Synthesis
• Vitamin D has an acute influence on the occurrence of asthma in children. Trollvik et al. (2016) indicate that the fear of living with asthma is devastating for many kids. Yadav and Mittal (2016) indicate that vitamin D has a great significance in the management of persistent bronchial asthma in children. Tachimoto et al. (2016) conclude that involvement of standard treatment and low-dose of vitamin D lowers the occurrences and influences of asthma in children. Moreover, Somashekar et al. (2014) indicate that the deficiency of vitamin D is common in children with asthma just as its association with airway limitation. In all the literary pieces, the fear for asthma in children gives them memories that serve o indicate their state of well-being while living with asthma (Somashekar et al. 2014).
• There are…
Somashekar, A. R. Ashwini B. Prithvi, and M. N. Vanitha Gowda. (2014). Vitamin D Levels In Children with Bronchial Asthma. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. (10): PC04 -- PC07. Doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/10387.5055
Tachimoto, H. Mezawa, H. Segawa, T. Akiyama N., Ida H. & Urashima. M. (2016). Improved control of childhood asthma with low-dose, short-term vitamin D supplementation: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 71, no. 7: 1001 -- 1009. DOI: 10.1111/all.12856
Trollvik, Anne Reidun Nordbach, Charlotte Silen, &, Karin C. Ringsberg. (2016). Children's Experiences of Living with Asthma: Fear of Exacerbations and Being Ostracized. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, vol. 26, no. 4: 295 -- 303. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2010.05.003
Yadav M & Mittal K. (2016). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on moderate to severe bronchial asthma. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, vol. 81 (7): 650-4. Doi: 10.1007/s12098-013-1268-4. Epub 2013 Nov 6.
On the other hand, too much of a good thing can sometimes be even more harmful than too little. In that regard, it is very important to understand the role of vitamin D, both because of its role in maintaining our health, as well as because of the potential for harm associated with excessive supplementation.
Unlike other vitamins and minerals, vitamin D is not readily available through diet because its primary source is natural sunlight. The U.S. FDA recommends a daily dose of 200 IU, which according to medical authorities, is sufficient to protect against osteomalacia, a medical condition characterized by softening of the bones. However, because vitamin D requirements fluctuate depending on how much sunlight a person receives and are difficult to satisfy through diet alone, 200 IU is considered the RDA in the absence of regular exposure to natural sunlight.
Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption…
Asthma has emerged as one of the most common health problems and chronic diseases that affect children worldwide. Healthcare practitioners have become concerned with the increased prevalence of asthma among children. This study focuses on examining the role of vitamin D in prevention and/or control of asthma among children. The evaluation is conducted on the premise that vitamin D has been positively linked with enhanced control of asthma and decreased exacerbations of the condition. The study seeks to fill gaps in knowledge regarding the role of vitamin D in asthma, which remains relatively unclear. The discussion also demonstrates the clinical implications relating to the use of vitamin D in treatment of asthma.
Background and Significance
Asthma is regarded as one of the most common diseases and long-term health conditions that affect children. This condition is basically defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways involving several cells and cellular…
Somashekar, A.R., Privthi, A.B. & Gowda, M.N.V. (2014, October). Vitamin D Levels in Children with Bronchial Asthma. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8(10), 4-7.
Tachimoto et al. (2016, January 30). Improved Control of Childhood Asthma with Low-dose, Short-term Vitamin D Supplementation: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 71, 1001-1009.
Trollvik et al. (2011). Children's Experiences of Living with Asthma. Fear of Exacerbations and Being Ostracized. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26, 295-303.
Yadav, M. & Mittal, K. (2014, July). Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Moderate to Severe Bronchial Asthma. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 81(7), 650-654.
Supplements, Fatigue and Lethargy
DO THEY HELP?
Vitamin E (p 1- 1.5)
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant, which inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species or ROS when fat is oxidized (NIH, 2013). The body produces ROS when it converts food into energy. As an antioxidant, Vitamin E protects body cells from the ill effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules containing an unshared electron. They damage cells and contribute to the development of heart diseases and cancer. Unshared electrons are very active and quickly react with oxygen to form ROS. Health experts conjecture that limiting the production of free radicals may, alone or through other mechanisms, help prevent or delay the formation of these dreaded chronic diseases associated with the action of free radicals. Vitamin E may serve that function (NIH).
As an antioxidant, it also plays a role in the immune function of the…
Bain, J. (2001). Andropause: testosterone replacement therapy for aging men. Vol. 47,
Canadian Family Physician: Janvier. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from http://www.cfp.ca/content/47/1/91.long
NIH (2013). Vitamin E Office of Dietary Supplements: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from http://www.ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional
Watson, S. (2014). The causes of women's fatigue. WebMD Magazine: WebMD LLC.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules known as secosteroids. Vitamin D itself is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not available in many foods. However, photochemically, it is produced when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger Vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D externally, though, is biologically inert in the human body, and "must undergo two hydroxylations in the body. The first occurs in the liver and converts Vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (VanDen Berg 1997, S76). Although called a vitamin, Vitamin D is not actually an essential dietary vitamin because it can be synthesized in more than adequate amounts from sunlight. Typically, an organic chemical, or group of chemicals, is known as a vitamin when it must be obtained through diet or other means, and cannot be synthesized through bodily processes.
Vitamin D (2012). Office of Dietary Supplements -- National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/
Balasubramanian and Ganesh. (2008). Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 127 (2): 250-55.
Dryden, Jim. (2005). Sunlight Exposure May Help Prevent Periodontal Disease. Washington University St. Louis -- News and Information. Retrieved from: http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/5881.aspx
Feldman, D., et.al. (2012). Vitamin D, Volume 1. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
Supplements for Athletes
ipped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand…
Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/401862-what-do-r ipped-fuel-capsules-do/
OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.oneresult.com/articles/supplements/ncaa -legal-and-illegal-supplements
Vitamin C for Common Cold
What is Vitamin C?
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble ingredient that is essential for the health of human beings. It is essential for normal growth and development and it has consumed regularly. Since Vitamin C dissolves in water, the excess amounts leave the human body through urine and this means the body needs a constant supply of this vitamin everyday. The body cannot store vitamin C in any form.
One of the primary role of vitamin C is to repair the body cells and tissues and to prevent free radicals and toxins from getting accumulated in the body. It repairs wounds and makes them heal faster. The free radicals are known to play a role in cancer and heart diseases and good amount of vitamin C everyday helps to prevent any damage.
Sources of vitamin C
Most fruits and vegetables…
Frances Sienkiewicz Sizer, Leonard A. Piche, Eleanor Noss Whitney. Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Kentucky: Cengage Learning. 2011.
Weber, Olaf; Eccles, Ronald. Common Cold. New York: Springer. 2007.
Vitamin D Supplementation
Vitamin supplementation has long been a popular way of ensuring that people receive the sufficient amount of vitamins. However as it pertains to Vitamin D, there is some amount of controversy as it pertains to Vitamin D supplementation (25-hydroxy) concentration and safety. The literature review will discuss the need for vitamin D supplementation and the findings of various studies and Vitamin D trials.
An article entitled "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety" the daily allowance of vitamin D is 200 IU. The medical community has established that this amount will prevent the softening of the bones known as osteomalacia. However, there is also a consensus that more vitamin D is need to avoid other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis.
In fact an article found in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics confirms that the proper amount of vitamin D can reduce the chances of…
ALA-HOUHALA, M., T KOSKINEN, A TERHO, T KOIVULA, AND J. VISAKORPI. Maternal compared with infant vitamin D Supplementation. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1986, 61, 1159-1163
Alouf B., MD and Grigalonis M. Incidental Finding of Vitamin-D Deficient
Rickets in an Otherwise Healthy Infant -- A Reappraisal of Current Vitamin-D Supplementation Guidelines. Journal of the National Medical Association. VOL. 97, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005
Bjorkman, Mikko. Sorva A., Rejo Tilvis. Responses of parathyroid hormone to vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review of clinical trials. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 48 (2009) 160-166
There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.
Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…
Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong: http://www.livestrong.com/article/213053-pros-cons-of-gmo-foods/
FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO: http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo8.htm
WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/are-biotech-foods-safe-to-eat
Vol. 4. 145-56.
In this article, Drs. McCann and Ames of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, California, discuss their findings made in several important studies related to the suggestion that since "Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States," it seems that the elderly and African-Americans are at a particularly high risk" of vitamin D deficiency (145).
o support this suggestion, McCann and Ames explore three specific topics -- first, the biological functions of vitamin D relevant to human cognition and behavior; second, the effects of vitamin D deficiency on human cognition and behavior, and third, the activity of vitamin D "relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction" (146).
McCann and Ames then conclude that "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function;" however, the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on cognition/behavior in…
Taylor, S.N., et al. (Autumn 2006). "Vitamin D Status as Related to Race and Feeding Type in Pre-Term Infants." Breastfeeding Medicine. Vol. 1 no. 3: 156-63. As a leading member of the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina, S.N. Taylor examines yet another aspect of vitamin D deficiency in the American population, specifically, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-term African-American babies which currently remains unknown, thus prompting Taylor to write this article.
His overall objective was to "evaluate the vitamin D status of pre-term infants through the first month after delivery" and then compare the evaluations "by race and feeding type," in this case through breastfeeding. Taylor's results showed that "black infants had a significantly lower level" of vitamin D as compared to white infants over a period of almost a month since delivery (157).
Taylor's conclusions are rather interesting, for he declares that the differences between black and white infants "were significant through the first 2 weeks after delivery" and that infants which received breast milk "did not have significantly worse" vitamin D deficiencies than those infants fed formula. Thus, Taylor argues that there does exist some type of correlation between race and feeding method when it comes to infants being deficient in vitamin D (163).
Vitamin D Supplementation increases Voluntary Physical Activity Levels in Nursing Home Patients
Over the course of a semester does vitamin D3 supplementation, and the resultant increase in muscle strength and bone density, lead to increased physical activity in nursing home residents in the absence of added encouragement?
The elderly often suffer from low serum levels of vitamin D, reduced muscle strength, and decreased bone density (reviewed in: Hamilton, 2010). Muscle biopsies have revealed that the muscle fibers most affected in the elderly are type II, the 'fast twitch' fibers. When a person begins to fall they instinctively attempt to prevent or break their fall and this reaction depends heavily on fast twitch muscle fibers. The elderly therefore suffer from an increased risk of falling down and bone fractures. Although conclusive evidence has yet to be found that low serum levels of vitamin D cause this condition, there is a large…
Hamilton, B. (2010). Vitamin D and human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 182-190.
Williamson, J.D., Espeland, M., Kritchevsky, S.B., Newman, A.B., King, A.C., Pahor, M., et al. (2009). Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: Results of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot study. Journal of Gerontology, 64A, 688-694.
Semba, R.D., Houston, D.K., Ferrucci, L., Cappola, A.R., Sun, K., Guralnik, J.M., et al. (2009). Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling women. Nutrition Research, 29, 525-530.
European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (2010). QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Retrieved from http://groups.eortc.be/qol/downloads/modules/specimen_20qlq_c30.pdf
FDA must receive the text of the structure/function claims within 30 days of putting the product on the market. The labels must also include Product labels containing such claims must also include a disclaimer that reads, "This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease."
The bottom line: It is important to do research and be careful about the supplements one takes. Although they can be helpful in providing additional minerals and vitamins, they can be a detriment. The best of all worlds is to eat the right foods, so these supplements are not needed.
Food and Drug Administration (2003). Claims That Can Be Made for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements. Website retrieved July 4, 2006. http://arthritis.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=arthritis&zu=http%3A%2F%2F www.cfsan.fda.gov%2F%7Edms%2Fhclaims.html.
Food and Drug Administration (2003). Claims That Can Be Made for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements. Website retrieved July 4, 2006. http://arthritis.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=arthritis&zu=http%3A%2F%2F www.cfsan.fda.gov%2F%7Edms%2Fhclaims.html.
For example, serum beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels rose in autumn months. Vitamin C serum concentrations were higher in the winter and spring.
Male participants revealed higher serum retinol concentrations than females, although male and female respondents already differed in terms of age. Younger respondents did have higher levels of beta carotene. Smoking had a stronger effect on lowering serum levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene than on retinol. In some cases, smoking tobacco had a strong effect on lowering serum levels of vitamins. In short, the current research suggests connections between lifestyle habits, age, and diet on blood concentrations of vitamins and can be used for health care workers to advise patients on their diet and lifestyle choices.
Faure, H., Preziosi, P., Roussel, a.M., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Favier, a. "Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the French participants…
Faure, H., Preziosi, P., Roussel, a.M., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Favier, a. "Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the French participants of the SU.VI.MAX trial." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006 Jun; 60(6):706-17. Retrieved Feb 17, 2007 from PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=16391586
Moreover, the study did not take into consideration the fact that certain persons are more at risk for later bone loss due to osteoporosis, because of frame size and genetic history (Caucasian and Asian women are at particular risk), or because they cannot take in enough calcium through normal food sources, due to lactose intolerance. Rather than attempting to prevent fractures later in life, after bone mass is already on the decline, it might be better for a nutritionist to stress the need to get enough calcium, early on, when bones are still being built. "At this time, the most effective treatment of osteoporosis is prevention. The stronger the bones are when people are young, the less likely they are to fracture easily later in life," and one preventative method is meeting the individual's daily calcium needs, along with weigh-bearing exercise, to aid in the development of bone mass. (Heinz,…
The Dietary Supplement Pyramid." (2006) Council for Responsible Nutrition Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.crnusa.org/about_pyramid.html
Heinz, Agnes. (1 Aug 1992) "Osteoporosis." American Council on Science and Health. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.acsh.org/publications/pubID.864/pub_detail.asp
Study Shows Unexpected Outcomes for Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation." (15 Feb 2006) Press Release: Council for Responsible Nutrition. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.crnusa.org/prpdfs/PR06_WHI_CalciumVitD021506.pdf
Whole Plant-Based Protein: Whole Greens Hemp from http://ergogenicsnutrition.com/products/WholeGreensHemp/
his product does work: it is a protein formula containing protein-rich plant-based ingredients, relying upon hemp for a protein basis that is comparable to that found in the human body. he product essentially meets the needs of the human body by providing a natural supplement. his is an excellent way to give the body what it needs. Not only does hemp have proteins akin to those found in people, it also contains essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Plus, hemp has a wealth of fiber, minerals and vitamins. he formula contains "all 20 amino acids used in the human body," a recipe that includes the 10 essential acids.
scoop, or 30g, equals one serving size. One serving size gives the user 120 calories, 15 grams of protein, 3 grams of fats (or 5% of the recommended daily value). here is zero…
The beneficial aspects of this product can be found in the way it helps the user to produce energy and rapidly support muscle growth and stabilization. As the body goes through exercises, muscle tissue is destroyed and regenerated so this product helps to support that process by giving the body an extra boost of proteins needed for such regeneration.
vitamin and mineral supplement products which are presently used, and compare and analyze its' amount of nutrients with the generally established nutrient guidelines per day, specifically by considering the DA or AI and UL of the nutrients in question as related to women from 19 to 30 years of age, together with evaluating the daily use of those two products of choice.
The first supplement brought into question is Caltrate 600+D3, whose quantity of nutrients in a single tablet amounts to 800 IU of vitamin D3 and 600 mg of calcium. According to a 2010 re-evaluation of dietary reference intake, the Council for esponsible Nutrition agreed that the adequate value of calcium nutrient for women aged 19 to 50 falls between the AI of 1000 mg and the UL of 2500 mg (Dickinson, 2012). Thus, the recommended dose of one tablet of Caltrate 600+D3 per day would provide 60% of…
Dickinson, A. (2012). The Benefits of Nutritional Supplements. Washington, DC: Council for Responsible Nutrition. [Online]. Available: http://www.crnusa.org/benefits/files/CRN-BenefitsofNutritionalSupplements-2012.pdf . [2013, July 9]
A.D.A.M.. (2012, August). Vitamin C In The New York Times. [Online]. Available: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/nutrition/vitamin-c [2013, July 9]
Vitamin D -- and if so which level of Vitamin D -- would prevent risk of falling of elderly.
The problem is that elderly are at great risk of falling and, consequently, injuring themselves. Injury, sometimes, leads to death. There is a high rate of falls amongst the elderly
Vitamin D may prevent and reduce quantity of falls. Most studies seem to point to this, but there are contradictory results. The level of Vitamin D too that is effective in preventing falls is unclear.
Analyze the literature review.
The literature review is summarized, succinct, and pertinent to the subject. The authors cluster their research -- they do not deliberate on them in depth singling out studies and describing or analyzing those studies. Rather they take a cluster of related studies, mainly from the last five to ten years and show how they point to Vitamin D being a feasible solution…
These research findings were very significant because all the men who were studied in this were smokers. The researchers of this study admitted that vitamin E surely reduces the risk of prostate cancer. This study was used in a relatively low dose of 50 IU of the prostate but higher dose of 400 IU does have a greater benefit to the heart and prostate. (Challem, 37) Further a study published in the Journal Nutrition and Cancer 2000 states that natural vitamin E or d-alpha-tocopherol arrests the growth of the two types of prostate cancer cells and causes these cells to self-destruct. (Challem, 38)
However though vitamin E is a free-radical scavenger and is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, men with a history of bleeding problems or who take blood thinners should surely discuss the use of vitamin E with their doctor before consuming them. (Heaney; Ellsworth; Gill,…
Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.
Health-Prostate Cancer. Retrieved at http://www.webindia123.com/health/disease/cancer/prostate/index.htm . Accessed 5 November, 2006
Heaney, John A; Ellsworth, Pamela; Gill, Oliver. 100 Questions and Answers about Prostate
Cancer. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003.
Calcifediol Supplementation Toxicity
Vitamin D Supplementation: Concerns about Toxicity
Vitamin D (calciferol) is so essential to health that all vertebrates can produce this nutrient endogenously when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light (Hoffmann, Senior, Mager 2015; Standing Committee et al. 1997). Vitamin D can also be obtained from fish and modern-day fortified food products. When exposed to sunlight, 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is converted to previtamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and then vitamin D3, which is then hydroxylated by liver enzymes to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3; calcifediol). The biologically active form is finally created when calcifediol is hydroxylated once more by a mitochondrial enzyme in the kidneys to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D; calcitriol).
The two most common forms of dietary vitamin D supplementation are cholecalciferol and calcifediol, but the biological activity of the latter is 5 times that of the former (Standing Committee et al. 1997). The downstream effect of 1,25(OH)2D…
Deluca, HF, Prahl, JM & Plum, LA 2011, '1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is not responsible for toxicity caused by vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamine D', Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 505, no. 2, pp. 226-230.
Hoffmann, MR, Senior, PA & Mager, DR 2015, 'Vitamin D supplementation and health-related quality of life: A systematic review of the literature', Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, published online ahead of print 6 Jan. 2015, pp. S2212-S2672.
Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board & Institute of Medicine 1997, DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Available from U.S. Department of Agriculture. [18 January 2015].
Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…
Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6
Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536
Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112
Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358
Any weight loss, say doctors, is good weight loss. If there is some minor contribution the medication gives to the whole process, then that's positive. If taken strictly according to instructions, at worst, diet pills are harmless for the most part.
Effects of Dietary Supplements
The FDA regulates dietary supplements only in that it is required to ensure their safety. A manufacturer is not required to register a supplement or have it approved prior to going to market with it. They must only make certain the product is safe. It is the FDA's post-sales responsibility to keep them safe. Manufacturers must ensure that the label on the product is accurate and not misleading in any way.
There are definite benefits in taking dietary supplements per directions. They can assist anyone in obtaining nutrients not consumed through a balanced diet. And some can reduce the risk of certain diseases even though,…
Bibliography faqs.org. "Dietary Supplements." 2008. Internet FAQ Archives. 19 July 2009 .
Foodanddiet.com. "pills." n/d. Foodanddiet.com. 19 July 2009 .
Saper, R.B., D.M. Eisenberg and R.S. Phillips. "Common Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss." 1 November 2004. American Academy of Family Physicians. 19 July 2009 .
Tank, C. "Should I use over-the-counter diet aids?" 14 May 2008. WebMD.com. 19 July 2009 .
Zeratsky, K. "Nutrition and Healthy Eating." 14 February 2008. Mayo Clinic. 19 July 2009 .
New Suppliers of Health Supplements
A promising new addition to the company's current line of health supplements was identified during a recent trip to Bangkok, Thailand, to meet suppliers of a promising antioxidant, coenzyme Q10. A growing body of research suggests this antioxidant is effective in improving cardiovascular function and may also be useful in alleviating the symptoms of angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, high blood pressure, moderate gingival disease, congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired immune systems. Based on the documented efficacy, high quality and low costs of the health supplement offered by this vendor, this report provides the background and an overview of the supplier, a description of the health supplement, and current applications for coenzyme Q10. A summary of the business trip and meeting with the company's president is followed by recommendations and a brochure illustrating various aspects of the product.
esults of Business Trip to…
Cerrato, P.L. (1999, June). Coenzyme Q. And heart disease. RN, 62(6), 61 -- 62.
Chalmers, A.H., Blake-Mortimer, J.S. & Winefield, A.H. (2003). The prooxidant state and psychologic stress. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(1), 16.
Complete-Pharma Co., Ltd. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.alibaba.com/member / th107560976.html.
Freeman, M.S. & June, C. (2005). The Harvard Medical School guide to lowering your cholesterol. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Diabetes and Vitamin D Studies
Clearly Focused Issue
Appropriate Method to Answer the Research Question
Acceptable Recruitment Methods
Acceptable Method of Selection of Controls
Minimization of Bias
Were the Confounders Accounted for in the Study Design
Are the Results Believable
Are They Applicable to Other Populations (Generalizable)
Do the Results Fit with Available Evidence
Witham et al., 2010
This is a follow-up study. The issue is whether patients with a vitamin D level of higher than 250 HD will gain a benefit from vitamin D supplementation.
A positive result is defined by reaching a level of 75 nmol or above. This is considered the level for optimum health.
Patients for the study were selected from general practice and diabetes specialty offices based on a positive type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis in accordance with the requirement set forth by the World Health Organization.
The group was divided into three…
Acceptable Recruitment Methods
Acceptable Method of Selection of Controls
Minimization of Bias
Were the Confounders Accounted for in the Study Design
Are the Results Believable
Are They Applicable to Other Populations (Generalizable)
Do the Results Fit with Available Evidence
Jorde & Figenschau, 2009
Yes, as reflected from the title: Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not improve glycaemic control in diabetic subjects with normal serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels
Yes, because patients with poor glycemic control were randomly assigned to control and case group. Also appropriate dosages of Vit. D was used
Place of recruitment was not specified.
Patients were randomly assigned to both groups.
Variables were clearly defined.
Yes, the control group was randomly selected from the actual population
No blinding method used. Compliance was assessed by asking patients to return unused capsules.
Yes, they were: BMI, smoking status, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, serum calcium, creatinine, lipid profile and…
The FDA is responsible for the regulation of both dietary supplements and dietary ingredients. They are not regulated as food products, but are governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). The companies that market these products are responsible for ensuring that they are correctly branded and that they are unadulterated. However, the FDA does not regulate them as drugs (FDA, 2014).
I believe that this approach is adequate. I do not believe that supplements should be regulated in the same way that drugs are. There are several reasons for this. The major reason is the cost-benefit. The FDA exists to protect the public. The cost of the new drug approval process is tremendous -- it can take years and millions to bring a new drug to market, and the costs to the FDA are not inconsequential. With pharmaceuticals, this is a necessary process…
ACS (2015). Dietary supplements: What is safe? American Cancer Society. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/dietarysupplements/dietary-supplements-intro
FDA. (2014). Dietary supplements. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/
In short, I am eating too much of what is not beneficial, and not enough of what is. In order to address this problem, which could develop into a full-blown health crisis in a few years if I do nothing, I must make drastic changes to the way I eat. For example, one of my first goals must be to increase the amount of fruits and vegetables that I eat each day. According to Canada's Food Guide, my intake of fruits and vegetables should be roughly around 875 ML. I can achieve this goal by drinking 100% juices and eating more salads and leafy vegetables. Similarly, I must increase my amount of milk alternatives by drinking more milk and eating more cheese. Perhaps I can limit my intake of diet soda, replacing it with milk. By changing these eating habits, I will achieve to meet more of the recommendations of…
"Canada's Food Guide." Health Canada. (2007). The Canadian Government. 9 July 2008. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/order-commander/eating_well_bien_manger-eng.php#2 .
Hidgon, Jane. "Vitamin C Deficiency." Micronutrient Information Center. (2006).
Oregon State University. 9 July, 2008. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminC/
Enker, Warren. "Bowel Function and Dietary Fiber." Continuum Health Partners. (n.d.).
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…
Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1
Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited
ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1
Summary and Conclusion
However, even in the developed world, rickets is not as rare as one would hope. Mothers who breastfeed must be aware that, despite the rhetoric about breastfeeding being the best way to feed a baby, they must still give their children supplements. Children must have adequate supplementation, nutritionally dense diets, and adequate exposure to sunlight. The balance between covering up with sun protection and getting sunlight, between breastfeeding and vitamin supplements may prove difficult to communicate to the public -- as well as the fact that what are widely-regarded as 'healthy diets' such as vegan, vegetarian, and macrobiotic diets may not be appropriate for children, or even for many adults, espeically if they have absorption complaints.
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm…
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm
Goldenring, John. (14 Jul 2004) "Rickets." ADAM. URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). Last updated 11 Oct 2005. Retrieved 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000344.htm
Kirchner, Jeffrey. (15 Jan 2000) "Calcium and Vitamin D in the Treatment of Rickets." American Family Physician. Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_2_61/ai_59486900
Morantz, Carrie & Brian Torrey (1 Jun 2003) "AAP Guidelines on Rickets and Vitamin D Supplementation."American Family Physician. . Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_11_67/ai_102822610
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.
Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.
Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html
Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
These biologically-based practices of alternative medicine include the use of vitamins, herbs, and food supplements found in nature, chief among which are probiotics: the living, beneficial bacteria found in the intestines. These benign bacteria counteract the presences of the malignant variety, which often cause digestive problems if allowed to overpopulate. Probiotics can be obtained as supplements or found in certain foods, and have been known to prolong periods of remission in ulcerative colitis patients, with no sever side effects.
The use of fish oils is another alternative medicinal treatment for ulcerative colitis. Fish oils contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties (Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, 2011). Omega 3 fatty acids are found in certain green vegetables and in nuts, salmon, sardines and herring, as well as in oral supplemental form and are used to treat intestinal inflammation when ulcerative colitis is active. Aloe Vera…
1. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America. (2011). Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.ccfa.org/frameviewer/?url=/media/pdf/FactSheets/CAM.pdf
2. Life Extension. (2011).Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.lef.org/protocols/gastrointestinal/inflammatory_bowel_disease_01.htm
3. National Digestive Diseases Clearinghouse. (2006) Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/colitis/
4. Street, Erin. (2010, December). Nutritional Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis. Livestrong.com Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/335380-nutritional-therapy-for-ulcerative-colitis/
Good nutrition and healthy lifestyle are important to a better quality of life, but both can be crucial during pregnancy. Inspection of the research indicates that sound nutritional practices during pregnancy have always been considered important in the development of the unborn child Allen, 2005). However, good maternal nutrition may also be an important factor in the development of the fetus before the mother becomes pregnant and the effects of maternal nutrition on the fetus may extend well beyond childhood into adulthood (Barker, 1992).
Obviously the use of alcohol and certain drugs is not recommended during pregnancy. The consequences of alcohol and drug use during pregnancy have been well-documented and need not be discussed here (e.g., Streissguth, Barr, & Martin, 1984). With respect to pre-pregnancy plans, the National Institute of Health suggests three things that should be undertaken before a woman becomes pregnant: (1) both prospective parents should have physical…
Allen, L.H. (2005). Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: An overview. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(supplement), 1206S-1212S.
Barker, D.J.P., (Ed.) (1992). Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: British Medical Journal Books.
Godfrey, K.M & Barker, D.J.P. (2000). Fetal nutrition and adult disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (5), 1344-1352.
Institute of Medicine. (1990) Nutrition during pregnancy. Washington DC: National
Specifically, feedback is a necessity for assessing the immediate needs of the team, for evaluating both individual and team performance, for enabling individuals to improve their performance, and for enabling teams to improve their joint performance and teamwork.
Where the sports analogy breaks down again is in the different level of immediacy that applies to feedback in the realm of sports and professional business. In sports, feedback loops exist on a momentary basis at the operational level, whereas in business functions, it is very rare to have such immediacy of feedback. However, other than the temporal difference, feedback loops provide many of the same essential functions in both realms. In general principle, teams without efficient feedback mechanisms are destined to remain at their current levels of performance and success. Conversely, teams that succeed do so partly by accurately evaluating past performance with the express purpose of implementing the changes necessary…
Managing ADHD with a Diet
Diet has attracted considerable attention in the healthcare sector with regards to its significance and role in addressing childhood and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As shown by recent research, this increased focus on diet is influenced by the fact that ADHD's development is strongly linked to nutrition since it's characterized by deficiencies in minerals, omega-3 fatty acids. There are reports that improved nutrition through intake of mineral and vitamin supplements. While this evidence is yet to be fully determined scientifically, there are proofs that omega-3 fatty acids could have impacts on a child's behavior. The other dietary factors that allegedly have significant effects on behavior include refined sugars as well as food additives and allergies (Collingwood, n.d.).
The role of omega-3 fatty acids in enhancing the behaviors of ADHD patients, especially children, has been strongly supported by evidence that show the link between…
Collingwood, J. (n.d.). Managing ADHD with Diet. Retrieved February 18, 2017, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/managing-adhd-with-diet/
This means that the entire interview process will take a period of one month. It should be noted that an allowance has been given for the differences in geographical areas as each interviewee will represent a different city.
Participants will be expected to answer questions derived from the information already gathered in the desk research. On top of this, the staff members hired for the research will also come up with special questions designed to address issues that had not been fully covered in the primary research such as personal preferences.
espondents could possess knowledge about GNC as a company and its health products or they may not. However, it will imperative for these participants to have at least used a heart beat watch or to have purchased once so that they can have adequate knowledge about it.
The research will be done through random probability sampling. However, the sample…
Bartlett, J.E., II, Kotrlik, J.W., & Higgins, C. (2001). "Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size for survey research," Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1) 43-50
Bradley, Nigel (2007) Marketing Research. Tools and Techniques.Oxford University Press, Oxford,
ConsumerLab Multivitamin and Multimineral Supplements Review - Testing Method." 15 June 2011. Retrieved from: https://www.consumerlab.com/howtested/review_multivitamin_compare/multivitamins/ .
Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches; Sage Publications
At best, LS is considered a puzzling problem which leads to an "overwhelming need to move the leg to relieve the discomfort." There is no pain involved and hence patients can be cured with simple changes in diet. Vitamin supplements can help especially ones with folic acid and iron. It can also be treated with some herbs, leg massage or simple yoga exercises. Where it is not a neurological disorder, LS is not a cause of concern. It can come and go and may not even be a cause of major sleep problems unless it becomes persistent. LS is fairly common as one in twenty persons will experience some form of LS.
David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)
Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z eference to Hundreds of…
David Hoffman, Healthy Bones & Joints: A Natural Approach to Treating Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Tendinitis, Myalgia & Bursitis. Storey Publishing, LLC; (July 15, 2000)
Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use a-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies. Avery Trade (January 10, 2002)
Hoffman, p. 56
Balch, p. 390
Thus science and discussions of scientific phenomena with his brother also formed the backdrop to his early life, another reason why technology featured so prominently in his literary works.
Vonnegut is credited with helping to elevate the genre of science fiction, once considered a staple of pulp magazine racks, to that of high art. Cat's Cradle tells the tale of scientists trying to create 'ice-nine,' a crystal that could turn all water solid and thus destroy all life on the earth. In 1963, Cat's Cradle slowly developed a readership as Cold ar Americans were increasingly receptive to a book that showed the dangerous potential of science and technology to develop faster than ethics and morality ("Novelist Kurt Vonnegut dies at 84," CNN.com, 2007) the novel, takes its title from an Eskimo game in which children try to snare the sun with string (Smith, 2007). Although its first printing sold only…
Renee Montagne & Neda Ulaby. "Novelist Vonnegut Remembered for His Black Humor." NPR.com. 12 Apr 2007. 9 May 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9533587
Smith, Dinita. "Kurt Vonnegut, Writer of Classics of the American Counterculture, Dies at 84." The New York Times. 2007. 11 Apr 2007. 9 May 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/11/books/11cnd-vonnegut.html?ei=5070&en=db6388ba6f8a0e08&ex=1178856000&pagewanted=all
Novelist Kurt Vonnegut dies at 84." CNN.com. Published by the Associated Press.
This idea appears repeatedly. hen Billy proposes marriage to Valencia:
Billy didn't want to marry ugly Valencia. She was one of the symptoms of his disease. He knew he was going crazy when he heard himself proposing marriage to her, when he begged her to take the diamond ring and be his companion for life, (ibid p.107).
However, he was trapped in his life, for better or worse, such as the fact that Billy knew when he would be killed, yet didn't try to do anything about it. His death is compared with mankind's fate.
At one point Billy discusses the problem of war with the Tralfamadorians (p.117). They tell him that war is inevitable and he is stupid to try to change it. Humanity is trapped in his human nature, to create war and wreak death. Some people want peace, but they are naive and are unaware of human…
Brifonski and Mendelson (Eds). Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.8. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1978.
Riley, Carolyn (Editor); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.1. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1973.
Riley, Carolyn and Barbara Harte (Editors); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.2. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1974.
Vit, Marek. "The Themes of Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse Five." Kurt Vonnegut Corner. http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/4953/themes.html.
" Wessels Living History Farm, Inc.Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
"Agriculture and War." Answers.com. Answers. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
"Doha Round: U.. Presses China, India and Brazil." BBC News. BBC, 03 Feb. 2011. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
"The Doha Round...and Round...and round." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 31 July 2008. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
"Agricultural Policy." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
Mohan, Raja C. "A Doha round." - Indian Express. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
"Rich Nations Distort Global Trade: BRIC." - Indian Express. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
"THE DOHA DECLARATION on the TRIP AGREEMENT and PUBLIC HEALTH." WHO. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
"The Doha Round's Public Health Legacy: trategies for the Production and Diffusion of Patented Medicines Under the Amended TRIP Provisions." By Frederick Abbott, Jerome Reichman. Web. 09 Apr. 2012. .
evilla, Christina. "The WTO Doha Development Agenda."…
Sevilla, Christina. "The WTO Doha Development Agenda." U.S. Department of State. Web. 9 Apr. 2012. .
"Copenhagen Consensus." Copenhagen Consensus. Web. 9 Apr. 2012. .
"Copenhagen Consensus." Copenhagen Consensus. Web. 9 Apr. 2012. .
The sores may last 3-10 days and are infectious. ecurrent infections are usually mild and caused by stress, sun, menstrual periods, trauma or physical stress. Oral and maxillofacial are not significantly involved in their cure. However they do treat herpes when they become more problematic and dangerous such as with HIV or cancer-related immune suppression
6. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS)
This is when there is a burning sensation on lips, teeth, mouth, or gums. It has been linked to various conditions such as menopause, dry mouth and allergies and often occurs in middle-aged women. Derivatives may be anxiety, depression and social isolation. The field of oral and maxillofacial pathology still has found no cure for this and treatment includes hydrating agents, pain medications, vitamin supplements or the usage of antidepressants. (Elad et al. 2010).
This condition is indicated by the tongue being fissured and is often common in smokers and…
ADA.org: Dentistry Definitions.
The Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology (AAOMP)
new issues to light in tems of knowledge and infomation. The Intenet, SmatPhones, and technology have inceased the ability fo infomation to be both pocessed and disseminated. Howeve, this is challenging because it equies that the infomation be vetted, and that individuals can citically analyze soucing and context. This is paticulaly tue now that almost eveyone has access to health infomation fom websites, popula pess, and even blogs (Health on the net, 2013).
When we examine souces, though, we need to take into account the vetting (bias, pupose, etc.) but also the obustness and quality of the souces. The coe aspect of this tend in analyzing infomation is to use citical thinking skills to pocess infomation. In geneal, the basic aspect of citical thinking is to analyze the souce mateial and decide upon its veacity and elevance. Cetainly, it is not as easy to ead, wite, and pocess citically, one…
references, is not selling anything, and has clinical practice guidelines. This should be a credible source; 2) Kidshealth is part of the Nemours foundation, established in 1936 and affiliated with a number of hospitals. While there are no citations, the language used is layperson friendly, with illustrations appropriate to share with children. This would be a valid site to scan for basic information, knowing that it may not always be written by medical personnel.
The key with clients is to allow them to understand sourcing of documents. Many have never been asked to vett sources, many simply believe what the read on the internet. By providing a skilled set of critical thinking strategies, one can alleviate a number of dangerous misunderstandings.
Austhink. (2008, September 8). Critical Thinking on the Web. Retrieved from austhink.com: http://austhink.com/critical/
Health on the Net Foundation. (2013). Information. Retrieved from: http://www.hon.ch/
This is challenging, as it will require Whole Foods to continue to adapt in order to make themselves stand out. Prices can have a negative impact on the firm's bottom line results. This is occurring through increasing costs on the wholesale level and tremendous amounts of discounting. Over the course of time, these factors can hurt the company's earnings and ability to maintain their competitive position. ("Global Food etailing Industry," 2013) (Burch, 2007) ("Annual Stakeholders eports," 2012)
Clearly, ABC should integrate with Whole Foods. This will allow the company to maintain its market share and augment the products they are selling into the firm's strategy. At the same time, the management team could help Whole Foods to more effectively address the challenges they are facing from: increased competition and pricing. This will enable both firms to take advantage of each other's cost structure and create a unique atmosphere which…
2011 Supermarket Trends. (2011). Seeking Alpha. Retrieved from: http://seekingalpha.com/article/247930-2011-supermarket-trends-good-for-food-manufacturers-and-retailers-tough-for-consumers
Annual Stakeholders Reports. (2012). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company%20Info/PDFs/2012-WFM_Annual_Report.pdf
Company Info. (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company-info#
Global Food Retailing Industry. (2013). Reporter Link. Retrieved from: http://www.reportlinker.com/ci02212/Food-Retailing.html
The majority of nurse practitioners commit themselves daily to help provide compassionate and comprehensive healthcare that focuses on disease prevention and health promotion within a cost effective format. Our elders deserve the respect of appropriate and successful treatment and preventative measures to help reduce the risk of complications associated with polypharmacy. As such, the goal of policy aimed at reducing this practice tries to formulate a more active plan for keeping track of patient records and keeping costs of medications down in order to prevent patients from skipping doses (Lorenz, 2012). In order to provide effective policies and practices to reduce risks associated with polypharmacy, many organizations have turned to using computer-based recording as a way to help keep track of medications prescribed across specialist and doctors (Bushardt et al., 2008). Additionally, federal health care programs, like Medicare and Medicaid are working continuously to help improve policies and help make…
Bushardt, Reamer, Massey, Emily B., Simpson, Temple W., Airial, Jane C., & Simpson, K.T. (2008). Polypharmacy: Misleading, but manageable. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 3(2), 383-389. Web. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2546482/
Lorenz, Joan M. (2012). Polypharmacy and the elderly. Advance for Nurses. Web. http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Continuing-Education/CE-Articles/polypharmacy-in-the-elderly.aspx
Gordon's Functional Health Pattern (Teen)
Adolescent Summary - Gordon's Functional Health Pattern
Date of Visit: 8/31/2012, 10:30am.
ace/Gender Hispanic, Female
Weight: 34 kg.
Height: 4ft. 7 inches
BMI: Normal ange 16.6 kg/m2
eason for Visit: Evidence of exasperated asthmatic conditions. (Not an acute asthma attack). Became overexerted at school, 8/30/12. estless night and complaints of tightness in chest and inability to catch breath. Slight wheezing can be heard during exhales. Potential asthma complications; albuterol has proven slightly ineffective in easing symptoms and discomfort.
Financial History: Patient is fully covered under parent's insurance. Mother works; serving as informant and escort to physician. Single parent household.
Past Health History: Patient is fully immunized and receives all routine health and wellness physicals and exams as appropriate. Last physical exam 5/30/2011, prior to beginning of summer camp. History includes struggle with exercise-induced asthma (albuterol use via bronchodilator).…
Hull, J., Hull, P., Parsons, J., Dickinson, J., & Ansley, L. (2009). Approach to the diagnosis and management of suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by primary care physicians. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 929.
As a result, it is not stable to say that the balance of benefits and harms of routine use of supplements of vitamins a, C or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease (U.S. Preventive Services ask Force (USPSF).
From other evidence, it does not seem that the experiments of this article were not conducted long enough to prove its thesis because supplements do not help with cancer. If they were trying to prove supplements did not help, their testing would be valid. As it can be seen from other evidence, the objective can be proven false because other research prove tat their thesis cannot be accurate.
he Canadian ask Force on Preventive Health Care (CFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease…
The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population and in male smokers (Grade I recommendation) ("MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study," 2002 [I, good]; de Gaetano, 2001 [I, fair]; Virtamo et al., 1998 [I, fair]) (the role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer).
The most important outcome of the report will be greater recognition that it is time to concentrate on teaching nutrition, promoting regular physical activity, and strongly encouraging smoking cessation and particularly increasing outreach to women of racial and ethnic minorities. From there, although vitamin E is not a successful primary prevention strategy for women, one should not make the mistake of concluding that it will not turn out to be beneficial for men. There is the importance of recognizing biological differences between the sexes in cardiovascular research by providing valuable sex-specific data on primary prevention (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy Women)
Despite the fact the objective was proven false, the article did make good points about women's health. "A total of 999 cardiovascular events were reported during the trial. For the composite outcome, vitamin E was associated with a nonsignificant 7% reduction in events. Vitamin E also had no significant effect on total rates of MI or stroke when each of these outcomes was examined individually. However, study subjects receiving vitamin E were 24% less likely to die from CVD, a significant difference attributable in large part to a reduction in sudden deaths and other CVD deaths besides MI and stroke.Vitamin E appeared to have a stronger effect in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death as the study progressed from years 6 to 10. Noncompliance did not appear to alter the study's main findings, nor did randomization to receive aspirin or placebo (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy). Even though the article proves that vitamin E does not help to some degree, it can be concluded that further evidence needs to be provided in order to prove further prevention.
Controlled experiments are those in which groups are separated into control and experimental. Neither group knows what they are receiving, so they may or may not be receiving a sugar pill or something else. The control group is essential for comparisons -- what happens in the control group often determines how the experimental data is interpreted (Scientific Control Group, 2008).
A double blind experiment is one in which some of the participants are prevented from knowing certain information about the study that might lead to bias (conscious or subconscious) thus skewing the results. Blinding can also be imposed on researchers, subjects, funders, or any combination in which one wishes to protect the data integrity. In the use of new drugs, blinded experiments are necessary because a patient might feel better if they think they are receiving a powerful new medicine -- the placebo effect. It is impossible, however, to double…
Double Blind Experiment. (2008). Experiment-Resources.com. Retrieved from:
Scientific Control Group. (2008). Experment-Resources.com. Retrieved from:
physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).
Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…
Blackburn, ST. (2007). Maternal, fetal, and neonatal physiology: A clinical perspective. St. Louis: Elsevier.
Childress, J. (1997). Practical reasoning in bioethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Plant-Based Protein: Whole Green Hemps
The claims made by Whole Green Hemps are supported by the study by Furhman and Ferreri, who state that "plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health [as well as] improved athletic performace" (233). Their study indicates that alternative plant-based protein supplements like Whole Green Hemps is good for the body and does provide the system with essential fatty acids. The fiber and vitamins plus the minerals in hemp protein are exactly those used in the human body, so there is the natural association. Furhman and Ferreri, however, do raise one objection as they indicate that a diet consisting solely of plant-based products would not be entirely beneficial for a balanced system. But Whole Green Hemps is not intended to replace an athlete's normal diet, as it is only used as a supplement; therefore, this objection is…
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…
Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical
Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).
Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.
For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…
Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,
Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),
Gerdner L.A., & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284-291.
Klunk, W. E et al. (2004). "Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease using the novel positron emission tomography tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B." Annals of Neurology,
Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging
Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSA.
Abstract: Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: molecular, cellular and organic. Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities. Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxification. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.
Keywords: chinese medicine,…
Abreu, M.T., Fukata, M. and Arditi, M. 2005. T.L.R. Signalling in the gut
in Health and Disease. J. Immunol., 174(8):4453 - 60.
Benno, Y., Shiragami, N., Uchida, K. et al. 1986. Effect of Moxalactum on Human Fecal Microflora. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.,
29(1):175 - 8.
Buckwalter, J.A., Heckman, J.D. and Petrie, D.P. 2003. Aging of the North American Population: New challenges for orthopaedics. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 85-A(4):748 - 58.
Census and Statistics Department, The Government of Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region. 2007. Style Guide [online]. Accessed 23 June
2008. URL: http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hongkongstatistics/
aging gracefully. There are eight references used for this paper.
Introduction number of people are obsessed with fighting the affects of aging on the skin and finding ways to age gracefully. It is important to look at methods such as antioxidants, wrinkle fighters and nutritional supplements, as well as aging and tissue/muscle loss and interventions for slowing the aging process in order to gain a better understanding of treatments available.
Free radicals are "highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in normal and pathological processes, and are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging (http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?query=free+radicals)."
One of the main defenses against free radicals is the proper use of antioxidants.
Researchers theorize that an "increase in some antioxidants - especially those applied to the skin - helps protect…
Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells. (accessed 15 July 2004). http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/004012.htm ).
Facenda, Vanessa L. Mass merchants face up to higher end skincare: improved formulations and higher quality products are attracting consumers to mass and drug for facial care needs. Retail Merchandiser. (2004): 01 January.
Free Radicals. (accessed 15 July 2004). http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?query=free+radicals).
Hilton, Lisette. Intrinsic-extrinsic aging link: antioxidants applied to skin could prevent cell damage. Dermatology Times. (2002): 01 November.
Personal Health History
Yes (Please list medications and reasons for usage below)
eason for usage
Are you taking any vitamins or dietary supplements?
Yes (If yes then please list supplements and reasons for usage below)
I am taking Vitamin C through consuming multitude of fruits in order to fight muscle spasms, fatigue, and joint pain.
Do you now, or have you had in the past: Yes No
History of heart problems, chest pain or stroke?
Increased blood pressure?
Any chronic illness or condition?
Do you ever get dizzy, lose your balance or lose consciousness?
Difficulty with physical exercise?
Advice from physician not to exercise?
ecent surgery (last 12 months)?
History of breathing or lung problems? No
Swollen, stiff, or painful joints? Yes
Foot problems? No
Back problems? Yes
Any significant vision or hearing problems? No
National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN). NCN clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Myeloid growth factors. Version 1. 2006
ole of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Endothelial Functions
ole of fatty acid on endothelial functions
Antioxidants and Marine N-3 Fatty Acids Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic People
The hypercholesterolemic people refer to the individuals who suffer from the high concentration of cholesterol in their bodies. These hypercholesterolemic people normally needs the improvement of their endothelial functions in order accommodate the high levels of cholesterol in their bodies. The individuals normally witness a change in their aortic consequently altering their endothelial functions. Hypercholesterolemia is responsible for alteration of dilatation function of the endothelium in the small blood vessels. Further, the alteration of the aortic functioning also makes the patients be susceptible to higher blood pressure. Studies show that the patients normally witness abnormality in the endothelium-dependent dilator function in the human circulation (Goodfellow et al., 2002). The extent of impairment (endothelium-dependent dilator) depends on the level of hypercholesterolemia. From this, it…
Kris-Etherton, M., Harris, S., & Appel, J. (2002). Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty
Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association, Inc. Circulation
106:2747 -- 2757, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000038493.65177.94
Goodfellow, J., Bellamy, M. Ramsey, M. & Jones, C, (2000). Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 265 -- 270,
Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).
There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…
Cottrell, C.K. et al. (2002). Perceptions and Needs of Patients with Migraine. Health and Fitness. Journal of Family Practice. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m 6689/is_2_51/ai_83551751' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
With this in mind communications strategy has to be developed and implemented. The central debate remains that of degree of uniformity. The pros and cons are obvious, i.e. economies of scale, consistent message across markets, centralized control, different market characteristics, media availability and costs and government regulations (alabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2011). The stronger argument appears to be that different strategy appears to work in different situations, rather than a totally standardized campaign. Once these geographical issues are decided upon then the scope of the campaign, objectives and elements of strategy can be worked on. If the organization develops a message for one market and then transposes this intact into others or if it develops a message with a number of markets in mind from the start, it may be centrally conceived in both cases (Han, 2009; Wills & Ryans, 1977).
This is popular because of co-ordination and control providing the…
Ahmed, S.A., a. d'Atrous and M.E. Adraoui. 1994. 'Country-of-Origin Effects on Purchasing Managers Product Perceptions.' Industrial Marketing Management 23 (July): 323-332.
Keller, Kevin Lane. 1993. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 1-22
Shirin, Khosrozadeh; Kambiz, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee. 2011. The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Chinese Business Review, August Vol. 10, No. 8, 601-615
Bailey, W. And S.A. Gutierrez de Pineres. 2007. 'Country of Origin Attitudes in Mexico: The Malinchismo Effect.' Journal of International Consumer Marketing 9 (3): 25-41.
Viagra, Levitra, And Cialis
The objective of this work is to examine Viagra, Levitra and Cialis and how they work and as well this work will examine erectile dysfunction and the differences, side effects and enhancement of the sexual experience of each of these medications. This work will examine the effects of use of these medications by a young man and the manner in which commercials promoting these products instill fear into younger men about growing older.
The work of Rosenfeld and Faircloth (2006) states that the introduction of Viagra, "the first oral treatment for impotence has changed the way men view problems with sexual performance. Today, men are more inclined to defined and treat their performance problems as medical problems than ever before, thanks in large part to Viagra." (Rosenfeld and Faircloth, 2006) the success of Viagra is described as a "cultural phenomenon" and it is stated…