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The body does need a certain amount of vitamins and minerals to maintain its vital organs and promote system functionality. Most of these vitamins and minerals can be acquired through a healthy diet. Therefore, many Americans are taking vitamin supplements unnecessarily. The reasons why Americans may be taking vitamin supplements unnecessarily include misinformation, trend, and clever marketing making some vitamins "in vogue," (Nierenberg, 2014).
Taking vitamin supplements may be necessary in some cases, as when a patient cannot absorb a certain vitamin or mineral due to a preexisting condition or dietary allergen. In other cases, patients may need temporary dietary supplements. Pregnant women, for example, often need to supplement with iron, calcium, magnesium, or zinc according to their specific needs. Without supplementation, as many as 75% of pregnant women would be deficient in at least one vitamin and even with supplementation, an average of 20-20% of women suffer from…
Hovdenak, N. & Karam, K. (2012). Influence of Miller, A.M. (2012). Popular but dangerous. U.S. News & World Report Health. Feb 12, 2012.
Nierenberg, C. (2014). Getting too much of vitamins and minerals. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/effects-of-taking-too-many-vitamins
Perharic, et al. (1994). Toxicological problems resulting from exposure to traditional remedies and food supplements. Drug Safety 11(4).
Patients unfamiliar with any or all of them will learn much and have a valuable starting point for conducting their own research online or through their health care providers. Fourth, the author plays up the importance of deriving nutrition from whole foods and when possible or necessary offers dietary tips such as which vegetables contain the most beta carotene.
In spite of its value for a general audience, however, the article fails to provide sufficient scholarly research to help health care workers make clear informed decisions regarding their patient's nutritional care. Health care workers may be stymied by the conflicting information available on nutritional supplementation even after reading the article. Moreover, the article focuses on only five supplements and neglects to address a whole set of important vitamins and minerals that patients may either be lacking in their diets or simply curious about taking.
Although limited in scope and written…
For instance, British researchers of late administered natural Vitamin E supplements at the rate of 40-800 IU daily to men and women who had suffered a heart attack. Following an average of eighteen months, people who got Vitamin E were seen to have 77% less heart attacks compared to those given a dummy tablet. An additional example can be taken of Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD of Victoria, Canada who has been treating terminal cases of cancer with a severe potency vitamin/mineral regimen. He began performing this several years back to treat their depression and tension associated with the diagnosis of cancer. He observed that 30% of the patients in early states who were long-term users of vitamin supplements have survived ten-year more than comparable patients who were given solely conventional treatment which is a stupendous success. Hence the message drives home that vitamins can reverse cases of very serious diseases.…
Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.
Cheraskin, E. The Health of the Naturopath: Vitamin Supplementation and Psychologic State. http://www.doctoryourself.com/cheraskin_naturopath.html
Dharmananda, Subhuti. Do herbs, Vitamins and antioxidants adversely affect cancer therapies. http://www.itmonline.org/arts/antioxidants.htm
Icheku, Vincent. Degenerative Diseases of Ageing: Causes and Prevention. De-Ichekus (UK)
6%. The literacy level of the total population is 97.9%. South Korea's education expenditures reach 4.6% of GDP.
There are several local manufacturers of vitamins in South Korea. Consumers in this country favor local manufacturers. This is because their prices are obviously lower than the prices of international vitamins exporters to South Korea. Another reason for which local manufacturers are preferred over foreign ones consists in the attachment of local consumers to national brands.
However, there is still room for new companies exporting their products on the South Korean market. This market sector is currently in full growth and development process.
Product Specific egulatory Considerations
Vitamins are considered to be dietary supplements and are not legally treated as drugs, but as foods. This classification attracts several consequences regarding the management of this activity. For example, vitamins' producers are entirely responsible for the safety of these products, and…
1. Introduction (2009). The Merck Manuals. Online Medical Library. Retrieved April 26, 2009 from http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec12/ch154/ch154a.html.
2. South Korea (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html .
3. Vitamin (2009). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin .
4. Vitamins driving South Korean OTC market (2003). Decision News Media. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://www.nutraingredients.com/Consumer-Trends/Vitamins-driving-South-Korean-OTC-market .
I noted also how hard work pays off: which is the central idea or thesis of the narrative essay. Because a narrative essay is by definition less formal than an expository one, the baseball scholarship piece is not as structured or divided into sub-sections. However, I do use transitions between paragraphs in the form of clauses like "Before I stepped up my training..." Those clauses helped enhance the flow of the narrative in the same way transitional words and phrases helped the flow of writing in the vitamin essay.
In the sports narrative, I also employed stylistic techniques that would have not worked in an academic essay like the one on vitamins and health. For example, in one paragraph I used a series of parallelisms that serve as a literary device such as those used by poets: "I started to lift weights and train rigorously. I watched what I ate.…
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble molecules known as secosteroids. Vitamin D itself is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not available in many foods. However, photochemically, it is produced when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger Vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D externally, though, is biologically inert in the human body, and "must undergo two hydroxylations in the body. The first occurs in the liver and converts Vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d (VanDen Berg 1997, S76). Although called a vitamin, Vitamin D is not actually an essential dietary vitamin because it can be synthesized in more than adequate amounts from sunlight. Typically, an organic chemical, or group of chemicals, is known as a vitamin when it must be obtained through diet or other means, and cannot be synthesized through bodily processes.
Vitamin D (2012). Office of Dietary Supplements -- National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/
Balasubramanian and Ganesh. (2008). Vitamin D Deficiency in Exclusively Breast-Fed Infants. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 127 (2): 250-55.
Dryden, Jim. (2005). Sunlight Exposure May Help Prevent Periodontal Disease. Washington University St. Louis -- News and Information. Retrieved from: http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/5881.aspx
Feldman, D., et.al. (2012). Vitamin D, Volume 1. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
Vitamin C for Common Cold
What is Vitamin C?
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble ingredient that is essential for the health of human beings. It is essential for normal growth and development and it has consumed regularly. Since Vitamin C dissolves in water, the excess amounts leave the human body through urine and this means the body needs a constant supply of this vitamin everyday. The body cannot store vitamin C in any form.
One of the primary role of vitamin C is to repair the body cells and tissues and to prevent free radicals and toxins from getting accumulated in the body. It repairs wounds and makes them heal faster. The free radicals are known to play a role in cancer and heart diseases and good amount of vitamin C everyday helps to prevent any damage.
Sources of vitamin C
Most fruits and vegetables…
Frances Sienkiewicz Sizer, Leonard A. Piche, Eleanor Noss Whitney. Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies. Kentucky: Cengage Learning. 2011.
Weber, Olaf; Eccles, Ronald. Common Cold. New York: Springer. 2007.
Vitamin D Supplementation
Vitamin supplementation has long been a popular way of ensuring that people receive the sufficient amount of vitamins. However as it pertains to Vitamin D, there is some amount of controversy as it pertains to Vitamin D supplementation (25-hydroxy) concentration and safety. The literature review will discuss the need for vitamin D supplementation and the findings of various studies and Vitamin D trials.
An article entitled "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety" the daily allowance of vitamin D is 200 IU. The medical community has established that this amount will prevent the softening of the bones known as osteomalacia. However, there is also a consensus that more vitamin D is need to avoid other conditions such as hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis.
In fact an article found in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics confirms that the proper amount of vitamin D can reduce the chances of…
ALA-HOUHALA, M., T KOSKINEN, A TERHO, T KOIVULA, AND J. VISAKORPI. Maternal compared with infant vitamin D Supplementation. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1986, 61, 1159-1163
Alouf B., MD and Grigalonis M. Incidental Finding of Vitamin-D Deficient
Rickets in an Otherwise Healthy Infant -- A Reappraisal of Current Vitamin-D Supplementation Guidelines. Journal of the National Medical Association. VOL. 97, NO. 8, AUGUST 2005
Bjorkman, Mikko. Sorva A., Rejo Tilvis. Responses of parathyroid hormone to vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review of clinical trials. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 48 (2009) 160-166
Vol. 4. 145-56.
In this article, Drs. McCann and Ames of the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, California, discuss their findings made in several important studies related to the suggestion that since "Vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States," it seems that the elderly and African-Americans are at a particularly high risk" of vitamin D deficiency (145).
o support this suggestion, McCann and Ames explore three specific topics -- first, the biological functions of vitamin D relevant to human cognition and behavior; second, the effects of vitamin D deficiency on human cognition and behavior, and third, the activity of vitamin D "relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokine theory of cognitive/behavioral dysfunction" (146).
McCann and Ames then conclude that "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function;" however, the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on cognition/behavior in…
Taylor, S.N., et al. (Autumn 2006). "Vitamin D Status as Related to Race and Feeding Type in Pre-Term Infants." Breastfeeding Medicine. Vol. 1 no. 3: 156-63. As a leading member of the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina, S.N. Taylor examines yet another aspect of vitamin D deficiency in the American population, specifically, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pre-term African-American babies which currently remains unknown, thus prompting Taylor to write this article.
His overall objective was to "evaluate the vitamin D status of pre-term infants through the first month after delivery" and then compare the evaluations "by race and feeding type," in this case through breastfeeding. Taylor's results showed that "black infants had a significantly lower level" of vitamin D as compared to white infants over a period of almost a month since delivery (157).
Taylor's conclusions are rather interesting, for he declares that the differences between black and white infants "were significant through the first 2 weeks after delivery" and that infants which received breast milk "did not have significantly worse" vitamin D deficiencies than those infants fed formula. Thus, Taylor argues that there does exist some type of correlation between race and feeding method when it comes to infants being deficient in vitamin D (163).
Vitamin D Supplementation increases Voluntary Physical Activity Levels in Nursing Home Patients
Over the course of a semester does vitamin D3 supplementation, and the resultant increase in muscle strength and bone density, lead to increased physical activity in nursing home residents in the absence of added encouragement?
The elderly often suffer from low serum levels of vitamin D, reduced muscle strength, and decreased bone density (reviewed in: Hamilton, 2010). Muscle biopsies have revealed that the muscle fibers most affected in the elderly are type II, the 'fast twitch' fibers. When a person begins to fall they instinctively attempt to prevent or break their fall and this reaction depends heavily on fast twitch muscle fibers. The elderly therefore suffer from an increased risk of falling down and bone fractures. Although conclusive evidence has yet to be found that low serum levels of vitamin D cause this condition, there is a large…
Hamilton, B. (2010). Vitamin D and human skeletal muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 182-190.
Williamson, J.D., Espeland, M., Kritchevsky, S.B., Newman, A.B., King, A.C., Pahor, M., et al. (2009). Changes in cognitive function in a randomized trial of physical activity: Results of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot study. Journal of Gerontology, 64A, 688-694.
Semba, R.D., Houston, D.K., Ferrucci, L., Cappola, A.R., Sun, K., Guralnik, J.M., et al. (2009). Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with greater all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling women. Nutrition Research, 29, 525-530.
European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (2010). QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Retrieved from http://groups.eortc.be/qol/downloads/modules/specimen_20qlq_c30.pdf
For example, serum beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels rose in autumn months. Vitamin C serum concentrations were higher in the winter and spring.
Male participants revealed higher serum retinol concentrations than females, although male and female respondents already differed in terms of age. Younger respondents did have higher levels of beta carotene. Smoking had a stronger effect on lowering serum levels of vitamin C and beta-carotene than on retinol. In some cases, smoking tobacco had a strong effect on lowering serum levels of vitamins. In short, the current research suggests connections between lifestyle habits, age, and diet on blood concentrations of vitamins and can be used for health care workers to advise patients on their diet and lifestyle choices.
Faure, H., Preziosi, P., Roussel, a.M., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Favier, a. "Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the French participants…
Faure, H., Preziosi, P., Roussel, a.M., Bertrais, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Favier, a. "Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, vitamin C, and beta-carotene in the French participants of the SU.VI.MAX trial." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006 Jun; 60(6):706-17. Retrieved Feb 17, 2007 from PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=16391586
Vitamin D in Controlling UTIs
In recent times, several experimental studies have been conducted in order to understand the impact of vitamin D on controlling Upper espiratory Tract Infections. This paper has selected by article "Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDAIS randomized controlled trial," a research study conducted by Murdoch et.al (2012). The goal of the article critique is to thoroughly analyze the article and to determine its validity and reliability. Furthermore, the critique would help in understanding the impact of Vitamin D on UTIs in healthy adults.
Experimental studies have reported that the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and upper respiratory infections is inversely proportional. Murdoch et.al (2012) has reported that results of these experimental studies have been found to be inconclusive. The goal of Murdoch et.al (2012) was to study the impact of vitamin D on Upper respiratory…
Murdoch et.al (2012). Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDARIS randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2012 Oct 3; 308(13):1333-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.12505.
On the other hand, too much of a good thing can sometimes be even more harmful than too little. In that regard, it is very important to understand the role of vitamin D, both because of its role in maintaining our health, as well as because of the potential for harm associated with excessive supplementation.
Unlike other vitamins and minerals, vitamin D is not readily available through diet because its primary source is natural sunlight. The U.S. FDA recommends a daily dose of 200 IU, which according to medical authorities, is sufficient to protect against osteomalacia, a medical condition characterized by softening of the bones. However, because vitamin D requirements fluctuate depending on how much sunlight a person receives and are difficult to satisfy through diet alone, 200 IU is considered the RDA in the absence of regular exposure to natural sunlight.
Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorption…
Vitamin D -- and if so which level of Vitamin D -- would prevent risk of falling of elderly.
The problem is that elderly are at great risk of falling and, consequently, injuring themselves. Injury, sometimes, leads to death. There is a high rate of falls amongst the elderly
Vitamin D may prevent and reduce quantity of falls. Most studies seem to point to this, but there are contradictory results. The level of Vitamin D too that is effective in preventing falls is unclear.
Analyze the literature review.
The literature review is summarized, succinct, and pertinent to the subject. The authors cluster their research -- they do not deliberate on them in depth singling out studies and describing or analyzing those studies. Rather they take a cluster of related studies, mainly from the last five to ten years and show how they point to Vitamin D being a feasible solution…
These research findings were very significant because all the men who were studied in this were smokers. The researchers of this study admitted that vitamin E surely reduces the risk of prostate cancer. This study was used in a relatively low dose of 50 IU of the prostate but higher dose of 400 IU does have a greater benefit to the heart and prostate. (Challem, 37) Further a study published in the Journal Nutrition and Cancer 2000 states that natural vitamin E or d-alpha-tocopherol arrests the growth of the two types of prostate cancer cells and causes these cells to self-destruct. (Challem, 38)
However though vitamin E is a free-radical scavenger and is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer, men with a history of bleeding problems or who take blood thinners should surely discuss the use of vitamin E with their doctor before consuming them. (Heaney; Ellsworth; Gill,…
Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.
Health-Prostate Cancer. Retrieved at http://www.webindia123.com/health/disease/cancer/prostate/index.htm . Accessed 5 November, 2006
Heaney, John A; Ellsworth, Pamela; Gill, Oliver. 100 Questions and Answers about Prostate
Cancer. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2003.
Asthma has emerged as one of the most common health problems and chronic diseases that affect children worldwide. Healthcare practitioners have become concerned with the increased prevalence of asthma among children. This study focuses on examining the role of vitamin D in prevention and/or control of asthma among children. The evaluation is conducted on the premise that vitamin D has been positively linked with enhanced control of asthma and decreased exacerbations of the condition. The study seeks to fill gaps in knowledge regarding the role of vitamin D in asthma, which remains relatively unclear. The discussion also demonstrates the clinical implications relating to the use of vitamin D in treatment of asthma.
Background and Significance
Asthma is regarded as one of the most common diseases and long-term health conditions that affect children. This condition is basically defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways involving several cells and cellular…
Somashekar, A.R., Privthi, A.B. & Gowda, M.N.V. (2014, October). Vitamin D Levels in Children with Bronchial Asthma. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8(10), 4-7.
Tachimoto et al. (2016, January 30). Improved Control of Childhood Asthma with Low-dose, Short-term Vitamin D Supplementation: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 71, 1001-1009.
Trollvik et al. (2011). Children's Experiences of Living with Asthma. Fear of Exacerbations and Being Ostracized. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26, 295-303.
Yadav, M. & Mittal, K. (2014, July). Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Moderate to Severe Bronchial Asthma. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 81(7), 650-654.
Calcifediol Supplementation Toxicity
Vitamin D Supplementation: Concerns about Toxicity
Vitamin D (calciferol) is so essential to health that all vertebrates can produce this nutrient endogenously when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light (Hoffmann, Senior, Mager 2015; Standing Committee et al. 1997). Vitamin D can also be obtained from fish and modern-day fortified food products. When exposed to sunlight, 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is converted to previtamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and then vitamin D3, which is then hydroxylated by liver enzymes to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3; calcifediol). The biologically active form is finally created when calcifediol is hydroxylated once more by a mitochondrial enzyme in the kidneys to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D; calcitriol).
The two most common forms of dietary vitamin D supplementation are cholecalciferol and calcifediol, but the biological activity of the latter is 5 times that of the former (Standing Committee et al. 1997). The downstream effect of 1,25(OH)2D…
Deluca, HF, Prahl, JM & Plum, LA 2011, '1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is not responsible for toxicity caused by vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamine D', Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 505, no. 2, pp. 226-230.
Hoffmann, MR, Senior, PA & Mager, DR 2015, 'Vitamin D supplementation and health-related quality of life: A systematic review of the literature', Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, published online ahead of print 6 Jan. 2015, pp. S2212-S2672.
Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board & Institute of Medicine 1997, DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Available from U.S. Department of Agriculture. [18 January 2015].
Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…
Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6
Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536
Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112
Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358
particularly focuses on the impact of Vitamin D on Breast Cancer. Since health concerns have become a widespread issue, thus researcher on a constant basis are carrying out investigations that can determine the exact causes of diseases like breast cancer. One particular study has come under focus in this dissertation that lay key emphasis on African and European-American descents and how these races are vulnerable to breast cancer. Moreover, the impact of vitamin D on breast cancer has also been widely included in the study.
Health on a broad spectrum has become an emerging and grave concern, as the populace is experiencing the advancements of the competitive and industrialized world. Besides, the well-being and welfare of the citizens of the nations has also become significant that can lead to an affluent, flourishing and successful civilization. Considering the health issues that have become prevalent in the today's time, cancer is one…
Dowd, J. & Stafford, D. (2010). The Vitamin D Cure. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.
Higdon, J. & Drake, V. (2011). An Evidence-Based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals: Health Benefits and Intake Recommendations. 2nd Edition. China: Thieme.
Rakel, D. (2007). Integrative Medicine. 2nd Edition. USA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Trump, D.L. (2011). Vitamin D and Cancer. London: Springer.
Diabetes and Vitamin D Studies
Clearly Focused Issue
Appropriate Method to Answer the Research Question
Acceptable Recruitment Methods
Acceptable Method of Selection of Controls
Minimization of Bias
Were the Confounders Accounted for in the Study Design
Are the Results Believable
Are They Applicable to Other Populations (Generalizable)
Do the Results Fit with Available Evidence
Witham et al., 2010
This is a follow-up study. The issue is whether patients with a vitamin D level of higher than 250 HD will gain a benefit from vitamin D supplementation.
A positive result is defined by reaching a level of 75 nmol or above. This is considered the level for optimum health.
Patients for the study were selected from general practice and diabetes specialty offices based on a positive type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis in accordance with the requirement set forth by the World Health Organization.
The group was divided into three…
Acceptable Recruitment Methods
Acceptable Method of Selection of Controls
Minimization of Bias
Were the Confounders Accounted for in the Study Design
Are the Results Believable
Are They Applicable to Other Populations (Generalizable)
Do the Results Fit with Available Evidence
Jorde & Figenschau, 2009
Yes, as reflected from the title: Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not improve glycaemic control in diabetic subjects with normal serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels
Yes, because patients with poor glycemic control were randomly assigned to control and case group. Also appropriate dosages of Vit. D was used
Place of recruitment was not specified.
Patients were randomly assigned to both groups.
Variables were clearly defined.
Yes, the control group was randomly selected from the actual population
No blinding method used. Compliance was assessed by asking patients to return unused capsules.
Yes, they were: BMI, smoking status, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, serum calcium, creatinine, lipid profile and…
Vitamin deficiency in food can cause different health deficiencies like Pellagra, Scurvy, ickets among others. Most of these negative health outcomes are evidenced in the staple diet of those in the developing and poor countries. We shall understand some diets that cause these deficiencies in this essay.
The characteristics of Pellagra are mental afflictions, diarrhea, and dermatitis. Inadequate quantity of nicotinic acid in the diet that causes niacin deficiency in the body causes Pellagra. Over dependence on maize is an observed cause of Pellagra. Though Maize contains Niacin, it cannot be absorbed in the body in the raw form. It has to be passed through alkaline hydrolysis to be absorbed by the body. Jowar also contains adequate quantities of Niacin. However, the presence of leucine in jowar inhibits the process of absorption of niacin. Additionally, chronic alcoholism is one known cause of lack of ability to absorb of niacin…
Allgrove, J., & Mughal, M.Z. (2014). Calcium deficiency rickets: extending the spectrum of almost forgotten. International Journal Of Dermatology, 45(8), 909-913. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2006.02844.x
Karthikeyan, K., & Thappa, D.M. (2002).Pellagra and skin. International Journal Of 'nutritional' rickets. Archives Of Disease In Childhood, 99(9), 794-795. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306465
Obadina, S. (2014).An overview of anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge eating disorder. British Journal Of School Nursing, 9(9), 441-446.
Olmedo, J.M., Yiannias, J.A., Windgassen, E.B., & Gornet, M.K. (2006). Scurvy: a disease. Dermatology, 41(8), 476-481. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.2002.01551.x
As a result, it is not stable to say that the balance of benefits and harms of routine use of supplements of vitamins a, C or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease (U.S. Preventive Services ask Force (USPSF).
From other evidence, it does not seem that the experiments of this article were not conducted long enough to prove its thesis because supplements do not help with cancer. If they were trying to prove supplements did not help, their testing would be valid. As it can be seen from other evidence, the objective can be proven false because other research prove tat their thesis cannot be accurate.
he Canadian ask Force on Preventive Health Care (CFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease…
The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population and in male smokers (Grade I recommendation) ("MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study," 2002 [I, good]; de Gaetano, 2001 [I, fair]; Virtamo et al., 1998 [I, fair]) (the role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer).
The most important outcome of the report will be greater recognition that it is time to concentrate on teaching nutrition, promoting regular physical activity, and strongly encouraging smoking cessation and particularly increasing outreach to women of racial and ethnic minorities. From there, although vitamin E is not a successful primary prevention strategy for women, one should not make the mistake of concluding that it will not turn out to be beneficial for men. There is the importance of recognizing biological differences between the sexes in cardiovascular research by providing valuable sex-specific data on primary prevention (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy Women)
Despite the fact the objective was proven false, the article did make good points about women's health. "A total of 999 cardiovascular events were reported during the trial. For the composite outcome, vitamin E was associated with a nonsignificant 7% reduction in events. Vitamin E also had no significant effect on total rates of MI or stroke when each of these outcomes was examined individually. However, study subjects receiving vitamin E were 24% less likely to die from CVD, a significant difference attributable in large part to a reduction in sudden deaths and other CVD deaths besides MI and stroke.Vitamin E appeared to have a stronger effect in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death as the study progressed from years 6 to 10. Noncompliance did not appear to alter the study's main findings, nor did randomization to receive aspirin or placebo (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy). Even though the article proves that vitamin E does not help to some degree, it can be concluded that further evidence needs to be provided in order to prove further prevention.
vitamin and mineral supplement products which are presently used, and compare and analyze its' amount of nutrients with the generally established nutrient guidelines per day, specifically by considering the DA or AI and UL of the nutrients in question as related to women from 19 to 30 years of age, together with evaluating the daily use of those two products of choice.
The first supplement brought into question is Caltrate 600+D3, whose quantity of nutrients in a single tablet amounts to 800 IU of vitamin D3 and 600 mg of calcium. According to a 2010 re-evaluation of dietary reference intake, the Council for esponsible Nutrition agreed that the adequate value of calcium nutrient for women aged 19 to 50 falls between the AI of 1000 mg and the UL of 2500 mg (Dickinson, 2012). Thus, the recommended dose of one tablet of Caltrate 600+D3 per day would provide 60% of…
Dickinson, A. (2012). The Benefits of Nutritional Supplements. Washington, DC: Council for Responsible Nutrition. [Online]. Available: http://www.crnusa.org/benefits/files/CRN-BenefitsofNutritionalSupplements-2012.pdf . [2013, July 9]
A.D.A.M.. (2012, August). Vitamin C In The New York Times. [Online]. Available: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/nutrition/vitamin-c [2013, July 9]
Breakfast: banana, apple, coffee (black)
Lunch: low fat yogurt (vanilla)
Snack: Quaker Chewy granola bar (chocolate chip)
Dinner: two slices thin crust pepperoni pizza
Breakfast: banana, apple, coffee (black)
Lunch: low fat yogurt (black cherry)
Snack: low fat yogurt (mango)
Dinner: pepperoni pizza (one slice), garden salad, cherry popsicle
Breakfast: low fat yogurt (blueberry)
Lunch: McDonald's hamburger, small fries, large diet Coke
Dinner: Hot dog with bun, 2 light beers, 1 bag potato chips, 1 cup potato salad, 1.5 cups garden salad (no dressing), 2 s'mores (2 graham crackers, 2 large marshmallows, 1/2 Hershey bar)
Breakfast: black coffee
Lunch: apple, diet Coke
Dinner: cheeseburger, ear of corn, 2 beers, 2 chocolate chip cookies
banana: 200 calories, 2 protein (grams), 1 total fats (grams), 0 saturated fats (grams), 6 dietary fiber (grams), 11.3 mg calcium, 0.6 mg…
Self nutrition data. (2012). Conde Nast. Retrieved from http://nutritiondata.self.com/
Supplements, Fatigue and Lethargy
DO THEY HELP?
Vitamin E (p 1- 1.5)
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and antioxidant, which inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species or ROS when fat is oxidized (NIH, 2013). The body produces ROS when it converts food into energy. As an antioxidant, Vitamin E protects body cells from the ill effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules containing an unshared electron. They damage cells and contribute to the development of heart diseases and cancer. Unshared electrons are very active and quickly react with oxygen to form ROS. Health experts conjecture that limiting the production of free radicals may, alone or through other mechanisms, help prevent or delay the formation of these dreaded chronic diseases associated with the action of free radicals. Vitamin E may serve that function (NIH).
As an antioxidant, it also plays a role in the immune function of the…
Bain, J. (2001). Andropause: testosterone replacement therapy for aging men. Vol. 47,
Canadian Family Physician: Janvier. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from http://www.cfp.ca/content/47/1/91.long
NIH (2013). Vitamin E Office of Dietary Supplements: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved on February 28, 2014 from http://www.ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminE-HealthProfessional
Watson, S. (2014). The causes of women's fatigue. WebMD Magazine: WebMD LLC.
First, the market for energy drinks, sports drinks and vitamin-enhanced beverages is being more fragmented and growing much faster than the traditional market for energy drinks. This is due to both the healthy nature of these drinks, the caffeinated ingredients, and nearly immediate energy they give consumers,. The underlying drivers of change that are going to individually and collectively make this industry even more attractive over the long-term is the proliferation of individualized brands and the ability of drink producers to rapidly increase their speed to market. These two factors will lead to short, more profitable product lifecycles and a much greater level of innovation over the long-term.
4. What does your strategic group map of the energy drink, sports drink, and vitamin-enhanced beverage industry look like? Which strategic groups do you think are in the best positions? The worst positions?
Those brands that have the ability to continually support…
Porter, Michael E., Millar, Victor E..(1985). How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage. Harvard Business Review, July 1, 149.
Porters' Five Forces Model
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…
Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical
Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).
Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
Controlled experiments are those in which groups are separated into control and experimental. Neither group knows what they are receiving, so they may or may not be receiving a sugar pill or something else. The control group is essential for comparisons -- what happens in the control group often determines how the experimental data is interpreted (Scientific Control Group, 2008).
A double blind experiment is one in which some of the participants are prevented from knowing certain information about the study that might lead to bias (conscious or subconscious) thus skewing the results. Blinding can also be imposed on researchers, subjects, funders, or any combination in which one wishes to protect the data integrity. In the use of new drugs, blinded experiments are necessary because a patient might feel better if they think they are receiving a powerful new medicine -- the placebo effect. It is impossible, however, to double…
Double Blind Experiment. (2008). Experiment-Resources.com. Retrieved from:
Scientific Control Group. (2008). Experment-Resources.com. Retrieved from:
Too much fat, on the other hand, leads to problems like high blood pressure, fatigue, joint problems, heart issues -- the list goes on. My recommended daily intake of calories from fat is 662.02 out of a total of 2364.36, or 28%. On Day Three, my total intake of calories from fat was 433.9 out of a total caloric intake of 1237.2, or 35%. This suggests that I need to watch the amount of fat I am including in my diet, even while it appears as though need to increase my basic caloric consumption.
The type of fat consumed is also important; 35.6% of the fat I consumed on Day Three was saturated, compared to the 32.1% recommended daily allowance. Though fats are essential, saturated fats really aren't, and taking in even less than the recommended daily allowance of saturated fats would be advisable. The fact that I am eating…
In short, I am eating too much of what is not beneficial, and not enough of what is. In order to address this problem, which could develop into a full-blown health crisis in a few years if I do nothing, I must make drastic changes to the way I eat. For example, one of my first goals must be to increase the amount of fruits and vegetables that I eat each day. According to Canada's Food Guide, my intake of fruits and vegetables should be roughly around 875 ML. I can achieve this goal by drinking 100% juices and eating more salads and leafy vegetables. Similarly, I must increase my amount of milk alternatives by drinking more milk and eating more cheese. Perhaps I can limit my intake of diet soda, replacing it with milk. By changing these eating habits, I will achieve to meet more of the recommendations of…
"Canada's Food Guide." Health Canada. (2007). The Canadian Government. 9 July 2008. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/order-commander/eating_well_bien_manger-eng.php#2 .
Hidgon, Jane. "Vitamin C Deficiency." Micronutrient Information Center. (2006).
Oregon State University. 9 July, 2008. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminC/
Enker, Warren. "Bowel Function and Dietary Fiber." Continuum Health Partners. (n.d.).
healthy Nutrition: A Chemistry View Point
Chemistry is a branch of sciences that deals with the compositions of matter and helps in identifying the substances that form matter. Living as well as non-living bodies are formed with substances. These substances differ in their composition, nature, properties, and reactions with other substances. There is a vital role of chemicals and chemistry in everyday life of human beings. The impacts of chemical substances on living beings can also be divided into direct and indirect categories. The impact of environmental substances is indirect in nature whereas direct impacts are chemical composition of food, nutrition, vitamins, and physical activity.
The following sections are focused on detailed review of relevance for chemistry and chemicals on healthy eating habits, nutrition, and vitamins. The significant role of physical activity and exercising is also elaborated in the sections below. There are significant benefits of healthy diet and exercise.…
Papadopolus, K. (2008). Food Chemistry Research Developments. USA: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Sladyk, K., & O'Sullivan, B. (2010). Occupation, activity, Skills, patterns, Demands, context, and Balance. Occupational Therapy Essentials for Clinical Competence, 33.
Willett, W. (2012). Nutritional epidemiology (Vol. 40). USA: OUP.
Diet and Nutrition Analysis
Diet & Nutrition Analysis - FITDAY
Using the FITDAY nutritional, diet, and lifestyle program, I tracked my daily intake of food for five days. All of the food logs and the nutrition charts for each day are included as an appendix.
The Estimated Average Requirements for Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for my life stage group, gender, and age were obtained from a table published by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, National Academies. The table includes DRIs for the following: Calcium, CHO, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, molybdenum, phosphorous, selenium, and zinc.
According to the reports on my food intake over a five day period, I need to increase consumption of foods that will contribute higher levels of the following to my diet: Fiber, vitamin A,…
The latter two can be enjoyed cooked or cut up fresh, in a salad. If she uses spinach instead of lettuce in the salad, the subject can boost fiber even further and add a little more iron to her diet. Current consumption of iron is just under recommended amounts. High fiber fruits, including apples, oranges and pears, will not add significant calories if consumed in moderation (How Do I Get More Fiber).
The subject's intake of saturated fat and cholesterol were both under acceptable limits. ith respect to other nutrients, the subject's levels of Vitamin C, thiamin, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and selenium were all near acceptable levels. Potassium consumption was a bit lower than recommended; this could be remedied with consumption of oranges, already recommended to boost fiber, or bananas. Vitamin C consumption was more than double recommended amounts, but since this is a water-soluble vitamin, there is no harm…
"How do I get more fiber in my diet?" eHealth MD. 2011. Web. 10 Apr. 2011.
"Lactose intolerance." National Digestive Diseases Information Clearing House (NDDIC).
Web. 10 Apr. 2011.
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…
Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1
Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited
ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1
However, fruit juices, consumed in moderation, can be a healthy addition to a diet, as long as they are not consumed in lieu of actually eating any whole fruits.
My nutritional analysis revealed that I am not eating a balanced diet. I am consuming too much protein and too little fiber, issues that plague the diets of many Americans. To remedy these problems, I need to increase my intake of fruits, vegetables, and grain products, while reducing my intake of meat products. In addition, because my intake of milk products was also low, I need to look at how to increase my milk intake without increasing protein intake.
Here is the food displayed for jjohn90 on 9/10/2008
Select your serving sizes and specify how many servings you consumed for each. When you are done, click Save & Analyze to save your food entry information and to analyze your food…
Food Menu and Nutrition
Food Menu Overview
The objective of this study is to create two food menus as follows: (1) one healthy food menu; and (2) one unhealthy food menu, from a local fast food restaurant. Following the creation of these menus, this work will write a nutritional analysis of the meal created, discuss the reaction of the writer to this information and describe how this will affect the food choices of the writer in the future in terms of food choices from fast food restaurants.
The food choices that one makes when dining at fast food restaurants make a great difference in the amount of nutrition received from dining at fast food restaurants as well as the total calories that are consumed and the other factors that make foods either healthy or unhealthy for consumption. One might assume that dining at a fast food restaurant is in general…
McDonald's USA Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items (nd) Nutrition McDonalds. Retrieved from: http://nutrition.mcdonalds.com/getnutrition/nutritionfacts.pdf
Nutrition Calculator (nd) McDonalds. Retrieved from: http://www.mcdonalds.ca/ca/en/food/nutrition_calculator.html
oman and Islam
Islamic religion has its established guiding teachings and principles that ensure its followers submit totally to the will of Allah for all the adherents. In effect, Islamic religion recognizes the fact that people and things around them affect their survival irrespective of their age, community, families, and the nation. The quality of life of the Muslims invariably affects the existence of the Islamic nations and religion as a whole. Muslim women are highly vulnerable to various health problems due to the strict religious ideation of most of the conditions that affect them. Islamic women as most of the women from other contemporary communities face numerous health challenges, including reproductive health problems such as increased cases of maternal death, destitution, poor access to maternal health services, and social violation of their human rights. As such, the health challenges make it necessary for the adoption of policies that recognize…
Agnew, Vijay. Racialized Migrant Women in Canada: Essays on Health, Violence, and Equity. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Print
Aswad, Barbara C, and Bilge? Barbara. Family and Gender among American Muslims: Issues Facing Middle Eastern Immigrants and Their Descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. Print
Atighetchi, Dariusch. Islamic Bioethics: Problems and Perspectives. New York? Springer, 2007. Internet resource.
Cortese, Delia, and Calderini Simonetta. Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2006. Print.
Digestion and diabetes: Overview of the process
The digestive process begins even before food is consumed. Looking at or anticipating food causes salivation. Saliva aids digestion, along with chewing. For example, when Jane Doe looks at a plate consisting of a whole wheat turkey sandwich (garnished by vegetables and mayonnaise), potato chips, and apple juice, her body will begin to anticipate eating by secreting digestive juices. The first major involuntary muscular movement for Jane Doe will not occur until she consciously decides to swallow the food in front of her. "Although you are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves" (Your digestive system, 2010, NIH). The swallowed food is pushed into the esophagus, the organ that connects the teeth, mouth, and tongue through the throat to the stomach. "At the junction of the esophagus and…
Type 1 diabetes. (2010). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 30, 2010 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-1-diabetes/DS00329
Your digestive system and how it works. (2010). National Institute of Health (NIH).
Retrieved December 30, 2010 at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/
Alzheimer's Disease currently affects more than four million Americans. Alzheimer's is a disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of areas within the brain, resulting in cognitive and physical decline that will eventually lead to death. It is important to emphasize that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not a normal part of aging. Although AD typically appears in those over sixty-five, it is a neurodegenerative disease, quite distinct from any aging-related cognitive decline. ecause Alzheimer's is eventually fatal, and because the decline typical of an Alzheimer's patient is so devastating, much research is currently being done to investigate potential treatments. With the elderly population the fastest growing segment of North American society, Alzheimer's threatens to be an even greater health concern in the future decades.
For patients exhibiting mild cognitive impairment, research is being done on ways to slow the disease's progression. The two main thrusts of Alzheimer's research are biological, which…
Cohen-Mansfield J. (2001). "Nonpharmacologic interventions for inappropriate behaviors in dementia: a review, summary, and critique." American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,
Cummings, J. (2004). "Alzheimer's Disease." New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1),
Gerdner L.A., & Swanson E.A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on confused and agitated elderly patients. Archive of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 284-291.
Klunk, W. E et al. (2004). "Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer's disease using the novel positron emission tomography tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B." Annals of Neurology,
Whether these are actually 'miracle cures' is, of course, debatable. However, anything that has few side effects and that benefits a person's health is worth looking into from a medicinal and a scientific standpoint. Many of the natural remedies do carry some potential risk for side effects, but most are not as serious as the side effects that are seen with many prescription medications today.
From work like Carper's there is a lot that can be learned. The most important thing to take away from Carper's book is that there is much more to medicine than what traditional, western doctors commonly work with. Another important point to take from reading this work is that the medicine that was used in the past should not just be tossed aside because there are new advances. The older, natural medicines often worked well for a lot of different conditions, and with that being…
ole of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Endothelial Functions
ole of fatty acid on endothelial functions
Antioxidants and Marine N-3 Fatty Acids Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic People
The hypercholesterolemic people refer to the individuals who suffer from the high concentration of cholesterol in their bodies. These hypercholesterolemic people normally needs the improvement of their endothelial functions in order accommodate the high levels of cholesterol in their bodies. The individuals normally witness a change in their aortic consequently altering their endothelial functions. Hypercholesterolemia is responsible for alteration of dilatation function of the endothelium in the small blood vessels. Further, the alteration of the aortic functioning also makes the patients be susceptible to higher blood pressure. Studies show that the patients normally witness abnormality in the endothelium-dependent dilator function in the human circulation (Goodfellow et al., 2002). The extent of impairment (endothelium-dependent dilator) depends on the level of hypercholesterolemia. From this, it…
Kris-Etherton, M., Harris, S., & Appel, J. (2002). Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty
Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association, Inc. Circulation
106:2747 -- 2757, DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000038493.65177.94
Goodfellow, J., Bellamy, M. Ramsey, M. & Jones, C, (2000). Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 265 -- 270,
Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194.
Austin et al. (2011). Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals:
1971 -- 2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved:
Barnard, Neal D. (et al. 2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5): 1588S -- 1596S. etrieved from Pub Med:
Davis, N., Forbes, B., & Wylie-osett, J. (2009). Nutritional Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 76(3), 257-268. etrieved from EBSCOhost
Foster, G.D., Wyatt, H.., Hill, J.O., Makris, a.P., osenbaum, D.L., Brill, C., & ... Klein, S.
(2010). Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2…
Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194.
Austin et al. (2011). Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals:
1971 -- 2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved:
Should Flavorful Health be allowed to have a "100% Vitamin RDA" package icon despite the fat content, which is listed on the back?
No. Doing so is deceptive and violates the fundamental principle of honesty, or truth in advertising. The phrase itself is true only in a literal sense, but deceptive in context, because it purposely implies that the product is one that is more healthful than it is unhealthful. By referring to one minor "recommendation" when the product completely violates a more significant "recommendation" (to limit saturated fat intake), the label is intentionally deceptive. The company should be allowed to sell the product but not to market it, either directly or indirectly, as a healthful dietary choice by purposely creating that inference in any respect. The ethical choice would be to avoid any reference to healthfulness on the wrapper or market it as a vitamin-rich alternative to other junk…
Moreover, the study did not take into consideration the fact that certain persons are more at risk for later bone loss due to osteoporosis, because of frame size and genetic history (Caucasian and Asian women are at particular risk), or because they cannot take in enough calcium through normal food sources, due to lactose intolerance. Rather than attempting to prevent fractures later in life, after bone mass is already on the decline, it might be better for a nutritionist to stress the need to get enough calcium, early on, when bones are still being built. "At this time, the most effective treatment of osteoporosis is prevention. The stronger the bones are when people are young, the less likely they are to fracture easily later in life," and one preventative method is meeting the individual's daily calcium needs, along with weigh-bearing exercise, to aid in the development of bone mass. (Heinz,…
The Dietary Supplement Pyramid." (2006) Council for Responsible Nutrition Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.crnusa.org/about_pyramid.html
Heinz, Agnes. (1 Aug 1992) "Osteoporosis." American Council on Science and Health. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.acsh.org/publications/pubID.864/pub_detail.asp
Study Shows Unexpected Outcomes for Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation." (15 Feb 2006) Press Release: Council for Responsible Nutrition. Retrieved 18 May 2006 at http://www.crnusa.org/prpdfs/PR06_WHI_CalciumVitD021506.pdf
There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.
Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…
Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong: http://www.livestrong.com/article/213053-pros-cons-of-gmo-foods/
FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO: http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo8.htm
WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/are-biotech-foods-safe-to-eat
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…
Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7
Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.
Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report
Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
Hence calcitonin has been found to reduce the turnover of bone and pain in Paget's disease patients.
It is found as an injection: 200 units/ml administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Also available is intranasal spray: 200 units/activation (0.09 ml/puff) which is administered into the nostril. There are no adequate studies of calcitonin in pregnant women and nursing mothers. Calcitonin salmon helps treat osteoporosis and Paget's disease of bone but does not cure them. Patients should continue using calcitonin salmon even if they feel well and should only be stopped by the doctor. Using calcitonin salmon for osteoporosis, it is also essential to get enough calcium and vitamin D
Calcitonin salmon may cause side effects such as stomach upset, vomiting, redness, swelling, or irritation at the site of injection, flushing of the face or hands, increased urination at night, itching of the ear lobes, feverish feeling, eye pain, decreased appetite, stomach pain,…
After less than two months, I have seen some noticeable differences: I have more energy during the day, I sleep better at night, I can concentrate more fully and my stamina has improved. I know that working for the CBSA can be a physically-demanding job, but I am confident that I will be able to handle the exertion and stress that comes with it. I handle stress well: exercise is a great way for me to fend it off, and I also practise meditation and deep breathing. One of my biggest frustrations is when I feel that I should know something that I can't remember, thus my commitment to learning more about border security and the laws that govern it. This preparation will benefit me both on and off the job, and will allow me to make a greater contribution to the CBSA.
My interest in becoming an agent for…
3. Make three specific recommendations to yourself.
1. Restrict my total fat intake to no more than 40 grams per day.
I would like to restrict my daily intake of fat to a maximum of 40 grams per day by restricting my diet to low-fat foods such as proteins and complex carbohydrates.
2. Reduce consumption of all foods that do not have detailed nutritional information.
To accomplish my first recommendation, I would like to stop eating out or eating any pre-prepared foods because it is too difficult to monitor fat content accurately without the benefit of detailed nutritional information labels on packaged foods.
3. Prepare portable snacks and meals to help me stick to Recommendations 1 & 2.
To avoid succumbing to snacking temptations during the day or overeating at mealtime, I would like to start preparing healthy snacks and even portable meals so that I can stay on my…
This lighting component is connected by the "IR receiver/sensor to the dimming ballast...[which]...provides the control to change the lamp's lumen output." (Richman, 2005)
Another lighting system introduced by Knisley is one that "features a manual override of automated fluorescent lighting settings through use of a wall-mounted control, an infrared handheld remote control device, or a PC workstation." (Knisley, 2005) This system is capable of implementing natural daylight where available which is known as "daylight harvesting" and a strategy which utilizes "ceiling-mounted photocells to measure the changing contribution of daylight and then compares this light level to an established level of light in a room. The controller responds by dimming or brightening the fluorescent lighting to sustain the desired level. The controller is compatible only with specific manufacturer's electronic fluorescent dimming ballasts." (Knisley, 2008) Knisley describes yet another system which combines "fixtures, user controls, and digital communications and as an alternative…
G.R. (1995). Quantifying lighting quality based on experimental investigations of end user performance and preference. In Proceedings of Right Light Three, the Third European Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, June 18-21, 1995 (Vol. 1, pp. 119-127). Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK: Northern-Electric PLC National Research Council Canada.
Hogrege, Mark (2008) Putting Light Where it's Needed: The Benefits of Task Lighting. DAZOR. National Association of Independent Lighting Distributors, Inc. Online available at http://www.dazor.com/benefits.html
How Can Full-Spectrum Lighting Sources Be Compared? (2005) Lighting Research Institute. Vol. 7 Issue 5 March 2005. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute March 2005.
How valid are the claims regarding full-spectrum light sources? (2005) Lighting Research Institute. Vol. 7 Issue 5 March 2005. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute March 2005.
This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr ever felt the need to cut down on drinking or to stop and couldn't. This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr takes any other drugs or medication in order to sleep or make her feel better and if so how much, and how often.
Mental Health Symptoms:
Mental Status: This writer would like to ask Ms. Barr if she ever thought of harming herself or someone else. If yes, did she have a plan and when was the last time she thought about harming herself or someone else? This writer would like to know if she has ever harmed anyone intentionally. If yes, does she have a plan and when was the last time she harmed someone else. This writer would observe if Ms. Barr's physical characteristics such as clothing, hair color, eye color, mannerisims, interaction with her and…
Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging
Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSA.
Abstract: Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: molecular, cellular and organic. Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities. Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxification. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.
Keywords: chinese medicine,…
Abreu, M.T., Fukata, M. and Arditi, M. 2005. T.L.R. Signalling in the gut
in Health and Disease. J. Immunol., 174(8):4453 - 60.
Benno, Y., Shiragami, N., Uchida, K. et al. 1986. Effect of Moxalactum on Human Fecal Microflora. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.,
29(1):175 - 8.
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Diet Plan (Anemia)
The following iron rich diet plan is designed to help my 18-year-old sister address her iron deficiency anemia. Health needs include a more balanced diet and healthier eating habits with more consistency. This includes 18 milligrams of iron per day (based on age, condition and gender). This nutritional recommendation will decrease anemia effects such as general fatigue and body chills.
Three meals (with 2-3 snacks) per day are recommended for a balanced diet. This includes the appropriate intake of iron and other basic nutrients. Limits should be placed on white sugar, soda and sweets; they should be consumed in moderation or eliminated from her diet due to their low nutritional value. Iron rich foods are recommended -- lean poultry and fish are more easily absorbed sources of iron and foods high in Vitamin C aid in absorption. Choices include citrus juice and fruits,…
Pynaert, Delanghe, Temmerman, & De, H. (2007). Iron Intake in Relation to Diet and Iron Status of Young Adult Women. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 51(2), 172-181. doi:10.1159/000103278
The assessment of my family is presented here for the academic purposes. The family comprises of six members that are working at different positions and live in personal home. Each member of family is educated. Based on questionnaire filled by all the family members, the summary is composed that will give an insight about the health of family.
Summary of each functional health pattern for family
The health perception-health function of the family suggests that it has an average health status. The health is not poor and the members are less vulnerable to severe health issues like diabetes and allergies yet there is a mild risk of getting cold and fever since there is low temperature at night and cool breezes during the morning. The family is suggested to have regular checkups and to take vitamins. Nutritional Metabolic Pattern of family shows that it has a healthy diet…
Doyer, B.M. And Radovich, N.H., (1990), "Functional health patterns: the postanesthesia care
Unit's approach to identification," Journal of Post Anesthesia Nursing, 5(3):157-62.
Vincenz, M.C., and Siskind, M.M., (1994), "Functional health patterns: a curricular course
Model for adult acute care," Nursing Diagnosis, 5(2):82-7
physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).
Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…
Blackburn, ST. (2007). Maternal, fetal, and neonatal physiology: A clinical perspective. St. Louis: Elsevier.
Childress, J. (1997). Practical reasoning in bioethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Summary and Conclusion
However, even in the developed world, rickets is not as rare as one would hope. Mothers who breastfeed must be aware that, despite the rhetoric about breastfeeding being the best way to feed a baby, they must still give their children supplements. Children must have adequate supplementation, nutritionally dense diets, and adequate exposure to sunlight. The balance between covering up with sun protection and getting sunlight, between breastfeeding and vitamin supplements may prove difficult to communicate to the public -- as well as the fact that what are widely-regarded as 'healthy diets' such as vegan, vegetarian, and macrobiotic diets may not be appropriate for children, or even for many adults, espeically if they have absorption complaints.
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm…
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm
Goldenring, John. (14 Jul 2004) "Rickets." ADAM. URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). Last updated 11 Oct 2005. Retrieved 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000344.htm
Kirchner, Jeffrey. (15 Jan 2000) "Calcium and Vitamin D in the Treatment of Rickets." American Family Physician. Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_2_61/ai_59486900
Morantz, Carrie & Brian Torrey (1 Jun 2003) "AAP Guidelines on Rickets and Vitamin D Supplementation."American Family Physician. . Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_11_67/ai_102822610
Nutrition For Babies and Children GenerallyBabies and toddlers need a nutrient-rich diet for their healthy development. Nutrients play a vital role in developing the brain, eyesight, and growth of the child (Phoebe, Fetherston, & Nilson, 2019). Breast milk contains all the nutrients a baby needs until the baby is six months old. After six months, babies and toddlers should be given different nutrients like vitamins, fiber, and minerals found in a range of foods like vegetables, fruits, dairy, meat, grains, and meat alternatives. Until the baby is 12 months of age, they should be given breast milk even after weaning. Breast milk continues to offer the baby a valuable immunological protection and nutrition source for two years and beyond. According to (Phoebe et al., 2019) exclusive breastfeeding means the baby is only fed with breast milk, including expressed breast milk. Infant formula or non-human milk is not provided to the…
ReferencesArora, A., Manohar, N., Hayen, A., Bhole, S., Eastwood, J., Levy, S., & Scott, J. A. (2017). Determinants of breastfeeding initiation among mothers in Sydney, Australia: findings from a birth cohort study. International breastfeeding journal, 12(1), 1-10. Aydon, L., Hauck, Y., Murdoch, J., Siu, D., & Sharp, M. (2018). Transition from hospital to home: parents perception of their preparation and readiness for discharge with their preterm infant. Journal of clinical nursing, 27(1-2), 269-277. Benham, A. J., Gallegos, D., Hanna, K. L., & Hannan-Jones, M. T. (2021). Intake of vitamin B12 and other characteristics of women of reproductive age on a vegan diet in Australia. Public Health Nutrition, 1-28. Black, A. P., DOnise, K., McDermott, R., Vally, H., & ODea, K. (2017). How effective are family-based and institutional nutrition interventions in improving childrens diet and health? A systematic review. BMC public health, 17(1), 1-19. Bolisetty, S., Osborn, D., Schindler, T., Sinn, J., Deshpande, G., Wong, C. S., . . . Tobiansky, R. (2020). Standardised neonatal parenteral nutrition formulationsAustralasian neonatal parenteral nutrition consensus update 2017. BMC pediatrics, 20(1), 1-11. Brown, S., Stuart-Butler, D., Leane, C., Glover, K., Mitchell, A., Deverix, J., . . . Gartland, D. (2019). Initiation and duration of breastfeeding of Aboriginal infants in South Australia. Women and Birth, 32(3), e315-e322. Connolly, E. L., Reinkowsky, M., Giglia, R., Sexton, B., Lyons-Wall, P., Lo, J., & O\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'Sullivan, T. A. (2019). Education on antenatal colostrum expression and the baby friendly health initiative in an Australian hospital: An audit of birth and breastfeeding outcomes. Breastfeeding Review, 27(1), 21-30. Cormack, B. E., Jiang, Y., Harding, J. E., Crowther, C. A., & Bloomfield, F. H. (2020). Relationships between neonatal nutrition and growth to 36 weeks corrected age in ELBW babiessecondary cohort analysis from the provide trial. Nutrients, 12(3), 760. Daniels, L., Taylor, R. W., Williams, S. M., Gibson, R. S., Fleming, E. A., Wheeler, B. J., . . . Heath, A.-L. M. (2018). Impact of a modified version of baby-led weaning on iron intake and status: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ open, 8(6), e019036. Fink, C., Peters, R. L., Koplin, J. J., Brown, J., & Allen, K. J. (2019). Factors affecting vitamin D status in infants. Children, 6(1), 7. Fiscaletti, M., Stewart, P., & Munns, C. (2017). The importance of vitamin D in maternal and child health: a global perspective. Public health reviews, 38(1), 1-17. Green, J., Fowler, C., Petty, J., & Whiting, L. (2021). The transition home of extremely premature babies: An integrative review. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 27(1), 26-32. Holtzman, O., & Usherwood, T. (2018). Australian general practitioners\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards breastfeeding. PLoS ONE, 13(2), e0191854. Pawlak, R., Grant, R., Vos, P., Bilgin, A. A., Berg, J., Pearce, R., & Morris, M. (2021). The Status of Folate, Vitamin B-12 and Homocysteine among Australian Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Teenagers. Phoebe, R., Fetherston, C. M., & Nilson, C. (2019). Formalised breastfeeding support in Australia: A narrative review. Breastfeeding Review, 27(2), 7-16. Russell, C. G., Haszard, J. J., Taylor, R. W., Heath, A.-L. M., Taylor, B., & Campbell, K. J. (2018). Parental feeding practices associated with children\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s eating and weight: What are parents of toddlers and preschool children doing? Appetite, 128, 120-128. Suganuma, H., Bonney, D., Andersen, C. C., McPhee, A. J., Sullivan, T. R., Gibson, R. A., & Collins, C. T. (2020). The efficacy and safety of peripheral intravenous parenteral nutrition vs 10% glucose in preterm infants born 30 to 33 weeks gestation: a randomised controlled trial. BMC pediatrics, 20(1), 1-10. Swanepoel, L., Henderson, J., & Maher, J. (2020). Mothers\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' experiences with complementary feeding: Conventional and baby?led approaches. Nutrition & Dietetics, 77(3), 373-381. The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2017). Registered nurse standards for practice: Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency.Williams Erickson, L., Taylor, R. W., Haszard, J. J., Fleming, E. A., Daniels, L., Morison, B. J., . . . Taylor, B. J. (2018). Impact of a modified version of baby-led weaning on infant food and nutrient intakes: the BLISS randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 10(6), 740.
WHY DO THE JAPANESE LIVE LONGE?
NUTITIONAL BENEFITS OF SOY:
As an annual Asian legume (meaning that it grows in a pod), soy is one of the most amazing members of the bean family, due mostly to its significant health benefits. Many studies done by nutritionist worldwide have confirmed that a plant-based diet is the most healthful choice. Soybean and its extracts, such as soybean oil, provide high-quality protein that is equal to that found in poultry, milk and other animal-based foods. However, not all soyfoods are low in fat, but most of them are cholesterol-free. An added bonus is that soybean and its byproducts do not contain saturated fat unless it is added during the processing stage or is combined with other ingredients containing saturated fat.
Because many forms of soy are low or modest in total fat, a person's overall diet will be inclined toward…
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London, Sheryl. (1992). The Versatile Grain and the Elegant Bean. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Marks, Leonard S., et al. (2004). "Prostate Cancer in Native Japanese and Japanese-American Men: Effects of Dietary Differences on Prostatic Tissue." Urology. 64. 4. 765-71.
The prescriptions include wisdom, honesty, and courage, as well as human dignity, integrity, respect, health, and independence.
Part 3: Formulate possible evidence-based practices and an action plan that could work towards achieving improvement outcomes.
Provide insight into the diagnostic processes (e.g., root cause analysis) used to determine the primary causes of the problem. Consider both qualitative (cause-effect diagram, barrier analysis), and quantitative (theory testing or drill down analysis) methods.
Analyze the cost-effectiveness of your initiative and how your initiative mitigates risk and improves health care outcomes.
Countless interventions have been used for fall prevention amongst the elderly population. These include risk-assessment and management programs, I.e. Designed to screen those who are most at risk and to design interventions that will reduce their risk of falling; exercise programs slanted dot enhancing flexibility, endurance, and strength; education programs (including one-to -one counseling on methods to prevent falls); environmental modification in homes or…
ANA Nursing-Sensitive Indicators. http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/PatientSafetyQuality/Research-Measurement/the-National-Database/Nursing-Sensitive-Indicators_1
Butts, JB Ethics in professional Nursing Practice
Broe, K et al. (2007) a Higher Dose of Vitamin D Reduces the Risk of Falls in Nursing