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Vladimir Putin's Life
Vladimir Putin was born in Leningrad (now known as St. Petersburg) in October 1952, had a heavy involvement in sports as a young man, and graduated with a law degree from Leningrad University (with honors) in 1975. He worked for the KGB, became involved in government as an aide to the mayor of Leningrad, and eventually became a deputy on President Yeltsin's staff, and from there was groomed as Yeltsin's successor.
Vladimir Putin, His Presidency, and the Russian Economy
hen Yeltsin resigned and turned over the reins to Putin December 31, 1999, Putin's "initial act as president" (415) was very controversial in that he agreed to sign "a decree granting retiring President Yeltsin and his family a series of benefits and privileges."
Those privileges included "immunity from criminal investigation or prosecution," according to the book by David MacKenzie and Michael Curran.
In fact, it looked to observers…
MacKenzie, David, & Curran, Michael W. Russia & the U.S.S.R. In the 20th Century.
Greensboro, N.C.: Wadsworth Group, 2002.
Shevtsova, Lilia. Putin's Russia. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International
18). Author Brenda Lange explains that "Putin did well" in high school and that in fact School 281 was for "the city's brightest students" (Shields, 2007, 2007, p. 33). Putin was drawn to literature, history, and art.
It seems the response to the Erickson's 12 to 18 years-of-age format in this context is that Putin in high school had no role confusion and did not have a weak sense of him. At School 281 the teachers handed out "the underground samizdat" (materials that questioned whether or not the Soviet state was "realistic"), which was a stealth strategy in literature class, that Putin may have found to be fascinating (knowing he would pursue a career as a spy later) (Shields, p. 33). "… Classmates and teachers remembered him as a top student who was self-confident," Shields writes. One day when the teacher wasn't watching a boy kicked Putin from behind; Putin…
About.com. (2008). Psychology / Erikson's Psychosocial Stage Summary Chart. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com/library/bi_psychosocial_summary.htm.
Blazer, Harley. "Vladimir Putin's Academic Writings and Russian Natural Resource Policy."
Problems of Post-Communism, 55.1, (2006): 48-54.
Encyclopedia of World Biography. "Vladimir Putin Biography." Retrieved March 31, 2011,
Terrorism in ussia on an International Level
[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]
Terrorism in ussia has existed since the ussian Empire. Its long history has brought violence against countless civilians in order to accomplish ideological or political objectives through the generation of fear and panic. Tactics so often seen in terrorism such as hostage taking saw extensive use in Soviet secret agencies. The greatest example of this was during the Great and ed Terror campaigns against their own countrymen as stated by historians like Karl Kautsky. As the end of the 20th century approached, major terrorist activity took place in the capital of ussia, Moscow. These events involved the Moscow theater hostage crisis as well as apartment bombings. Aside from Moscow, Dagestan, Chechnya, and other areas of the nation experienced terrorism. The worst part of it all is that scholars and journalists believe some of these…
Cavaliero,, C. (2011). PROTECTING ITS OWN: SUPPORT FOR RUSSIA'S FEDERAL LAW ON THE COUNTERACTION OF TERRORISM. George Washington International Law Review, 43(4), 663. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/77480580/protecting-own-support-russias-federal-law-counteraction-terrorism
Cohen, A. (2002). Russia, Islam, and the War on Terrorism: An Uneasy Future.Demokratizatsiya, 10(4), 556.
Cross, S. (2006). Russia's Relationship with the United States/NATO in the U.S.-led Global War on Terrorism. The Journal Of Slavic Military Studies, 19(2), 175-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13518040600697738
Omelicheva, M. (2010). Russia's Counterterrorism Policy: Variations on an Imperial Theme. Perspectives On Terrorism, 3(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/61/html
communism," "vodka," may be "Vladimir Putin." But everyone who would be asked about Russia would also say "Russian mafia" who are very cruel and dangerous gangs from Russia and who wouldn't stop behind anything in achieving their dirty plans.
The term and the phenomenon of Russian mafia are pretty young if compared to well-known mafia of Sicily, Italy, Latin American cartels. The first news and rumors about Russian mafia in the United stated appeared in 1980 ies, when a massive immigration of predominantly Russian Jews started from the Soviet Union. Russian mafia had penetrated into the infrastructure of the main business centers of the U.S.A.: New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Boston. They spread their influence over the successful immigrants from Russia, who have to pay for their "protection" or who have to allow mafia representatives participate in running businesses.
If to look on the nature of relations of Russian…
3. Hoffmann, D. "Fragile Foundation," The Washington Post, December 26, 1996
4. Mafia invades New York, Article BBC NEWS available on web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/03/98/russian_mafia/70485.stm
5. Khonanikhin, A. Mafiocracy in Russia, Article available on web: http://konanykhin.com/press/wp1.htm
The read on him is that he can be "volatile" and "difficult to manage," but that he is an intelligent, effective leader. The general read is that Saakashvili attacked South Ossetia first, and Putin responded with massive overkill.
There have been numerous charges tossed about that George ush somehow triggered the Georgia-Russia crisis for many different reasons. Most of these charges have come repeatedly from Vladimir Putin. No independent, objective analysis of the crisis has found any evidence of the truth of those charges. (Zunes, 2008) a lame-duck president with most of his troops fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan, George ush warned, threatened, cajoled, negotiated and sent aid. U.S. Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, held countless phone calls with Georgia and Russia asking them to back off. They didn't.
Aftermath - Solutions?
Russia currently has approximately 7600 "peacekeeping" troops stationed in South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and a few Georgian locations. There…
BBC news. (2008, August 21). Day-by-day: Georgia-Russia crisis. Retrieved November 19, 2008, from BBC news: Europe: day-by-day:
Drive, D. (2006, November). Blogs about: Georgia Russia crisis. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from WordPress.com: http://wordpress.com/tag/georgia-russia-crisis/
International Crisis Group. (2008, November 10). Russia-Georgia: the aftermath. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from International crisis group: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=5772
Worst of all, according to aker and Glasser, Russians seemed willing to trade their political freedom for greater order, security, and financial prosperity. However, the authors regard this as a kind of devil's bargain, calling Putin's managed democracy merely another form of dictatorship that will inevitably result in bloody repression. Moreover, they point to the fact that things are not all sunny in post-Soviet Russia -- the numbers of the population affected with AIDS, the inhumane conditions in the army, and other institutionalized failures to deal with the problems of modernity are still rife. Their book begins and ends with the story of a woman who left her provincial home to come to Moscow. She is doing better financially, but her family back home, like so many Russians, not part of the relatively narrow sector enjoying Putin prosperity and is still living under relatively similar conditions as in the late…
Baker, Peter & Susan Glasser. Kremlin Rising: Vladimir Putin's Russia and the End of Revolution. Scribner, 2005.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Empire, despite Russia's long-standing totalitarian past, hopes were high that the new government would be democratic in nature. Today, the headlines are gripped with the realities of Russia, that Putin has a stronghold on power, dissent is stifled, and yet the Russian, capitalist leader seems to be wildly popular amongst his people. Peter Baker and Susan Glasser, authors of Kremlin Rising: Vladimir Putin's Russia and the End of Revolution, explicitly call Putin a threat to future democracy in the region, and express their frustrations with the failure of democracy to take hold in modern Russia, despite the fact that the economy has prospered after the death of communism.
Baker and Glasser admit that during Yeltsin's more open reign, the post-communist economy was in chaos. Then, Yeltsin appointed the former KGB official as his successor, and Vladimir Putin began to consolidate his hold upon power with a ruthlessness that befitted his earlier position. Putin got rid of Russia's only real national television station, ruthlessly dispatched the Chechnya separatists, and after a terrorist attack in 2004 Putin justified as a "counter-terrorist" measure necessary for national security the cancellation of elections and fully proportional parliamentary representation. Worst of all, according to Baker and Glasser, Russians seemed willing to trade their political freedom for greater order, security, and financial prosperity. However, the authors regard this as a kind of devil's bargain, calling Putin's managed democracy merely another form of dictatorship that will inevitably result in bloody repression. Moreover, they point to the fact that things are not all sunny in post-Soviet Russia -- the numbers of the population affected with AIDS, the inhumane conditions in the army, and other institutionalized failures to deal with the problems of modernity are still rife. Their book begins and ends with the story of a woman who left her provincial home to come to Moscow. She is doing better financially, but her family back home, like so many Russians, not part of the relatively narrow sector enjoying Putin prosperity and is still living under relatively similar conditions as in the late 1990s.
Former Soviet Satellites and the European Union
Recent decades have been decades of great change for the nations and peoples of Europe. The est has witnessed the gradual demise of interstate rivalries, the former system of wholly independent states being replaced by an increasingly close union of partner nations. Meanwhile, in the East, these same years saw nearly the whole of Europe from the Baltic to the Black Sea fall under the domination of the Soviet Union. However, with the collapse of communism in the early 1990s, these former Soviet satellites were transformed, almost overnight, into a collection of fledgling democracies. And though the nations of Eastern Europe, at least ostensibly, now share the same political values as their neighbors to the est, their transformation has not been without its problems. Years of Communist rule, has left these countries economically backward and underdeveloped. Yet each of these former Communist nations…
Grabbe, Heather. "Enlargement, Ready or Not?" Guardian Unlimited. 8 December 2002. URL: http://politics.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,9115,855941,00.html .
Gorobets, Alexander. "Russia Wants to See Ukraine Rich and Prosperous - President Putin." Pravda. Trans. Dmitry Sudakov. 14 December 2001. URL: http://english.pravda.ru/cis/2001/12/14/23674.html .
Patten, Chris. "EU's Relations with Ukraine: Overview." Europa, European Commission, European Union in the World. Directorate of International Relations: January, 2002. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/ukraine/intro/index.htm#top.
Prodi, Romano. "The Final Lap." Commission Press Room, European Parliament. Brussels, 9 October 2002. URL: http://europa.eu.int/rapid/start/cgi/guesten.ksh-p_action.gettxt=gt&doc=SPEECH/02/463|0|RAPID&lg=EN&display=.
This similarly encourages modest investment in ussia, a market of 150 million, even in the face of continuing economic difficulties and political uncertainty (Saunders, 105).
According to Sunders, the strategy developed to "globalize" ussia was known as "shock therapy." And its implementation began with the January 1, 1992 elimination of price controls on most goods. The objective of "shock therapy" was, in essence, to create a market economy in ussia as quickly as possible. Sunders claim that this was to be achieved by freeing prices and liberalizing trade policies, which would stimulate competition; and by privatization, which would create private property with all its attendant behavioral incentives for enterprises. At the same time, it was essential to make the ruble convertible and ensure that its value remained relatively stable. This meant controlling inflation and, therefore, keeping tight control of currency emissions and government spending.
Consequently, Saunders appreciates that successful economic…
Batygin, G. S. 'The Transfer of Allegiances of the Intellectual Elite'. Studies in East
European Thought 53 (2001)
Boris Yeltsin quoted in Urban, M. Re-mythologizing the Russian State. Euro-Asia Studies
50/6 (1998): 969
Again, Russia showed it either did not wish to play in the world of globalization, or it just fumbles the ball every time it has an opportunity to score.
Indeed, following the "debacle" that resulted in the imprisonment of Kodorkovsky, "sizable losses" were suffered "for Russian companies' stocks on national and foreign stock exchanges, as well as certain downsizing of foreign direct investments due to high political risks," the Yale writer explains.
Another viewpoint as to why Russia stumbles in the globalization game comes from Alexey Portanskiy, Head of the TO Information office on Russia's accession to the TO; one main reason Russia has not made it into the TO (aside from the general reluctance on the part of Russian society to open up), Portanskiy asserts, is "the resistance of sluggish bureaucracy and lack of political commitment from the top" (Portanskiy, 2005) (orld Trade Organization).
But the Yale article claims…
Portanskiy, Alexey. "Russia's WTO accession negotiations." (2005). World Trade Organization Retrieved 19 Nov. 2006 at http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/events_e/symp05_e/portanskyi16_e.doc .
Proskuryakova, Liliana N. "Is Putin an Anti-Globalization Hero?" Yale Global Online (2004). Retrieved 18 Nov. 2006 at http://yaleglobal.yale.edu /display.article?id=4805.
Saunders, Paul J. "Why 'Globalization' didn't Rescue Russia." The Nixon Center. (2001). Retrieved 18 Nov. 2006 at http://www.nixoncenter.org/publications/articles/Russia%20and%20globalization.htm.
The World Factbook. "Russia." Central Intelligence Agency.. (2006). Retrieved 18 Nov. 2006 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html .
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…
Current programs. (2010). Baikal Watch. Retrieved from http://www.earthislandprojects.org / project/campaignPage.cfm?pageID=7&subSiteID=1&CFID=43926225&CFTOKEN=32
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Wingate, M.T., Poller, U., Kroner, a., Fedorovsky, V.S.,
Mazukabzov, a.M., Todt, W. & Pisarevsky, S.A. (2008). Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of C. 500 Ma metamorphic and igneous rocks along the northern margin of the Central Asian orogen. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 235-237.
bilateral negotiation is mainly characterized by the fact that there are only two parts trying to reach an agreement. The two sides can either have a conflicting negotiation, where they're disputing a certain aspect (it may be an economic dispute or a political matter, for example), or a constructive negotiation, where they are drawing up a cooperation agreement, for example.
B) Internal negotiations are negotiations that take place inside the negotiating team. In general, these types of negotiations are not recommended in public or during the rounds of negotiations between teams, because it may show the other side that there is a certain lack of consensus on the matter, which may destabilize the negotiating position.
Vertical negotiations are negotiations that take place between members of opposite teams that are on different positions of authority. It may be the case that one of the members of lesser importance of one time…
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000089175
Aslund, Anders. "RUSSIA." Foreign Policy July 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000689067
Dougherty, Carter. "Warsaw near goal of bid to join EU." The Washington Times 26 Jan. 2002. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000091568
ussia has accused Georgia of allowing Chechen rebels to move freely and providing safe haven to them for launching terrorist attacks from across the border.
elations with Neighboring Countries
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was formed by 12 of the 15 former Soviet epublics after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 to preserve some of the political and economic ties. ussia's relations with the CIS countries have, however, been dogged by mutual distrust. Sources of tension between ussia and CIS members include the issue of claim over military assets belonging to the Soviet Union and the status of ussians settled in the former Soviet republics. Most of the disputes about assets have now been settled but such disputes have left a bad taste in the mouth and the initial optimism about the CIS becoming even a loose confederation has not been realized. ("ussia: Foreign elations," 2005)
Politics: Recent Political Events," (2004) Country Profile Russia 2004 Main Report
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Retrieved on February 16, 2005 from Economist.com
Russia at a Glance (2005-2006)." (2005). Country Report Russia January 2005 Updater. Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Retrieved on February 16, 2005 from Economist.com
Russia: Foreign Relations." (2005) Political Overview Section from Countrywatch. Retrieved on February 16, 2005 at http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_country.asp?vCOUNTRY=142
President Obama's foreign policy towards Russia has attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public in light of recent events in Ukraine. Russia's aggression has challenged the administration's foreign policy since it is in the process of gulping up the Ukraine one step at a time with very minimal cost and less risk. Obama's foreign policy towards Russia has been accused of enabling the gradual acquisition of Ukraine rather than hindering it. This article focuses on examining this policy and demonstrating why it is largely ineffective, especially in light of President Obama's plans to promote a policy for a globalized 21st Century. In addition to assessing the ineffectiveness of this foreign policy, the article also proposes some of the changes that could be made to promote and enhance its effectiveness.
Russia's aggression that has enabled the country to slowly acquire Ukraine is an issue that has generated huge…
Gaouette, Nicole. "Russia's Aggression Challenges Obama's Foreign Policy." Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P., 26 May 2014. Web. 07 June 2014. .
Maroscher, Gerhard. "VIEWPOINT: Our Foreign Policy toward Russia Is Ineffective." Circleville Today. Circleville Herald, 9 May 2014. Web. 07 June 2014. .
Putin reiterated that ussia does not consider Hamas a terrorist organization, and urged the global community to work with a Hamas-led Palestinian government.
"Hamas has arrived at the doors of power through legitimate elections," Putin said. "We must respect the Palestinian people and we have to look for solutions for the Palestinian people, for the international community, and also for Israel. Contacts with Hamas must continue," he added. (Hamas not a terror organization)
The leaders of Hamas have some chance to make an alliance with Israeli leaders that would allow them to gain an unencumbered claim to some territory and gain some support from Western leaders. There has been some attempt to do this. In 2008, former President Jimmy Carter worked with Hamas leader Khaled Meshal to reach an agreement that Hamas would agree to a truce with Israel if and when the Palestinian people agreed to a Palestinian…
Ayyash, M. (2010). Hamas and the Israeli state: A 'violent dialogue'. European journal of international relations 16 (1): 103-123.
Carter Says Hamas and Syria Are Open for Peace. (22 April 2008). New York times.
Hamas covenant. Retrieved 15 March 2010 from http://www.mideastweb.org/hamas.htm
Hamas is not a terrorist organization. Retrieved 16 March 2010 from http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3213707,00.html
the Euro vs. Dollarization
Dollarization takes place when one country decides to use a foreign currency in parallel to, or instead, of the domestic currency. Dollarization can occur unofficially, without formal legal approval, or semiofficially, where foreign currency is legal tender, but plays a secondary role to domestic currency, or officially, when a country no longer issues a domestic currency and uses only foreign currency. Estimates of the extent to which notes of the U.S. dollar circulate outside their countries of origin give a rough idea of how widespread unofficial dollarization is. Researchers at the Federal Reserve System estimate that foreigners hold 55 to 70% of U.S. dollar notes, mainly as $100 bills.
The term dollarization can be applied in the broad sense to using any foreign currency, or specifically using the U.S. dollar as the national currency. Unofficial dollarization may take a number of forms, including holding (1) foreign…
Belton, Catherine. (2003, October 10). Putin: Why Not Price Oil in Euros? Moscow Times. retrieved July 28, 2005 from http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/crisis/2003/1010oilpriceeuro.htm .
Frankel, Jacob A. And Andrew K. Rose. (1997, July). The Endogeneity of the Optimum Currency Area Criteria. Economic Journal, vol. 108, no. 449.
Gaspar, Vitor, Perez-Quiros, Gabriel and Sicilia, Jorge, (2001). The ECB Monetary Strategy and the Money Market. International Journal of Finance and Economics. vol. 6, 325-342.
Haug, Alfred A., MacKinnon, James G. And Michelis, Leo. (2000). European Monetary Union: A Cointegration Analysis. Journal of International Money and Finance. Vol.19.
y 1993, Leon could no longer find employment and the family, which had been very successful and respected in the community were reduced to extreme poverty. Sergei, in his teens spent most of the time doing odd jobs at factories such as a coal-boy, in order to help his family. He was not able to finish school. At the same time, he saw the St. Petersburg he loved grow to complete economic recession as the industries that sustained the Soviet Union were shutdown in the wake of its collapse. He also looked on as American companies such as Ford Motor Company, McDonald's, and many other American companies. Sergei still remembers the old city as Leningrad, and calls St. Petersburg by its Soviet name when he is with his friends.
Sergei finally was able to find steady employment in 1999, after the death of his father. The Russian economy had stabilized…
C. Freeland, Sale of the Century: Russia's Wild Ride from Communism to Capitalism (2000)
D. Lieven, Empire: The Russian Empire and Its Rivals (2001)
O. Figes, Natasha's Dance: A Cultural History of Russia (2002)
TERESHCHENKO. Manners and Customs of the Russian People. 7 vols. St. Petersburg, 1848. 8vo. 3
Chechnya [...] Chechen conflict with ussia, including how it started and when, along with the causes, effects, main events and attacks, and a current perspective on events in Chechnya today. Chechnya has always desired independence from ussia, and continues to fight for its' freedom today. The tiny country has not been able to shed ussian influence and government, but it has evolved into a world political crisis that has effected thousands of Chechen civilians and continues to cause strife and violence today.
Chechnya is a Soviet epublic that declared independence from ussia in 1991. However, ussia's leaders refused to acknowledge Chechnya's independence, and instead sent in troops to subdue the Chechens. They withdrew when they met armed Chechens ready to defend their country, but the current conflict had its beginnings in these events in 1991, which escalated to full-scale war by 1994. However, the roots of the problems between Chechnya…
Author not Available. " The Situation in Chechnya and Ingushetia Deteriorates." HumanRightsWatch.org. 8 April 2004. 23 April 2004. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/04/07/russia8408.htm
Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Paige Sullivan, eds. Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Documents, Data, and Analysis. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
Editors. "Country Profiles: Chechnya." BBC. 2004. 23 April 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/2357267.stm
Shah, Anup. "Crisis in Chechnya." GlobalIssues.org. 2 April 2004. 23 April 2004. http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Chechnya.asp
Profiling Nasir al-Wahishi
The author of this research proposal deigns to cover two basic research questions and issues within this report. First is the general subject of political profiling of current or possible future political leaders and the second is the more specific focus on the case of a man by the name of Nasir al-Wahishi. That particular man is the current proclaimed leader of al-Qaida in the Arab Peninsula, often referred to as AQAP for short. The research problem to be address in this proposal and, by extension, the approved study is the vexing nature of profiling political leaders, what they are capable of, how they control and motivate the people they proselytize to, how to predict who people will glom onto and who will be ignored and so forth. There is also the question of how to deal with "stateless" regimes and groups that exist. Some of these…
Altemeyer, Bob. 'Highly Dominating, Highly Authoritarian Personalities'. The Journal of Social Psychology 144, no. 4 (2004): 421-448.
Andeweg, Rudy B., and Steef B. Van Den Berg. 'Linking Birth Order To Political
Leadership: The Impact Of Parents Or Sibling Interaction?'. Political Psychology
24, no. 3 (2003): 605-623.
Authentic Leadership Questionnaire measures leadership capacity across four different areas. These are self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency. The first of these is about a person's capacity to know their own strengths and weaknesses but also includes things like "emotional intelligence" in which you know how to understand others and how they react to your leadership style. Internalized moral-perspective is about ethical decision-making and ethical behavior, which seems slightly irrelevant in the context of business leadership. Balanced processing is a more difficult concept because it is about evaluating information during decision-making, and about wise decision-making skills. Finally relational transparency is about being clear about one's own goals and motivations, which again sounds like it may be irrelevant to the concept of business leadership. elational transparency may be useful for a public high school principal trying to deal with her unionized underlings, but it is hardly a characteristic…
"Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire." In Northouse, PG. (2012) Leadership: Theory and practice. Sixth Edition. New York: SAGE Publications.
"Servant Leadership Questionnaire." In Northouse, PG. (2012) Leadership: Theory and practice. Sixth Edition. New York: SAGE Publications.
"Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire." In Northouse, PG. (2012) Leadership: Theory and practice. Sixth Edition. New York: SAGE Publications.
There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)
Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…
Andresen, F. (2007). Walking on Ice. Denver, CO: Outskirts Press.
Ayios, A. (2004). East West Relationships in Russia. Trust and Western Russian Business Relationships. (pp. 156 -- 180). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Horton, P. (2006). Religion. Russia and Belarus. (pp. 77 -- 83). Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications.
Jones, A. (1994). Education and Society in the New Russia. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.
Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
Matthews, Owen and Anna Nemtsova. "The Kremlin Vigilantes." 14 February 2009. Newsweek. 17 May 2009 .
Monacelli, R. "Russia: Population, Immigration and the Economy." 19 February 2009. Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology, Policy. 17 May 2009 .
Schwirtz, M. "For Russia's Migrants, Economic Despair Douses Flickers of Hope." 9 February 2009. New York Times. 17 May 2009 .
Yasmann, V. "Russia: Immigration Likely to Increase, Mitigating Population Deficit." November 2005. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. 16 May 2009 .
RUSSIAN IMMIGRATION STATS:
immigrant population > Immigrants as percentage of state population
immigrant population >…
Banjanovic, Adisa. "Russia's new immigration policy will boost the population." 14 June 2007. Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
As in the case of China, government repression and economic prosperity and liberalization have quelled some of the current ruling party's most vocal critics, although it remains to be seen how Putin's successor will fare.
Although less widely publicized for its repressive political policies and institutions, the government Mexico for 68 years functioned as a single party system that stifled all dissent and was marked by heavy state control of industry (Lehrer 1997). Unfortunately, although Mexico has liberalized its political system and allowed a greater voice of dissenting parties, its economic prosperity has not trickled down to the very poorest members of the population, nor has it substantially enriched and improved the lifestyle of many Mexicans. Tensions still exist within the nation between the ruling party and the populace, and many of its institutions remain unrepresentative and inefficient. In all three nations, more so than creating actual democratic and representative…
Lehrer, Jim. "A Changing Mexico." 15 Jul 1997. Online News Hour Transcript.
29 Feb 2008. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/july97/mexico_7-15.html
Perhaps more significantly, adopting this system would eliminate the U.S. Electoral College, and reduce the priority of national presidential candidates having to woo certain states with many electoral votes, such as California or Texas, as every citizen's vote would be worth the same amount. In Russia the impact of the system has been minimal and not necessarily promoted democracy. "In 1996 Boris Yeltsin won barely a third of the vote in the first round; in 2000 and 2004 Vladimir Putin won an absolute majority in the first round" (Munro 2008). In short, a viable opposition party, or preferably parties must challenge the chief executive to truly create a contentious election. But under the regime of Putin, oppositional elements have been suppressed, although the president seems popular, according to Russian public opinion polls.
Munro, Neil. (30 Jan 2008). "Russia Votes." Centre for the Study of Public Policy:
Munro, Neil. (30 Jan 2008). "Russia Votes." Centre for the Study of Public Policy:
University of Aberdeen. The Levada Center: Moscow. Retrieved 3 Feb 2008 at http://www.russiavotes.org/president/presidency_electoral_system.php?PHPSESSID=b930691dd1def289a14f0530ced79ace
Some of the local companies have complained that the federation has not been able to resolve their concerns towards the accession issue, and therefore it is believed that the government has failed to exercise comprehensive analysis of the problems expected to be experienced by the domestic industries. The local companies have expressed their serious concerns on several issues, comprising 'the incompleteness of legislative reforms required for membership, such as passing a new Customs Code, law on external trade policy' (Mehmet, 2002). The local companies have raised serious doubts about the lack of exposure of the local companies to the competitive market, and problem with reference to the sluggish pattern of the growth of total factor productivity. It is anticipated that exposure of the local companies to the international market will 'detrimental in the short run to some sectors of the ussian economy such as the food and machine-building industries' (Mehmet,…
Mehmet Ogutcu. Attracting FDI for Russia's Modernization: Battling against the Odds. OECD-Russia Investment Roundtable. June 2002.
Oliver Funk, Anja Lorenz. Russia's Accession into the World Trade Organization. April, 2002.
John Pinder. The EU and Russia: The Promise of Partnership. The Federal Trust for Education & Research. 2002. pp, 212.
Marat Terterov. Doing Business with Russia. Kogan Page. 2003. pp. 419.
The Soviet Union, itself collapsed and fragmented into a number of states in 1991 with Boris Yeltsin becoming the President of an independent ussia. Yeltsin ended state control of the economy and privatized most enterprises. However, ussia's transition to a market economy was extremely painful and following continuing economic problems and poor personal health, Yeltsin resigned on December 31, 1999, appointing Vladimir Putin as his successor.
The ussian economy has been boosted by the extremely high oil prices in the recent past but several serious problems still exist. The economy is heavily dependant on oil and has failed to diversify; there is pervasive corruption in the government, and very high criminal activity; the country has a weak judicial and banking system and too much power is concentrated in the hands of President Putin. ("ussia," 2007)
Lorimer, D. (1992). "The Collapse of Communism in the U.S.S..: Its causes and significance."…
Lorimer, D. (1992). "The Collapse of Communism in the U.S.S.R.: Its causes and significance." DSP.org. Retrieved on April 16, 2007 at http://www.dsp.org.au/dsp/Collapse/index.htm
Russia." (2007). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved on April 16, 2007 from https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html
The new attitude of the ussian government makes perfect sense because, according to the article, the annual national death toll attributable to smoking in ussia is approximately 400,000. Moreover, the morbidity associated with smoking is only a portion of the total societal cost of smoking because it is estimated that smoking also costs the already-cash-strapped nation the equivalent of almost $50 billion in annual healthcare costs and lost worker productivity from smoking-related illnesses. Just as in the West before the historic disclosure of previously confidential industry information by a former insider that led to multiple class action settlements from litigation initiated by various state attorneys general in the 1990s, there is a tremendous tobacco industry political lobby in ussia fighting tooth-and-nail against the proposed legislation. Generally, they represent only the selfish interests of the tobacco companies and do not have any concern for the welfare of the members of…
Alpert, L.I. "Kremlin Cracks Down on Big Tobacco: Russia, the World's Second-Largest
Cigarette Market after China, Plans 'Harsh' Anti-smoking Rules." The Wall Street
Journal, October 15, 2012. Retrieved online:
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
Room for Debate: Russia and the Liberal Ideal
The Liberal Ideal of the est, which grew out of the Romantic/Enlightenment era where men like Voltaire and Rousseau espoused the qualities of naturalism, freedom, and equality, is now being challenged by Russian President Vladimir Putin. He in turn is raising questions and rebuttals from those who oppose his regime's initiatives. Three articles from The New York Times show different perspectives on this challenge -- specifically, its effects on the social, political and economic situation of those it is aimed at rebuffing. This paper will identify the perspectives, synthesize the arguments, and put forth the new argument, which is this: while estern (and Eastern) liberals may object to these anti-liberal policies, as leader of Russia Putin has the right to oppose and/or support whatever ideals he deems healthy for Russia.
Each article shows why Russia's new anti-liberal direction is problematic for both…
Bernstein, Jacob. "Anti-Gay Policies Chill Viewers' Interest." The New York Times. 31
Jan 2014. Web.
Gladstone, Rick. "Pussy Riot Members Take Tour to New York." The New York Times.
5 Feb 2014. Web.
Christians, it is our duty to pray for others. Christians are also Biblically obliged to pray even for those who appear to be beyond saving, or for the unlikeliest of souls. "First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people," (1 Timothy 2:1). Therefore, praying on behalf of world leaders becomes even more of a Christian imperative given the tremendous influence political leaders have on the people who they lead or rule. Over the course of the last year or more, I have made a conscientious attempt to pray for a set of world leaders who either needed guidance, support, and intervention from God, salvation from a sinful path, or strength as they traversed the difficult and challenging path of Christ.
Although I did pray for more than a dozen world leaders, I focused on the President of the United States, Barack…
Johnson, D.W. (2015). Biblical requirements of leaders. Christianity Today. Retrieved online: http://www.christianitytoday.com/le/2007/july-online-only/le-040329.html
An important factor to consider with regard to the sources of this ongoing conflict is that the Chechen society is characterized by extremely strong loyalties, as well as rivalries, between the more then 140 different clans in the region. (the Conflict in Chechnya, 2000)
Chechen opposition also hardened against ussia in 1937, when the ussian authorities began a campaign of repression of Chechen dissidents and executed 14,000 Chechens at Ingush. (the Conflict in Chechnya, 2000) the ussian government also abolished the republic of Chechnya in 1944 and deported hundreds of thousands of Chechens to Siberia and Central Asia. The reason given for the deportations was that the Chechens had been complicit with the invading Germans. This action reportedly resulted in the deaths of more than 200, 000 Chechens. (the Conflict in Chechnya, 2000)
These events had two major outcomes. As mentioned, these atrocities hardened the attitude of the Chechen people…
Q&a: The Chechen conflict. Retrieved January 21, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3293441.stm
The Conflict in Chechnya (2000) Retrieved January 21, 2008, at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:AwnPFUrZA_AJ:www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp2000/rp00-014.pdf+chechnya+conflict&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=uk
Many manufacturing workers in developed countries are losing work to foreign manufacturers who will work for substantially less pay. As companies take advantage of the significant savings that result by shipping jobs overseas, manufacturing workers in developed countries are frequently forced to take jobs paying significantly less in their own country.
One of the greatest impacts on the global economy is the world's growing thirst for crude oil. The engine of the world still runs on gas which is steadily becoming problematic. In addition, the giant Chinese economy has awakened to the power that comes from combustion engine prosperity, so demand for the precious commodity has reached an all time high. But oil consumption and demand are not simply economic problems for the world. Oil is at the center of many of the cultural problems facing the planet.
Cultural Globalization confluence of cultures has beset the world's richest oil producing…
Applebaum, Anne "Back in the U.S.S.R." New Republic 28 Jun. 2004: 230
Firebaugh, Glenn and Goesling, Brian "Accounting for the Recent Decline in Global Income
Inequality." American Journal of Sociology Sep. 2004: 110
Meyer, Michael, Brown, Frank, Mcguire, Stryker, Conant, Eve "Flowers for Freedom."
In her article, "Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11 -from an organizer's point-of-view" the military could have done more. In particular the author asserts that General Myers who controlled such military operations, couls have done more to prevent the attacks (Brouillet). Instead the general was awarded one of the highest military honors for his inaction prior to 9/11 (Brouillet). The author also explain that she organized rallies and showecd people a film entitled "The Great Deception" which was the first televised show that contradicted the claims that were being made by the mainstream media in the aftermath of 9/11.
Mark Dunlea is one of the most outspoken voices on the events of September 11 and the lack of cooperation from the Bush administration in reference to a bipartisan review of the terrorist attacks. Dunlea is a member of the Green Party of New York city. In fact, Mark Dunlea…
Brouillet, Carol Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11
from an organizer's point-of-view. Retrieved January 2, 2005 from;
Dunlea, Mark. Madame President: The Unauthorized Biography of the First Green Party President. Big Toad Books: New York.
religion shaped identity political entities ussia (us', Soviet Union, ussian federation) ways 'Historically, there has been a somewhat tricky dichotomy between religion in what is today known as ussia and the political situation that has governed this country. The relationship between these two crucial elements of society -- religion and politics -- has at times been in accordance with one another, and other times dangerously at odds with each other. Today there is a degree of tolerance and temperance between these two aspects of ussian life that have served to produce a great deal of friction throughout the country previously.
During the period of Czarist ussia, which concluded in 1917, politics exerted a great deal of influence over religion. With the Czars governing the country, ussian Orthodoxy was essentially the only religion supported by the state. Despite the fact that this religion was prevalent throughout the country well before the…
McCarthy, B. (2012). "Grappling with a post-Soviet identity." PRI's The World. Retrieved from http://www.theworld.org/2012/01/post-soviet-identity/
No author. (2007). "Religious and political history of modern Russia." Mary Mother of God Mission Society. Retrieved from http://www.vladmission.org/history/religiouspoliticalhist.htm
mericans today think about the problems of getting the oil that is needed to run our economy through the rest of this century, they will no doubt find themselves thinking either about drilling for oil in laska - since this topic has been so much in the news over the past several months - or establishing peace in the Middle East so that oil may continue to flow from that region to the United States - a topic that has been in the news even more since the September 11 terrorist attacks.
But while both laska and the Middle East will no doubt remain at the center of energy policy - or at least controversy over energy policy - for the foreseeable future, we must remember that there are other important sources of energy in the world, and these too exist amid a cyclone of political controversy.
One of the…
Agreement Reached on Pipeline Route in Caspian Region http://www.turkishpilots.org/NEWS/2001_06_13_Associated_Press.htm
Discuss the challenges of values-based business decision making ethics in the current marketplace.
A values-based business decision is focusing on how ethical practices will influence the actions of the firm, their relationship with customers and its long-term impacts on the brand name. This can provide organizations with the tools they need to become more competitive and it enables clients to offer them with something more. In the future, this helps an organization to be able to stand out and offer stakeholders with something more. (Khanna, 2010) (McMurrian, 2006)
However, there are challenges associated with using this basic approach in the current marketplace. The most notable include: added costs and creating a congruent strategy. In the case of added costs, the use of this model has been shown to increase the amounts of training and time discussing why ethics are important to staff members and managers. The basic idea…
Aslund, A. (2012). The U.S. Should Establish Normal Trade Relations. Washington: Peterson International
Khanna, T. (2010). Winning in the Emerging Markets. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
McMurrian, R. (2006). Building Customer Value. Journal of Business and Economic Research, 4 (11), 11- 18.
Organizational Leadership and Performance
The environment in which leaders of today operate is increasingly global. It is important to note, from the onset, that today's globalized environment significantly differs from the environment business operated in a couple of decades ago. In addition to being fast-paced, today's business environment is also more competitive and complex. The demands of the current era have meant that leaders of today must embrace new leadership approaches -- different from those applied by their predecessors two or three decades ago.
The Need to Appreciate Diversity
Today, every leader, as Daft (2014, p. 326) points out, "needs to understand the complexity of diversity issues, learn to create an inclusive culture, and support the development of minorities…" Unlike was the case a few decades ago, today's leaders are expected to lead teams of individuals, all of whom come from diverse backgrounds, ethnic roots, and have different motivations. It…
Adair, J. (2009). Leadership and Motivation: The Fifty-Fifty Rule and the Eight Key Principles of Motivating Others. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Bell, A. (2011). Great Leadership: What it is and What it Takes in a Complex World. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.
Cancialosi, C. (2014). Today's Leaders Must Learn to Thrive in Disequilibrium. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/chriscancialosi/2014/07/28/todays-leaders-must-learn-to-thrive-in-disequilibrium/
Daft, R. (2014). The Leadership Experience (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning
Roxane, Justin, and Patrick sounds like a sensible one, but the simple fact is that Roxane's position is insane, Justin's position is out-of-touch with the reality of twenty-first century warfare, and Patrick offers a traditional pacisism in the mold of Gandhi. I hope to demonstrate that Michael Walzer's conclusion on the justice of warfare -- that it is almost impossible to justify -- it is expensive -- runs double for the peacetime attack.
Roxane's kneejerk jingoism is entirely devoid of merit. The dictator of country Z. has a terrible reputation because he slaughters civilians and has threatened to invade neighboring states -- Roxanne's proposed solution is that the U.S. should actually invade the far-away state of Z, and slaughter their civilians. To pretend that there is any ethical consistency in Roxanne's suggestion here is nonsense. Her notion that Japan became a peaceful and stable ally of the U.S. because it…
United States President Barack Obama had made a promise during the 2008 presidential elections that he would state the actions that Turkey committed in 1915 were an act of genocide against the Armenian people. However, every year since that promise, President Obama has broken it, always avoiding offending Turkey in order to keep their NATO ally happy and fighting alongside the United States. This is because not only is Turkey the only Muslim majority nation in NATO, making it a more important ally than Armenia, but it the country also has the second-biggest military in NATO (the first being the United States). As the battle in Syria wages on, and ISIS continues to grow along with problems arising in other parts of the Middle East like Iran, the United States is looking to do anything to keep Turkey on their side.
What is left is then a broken promise to…
Hovannisian, R. (1992). The Armenian genocide. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Lakoff, G. (2008). The Political Mind: Why You Can't understand 21st-century Politics with an 18-th century brain. New York: Viking.
Tapper, J. (2015). Obama again breaks promise on Armenian genocide. CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2016, from http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/24/politics/armenia-genocide-obama-broken-promise-jake-tapper/
Wafford, T. (2015). HILLARY'S SHIFTING STANCE ON THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE. Newsweek.com. Retrieved 13 May 2016, from http://www.newsweek.com/hillarys-shifting-stance-armenian-genocide-324799
In this essay about special prosecutor Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, we provide an overview of the information available at the time of publication about that investigation. The essay will explain who Robert Mueller is; what the investigation is trying to find; and why the investigation was instigated. In addition, the essay will discuss the latest news, as of May 21, 2018, about the investigation. In addition to discussing the Mueller investigation, the essay will provide you with a technical guide for writing academic essays. In addition to being formatted in an appropriate academic style, it will include all of the standard parts of an academic essay, including: introduction, thesis statement, evidence and analysis in the body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
Robert Mueller- Robert Mueller is the special prosecutor appointed to look into Russian interference in the 2016 Presidential campaign. As evidence increases…
In addition, he notes that the Chinese and ussians somehow "choose" to be continuing autocracies, and then acknowledges the power of their leaders. Thus, the people are under the thumb of their leaders, and may be "settling" for autocracy because they see democracy as unattainable and out of reach. Take the ussians, for example, who had a real shot at democracy when the Soviet Union fell, and have instead allowed Putin to create another autocracy not unlike much of the Soviet regime before the fall. Indeed, people may choose autocracy, or they may be bullied into it, or they simply may be more comfortable with it, because it is so ingrained in their lives.
Gee does make valid points throughout his essay, including the notation that most large, successful countries fail without democracy. ome and Greece are two of the dominant democratic cultures that notoriously fell from power and crumbled…
Gee, Marcus. "Nations Can Thrive Without Democracy, but Only for so Long."
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…
Baranovsky, Vladimir. "Russia: A Part of Europe or Apart from Europe?" International Affairs Vol. 76, No. 3, Europe: Where Does it Begin and End?. (Jul., 2000), pp. 443-458.
BBC. "EU-Russia relations 'at low ebb'." BBC News. 20 April 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6574615.stm (accessed 13 December 2007)
Emerson, Michael, and Irina Kobrinskaya. "Russia and the West." Working Paper 2004. European Security Forum. Center for European Policy Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
European Commission. "EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October." European Parliament. Strasbourg, 24 October, 2007. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/653&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 13 December 2007)
globe has people of different backgrounds on basis of religion, culture, beliefs, economy and many other attributes, there is need to have some attributes that will help bind the globe. This is where the international laws come in, these are agreed upon treaties or conventions which nations look upon to bind them, often they have a universal attraction and entrusted into the hands of a global organization to ensure they are implemented. An example is the international law on basic human rights where each individual has the right to life and others that concern protection of women and children as the most vulnerable in times of war. I was aware that there are rules of engagement in war but I never knew of the Jus War Doctrine. This is a doctrine that indicates that war is philosophically based on morals, there is a just war and unjust war. According to…
BBC News Europe, (2014). Ukraine v Russia militaries - in 60 seconds. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26437359