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Voter Participation Citizen Participation
Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84758428
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S. House of Representatives from that state. hy set up a presidential election in which voters do not directly elect the president? elch (32) explains that the founders devised this system "…because of their view that the people could not be trusted. The people were seen as an unruly mob threatening stable, orderly government," she continued. Even after Gore successfully petitioned the Florida Supreme Court to have election officials count 9,000 previously uncounted ballots by hand, that may well have given him the victory in Florida, the U.S. Supreme Court trumped the Florida High Court and ultimately gave Florida's 25 electoral votes -- and the presidency -- to Republican candidate Bush (the High Court vote was 5-4: 5 Republican justices to 4 Democrat justices).

Meanwhile, according to professor Mary C. Segers (Rutgers University), the U.S. system of government actually "enhances citizen impact on government" (Segers, 2002, p. 182). The Founders…

Works Cited

Federal Election Commission. (2001). 2000 Presidential Popular Vote Summary For All

Candidates Listed On At Least One State Ballot. Retrieved August 25, 2011, from .

Segers, Mary C. (2002). Piety, Politics, and Pluralism: Religion, the Courts, and the 2000

Election. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Vote for John Mccain Senator
Words: 1888 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87755917
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Considering how firmly McCain expresses his support for continuing the war in Iraq although under different command, it is clear that he represents a solution for the current situation. Our nation needs a leader with experience and that has the courage to make the toughest decisions in order to achieve victory. Although McCain has shown his support for the war against terrorism, he has also criticized the ability of President ush of conducting our troops. McCain comes with a different view of the war, with a different solution that will lead us to victory.

Senator John McCain is the most suitable political actor to become president in 2008 because he has shown commitment to his believes, he constantly fought against governmental spending and corporate interest even since the early 80s, and because he backs his believes all the way. He is a supporter of traditional moral values and he believes…

Bibliography lifetime of service, available at ;

Berman, Ari, "The real McCain," in the Nation, November 22, 2005, available at ;

John McCain, available at ;

Ponnuru, Ramesh, National Review: The Coming McCain Moment, March 9, 2007, available at ;

Why John McCain?, available at .

Voter Participation by Categories in
Words: 827 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24691245
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In the gender category the most likely to vote is the female voter that has a mild advantage over the male type of voter. This assumption should be analyzed carefully, as often in survey as well as in collected votes some mistakes may appear. The difference between the female and the male voter is very small which indicates that both genders have more or less equal vote intentions and, therefore, reasons for such a small gap cannot be traced to any significant difference in the two elements of the analysis.

In the race category, it is not difficult to asses which of the mentioned races are more likely to vote, as the segment White race is higher than the next identified ones: lack and Hispanic. Nevertheless, in any voting behavior analysis is it important to also identify which of the "all races" element is predominant, as it might turn out…

Based on year of education, college graduates and higher education citizens voted in a proportion of more than 60%, compared with 1-3 years College citizens that voted in less than 50% of their entire number.

In one well-developed paragraph, explain your analysis of the data presented on voter participation for 1996.

The analysis on voter participation for the 1996 Presidential elections shows a rather standard image of voting behavior, similar to the analysis in the first part of the assignment. Taking into consideration the five categories, the voter that has the highest percentage would be an elderly White woman from the upper class with a rather high education. This type of analysis should be taken with reservations in a voting analysis as it only shows the voter with the highest percentage in its demographic factor and, for example, if measured on numbers and not on percentage, the most common voter could be of a totally different nature.

Voter Through Congressional District Research the Bipartisan
Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85845345
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Voter Through Congressional District esearch

The bipartisan structure which defines the American system of democratic governance is premised on the notion that informed voters, when provided with an opportunity to select their own leadership, will invariably alternate between candidates with whom they identify closely, and members of the opposing party who offer meaningful reform. This maxim of American politics has resulted in a pattern of Presidential ascendency whereby neither party has captured the White House in three consecutive elections since the four consecutive campaign victories notched by Franklin Delano oosevelt more than a half-century ago. Nonetheless, there are still pockets of provincial loyalty which still exist throughout the national electorate, with family histories and cultural touchstones serving to elevate one party above its competition in the hearts and minds of voters. In the second congressional district of Tennessee -- an area which spans the metropolitan borders of Knoxville, as well…


Barone, M., & Cohen, R.E. (2005). The Almanac of American Politics, 2006. Washington, DC:

National Journal Group.

Bill, T. (2010, January 17). Alexander among most bipartisan of gop senators. The Leaf

Chronicle. Retrieved from

Voter Turnout Rates in United States
Words: 2765 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27912000
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Voter turnout in the United States changes from state to state. An excellent example to show how this variation occurs is the 2012 presidential election, where there were 45% voter turnout in Hawaiians and 76% Minnesotans. Many different factors determine the number of people who cast ballots (Larocca & Klemanski, 2011). According to Brenna Center (2020), lawmakers in 29 states have proposed bills that would encourage more voting. The bills aim to streamline the voter registration process, facilitate absentee voting, allow people with past convictions to vote, and promote more early in-person voting. Something different is happening in 15 fifteen states with bills that make the voting process more complex being suggested. Some of the restrictions include reduced support to voters, limitations on voter ID, harsh punishment for electoral related crimes, and complicated processes for absentee voting. Legislators from the 15 states argue that their purpose is to secure…

Brenna Center, (2020). Voting Laws Roundup 2020. Retrieved from 
Citrin, J., Green, D. P., & Levy, M. (2014). The effects of voter ID notification on voter turnout: Results from a large-scale field experiment. Election Law Journal, 13(2), 228-242.
Gronke, P., Galanes-Rosenbaum, E., Miller, P. A., & Toffey, D. (2008). Convenience voting. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci., 11, 437-455.
Highton, B. (2017). Voter identification laws and turnout in the United States. Annual Review of Political Science, 20, 149-167.
Inbody, D. S. (2016). The soldier vote: War, politics, and the ballot in America. Springer.
Larocca, R., & Klemanski, J. S. (2011). US state election reform and turnout in presidential elections. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 11(1), 76-101.
Menger, A., Stein, R. M., & Vonnahme, G. (2015, June). Turnout Effects from vote by mail elections. In conference on election administration and reform.
Mycoff, J. D., Wagner, M. W., & Wilson, D. C. (2009). The empirical effects of voter-ID laws: Present or absent?. PS: Political Science and Politics, 42(1), 121-126.

Register to Vote
Words: 1346 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44373562
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Voting is one of the most important rights in a democratic society. In the United States, this right has been intermittently fought for by minority groups such as black people, women and others. It is a right that has been earned by pioneers and fighters, and one that is being taken for granted all too easily in today's society. According to a column by Hillary Clinton (2001) for example, young people between the ages of 18 and 24 are losing interest in voting. A survey conducted by the National Association of Secretaries of State concludes that this generation may become the first class of non-voters. This does not bode well for the United States of the future. The country's past is riddled with struggle in order to reach the state of democracy that everybody enjoys today. The right to vote is one of the most important privileges granted by this…


Center for Voting and Democracy. Title Voting & democracy report, 1995. Washington, D.C.: Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995.

Clinton, Hillary Rodham. "Talking it Over." The White House. November, 2001.

Hutton, Barbara. Voter education: manual for trainers. Bellville: Project Vote, 1993.

Leidy, Maureen. "Importance of Voting", 2002.

Negative Attack Ads Decrease Voter
Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39579668
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Part II. Meta-Analysis: Critiquing hat You Have Done

Data thus far on negative campaigning has been mixed, with some research suggesting that it can be profoundly mobilizing to the party faithful of a generally dispirited American electorate (Jackson & Carsey 2006; Martin 2004), while other anecdotal studies suggest it can alienate the public. Polling individuals from a cross-section of elections allows for a wider array of demographic data, and reduces the possibility of independent variables affecting the results. For example, the area selected for the case study might have a generally low level of civic engagement, which could create low voter turnout that was correlated to a negative campaign by both candidates, but not caused by the candidate's advertisements. Examining different districts, with different kinds of hotly contested or lukewarm races, is more representational. However, a case study allows for greater specificity in conducting the research. The interviewers are able…

Works Cited

Do negative campaign ads work?" This Nation. 2005. 14 Jan 2008.

Jackson, Robert a. & Thomas a. Carsey. U.S. Senate campaigns, negative advertising, and voter mobilization in the 1998 midterm election. Electoral Studies. 26.1: 180-195. March 2007. 14 Jan 2008

Martin, Paul S. "Inside the Black Box of Negative Campaign Effects: Three Reasons

Why Negative Campaigns Mobilize." Political Psychology. 25.4: 545-562. Aug 2004.

Understanding Voter Behavior Patterns
Words: 1964 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40987508
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Democracy is meant to be a means for the 'every person' to help govern the nation. However, Popkin's theory of low information rationality posits that 'every person' is unlike the ideal citizen in that they do not make their decisions based on fact, but rather, personal interactions and information from the media. Populistic Democracy allows for the governing of the nation through the 'simple person' not the privileged elite. However, similar to Popkin, Berelson believes most citizens are not able to maintain specific standards needed to successfully govern a nation. This may be because most people lack the education and understanding of what it takes to run a country and select adequate political representatives. The four standards briefly covered by Berelson: discussion, principle, rationality, and knowledge, are what an ideal citizen upholds. The reality of ideality means no one represents the ideal citizen, especially in great numbers. This is because…

Insider's View of Vote Vulnerability
Words: 349 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9104095
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There is also a question of the author's bias for requiring the paper ballots. One has to wonder if this requirement might mean more work for him in future elections. The author's credibility is somewhat diminished by his use of a single example of someone who might have interest in manipulating elections, well-funded foreign powers. Certainly, this could be a possibility, but there are just as many other likely candidates that Rubin should have mentioned. It appears that his choice of example is an attempt to charge emotions rather than to offer serious analysis.

Rubins's article has been successful at making one consider the possibility that there may be security issues with electronic voting. but, it certainly hasn't proved this point. Apparently, the state of Maryland which has just bought $55.6 million worth of these machines doesn't think so. It would be interesting to read its security evaluation.




Rubin, Avi. "An Insider's View of Vote Vulnerability." Common Dreams Newscenter. 10 Mar. 2004.  (Accessed 1 Mar. 2007).

Nazi Vote From Our Point-Of-View
Words: 842 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42314283
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The churches provided open opposition to Hitler, particularly as he had declared a form of war on them as he wanted the state to take over the churches and to direct them in ways compatible with National Socialism. Various religious leaders were arrested, hundreds of them, eventually resulting in a diminishing of the resistance from that front. Shirer notes that this persecution of religion did not arouse the German people as it should have: "A people who had so lightly given up their political and cultural and economic freedoms were not, except for a relatively few, going to die or even risk imprisonment to preserve freedom of worship" (Shirer 240).

hile a large proportion of the intellectual class has rightly been blamed for failing in its responsibility to criticize the rise of National Socialism, there were also leading men in philosophy and education, history, jurisprudence, economics, physics, and other disciplines…

Works Cited

Rothfels, Hans, the German Opposition to Hitler. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1962.

Shirer, William L., the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960.

Causes of the British Vote to Leave the European Union
Words: 1685 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48644871
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Brexit: The Causes of the British Vote to Leave the European Union

Brexit was the referendum vote that saw the United Kingdom pull out of the European Union. The European Union (EU) is a 29-member state egional Trade Agreement bringing together various European nations. The formation of the union saw the elimination of most barriers to the movement of labor, capital and goods between the member states. It harmonized the laws, rules and standards regarding trade amongst member nations. Most of the member states use the Euro as their currency except for Britain (ies, 2016).

The Brexit referendum had been organized on 23rd June 2016, and the issue in question was whether or not the UK ought to leave the EU. 17.41 of the voters voted for Leave while 16.41 voted for emain. There was a political design to the referendum where the then Prime Minister, David Cameron, hoped that…


Aspaker, A., Denver, D., Garnett, M., Runcimann, D., Barber, S., Lord., C., Wright, N., Todd, J., O'Hara, G., Hertner, I., & Harvey, M. (2016). The Brexit drama and the dawn of a new era. Journal of the British Politics Society, Norway, 11(3), 1-24. Retrieved from 

Chu, B. (2016, June 26). Why did people really vote for Brexit? If we don't face the psychological reasons, we'll never bring Britain together. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from Independent: 

Cutts, D. (2016, June 29). Brexit! The Result and Its Implications. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from E-International Relations: 

Offe, C. (2016, December 9). Brexit and the Weaknesses of Referenda. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from Global Policy Journal:

Why My Vote Matters Essay
Words: 1058 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: Array
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When elections are won or lost by a large majority, it can give people, particularly young people, the impression that their votes don’t matter. They see the situation as very simple: the outcome would be the same regardless or not if they had exercised their one vote or not. However, this attitude is not only damaging and cultivates a dangerous sense of apathy, it also is very incorrect. In states that are overwhelmingly red or blue, it really can feel like your vote is lost in a sea that is either with you or against you. And as one researcher recently pointed out, it is important to acknowledge that voting is onerous (McColl, 2016). It can be tedious to look up one’s polling place and make time before or after work to vote. Going before work means waking up earlier and going after work means being tired and putting…

American Democracy

The Electoral College as it currently functions is a way of getting around the "popular vote" -- as Underhill (2012) notes in "Changing Up the Electoral College?" However, Gregg (2011) puts an entirely different spin on the Electoral College by viewing it as "a compromise" between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist agendas that went into forming the Constitution (p. 34). Gregg asserts that the Electoral College allows special representatives to select after a republican process (direct voting) the executive. In other words, it combines popular vote with representative vote. Essentially, the popular vote is limited to states and does not count for the nation as a whole. The individual winner of a state's popular vote is assigned electoral votes -- and while one state may have many more people/voters than another -- these numbers are only represented by the electoral votes when it comes time to choosing the national…


Gregg, G. (2011). Unpopular Vote. The American Conservative: 33-35.

Underhill, W. (2012). Changing Up the Electoral College? Trends and Transitions: 9.

Uninsured and I Vote ' Will
Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78830866
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And any reform process will produce some initial pain: the voting "middle class may be dissatisfied but most of them have employer insurance, so they have something to lose...They are not prepared for a national experiment that will threaten what they have" (Arnst 2007:1).

Currently, none of the Republican candidates have issued detailed plans. Hillary Clinton has put forth a proposal requiring all Americans to have health insurance, through their employers, through an expanded version of the insurance available to federal employees, or through a new government-run Medicare style plan. Tax subsidies and credits will cover the premiums, "and no one could be turned down by an insurer for a pre-existing condition or other health issues" (Arnst 2007:2). Senator Barack Obama also says he will mandate that everyone buys insurance. But no candidate, regardless of how detailed or vague their plan, can iron out all of the specifics before he…

Works Cited

Arnst, Catherine. (17 Sept 2007). The politics of health-care reform.

Business Week. Retrieved 11 Nov 2007 at

Analysis of the Current Situation in American Politics
Words: 1356 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63717584
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Voting is a privilege and a right. A right that was denied for millions of people. Only until the passing of the Voting ights Act did minorities have a chance to not only vote, but change the face of the government. Before 1965, minorities, especially blacks, faced violent opposition in an attempt to stifle their voices and control the way the government nominates its officials.

Now that President Obama has shown what can happen when minorities are given a voice in politics, there have come some major setbacks. The nation in the next presidential election will adopt one of two sides, a far left or a far right. With the recent death of Head Justice Scalia and the refusal of Congress to allow the nomination of Merrick Garland, it is safe to say the nation is in turmoil in several ways. To understand how things became so unstable it is…


DeSilver, D. & DeSilver, D. (2015). U.S. voter turnout trails most developed countries. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from 

Justice,. (2016). History Of Federal Voting Rights Laws -- CRT -- Department of Justice. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from

Meko, T., Keating, D., Urhmacher, K., & Stamm, S. (2016). Everything you need to know about appointing a Supreme Court justice. Washington Post. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from 

Super PACs -- OpenSecrets. (2016). Retrieved 24 May 2016, from

Macro Politics
Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59419733
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Voting to Violence, Jack Snyder starkly poses some of the most vexing questions for foreign policy analysts during the 1990's. Why was this decade, despite the collapse of the totalitarian system of communism and an overall greater global potential for democratic involvement, marked by a worldwide increase in ethnic conflict and hatred in Europe and across the larger world?

Why did this "the process of democratization" become seemingly "one of its own worst enemies," because of its populist nature of the democratic politics that seemed to point towards peace and freedom, rather than conflict. Why has the promise of democracy leading to a more stable worldwide peace seemingly inevitably become "clouded with the danger of war?" (Snyder 2000: 21)

In another section of Snyder's book, the author states that "the transition to democratic politics is meanwhile [still] creating fertile conditions for nationalism and ethnic conflict, which not only raises the…

However, this valuation of the individual must be for all individuals for this world democratic peace to ensue. In other words, new democracies must be rights-based rather than purely populist and ethnically based, otherwise an 'us vs. them' ethnic ideology will lead to warfare. In an ethnic democracy, the security of one's ethnic state becomes based in the stamping out of all ethnic groups, groups who were historically, previously opposed to one's own ethnic identity. What is called upon is not a naive liberal faith in the value of a democracy, but an intelligent understanding of the complications of democracy, a belief in a rights-based system with a questioning eye upon simple ethnic majority populism. (Snyder 2000: 16-17)

Snyder and Dahl's analysis is so cogent because their words explain why democracy does not automatically produce a "democratic peace," only a rights-based "civic democracy" as distinguished from an "ethnic democracy" can do so. (Snyder 2000: 353) In contrast, ethnic democracies undermine a democratic peace because they "deactivate the mechanisms that keep relations between democracies peaceful," in other words for ethnically-based democratic movements and states, the individual's rights is only valued if that individual is part of a specific ethnic frame of reference. Rather than civic or rights-based and individualistic liberal democracies, when democracies evolve in an ethnic-based conflict, they are not more likely to be at peace with one another. Instead, contending rival ethnic democracies are more likely to be at war with one another, reviving ancient hatreds. They are additionally more likely to have a perceived stake in the ethnic conflicts of wars outside their borders.

Synder and Dahl's analysis should not be read as a simply validation of the United States liberal political system, after all the U.S. is hardly free of inter-ethnic conflicts of its own. Instead, their books are intended as warnings to makers of United States policy who may have been too quick in the past to support movements simply because they are democratic, without looking into the specific ethnic tensions of various regions and regional movements. Only through a specific understanding of different country's ancient histories, histories that often stretch far back beyond that of the United State's own conception, can a truly democratic and peaceful world be orchestrated by the stable democracies of the current world order.

Present Day Racism in Texas
Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 81765737
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Texas Voter ID Law

For a state which has a history of discrimination, segregation, racism and outright bigotry, one would think the state government would be more open to hoeing a more positive path for the future at large. Unfortunately that does not seem to be the case when it comes to the Texas Voter ID law. Lawyers who challenged the legislation described it as follows, "A law requiring Texas voters to show government-issued identification before casting a ballot is the latest example of the state's long history of discrimination against minorities and puts unjustified burdens on the right to vote for more than half a million Texans" (Fernandez, 2014). This paper will attempt to demonstrate how this law needs to be treated as the form of discrimination which is absolutely is and how it is a form of legislation so bigoted and underhandedly racist, it is evocative of the…


Fernandez, M. (2014, September 22). Plaintiffs Claim Bias During Closing Argument Against Texas Voter ID Law. Retrieved from 

Greenblatt, A. (2013, October 22). The Racial History Of The 'Grandfather Clause'. Retrieved from 

Lithwick, D. (2014, Septemver). Voter ID Laws May Worsen Voter Fraud. Retrieved from

Proposition 34 California's Proposition 34 Calls for
Words: 1509 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41896606
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Proposition 34

California's Proposition 34 calls for the end of the death penalty and replaces death sentences with a sentence of life without parole. The proposition would: (1) repeal the death penalty and replace it with life imprisonment without the possibility of parole; (2) retroactively remove all current death penalty sentences and replace them with life without parole; (3) require all people convicted of murder to work while in prison and apply their wages to victim restitution and/or fines; and (4) create a $100,000,000 for law enforcement agencies specifically to solve murder and rape cases (Ballotpedia). Currently, there are 725 people on death row in California, though current challenges to California's lethal injection procedure means that none of them are currently facing execution. In fact, in 2006, a federal court judge halted all executions in California due to concerns over administration of the penalty in the state (Ballotpedia).

The death…

Works Cited "California Proposition 34, the End of the Death Penalty Initiative (2012)."

Ballotpedia, 21 Oct. 2012. Web. 25 Oct. 20120.

California Secretary of State. "California Prop 34: Death Penalty. Initiate Statute." California

General Election Official Voter Information Guide. California Secretary of State. 2012. Web.

Black Churches and Targeted Funding
Words: 3348 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6088776
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Disparity of Targeted Funding in the Black Urban Community

There are many ways to get funding for different types of projects, no matter where a person or organization is located. Some of the areas most in need of funding for projects are in black, urban communities (Barnes, 2005; Day, 2002; Haight, 1998; Patillo-McCoy, 1998). Money is often scarce there, and without funding there are few programs that can help people who really need it. This puts these residents at a distinct disadvantage, and makes it more difficult for them to get out of poverty and build better lives for themselves. No matter what types of programs need funding and financial help, there are different ways in which getting that funding can be considered.

Church congregations often help raise money for community projects, but there are other ways in which these congregations can help those in need (Billingsley, 1999; Brown &…


Barnes, S.L. (2005). Black church culture and community action. Social Forces, 84(2): 967-994.

Billingsley, A. (1999). Mighty like a river: The black church and social reform. NY: Oxford University Press.

Brown, R.K., & Brown, R.E. (2003). Faith and works: Church-based social capital resources and African-American political activism. Social Forces, 82(2): 617-641.

Calhoun-Brown, A. (1996). African-American churches and political mobilization: The psychological impact of organizational resources. The Journal of Politics, 58(4): 935-953.

Progress of Women After 25
Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12931078
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The "Highlander Center," a group advocating rights for African-Americans, "were labeled as subversive and subjected to investigation, and their members were harassed," which sounds a bit more like fascism than democracy.

But were the hearings fair? No, they were highly unfair; from the very beginning, the lack of fairness was obvious to any objective observer; they were called "Hearings egarding the Communist Infiltration of the Motion Picture Industry" (held October 20-30, 1947). The proof was in prior to any fair hearing of the issues or the accused, which is a denial of democratic justice to begin with.

And meantime, the witnesses were classified as "friendly" or "unfriendly." If you were "friendly," that meant you already had cooperated with the HUAC, and had indicated a willingness to point fingers, name names, of suspected "communists," so the members of the committee (which included Congressman ichard Nixon) would look like they were doing…


Wheels and Becker. "The Second Red Scare: HUAC vs. Hollywood, 1947."

McClellan, Jim R. "Women's Suffrage: The Nineteenth Amendment is Ratified." Historical

Moments: Changing Interpretations of America's Past, Vol. 2, the Civil War Through the 20th Century. Chapter 15. New York: Cushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000.

McClellan, Jim R. "Prohibition: The Eighteenth Amendment Takes Effect." Historical Moments:

Beginning of the End of Slavery
Words: 1441 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11275985
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Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Politics in the Mid-19th Century

To the Editor of the Freeport Press:

I am writing today to express my strong support for Abraham Lincoln's candidacy in the upcoming Senatorial elections. There are many reasons why I have decided to vote for a Republican -- going against my life-long commitment to the Democratic Party -- not the least of which is the way in which Lincoln stood up to the demagoguery of Mr. Douglas. While Lincoln showed great skill at oratory, Douglas' dirty tactics and his obsession with the idea that Negroes are less than human have contributed to my decision in this election.

In fact, when Douglass loudly asserted that Republicans who supported an end to slavery were something akin to demons, I was outraged. When Douglas said he would "…nail it [Republican platforms] upon the back of every Black Republican in the state," he alienated me,…

Nurses and Politics There Are
Words: 695 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37433447
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Des Jardins argues that in fact nurses have a moral and ethical obligation to participate in their government in every way available to them, starting with registering to vote, so they can support candidates and issues they believe will support good health for the society in which they live.

In addition, Helms, et. al. (1996) argue that attempting to influence policy at the hospital level as well as for local, state and national politics is important for nurses who work in a time of change. They encourage nurses to work together and try to help find solutions for the serious issues facing health care today. They particularly encourage nurses to be active regarding health issues, such as the changing laws for Medicare. These authors urge nurses to consider what actions could be implemented as a mode for positive change within the health community.

Nurses may feel that for whatever reason…


Des Jardin, Karen. 2001. "Political involvement in nursing -- politics, ethics, and strategic action." AORN Journal, November.

Helms, Lelia B.; Anderson, Mary Ann; and Hanson, Kathy. 1996. "Doin' politics:' linking policy and politics in nursing." Nursing Administration Quarterly, March 22.

Tax on Obesity
Words: 1090 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73539010
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prediction comparison vote real members House Representatives a law. 1. You choose real members House Representatives, Republican Democrat. (There 435 members House, find interests .

A tax on obesity as seen by Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives Bill Cassidy and Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives James McGovern

Obesity has come to be a significant issue in the United States today, with more and more individuals displaying the malady's symptoms. As a consequence, the authorities have gotten actively involved in trying to control it through installing tougher regulation and by implementing programs meant to educate people with regard to attitudes they should take toward the concept. hile agreeing about the significance of this issue, American politicians seem to have different opinions on the matter -- some believe that the solution stays with tougher legislations while others consider that it all comes down to education and…

Works cited:

"Bipartisan Bill Launched to Treat and Reduce Obesity," retrieved July 13, 2014, from 

"Rep. Jim McGovern's 4th "End Hunger Now" Speech: The Obesity Paradox -- Video," retrieved July 13, 2014, from 

"Text of the Treat and Reduce Obesity Act of 2013," retrieved July 13, 2014, from

Electoral Behavior in Elections
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69977927
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The voter is grappling with an economic landscape that has seen income inequality increase, with the elites enjoying prosperity; while the middle class hemorrhages wealth and loses income.

The economic variable is the most prominent short-term factor which affects the voter however, equally pressing is the "long-term predisposition" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 170) of the voter concerning; "an egalitarian/free-market values dimension that contrasts egalitarian or socialist vs. laissez-faire or free-market values" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 172). Voters in Europe and The U.S. are confronted with this polemical; the social democracy governed by a redistribution mentality, or the allure of capitalism and wealth creation despite its penchant for gyrations and economic uncertainty. The coming elections have at their core these fundamental choices based on both short-term and long-term factors, yet will voters have the ability, tools, or option to cast a vote representative of their…

Demobilization, Emotional Identification, and Deficient Information

Particularly in the U.S. The traditional party affiliation as determinant in electoral prediction has turned, with the new dynamic the independent voter who desires a pragmatism and common sense bipartisan solution. While self- described Republicans or Democrats vote tend to vote for their own candidate based on affiliation, this independent is far more likely to be swayed by the short-term factor as opposed to the long-term predisposition; "pre-determined factors have been overrated and more immediate factors-issues, candidates, and election campaigns-have been underrated" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 179).

These short-term factors which in this election cycle are without question: economic growth, government debt, and jobs in Europe and the U.S. are presented to voters via the media's

Florida Congressmen
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Vote Spotter App Report: Palm Harbor, Florida

The "Vote Spotter" app provided the partisan affiliation and voting record on key legislation results for congressional members of the U.S. House and Senate for Palm Harbor, Florida shown in Tables 1 and 2 respectively below (the Vote Spotter app did not indicate that any of the Floridian congressmen sponsored or co-sponsored any legislation).

House of Representatives

Voting Record on Key Legislation

Gus Bilirakis


HB 5946 (exempts Olympic prizes from taxes)

HB 5931 (prohibits prisoner release payments to Iran)

HB 3438 (allows delay of expensive regulations)

HB 3590 (keep income tax deductions from medical expenses)

Yes: HB 5461 (requires report on Iranian officials' assets)

Table 2 -- U.S. Senate

Partisan Affiliation

Voting Record on Key Legislation

Bill Nelson


Yes: SB 2040 (override the veto of legislation allowing terrorism lawsuits)

Yes: U.S. Senate Joint resolution (support sale of military equipment to Saudi…

Robert Dahl and Democracy's Demise
Words: 2266 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38291425
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" Granted, even Dahl admitted that no state or nation would ever be able to create a totally fair and just society. In his essay "Justifying Democracy" he acknowledged that "…the values and goals I advocate and hope will prevail will always be strongly contested" (Dahl, 47). He goes on to say that he is not at all confident that his values "…will necessarily predominate," but they will not become reality "…if those who believe in these goals fail to support them as best they can" (47).

Certainly his goal for a fair and just America does not include support for the draconian policies put forward by those who seek to limit the voters purely out of a corrupt passion for power. That having been said, every sincere leader of every democratic state should have as a top priority the desire to make democracy work for all citizens. Every leader…

Works Cited

Dahl, R.A. (1995). Justifying Democracy. Society, 32(3), 43-49.

Dahl, R.A. (2000). On Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Hudson, W. (2012). Election 2012: Voter ID Laws, Suppression, and Equality. Huff Post

Politics. Retrieved July 16, 2013, from .

Politics Six Questions & Discussion on American
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Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics

Constitutional Convention

During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…

Works Cited

Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .

Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .

DNC Should Decide on a
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This represents and should represent the last solution that the DNC could find, given the limited time until June. It is not the best solution, but it is definitely the best one under the current circumstances. The re-vote solution, if the necessary conditions are fulfilled, would be the fairest solution to the matter. Yet, under the circumstances that shall be explained in the following paragraphs, a re-vote is considered too complicated, time constraining and could create even more scandal within the Democrat Party.

In order to support the 50/50 position and the half-vote per delegate, one should analyze the other two possibilities, and by elimination, this one becomes the optimal one. The first solution, which Mrs. Clinton supports given her results, is to seat the delegates on the basis of the primaries results. Yet, if the DNC takes this decision, it would create a precedent for other states to dodge…


Broder, John. "Clinton and Obama Split Over Florida and Michigan." New York Times, March 2008, 2 April 2008. 

Clinton, Hillary. "Clinton: Florida, Michigan Primaries were "Fair" and Should be "Honored." The Huffington Post, April 2008, 2 April 2008. 

CNN Politics. "No deal reached on Michigan re-vote." CNN Election Centre 2008. March 2008, 2 April 2008. 

Hasen, Rick. " Worries About a Florida Primary Do-Over Through Vote by Mail," the Huffington Post, March 2008, 2 April 2008. /rick-hasen/worries-about-a-florida-p_b_90583.html

Perception of Leadership Styles and Trust Across Cultures and Gender
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56th President of the United States which has represents an unprecedented race in the American Democratic Party between Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. he relationship of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton's leadership styles from the perspective of four distinct variables: gender, culture, trust and likelihood of voting. he author believes that the perception of fairness is the single most essential leadership trait which leaders should acquire in order to garner trust and commitment among voters. Consequently, the author also believes that this also applies to leadership in the business world.

he article conducts a literature review that focuses on different aspects of leadership. here is some controversy in the study of leadership as the author alludes to. here are several research studies that show that there is empirical evidence to suggest that leaders play a critical part in an organization working toward organizational goals. However, some of works have…

The article continues to illustrate various components of leadership and how they are presented in the literature with Obama's and Clinton's leadership styles and campaign messages as the focal point. For example, the article mentions that Barack Obama's winning Democratic Party Nominee Elections campaign, his change message in particular, was far superior in 2008 from an ethical standpoint. This seems to be a fairly loaded assumption that is difficult to test empirically.

He contrasts Clinton's campaign as a more top down approach based on her political life that allowed her to mingle constantly with the political elite. By contrast, Obama's career formed from a more bottom up approach in he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. It is noted that transformational leadership can be facilitated by the level of trust in the leader. Therefore, based on these criteria, it is assumed that Obama's level of trust based on his bottom up career development would be higher and more legitimate among the populace. Although this seems like a reasonable statement, it is still highly speculative without any empirical analysis being conducted on the two candidates.

The actual experiment works to test some of the hypotheses that were generated in the literature review. The independent and dependent variables were measured with a survey that used the Likert Scale to measure responses. The study concludes that the leadership styles of Obama and Clinton are striking different. Barack Obama was perceived as a transformational leader while Clinton was perceived more as a transactional leader. Although I intuitively agree with the study's findings, the evidence that is presented is subject to some skepticism. There are a plethora of limitations that the study had to overcome to be able to test the hypothesis. One obvious one was the sample size. Another limitation that the author alludes to is the cultural variables of the sample which oversimplifies culture into either East or West categories as opposed to more specific geographies. Although I found the article interesting, I'm not sure that it adds significant value to the study of leadership.

Strategic Use and Impact of Social Media in the 2012 Elections
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Strategic Use and Impact of Social Media in the 2012 Elections

The goal of the research is to find evidence of the use and impact of social media in U.S.'s 2012 presidential elections. This is because it was reported that President Obama won the elections because of the ground operation presented by volunteers of his elections' campaigns (CNN ire 1). I chose this topic since reports in state media indicated that the Republican Party was heading in the pre-election polls, but in the end, the Democratic Party won due to the use of technological innovation (Edsall 1). An in depth analysis of the research problem intends to reveal that the presidential contest favored President Obama, for using social media. Social media is increasingly an easy, fast, and effective way for people to have personal contact through technology. The intention is to prove the political premise that the most effective means…

Works Cited

"Changing Face of America Helps Assure Obama Victory." Pew Research Center for the People & The Press. People-Press. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.

"Election 2012: Barack Obama wins with 'Better Ground Game'." CNN Wire. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.

Blow, Charles M. "Election Data Dive." New York Times. Nov 9, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.

Edsall, Thomas, B. "Campaign Stops: What We Already Know." New York Times, The Opinion Pages. Nov 4, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.

American Political Behavior
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American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog

Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters

Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…


Hendricks, J.A., & Denton, R.E. (2009). Communicator-in-chief: How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the white house. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.

Rosenau, J.N., & Singh, J.P. (2002). Information technologies and global politics: The changing scope of power and governance. Albany (N.Y.: State university of New York press.

Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)

Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)

Women's Suffrage the Suffrage Question
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They argued that women would not have any reforming effect on the country because they would vote with their husbands (opposite of what they argued earlier). In states where they already had the vote, they had made no difference. Finally, they argued that women didn't really want the vote, anyway. This last charge had some truth to it. Susan . Anthony observed that the apathy of most women about the vote was the biggest obstacle for the movement. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 said that women would get the vote when "women as a whole show any special interest in the matter" (Woloch 242).

Terborg-Penn (113) points out that between 1910 and 1920 middle-class black women became active in the cause. She states that black feminists could never overlook the issue of racism; for them, it wasn't just a matter of being women; their color was a major cause of…