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Suffrage is an integral component of every American citizen's democratic rights and the law has given it top priority. ut realities such as the difficulties encountered from the registration phase to the voting phase, emphasis on registration as a bureaucratic task, predispositions, election-specific forces and other determinants of participation have resulted in unclear and inconsistent pattern of voting behavior and inconclusive turnout and voting choices. Political scientists and thinkers have tried to sort the situation out through the use of models. Some argue that the electorate makes decisions either as a banker or a farmer, that aggregate forecasts are stronger than individual forecasts, that economic considerations always decide/d the outcome of an election or impacted it, that governments cannot predict the actions of consumers and firms under them despite these governments' dominance, and that economic intelligence guides lead voters to adopt the retrospective, rather than the prospective, view…
1. Campbell, A., et al. (1960). The American Voter. Survey Research Center. University of Michigan. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
2. Downs, A. (1957). An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers
3. Ferejohn, J.A. And Fiorina, M.P. (1974). The Paradox of Not Voting: a Decision Theoretic Analysis. American Political Science Review, vol 68 issue 2 525-536. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28197406%2968%3A2%3C525%3ATPONVA%3E2.0.CO%3B-%23
4. Gomez, B.T. And Wilson, J.M. (2001). Political Sophistication and Economic Voting in the American Electorate: a Theory of Heterogeneous Attribution. Midwest Political Science Association. American Journal of Political Science, vol 45 number 4, October 2001, 899-914.
Even in the 2008 general election, which had widely-touted voter turnout, a number of eligible people did not vote. Michael McDonald engaged in a complex study, which not only looked at people in the population who were age-eligible for voting, but also looked at the number of people who were not otherwise disenfranchised, such as felons or foreign nationals. He found an overall turnout rate of truly eligible people of 61.7%, which means that almost 40% of people who were eligible to vote in the 2008 election, failed to do so (McDonald, 2009). McDonald also found an overall turnout rate of 56.8% of all age-eligible people, which would mean that only slightly more than half of all age-eligible people voted in the 2008 election (McDonald, 2009).
Black Turnout vs. White Turnout
Traditionally, there has been a lower turnout among black voters than white voters, a fact that is particularly disconcerting,…
Davis, R. (Unknown). The transition from segregation to civil rights. Retrieved April 9, 2009
Web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/transition.htm
Marcelo, K.B., Lopez, M.H, Kennedy, C., and Barr, K. (2008). Young voter registration and turnout trends. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from Civicyouth.org
Ethnic groups such as Black people and Hispanics, and also women, had to fight for their right to vote. The many fighters who suffered and died during these struggles should be honored by using the rights that they won. It is not a right that should be taken for granted.
The news is filled with reports about countries where the right to vote is almost mythical. Women are oppressed, ethnic groups are executed for reasons not better than that they dare to exist, and the countries are ruled by tyranny rather than democracy. Voting in the United tates can then be used as an example of the power of democracy.
Voting is a very important action in any democratic country. Citizens should exercise it as a privilege, a right, and also a responsibility and an example to those without democracy.
Florida Atlantic University (2004). Just Vote. Dept of Political…
Florida Atlantic University (2004). Just Vote. Dept of Political Science. http://wise.fau.edu/~rpwatson/Just_Vote/just_vote_002.htm
Historica Foundation. (2007). Voting. http://www.histori.ca/voices/page.do?pageID=420
Insure Democracy. (2007) Why Vote?
According to recent statistics, America has among the lowest voter turnout of any democracy in the world based on participation in presidential and mid-term elections (Anderson, 2000). According to the Committee for the Study of the American Electorate (CSAE) over the last three decades, voter turnout has declined dramatically resulting in a series of historic lows. One of the main reasons for this sad decline in voter turnout is the apparent lack of interest from America's students in politics.
Fewer and fewer college age students are taking the initiative to register to vote. According to a recent magazine article (erg, 2003), America's youth today fails to realize or care about the importance of their vote. "People who are not registered to vote cannot vote. If they cannot vote, then they will not get changes made," said Sara Kaminski, President of College Democrats. It is apparent that college age students…
Anderson, K. (January 11, 2000). The United States of Apathy? BBC News.
Berg, E. (September 29, 2003). Students need to vote. The BG News.
Quinnell, K. (February 15, 2004). Gen-X Disengagement Assured the Ascendancy of the Right. Open Source Politics: United States. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.ospolitics.org/usa/archives/2004/02/15/genx_disen.php .
History of Voting ights in the United States and African-American Struggle
The ultimate end of all freedom is the enjoyment of a right of free suffrage.
"A WATCHMAN," Maryland Gazette, 1776 (qtd. In Keyssar 8)
Voting is the most important process that allows the general public to communicate or refuse to give consent. During the mid-1770s, an innovative epoch began when Americans challenged the Britain's right to rule the colonies. The American evolution provided the basis of a public debate on the issue of suffrage and its restrictions. During that time period, voting was considered a privilege that the state granted to the citizens in its own interest. However, it was constantly argued that voting was a natural right that could not be deferred by the state. This argument got tremendous support not only from the small farmers and minorities but influential evolution leaders Ethan Allan, Thomas Young…
Carson, "1965: a Decisive Turning Point in the Long Struggle for Voting Rights," Questia, 112 (4), Crisis Publishing Company, July/August 2005, 16+, May 21, 2011, Web, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036482449
Kousser, "Colorblind Injustice Minority Voting Rights and the Undoing of the Second Reconstruction," University of North Carolina Press, 1999, May 21, 2011, Web, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27795743
One friend of mine who participated in this interview ran for a position in local government and lost. When asked why he ran for public office, his answer was that he wanted to represent his fellow citizens as well as to make a positive contribution in the community. When asked if he would run for office again, his answer was, "No, times have changed." I hope that just like my friend, the reason why everyone is running for office is to represent the interests of the people.
The pattern that has been emerging is: that most people are concerned with finding the right person for the position. as, they are exercising their democratic right by: participating in the voting process. In my opinion, the most important way for someone to participate in the electoral process is: to vote and thus exercise their democratic rights. Each of us must see this…
It is also said that Islam is against democracy due to the sovereignty it vest on God, the sole source of political authority and whose divine law provides regulations that govern the community of believers. Some scholars view this as Islam becomes embodied in a totalitarian state.
In Democracy and Arab Political Culture, the late Elie Kedourie wrote that in Muslim political tradition, popular sovereignty being a foundation of governmental sovereignty, the idea of representation, elections of popular suffrage, political institutions that are regulated by laws laid by a parliamentary assembly and the laws guarded and upheld by a parliamentary assembly and guarded and upheld by an independent judiciary and secularity of the state and society composed of a multitude of self-activating groups and other associations are completely alien concepts (Elie, 1994, p.6). There are those who argue that Islam is against the struggle of a government that is accountable.…
Campbell, D. (2006). Religious "Threat" in Contemporary Presidential Elections. Journal of Politics 68(7), 104-115
Elie, K. (1994). Democracy and Arab political Culture. London: Frank Cass.
Jelen, T.G. (1993). The Political Consequences of Religious Group Attitudes. The Journal of Politics 55(2), 178-190.
Lazarsfeld, P.F., Bernard B., & Hazel G. (1948). People's Choice: How the Voter Makes
Technology is still so new it is something that the older generations are not familiar with while the younger generations are up and running from the moment they enter school (The global digital divide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_digital_divide)
The best choice for a universal system of voting in New Jersey is to use a touch screen computeriized system. A touch screen allows the voter to enter the booth, touch the screen on the desired selection and then hit send when done. This system is easy to use, saves costs on materials and paper that is no longer needed. The system is not difficult to use which means that the elderly voters will be comfortable in their ability to cast their votes. If this system is implemented universally then voters will know that no matter what district they live in they are able to vote.
Electronic Voting (Accessed 11-11-06)
The global digital…
Electronic Voting (Accessed 11-11-06)
The global digital divide (Accessed 11-06-06) ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_digital_divide )
S., given the increased pressures made on the political scene to include all citizens the right to express their political and social choices at the polls. Martin Luther King Jr. was in this sense one of the most important figures of the emancipation process because he constantly tried to advance the issue of the right of black people to vote and bring it to the attention of the public through peaceful manifestations and quiet marches. However, despite his efforts "when Congress wrote the act, many southern states were engaged in extraordinary efforts to deny black citizens their Fifteenth Amendment right to vote" (Ponnuru, 2006). From this point-of-view it was clear that certain modifications had to be made and interventions had to be imposed to states.
Accordingly, the Act tried to resolve a number of issues. Firstly, it tried to give the 14th Amendment a stronger and more important role in…
History of Congressional Consideration of the Women's Suffrage Issue." The National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection, 1848-1921. N.d. 18 Jan. 2008, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/nineteenthcong.html
14 th. Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. 1997. 18 Jan. 2008 http://www.nps.gov/archive/malu/documents/amend14.htm
Bolick, Clint. "Bad Fences: To Preserve American Democracy, We Must Return to the Original Aims of the Voting Rights Act." National Review. Volume: 47. Issue: 6. April 3, 1995.
Dunleavy, Patrick, and Brendan O'Leary. Theories of the state. The Politics of Liberal Democracy. London and New York: Macmillan and Meredith, 1987.
United States has had a varied history when it comes to voting. Blacks endured several trials and tribulations to gain the right to vote. Women also went through hurdles only gaining the right to vote in the early twentieth century. All of this lends to what the present is today, a nation that encompasses all of the past struggles into the next Presidential election. And with the election less than a year away, some questions may be asked. For example what affects the voting patterns of American women? Is social class a determiner for how and/or when a woman votes? How does social conflict theory contribute to explaining such behaviors?
While religion appears to play a role in voting behavior among Americans and other nationalities, class may also be a determiner for how Americans vote. In regards to American women, wealthy women may see things differently versus their poor counterparts.…
Carnes, N., & Lupu, N. (2014). Rethinking the Comparative Perspective on Class and Representation: Evidence from Latin America. American Journal Of Political Science, 59(1), 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12112
Crouse, J. (2008). Janice Shaw Crouse - Women's Voting Patterns in Election 2008. townhall.com. Retrieved 22 February 2016, from http://townhall.com/columnists/janiceshawcrouse/2008/11/14/womens_voting_patterns_in_election_2008/page/full
Eagly, A., Baron, R., Hamilton, V., & Kelman, H. (2004). The social psychology of group identity and social conflict. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Lang, S. (2016). Study: Race, class and gender shape religion's effect on American voters -- Cornell Chronicle. News.cornell.edu. Retrieved 21 February 2016, from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/2009/11/study-examines-link-between-religion-and-votes
Online Voting System
The current system for registering voters in our country was designed in a time-frame before the computer industry had become such a major power in our day-to-day lives. In a time when citizens can order everything from automobiles to movie tickets online, the technology exists to also streamline this system. State, and county governments have the ability to make it simpler for each voter to participate in the democratic process by creating online voter registration, and voting processes.
The current system is deliberately built around cumbersome checks and balances, in order to guard against voting fraud. Currently, John Voter can register to vote when he reaches legal age. His voter registration information is stored in a database which is printed out and distributed to the individual county precincts on Election day. This hard copy is in the hands of volunteer voter referees who oversee each transaction. When…
The recent disruptive technological developments leading to the creation of the Internet and the widespread adoption of mobile communication technology has ultimately led to the creation and maintenance of a digital sphere of human experience, which must now be considered alongside the usual physical world when considering nearly any facet of human experience. This new digital, online realm of experience has allowed for any number of previously problematic task to be accomplished with relative ease, and although only in the preliminary stages, in particular the Internet offers a means by which citizens could easily vote for local, state, and federal elections. However, voting online would represent a more fundamental shift in the nature of elections than it may first appear, so one must take to examine the implications of this development. By investigating the possibility of voting online, it becomes clear that not only would Internet voting result…
Alvarez, Michael, and Jonathan Nagler. "The Likely Consequences of Internet Voting for Political Presentation. Center for the Study of Law and Politics Working Paper 3. (2000):
Oostveen, Anne-Marie. "Internet Voting Technologies and Civic Participation: The Users'
Perspective." The Public. 11.1 (2004): 61-78. Print.
hat is your initial point-of-view?
My initial point-of-view on the subject of a system where people could vote online in local, state, and national elections is very positive, with some reservations. For example, while it makes sense to encourage voting in any way possible -- the turnout for national elections has been inconsistent and sketchy in the past few years, sometimes less than 50% of eligible voters come out -- the potential for abuse is always a consideration when dealing with online issues. Still, initially I think that enfranchising more voters in any reasonably safe way -- and giving honest, concerned voters an easier way to share in democracy -- is a good idea.
TO: How can you define your point-of-view more clearly?
The advantages of voting online are many, and according to a scholarly research article in the Canadian Parliamentary Review (DeBardeleben, et al., 2010, p. 1),…
DeBardeleben, Joan, Goodman, Nicole, and Pammett, Jon H. "Internet Voting: The Canadian
Municipal Experience." Canadian Parliamentary Review, 33.3 (2010): 1-11.
Jordan, Bryant. "Official Pushes for Web-Mailed Military Ballots." Military.com. Retrieved September 30, 2011, from http://www.military.com . (2011).
U.S. Census Bureau. "Census Bureau Reports Hispanic Voter Turnout Reaches Record High for Congressional Election." Retrieved September 30, 2011, from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/voting/cb11-164.html . (2011)
Economic Models of Voting
It is generally believed that the more the economy grows (or slows down), the more all voters reward (or punish) the incumbent party for improving (or worsening) their economic situation. Presidential approval ratings often drive the results of the economic models of voting. These approval ratings are typically conceptualized as capturing both non-economic factors and other economic factors beyond near-election economic growth. This paper will discuss two major economic models of voting -- both of which show how economic outcomes may affect party choice.
Economic Models of Voting
The competency model holds that voters reward the present political party for favorable economic outcomes and punish him for unfavorable outcomes (Vanderzee, 1997). More than 25 years ago, this hypothesis was first tested (Kramer, 1970 and Mueller, 1970), and more recently have Rogoff and Sibert (1988) provided a choice theoretical foundation for it. The basic idea behind their…
Brennan, G. (2001). Five Rational Actor Accounts of the Welfare State. Kyklos 54(2/3): 213-34.
Economic Studies 55: 1-16.
Kramer, G.H. (1971). Short-term fluctuations in U.S. voting behavior, 1896-1964. American
Mueller, D.C. (1989). Public Choice II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
These challenges has slowed the current trend in adoption of electronic voting systems. States and counties around the country are now questioning the intelligence in spending tens of millions of dollars on a system that has proven to be unreliable at best. All of the glitches and voting anomalies that have come up over the recent years caused Americans, especially in geographic regions like Florida where the problems have occurred, to lose faith in these high-tech voting systems.
In fact, faith has dwindled so significantly, in February, some Broward County citizens, along with members from nine other Florida counties, banded together to create the first citizen exit poll in America. Nonprofessional data gatherers recorded votes as voters left the polls.
Approximately 20 people, including Democrats, epublicans, and at least one Green Party member, made up Project Vote Count and manned tables outside official polling places.
These tables were run just…
Electronic voting machine information sheet. (17 Aug 2004). Retrieved March 28, 2008, at http://w2.eff.org/Activism/E-voting/20040818_ess_ivotronic_v0.8.pdf .
Newton, E. (7 Feb 2008). Tally against the machine. Broward-Palm Beach New Times. Retrieved March 28, 2008, from Academic OneFile database.
Songini, M. (18 Apr 2005). E-voting may face recall in Florida County: IT snafus lead to look at optical scanning. Computerworld, 39(16). Retrieved March 28, 2008, from Academic OneFile database.
America's Voting System
Lowering the Voting Age
Suffrage is the right to vote through the democratic process. Contemporary readers typically believe that everyone who is an adult citizen in the United States has always had the right to vote. However, it was not until 1870 that race, color, or former slaves could vote; not until 1920 that women could vote; and not until 1971 that citizens 18 years or older could vote. Essentially, from a socio-political viewpoint, the right to vote based on the Constitution prohibits legal discrimination for race, color, gender, or age; States may, in fact, deny the process of voting for other reasons (Voting ights Struggle, 2010). The last major piece of legislation, the 26th Amendment to the Constitution, was quickly passed during the height of the Vietnam Conflict, when many found a great deal of psychological and moral hypocrisy in sending 18-year-olds to fight a war, but denying them…
Arguments: Voting Age Reduced to 16. (2010). Citizenship Foundation. Retrieved from:
Top Ten Reasons to Lower the Voting Age. (2012). National Youth Rights Organization.
Retrieved from: http://www.youthrights.org/vote10.php
Lower Voting Age Proposal
Should the voting age in the United States be lowered from 18 to 16?
POV: More than 80% of American teens, aged 16-18, have jobs and pay taxes. In the new information age, this group is far more informed and worldly than ever. This demographic group has a vested interest in improving their community, as well as a needed voice in their elected representatives that make laws directly affecting them. Lowering the voting age will have a key, and positive, effect on the sense of responsibility, character, and societal expectations of teens. estriction of voting rights actually sends the message that teens are unable to adequately have input into the legislative process, but are still responsible for paying taxes and following laws (Top Ten easons, 2012).
THEOY: Demographics have changed over the 20th century, particularly the age of electoral majority. At the beginning of the 20th…
Top Ten Reasons to Lower the Voting Age. (2012). National Youth Rights Organization.
Retrieved from: http://www.youthrights.org/vote10.php
Grover, S. (2010). Young People's Human Rights and the Politics of Voting Age. New York:
partisanship has on the vote choice of individuals during an election. For purposes of this study, the term partisanship will be defined as an individual having either a personal or professional commitment to a particular political party, faction, cause, or person. This definition of the term is meant to distinguish it from the term vote choice, which can be defined as the decision an individual makes when determining which candidate is worth choosing during an election and which can usually, but not necessarily always, be affected by partisan views.
The two terms of partisanship and vote choice could be measured in the following way. Partisanship could be measured by asking respondents the following question in the survey: Which political party do you belong to? This would be followed by the listing of four choices which are: Democrat, Republican, Independent, and Neither. In order to measure the term vote choice, respondents…
"Ensure More Accountability in the Subprime Mortgage Industry: Obama has been closely monitoring the subprime mortgage situation for years, and introduced comprehensive legislation over a year ago to fight mortgage fraud and protect consumers against abusive lending practices. Obama's STOP FAUD Act provides the first federal definition of mortgage fraud, increases funding for federal and state law enforcement programs, creates new criminal penalties for mortgage professionals found guilty of fraud, and requires industry insiders to report suspicious activity (Obama, 2008, 15)."
This same report addresses every issue on the voters' mind: healthcare, immigration, the war in Iraq; and others that some voters might not have considered, like aging and civil rights (Obama, 15). It looks like Obama actually has a plan, but we don't get as much of the plan, as we do discussion on what Obama has been monitoring, and wants to do.
John McCain's official site,…
McCain, John, official web site found online, at http://www.johnmccain.com/Informing/News/Speeches/Read.aspx?guid=3f8dec5a-52e2-44bf-b665-ebac609433a4 , 2008, retrieved 23 September, 2008.
Obama, Barak, official web site found online at http://www.barackobama.com/issues/ , 2008, retrieved 23 September, 2008.
National Public Radio, official web site found online, at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18437398 , 2008, retrieved 24 September, 2008.
Returning to the Churchill quote, we note that the Democratic Party, the
relative left wing of today's political world, does contain the majority of
the young vote in America. It is also the case that many members of the
labor class and the majority of minority citizens also make up the
Democratic Party. Conversely, Republicans tend to be an older, wealthier,
and whiter than Democrats. The Republicans swept the 2002 election and left
our George . Bush with no significant opposition to any of his agendas.
In the Federalist Papers James Madison warns that checks and balances are
necessary to ensure that no one faction possesses too much power. During a
rare moment in history, this election would deliver us to a time of
singular Republican dominance, with both houses of Congress and the
Executive office occupying America with an aggressively militaristic and
socially conservative agenda. These are characteristics which…
Hefling, K. (2008). Campaigns Wage Fierce Battle for Older Voters.
Orlando Sentinel. Online at
Roseman, G.H. & Stephenson, E.F. (2003). The Effect of Voting Technology
on Voter Turnout: Do Computers Scare the Elderly? Public Choice, 123(1),
Politics and Governance
Causes and effects of not voting in elections
Today, voting has become one of the best ways in which citizens get to know the opinions of the candidates. Voting allows the citizens to select candidates who best represent their views. In this way, the voter's future can be decided by the decisions they make when voting for their candidates. Voting is significant in that, it helps democracy to prevail as well as, if people did not vote they may be ruled by someone who would not necessarily represent them. Most people fail to vote for their candidates because they think that their vote will not make a difference. Therefore, voting may be ineffective when people fail to go and vote, hence, it is the citizens' duty to listen to the information provided by the candidates since this will enable them to decide who the best is to…
Ginsberg, B., & Shefter, M. (2009). Politics by other means: the declining importance of elections in America. New York: Basic Books, Inc..
Teixeira, R.A. (2008). Red, blue, and purple America: the future of election demographics. London: Brookings Institution Press.
I am writing to express concern about the new Pennsylvania voting laws. You are undoubtedly no stranger to the media's coverage of the laws, which could cause as many as 700,000 -- three-quarters of a million -- voters under the age of thirty to become disenfranchised. The non-white residents of Pennsylvania are the ones most directly affected by the new law, which is why I am writing to express my condemnation and to request, as your constituent, that the law be stricken from the books.
The law's most notable provision is that it requires voters to present a photo identification. A significantly large proportion of legal state residents -- well over a million people -- do not have photo identification for one reason or another. Generally, persons who are African-American and Latino are the least likely to have a photo ID (Froomkin). As a result, African-Americans and Latinos…
Bronner, Ethan. "Voter ID Rules Fail Court Tests Across Country." The New York Times. 2 Oct, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/03/us/pennsylvania-judge-delays-implementation-of-voter-id-law.html?_r=0
Froomkin, Dan. "Pennsylvania Voter ID Law Hits Philadelphia Blacks, Latinos Harder." Huffington Post. August 7, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com /2012/08/07/pennsylvania-voter-id-philadelphia-blacks-latinos_n_1752480.html
"Study: Voter ID law would exclude up to 700,000 young minorities." CBS News. Sept 12, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-250_162-57511312/study-voter-id-law-would-exclude-up-to-700000-young-minorities/
Iraq ar and Public Opinion and Voting Behavior
The months leading up to the 2004 presidential election were filled with commentaries and speculations as to what issues most concerned voters. From a vast array of topics such as health care, employment, social security, taxes, abortion and gay rights, voters at the polls on November 2 proved that what they were most concerned about was safety, thus homeland security and the Iraq war took center stage over all the other societal issues.
Earlier in the year, Vermont Governor Howard Dean's campaign was turning the Iraq war into a potential negative for the Bush-Cheney re-election, however when Kerry pulled ahead of Dean later in the primaries, the pendulum began to swing in favor of the Republicans (Nichols 2004). hy? Because Dean's unconditional opposition to the war "could have been a potent in a face-off with Bush" because one of Dean's strengths was…
Nichols, John. "Bush's Win Proved Karl Rove Right.' Wisconsin State Journal.
"ADVISORY/Experts Available To Discuss Poll Showing Majority Supports GOP
on Economy, Terrorism." Business Wire. 11/12/2002.
S. House of Representatives from that state. hy set up a presidential election in which voters do not directly elect the president? elch (32) explains that the founders devised this system "…because of their view that the people could not be trusted. The people were seen as an unruly mob threatening stable, orderly government," she continued. Even after Gore successfully petitioned the Florida Supreme Court to have election officials count 9,000 previously uncounted ballots by hand, that may well have given him the victory in Florida, the U.S. Supreme Court trumped the Florida High Court and ultimately gave Florida's 25 electoral votes -- and the presidency -- to Republican candidate Bush (the High Court vote was 5-4: 5 Republican justices to 4 Democrat justices).
Meanwhile, according to professor Mary C. Segers (Rutgers University), the U.S. system of government actually "enhances citizen impact on government" (Segers, 2002, p. 182). The Founders…
Federal Election Commission. (2001). 2000 Presidential Popular Vote Summary For All
Candidates Listed On At Least One State Ballot. Retrieved August 25, 2011, from http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe2000/prespop.htm .
Segers, Mary C. (2002). Piety, Politics, and Pluralism: Religion, the Courts, and the 2000
Election. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Considering how firmly McCain expresses his support for continuing the war in Iraq although under different command, it is clear that he represents a solution for the current situation. Our nation needs a leader with experience and that has the courage to make the toughest decisions in order to achieve victory. Although McCain has shown his support for the war against terrorism, he has also criticized the ability of President ush of conducting our troops. McCain comes with a different view of the war, with a different solution that will lead us to victory.
Senator John McCain is the most suitable political actor to become president in 2008 because he has shown commitment to his believes, he constantly fought against governmental spending and corporate interest even since the early 80s, and because he backs his believes all the way. He is a supporter of traditional moral values and he believes…
Bibliography lifetime of service, available at http://www.johnmccain.com/About/johnmccain.htm ;
Berman, Ari, "The real McCain," in the Nation, November 22, 2005, available at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20051212/berman/2 ;
John McCain, available at http://www.presidentpolls2008.com/Issues/Candidates/Republican-Presidential-Hopefuls/Senator-John-McCain-of-Arizona.html ;
Ponnuru, Ramesh, National Review: The Coming McCain Moment, March 9, 2007, available at http://www.johnmccain.com/Informing/News/NewsReleases/73079703-c3e0-43a9-a596-2fd7572d0658.htm ;
Why John McCain?, available at http://www.johnmccain.com/Undecided/WhyMcCain.htm .
In the gender category the most likely to vote is the female voter that has a mild advantage over the male type of voter. This assumption should be analyzed carefully, as often in survey as well as in collected votes some mistakes may appear. The difference between the female and the male voter is very small which indicates that both genders have more or less equal vote intentions and, therefore, reasons for such a small gap cannot be traced to any significant difference in the two elements of the analysis.
In the race category, it is not difficult to asses which of the mentioned races are more likely to vote, as the segment White race is higher than the next identified ones: lack and Hispanic. Nevertheless, in any voting behavior analysis is it important to also identify which of the "all races" element is predominant, as it might turn out…
Based on year of education, college graduates and higher education citizens voted in a proportion of more than 60%, compared with 1-3 years College citizens that voted in less than 50% of their entire number.
In one well-developed paragraph, explain your analysis of the data presented on voter participation for 1996.
The analysis on voter participation for the 1996 Presidential elections shows a rather standard image of voting behavior, similar to the analysis in the first part of the assignment. Taking into consideration the five categories, the voter that has the highest percentage would be an elderly White woman from the upper class with a rather high education. This type of analysis should be taken with reservations in a voting analysis as it only shows the voter with the highest percentage in its demographic factor and, for example, if measured on numbers and not on percentage, the most common voter could be of a totally different nature.
Voter Through Congressional District esearch
The bipartisan structure which defines the American system of democratic governance is premised on the notion that informed voters, when provided with an opportunity to select their own leadership, will invariably alternate between candidates with whom they identify closely, and members of the opposing party who offer meaningful reform. This maxim of American politics has resulted in a pattern of Presidential ascendency whereby neither party has captured the White House in three consecutive elections since the four consecutive campaign victories notched by Franklin Delano oosevelt more than a half-century ago. Nonetheless, there are still pockets of provincial loyalty which still exist throughout the national electorate, with family histories and cultural touchstones serving to elevate one party above its competition in the hearts and minds of voters. In the second congressional district of Tennessee -- an area which spans the metropolitan borders of Knoxville, as well…
Barone, M., & Cohen, R.E. (2005). The Almanac of American Politics, 2006. Washington, DC:
National Journal Group.
Bill, T. (2010, January 17). Alexander among most bipartisan of gop senators. The Leaf
Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.theleafchronicle.com/article/20100117/OPINION/1170329?nclick_check=1
Voter turnout in the United States changes from state to state. An excellent example to show how this variation occurs is the 2012 presidential election, where there were 45% voter turnout in Hawaiians and 76% Minnesotans. Many different factors determine the number of people who cast ballots (Larocca & Klemanski, 2011). According to Brenna Center (2020), lawmakers in 29 states have proposed bills that would encourage more voting. The bills aim to streamline the voter registration process, facilitate absentee voting, allow people with past convictions to vote, and promote more early in-person voting. Something different is happening in 15 fifteen states with bills that make the voting process more complex being suggested. Some of the restrictions include reduced support to voters, limitations on voter ID, harsh punishment for electoral related crimes, and complicated processes for absentee voting. Legislators from the 15 states argue that their purpose is to secure…
Brenna Center, (2020). Voting Laws Roundup 2020. Retrieved from https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/voting-laws-roundup-2020
Citrin, J., Green, D. P., & Levy, M. (2014). The effects of voter ID notification on voter turnout: Results from a large-scale field experiment. Election Law Journal, 13(2), 228-242.
Gronke, P., Galanes-Rosenbaum, E., Miller, P. A., & Toffey, D. (2008). Convenience voting. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci., 11, 437-455.
Highton, B. (2017). Voter identification laws and turnout in the United States. Annual Review of Political Science, 20, 149-167.
Inbody, D. S. (2016). The soldier vote: War, politics, and the ballot in America. Springer.
Larocca, R., & Klemanski, J. S. (2011). US state election reform and turnout in presidential elections. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 11(1), 76-101.
Menger, A., Stein, R. M., & Vonnahme, G. (2015, June). Turnout Effects from vote by mail elections. In conference on election administration and reform.
Mycoff, J. D., Wagner, M. W., & Wilson, D. C. (2009). The empirical effects of voter-ID laws: Present or absent?. PS: Political Science and Politics, 42(1), 121-126.
Voting is one of the most important rights in a democratic society. In the United States, this right has been intermittently fought for by minority groups such as black people, women and others. It is a right that has been earned by pioneers and fighters, and one that is being taken for granted all too easily in today's society. According to a column by Hillary Clinton (2001) for example, young people between the ages of 18 and 24 are losing interest in voting. A survey conducted by the National Association of Secretaries of State concludes that this generation may become the first class of non-voters. This does not bode well for the United States of the future. The country's past is riddled with struggle in order to reach the state of democracy that everybody enjoys today. The right to vote is one of the most important privileges granted by this…
Center for Voting and Democracy. Title Voting & democracy report, 1995. Washington, D.C.: Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995.
Clinton, Hillary Rodham. "Talking it Over." The White House. November, 2001. http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/First_Lady/html/columns/2000/Tue_Nov_14_185710_2000.html
Hutton, Barbara. Voter education: manual for trainers. Bellville: Project Vote, 1993.
Leidy, Maureen. "Importance of Voting" PageWise.com, 2002. http://www.wallbuilders.com/resources/search/detail.php?ResourceID=22
Part II. Meta-Analysis: Critiquing hat You Have Done
Data thus far on negative campaigning has been mixed, with some research suggesting that it can be profoundly mobilizing to the party faithful of a generally dispirited American electorate (Jackson & Carsey 2006; Martin 2004), while other anecdotal studies suggest it can alienate the public. Polling individuals from a cross-section of elections allows for a wider array of demographic data, and reduces the possibility of independent variables affecting the results. For example, the area selected for the case study might have a generally low level of civic engagement, which could create low voter turnout that was correlated to a negative campaign by both candidates, but not caused by the candidate's advertisements. Examining different districts, with different kinds of hotly contested or lukewarm races, is more representational. However, a case study allows for greater specificity in conducting the research. The interviewers are able…
Do negative campaign ads work?" This Nation. 2005. 14 Jan 2008. http://www.thisnation.com/question/031.html
Jackson, Robert a. & Thomas a. Carsey. U.S. Senate campaigns, negative advertising, and voter mobilization in the 1998 midterm election. Electoral Studies. 26.1: 180-195. March 2007. 14 Jan 2008
Martin, Paul S. "Inside the Black Box of Negative Campaign Effects: Three Reasons
Why Negative Campaigns Mobilize." Political Psychology. 25.4: 545-562. Aug 2004.
Democracy is meant to be a means for the 'every person' to help govern the nation. However, Popkin's theory of low information rationality posits that 'every person' is unlike the ideal citizen in that they do not make their decisions based on fact, but rather, personal interactions and information from the media. Populistic Democracy allows for the governing of the nation through the 'simple person' not the privileged elite. However, similar to Popkin, Berelson believes most citizens are not able to maintain specific standards needed to successfully govern a nation. This may be because most people lack the education and understanding of what it takes to run a country and select adequate political representatives. The four standards briefly covered by Berelson: discussion, principle, rationality, and knowledge, are what an ideal citizen upholds. The reality of ideality means no one represents the ideal citizen, especially in great numbers. This is because…
There is also a question of the author's bias for requiring the paper ballots. One has to wonder if this requirement might mean more work for him in future elections. The author's credibility is somewhat diminished by his use of a single example of someone who might have interest in manipulating elections, well-funded foreign powers. Certainly, this could be a possibility, but there are just as many other likely candidates that Rubin should have mentioned. It appears that his choice of example is an attempt to charge emotions rather than to offer serious analysis.
Rubins's article has been successful at making one consider the possibility that there may be security issues with electronic voting. but, it certainly hasn't proved this point. Apparently, the state of Maryland which has just bought $55.6 million worth of these machines doesn't think so. It would be interesting to read its security evaluation.
Rubin, Avi. "An Insider's View of Vote Vulnerability." Common Dreams Newscenter. 10 Mar. 2004. http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0310-02.htm (Accessed 1 Mar. 2007).
The churches provided open opposition to Hitler, particularly as he had declared a form of war on them as he wanted the state to take over the churches and to direct them in ways compatible with National Socialism. Various religious leaders were arrested, hundreds of them, eventually resulting in a diminishing of the resistance from that front. Shirer notes that this persecution of religion did not arouse the German people as it should have: "A people who had so lightly given up their political and cultural and economic freedoms were not, except for a relatively few, going to die or even risk imprisonment to preserve freedom of worship" (Shirer 240).
hile a large proportion of the intellectual class has rightly been blamed for failing in its responsibility to criticize the rise of National Socialism, there were also leading men in philosophy and education, history, jurisprudence, economics, physics, and other disciplines…
Rothfels, Hans, the German Opposition to Hitler. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1962.
Shirer, William L., the Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960.
Voting isn't just important to Democracy. Voting is Democracy." I have long been proud of our country, and honored to participate in its electoral process, even if that process sometimes seems complicated and flawed. As a 38-year-old, I have voted in several different elections, all in the same voting precinct of Meigs, Georgia. My values, attitudes, and beliefs have been strongly shaped by my community. I am a person with strong and immutable values, dedication to faith and family, and to my country. hen I first registered to vote at the age of 18, I did not yet realize the power I had as an individual citizen. I still felt like a teenager, not quite a child anymore, but poised to be a fully functioning citizen of the United States. Yet it would be several more election cycles for me to recognize the potency of our democracy.
Registering to vote…
Brewster, Ben. "The Importance of Voting to a Democracy." Retrieved online: https://www.sec.state.vt.us/kids/contest/2005/9_12_winner_2005.htm
Osnos, Evan. "President Trump." The New Yorker. Sept 26, 2016.
Von Spakovsky, Hans A. "New State Voting Laws: Barriers to the Ballot?" Retrieved online: http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/2011/09/new-state-voting-laws-barriers-to-the-ballot
Brexit: The Causes of the British Vote to Leave the European Union
Brexit was the referendum vote that saw the United Kingdom pull out of the European Union. The European Union (EU) is a 29-member state egional Trade Agreement bringing together various European nations. The formation of the union saw the elimination of most barriers to the movement of labor, capital and goods between the member states. It harmonized the laws, rules and standards regarding trade amongst member nations. Most of the member states use the Euro as their currency except for Britain (ies, 2016).
The Brexit referendum had been organized on 23rd June 2016, and the issue in question was whether or not the UK ought to leave the EU. 17.41 of the voters voted for Leave while 16.41 voted for emain. There was a political design to the referendum where the then Prime Minister, David Cameron, hoped that…
Aspaker, A., Denver, D., Garnett, M., Runcimann, D., Barber, S., Lord., C., Wright, N., Todd, J., O'Hara, G., Hertner, I., & Harvey, M. (2016). The Brexit drama and the dawn of a new era. Journal of the British Politics Society, Norway, 11(3), 1-24. Retrieved from http://www.britishpoliticssociety.no/British%20Politics%20Review%2003_2016.pdf
Chu, B. (2016, June 26). Why did people really vote for Brexit? If we don't face the psychological reasons, we'll never bring Britain together. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from Independent: http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/brexit-eu-referendum-why-did-people-vote-leave-immigration-nhs-a7104071.html
Cutts, D. (2016, June 29). Brexit! The Result and Its Implications. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from E-International Relations: http://www.e-ir.info/2016/06/29/brexit-the-result-and-its-implications/
Offe, C. (2016, December 9). Brexit and the Weaknesses of Referenda. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from Global Policy Journal: http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/09/12/2016/brexit-and-weaknesses-referenda
Things Fall Apart" Achebe before referencing
Electronic Voting Machines: Technology's failure to rehabilitate American's confidence in the voting process
Theoretically, counting votes should be easy. After all, surely it is simply the accumulation and the verifying of data? However, when America attempted to adopt touch-screen, electronic voting on a wide scale, the result was a fiasco. "There was a wonderful confluence of events. There was a vague product requirement coming from an agency that doesn't really understand technology (the U.S. Congress), foisting a system on other government agencies that may not have asked for it. There was a relatively small time frame for development and a lot of money. Finally, the government did not allow for even the notion of failure. By 2004, darn it, we'd all have touch screen voting" (Cringely, 2003). Congress expected to adopt touch-screen voting on a widespread basis in the next election, after the controversy…
Cringely, Robert. (4Dec 2003). "No Confidence Vote." PBS. Retrieved 19 Feb 2008 at http://www.pbs.org/cringely/pulpit/2003/pulpit_20031204_000794.html
Kantor, Andrew. (4 Jun 2004). "More Problems Arise with 'black box voting.'
USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/columnist/andrewkantor/2004-06-04-kantor_x.htm
Krugman, Paul. (2 Dec 2003). "Hack the Vote." The New York Times. Retrieved 19 Feb 2008 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940CE2DF1E3AF931A35751C1A9659C8B63
When elections are won or lost by a large majority, it can give people, particularly young people, the impression that their votes don’t matter. They see the situation as very simple: the outcome would be the same regardless or not if they had exercised their one vote or not. However, this attitude is not only damaging and cultivates a dangerous sense of apathy, it also is very incorrect. In states that are overwhelmingly red or blue, it really can feel like your vote is lost in a sea that is either with you or against you. And as one researcher recently pointed out, it is important to acknowledge that voting is onerous (McColl, 2016). It can be tedious to look up one’s polling place and make time before or after work to vote. Going before work means waking up earlier and going after work means being tired and putting…
Scholarship notes that these five groups are critical in managing the electoral politics of the U.N., and in the manner resolutions are adopted by group. Complications arise, for instance, because the Arab world is split between Africa and Asia, and the former Soviet Republics are split between Asia and Eastern Europe, which also includes Russia. [12: Ibid.]
The importance of understanding these groupings is that they play a strategic role in controlling issues surrounding leadership, membership, responsibilities, and structure. The success or failure of a number of campaigns and issues follows the ability to find consensus with the groups, and the individual group's ability to exercise negotiation techniques to sway other blocs. Ironically, analysis of voting records over the past few decades show that despite the importance of electoral groups, 10% of written commitments between groups and 20% of oral commitments are discounted based on misleading information or intention. [13:…
The Electoral College as it currently functions is a way of getting around the "popular vote" -- as Underhill (2012) notes in "Changing Up the Electoral College?" However, Gregg (2011) puts an entirely different spin on the Electoral College by viewing it as "a compromise" between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist agendas that went into forming the Constitution (p. 34). Gregg asserts that the Electoral College allows special representatives to select after a republican process (direct voting) the executive. In other words, it combines popular vote with representative vote. Essentially, the popular vote is limited to states and does not count for the nation as a whole. The individual winner of a state's popular vote is assigned electoral votes -- and while one state may have many more people/voters than another -- these numbers are only represented by the electoral votes when it comes time to choosing the national…
Gregg, G. (2011). Unpopular Vote. The American Conservative: 33-35.
Underhill, W. (2012). Changing Up the Electoral College? Trends and Transitions: 9.
Democracy and its Critics, Dahl outlines the modern incarnation of democracy. Democracy, he notes, requires the people participating in it to "possess all the capacities, resources and institutions they need in order to govern themselves" (p.1). The complexity of democracy grew with the expansion of the idea from city-state to nation-state. He then outlines the three types of critics of democracy, and their arguments.
One of the most fundamental concepts in democracy is the definition of the "people," that is, the ones who are participating in the democratic system. This definition was originally very narrow, but has grown to encompass most adults, in most modern democracies. They are supported by a wealth of institutions that facilitate the ability to vote, political parties that express particular ideologies, and means of acquiring information that allow the people to make informed choices. A democracy without informed choice is inherently weak, as some critics…
Dahl, R. (1989) Democracy and its critics. Yale University Press.
And any reform process will produce some initial pain: the voting "middle class may be dissatisfied but most of them have employer insurance, so they have something to lose...They are not prepared for a national experiment that will threaten what they have" (Arnst 2007:1).
Currently, none of the Republican candidates have issued detailed plans. Hillary Clinton has put forth a proposal requiring all Americans to have health insurance, through their employers, through an expanded version of the insurance available to federal employees, or through a new government-run Medicare style plan. Tax subsidies and credits will cover the premiums, "and no one could be turned down by an insurer for a pre-existing condition or other health issues" (Arnst 2007:2). Senator Barack Obama also says he will mandate that everyone buys insurance. But no candidate, regardless of how detailed or vague their plan, can iron out all of the specifics before he…
Arnst, Catherine. (17 Sept 2007). The politics of health-care reform.
Business Week. Retrieved 11 Nov 2007 at http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/sep2007/tc20070914_836209.htm
Voting is a privilege and a right. A right that was denied for millions of people. Only until the passing of the Voting ights Act did minorities have a chance to not only vote, but change the face of the government. Before 1965, minorities, especially blacks, faced violent opposition in an attempt to stifle their voices and control the way the government nominates its officials.
Now that President Obama has shown what can happen when minorities are given a voice in politics, there have come some major setbacks. The nation in the next presidential election will adopt one of two sides, a far left or a far right. With the recent death of Head Justice Scalia and the refusal of Congress to allow the nomination of Merrick Garland, it is safe to say the nation is in turmoil in several ways. To understand how things became so unstable it is…
DeSilver, D. & DeSilver, D. (2015). U.S. voter turnout trails most developed countries. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/05/06/u-s-voter-turnout-trails-most-developed-countries/
Justice,. (2016). History Of Federal Voting Rights Laws -- CRT -- Department of Justice. Justice.gov. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.justice.gov/crt/history-federal-voting-rights-laws
Meko, T., Keating, D., Urhmacher, K., & Stamm, S. (2016). Everything you need to know about appointing a Supreme Court justice. Washington Post. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/scotus-nominees/
Super PACs -- OpenSecrets. (2016). Opensecrets.org. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/superpacs.php
Voting to Violence, Jack Snyder starkly poses some of the most vexing questions for foreign policy analysts during the 1990's. Why was this decade, despite the collapse of the totalitarian system of communism and an overall greater global potential for democratic involvement, marked by a worldwide increase in ethnic conflict and hatred in Europe and across the larger world?
Why did this "the process of democratization" become seemingly "one of its own worst enemies," because of its populist nature of the democratic politics that seemed to point towards peace and freedom, rather than conflict. Why has the promise of democracy leading to a more stable worldwide peace seemingly inevitably become "clouded with the danger of war?" (Snyder 2000: 21)
In another section of Snyder's book, the author states that "the transition to democratic politics is meanwhile [still] creating fertile conditions for nationalism and ethnic conflict, which not only raises the…
However, this valuation of the individual must be for all individuals for this world democratic peace to ensue. In other words, new democracies must be rights-based rather than purely populist and ethnically based, otherwise an 'us vs. them' ethnic ideology will lead to warfare. In an ethnic democracy, the security of one's ethnic state becomes based in the stamping out of all ethnic groups, groups who were historically, previously opposed to one's own ethnic identity. What is called upon is not a naive liberal faith in the value of a democracy, but an intelligent understanding of the complications of democracy, a belief in a rights-based system with a questioning eye upon simple ethnic majority populism. (Snyder 2000: 16-17)
Snyder and Dahl's analysis is so cogent because their words explain why democracy does not automatically produce a "democratic peace," only a rights-based "civic democracy" as distinguished from an "ethnic democracy" can do so. (Snyder 2000: 353) In contrast, ethnic democracies undermine a democratic peace because they "deactivate the mechanisms that keep relations between democracies peaceful," in other words for ethnically-based democratic movements and states, the individual's rights is only valued if that individual is part of a specific ethnic frame of reference. Rather than civic or rights-based and individualistic liberal democracies, when democracies evolve in an ethnic-based conflict, they are not more likely to be at peace with one another. Instead, contending rival ethnic democracies are more likely to be at war with one another, reviving ancient hatreds. They are additionally more likely to have a perceived stake in the ethnic conflicts of wars outside their borders.
Synder and Dahl's analysis should not be read as a simply validation of the United States liberal political system, after all the U.S. is hardly free of inter-ethnic conflicts of its own. Instead, their books are intended as warnings to makers of United States policy who may have been too quick in the past to support movements simply because they are democratic, without looking into the specific ethnic tensions of various regions and regional movements. Only through a specific understanding of different country's ancient histories, histories that often stretch far back beyond that of the United State's own conception, can a truly democratic and peaceful world be orchestrated by the stable democracies of the current world order.
e-voting, or voting through ATM-like electronic terminals. Specifically, it will discuss the pro and cons of the election process moving into an electronic age away from the "hanging chads." It will include issues of security such as hacking and vote count integrity. E-voting is a controversial new way for many people to cast their ballots, but it is not foolproof. E-voting faces challenges on many counts, and it will be interesting to see how the terminals work in the upcoming Presidential election in November. Voting electronically sounds like a good, workable idea, but is it really?
The 2000 Presidential election and the fiasco in Florida's vote count were just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to voting in America. Today, voters are faced with more than punch cards. They are faced with "e-voting." What is e-voting? E-voting is a more practical way of voting by using electronic touch-screens…
Author not Available. "E-Vote Critics Demand Paper Trail." Wired. 1 April 2004.
Author not Available. "E-Voting Terminals Face Super Tuesday Test." Reuters. 29 Feb. 2004.
Bonsor, Kevin. "How E-Voting Will Work." HowStuffWorks.com. 2000. 6 May 2004. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/e-voting.htm
Foley, Dennis. "E-Voting Errors Prompt Polling Changes in Orange County, Calif." The Miami Herald. 31 March 2004. http://www.miami.com/mid/miamiherald/business/national/8322313.htm
Texas Voter ID Law
For a state which has a history of discrimination, segregation, racism and outright bigotry, one would think the state government would be more open to hoeing a more positive path for the future at large. Unfortunately that does not seem to be the case when it comes to the Texas Voter ID law. Lawyers who challenged the legislation described it as follows, "A law requiring Texas voters to show government-issued identification before casting a ballot is the latest example of the state's long history of discrimination against minorities and puts unjustified burdens on the right to vote for more than half a million Texans" (Fernandez, 2014). This paper will attempt to demonstrate how this law needs to be treated as the form of discrimination which is absolutely is and how it is a form of legislation so bigoted and underhandedly racist, it is evocative of the…
Fernandez, M. (2014, September 22). Plaintiffs Claim Bias During Closing Argument Against Texas Voter ID Law. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/23/us/plaintiffs-assert-bias-during-closing-argument-against-texas-voter-id-law.html?_r=0
Greenblatt, A. (2013, October 22). The Racial History Of The 'Grandfather Clause'. Retrieved from npr.org: http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/10/21/239081586/the-racial-history-of-the-grandfather-clause
Lithwick, D. (2014, Septemver). Voter ID Laws May Worsen Voter Fraud. Retrieved from slate.com: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2014/09/voter_id_laws_analysis_shows_they_could_make_fraud_worse_and_disenfranchise.html
California's Proposition 34 calls for the end of the death penalty and replaces death sentences with a sentence of life without parole. The proposition would: (1) repeal the death penalty and replace it with life imprisonment without the possibility of parole; (2) retroactively remove all current death penalty sentences and replace them with life without parole; (3) require all people convicted of murder to work while in prison and apply their wages to victim restitution and/or fines; and (4) create a $100,000,000 for law enforcement agencies specifically to solve murder and rape cases (Ballotpedia). Currently, there are 725 people on death row in California, though current challenges to California's lethal injection procedure means that none of them are currently facing execution. In fact, in 2006, a federal court judge halted all executions in California due to concerns over administration of the penalty in the state (Ballotpedia).
Ballotpedia.org. "California Proposition 34, the End of the Death Penalty Initiative (2012)."
Ballotpedia, 21 Oct. 2012. Web. 25 Oct. 20120.
California Secretary of State. "California Prop 34: Death Penalty. Initiate Statute." California
General Election Official Voter Information Guide. California Secretary of State. 2012. Web.
Disparity of Targeted Funding in the Black Urban Community
There are many ways to get funding for different types of projects, no matter where a person or organization is located. Some of the areas most in need of funding for projects are in black, urban communities (Barnes, 2005; Day, 2002; Haight, 1998; Patillo-McCoy, 1998). Money is often scarce there, and without funding there are few programs that can help people who really need it. This puts these residents at a distinct disadvantage, and makes it more difficult for them to get out of poverty and build better lives for themselves. No matter what types of programs need funding and financial help, there are different ways in which getting that funding can be considered.
Church congregations often help raise money for community projects, but there are other ways in which these congregations can help those in need (Billingsley, 1999; Brown &…
Barnes, S.L. (2005). Black church culture and community action. Social Forces, 84(2): 967-994.
Billingsley, A. (1999). Mighty like a river: The black church and social reform. NY: Oxford University Press.
Brown, R.K., & Brown, R.E. (2003). Faith and works: Church-based social capital resources and African-American political activism. Social Forces, 82(2): 617-641.
Calhoun-Brown, A. (1996). African-American churches and political mobilization: The psychological impact of organizational resources. The Journal of Politics, 58(4): 935-953.
The "Highlander Center," a group advocating rights for African-Americans, "were labeled as subversive and subjected to investigation, and their members were harassed," which sounds a bit more like fascism than democracy.
But were the hearings fair? No, they were highly unfair; from the very beginning, the lack of fairness was obvious to any objective observer; they were called "Hearings egarding the Communist Infiltration of the Motion Picture Industry" (held October 20-30, 1947). The proof was in prior to any fair hearing of the issues or the accused, which is a denial of democratic justice to begin with.
And meantime, the witnesses were classified as "friendly" or "unfriendly." If you were "friendly," that meant you already had cooperated with the HUAC, and had indicated a willingness to point fingers, name names, of suspected "communists," so the members of the committee (which included Congressman ichard Nixon) would look like they were doing…
Wheels and Becker. "The Second Red Scare: HUAC vs. Hollywood, 1947."
McClellan, Jim R. "Women's Suffrage: The Nineteenth Amendment is Ratified." Historical
Moments: Changing Interpretations of America's Past, Vol. 2, the Civil War Through the 20th Century. Chapter 15. New York: Cushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000.
McClellan, Jim R. "Prohibition: The Eighteenth Amendment Takes Effect." Historical Moments:
Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Politics in the Mid-19th Century
To the Editor of the Freeport Press:
I am writing today to express my strong support for Abraham Lincoln's candidacy in the upcoming Senatorial elections. There are many reasons why I have decided to vote for a Republican -- going against my life-long commitment to the Democratic Party -- not the least of which is the way in which Lincoln stood up to the demagoguery of Mr. Douglas. While Lincoln showed great skill at oratory, Douglas' dirty tactics and his obsession with the idea that Negroes are less than human have contributed to my decision in this election.
In fact, when Douglass loudly asserted that Republicans who supported an end to slavery were something akin to demons, I was outraged. When Douglas said he would "…nail it [Republican platforms] upon the back of every Black Republican in the state," he alienated me,…
Des Jardins argues that in fact nurses have a moral and ethical obligation to participate in their government in every way available to them, starting with registering to vote, so they can support candidates and issues they believe will support good health for the society in which they live.
In addition, Helms, et. al. (1996) argue that attempting to influence policy at the hospital level as well as for local, state and national politics is important for nurses who work in a time of change. They encourage nurses to work together and try to help find solutions for the serious issues facing health care today. They particularly encourage nurses to be active regarding health issues, such as the changing laws for Medicare. These authors urge nurses to consider what actions could be implemented as a mode for positive change within the health community.
Nurses may feel that for whatever reason…
Des Jardin, Karen. 2001. "Political involvement in nursing -- politics, ethics, and strategic action." AORN Journal, November.
Helms, Lelia B.; Anderson, Mary Ann; and Hanson, Kathy. 1996. "Doin' politics:' linking policy and politics in nursing." Nursing Administration Quarterly, March 22.
prediction comparison vote real members House Representatives a law. 1. You choose real members House Representatives, Republican Democrat. (There 435 members House, find interests .
A tax on obesity as seen by Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives Bill Cassidy and Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives James McGovern
Obesity has come to be a significant issue in the United States today, with more and more individuals displaying the malady's symptoms. As a consequence, the authorities have gotten actively involved in trying to control it through installing tougher regulation and by implementing programs meant to educate people with regard to attitudes they should take toward the concept. hile agreeing about the significance of this issue, American politicians seem to have different opinions on the matter -- some believe that the solution stays with tougher legislations while others consider that it all comes down to education and…
"Bipartisan Bill Launched to Treat and Reduce Obesity," retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://conscienhealth.org/2013/06/bipartisan-bill-launched-to-treat-and-reduce-obesity/
"Rep. Jim McGovern's 4th "End Hunger Now" Speech: The Obesity Paradox -- Video," retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://www.hhe.tv/rep-jim-mcgoverns-4th-end-hunger-now-speech-the-obesity-paradox-video/
"Text of the Treat and Reduce Obesity Act of 2013," retrieved July 13, 2014, from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/113/hr2415/text
The voter is grappling with an economic landscape that has seen income inequality increase, with the elites enjoying prosperity; while the middle class hemorrhages wealth and loses income.
The economic variable is the most prominent short-term factor which affects the voter however, equally pressing is the "long-term predisposition" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 170) of the voter concerning; "an egalitarian/free-market values dimension that contrasts egalitarian or socialist vs. laissez-faire or free-market values" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 172). Voters in Europe and The U.S. are confronted with this polemical; the social democracy governed by a redistribution mentality, or the allure of capitalism and wealth creation despite its penchant for gyrations and economic uncertainty. The coming elections have at their core these fundamental choices based on both short-term and long-term factors, yet will voters have the ability, tools, or option to cast a vote representative of their…
Demobilization, Emotional Identification, and Deficient Information
Particularly in the U.S. The traditional party affiliation as determinant in electoral prediction has turned, with the new dynamic the independent voter who desires a pragmatism and common sense bipartisan solution. While self- described Republicans or Democrats vote tend to vote for their own candidate based on affiliation, this independent is far more likely to be swayed by the short-term factor as opposed to the long-term predisposition; "pre-determined factors have been overrated and more immediate factors-issues, candidates, and election campaigns-have been underrated" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 179).
These short-term factors which in this election cycle are without question: economic growth, government debt, and jobs in Europe and the U.S. are presented to voters via the media's
Vote Spotter App Report: Palm Harbor, Florida
The "Vote Spotter" app provided the partisan affiliation and voting record on key legislation results for congressional members of the U.S. House and Senate for Palm Harbor, Florida shown in Tables 1 and 2 respectively below (the Vote Spotter app did not indicate that any of the Floridian congressmen sponsored or co-sponsored any legislation).
House of Representatives
Voting Record on Key Legislation
HB 5946 (exempts Olympic prizes from taxes)
HB 5931 (prohibits prisoner release payments to Iran)
HB 3438 (allows delay of expensive regulations)
HB 3590 (keep income tax deductions from medical expenses)
Yes: HB 5461 (requires report on Iranian officials' assets)
Table 2 -- U.S. Senate
Voting Record on Key Legislation
Yes: SB 2040 (override the veto of legislation allowing terrorism lawsuits)
Yes: U.S. Senate Joint resolution (support sale of military equipment to Saudi…
" Granted, even Dahl admitted that no state or nation would ever be able to create a totally fair and just society. In his essay "Justifying Democracy" he acknowledged that "…the values and goals I advocate and hope will prevail will always be strongly contested" (Dahl, 47). He goes on to say that he is not at all confident that his values "…will necessarily predominate," but they will not become reality "…if those who believe in these goals fail to support them as best they can" (47).
Certainly his goal for a fair and just America does not include support for the draconian policies put forward by those who seek to limit the voters purely out of a corrupt passion for power. That having been said, every sincere leader of every democratic state should have as a top priority the desire to make democracy work for all citizens. Every leader…
Dahl, R.A. (1995). Justifying Democracy. Society, 32(3), 43-49.
Dahl, R.A. (2000). On Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hudson, W. (2012). Election 2012: Voter ID Laws, Suppression, and Equality. Huff Post
Politics. Retrieved July 16, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
56th President of the United States which has represents an unprecedented race in the American Democratic Party between Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. he relationship of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton's leadership styles from the perspective of four distinct variables: gender, culture, trust and likelihood of voting. he author believes that the perception of fairness is the single most essential leadership trait which leaders should acquire in order to garner trust and commitment among voters. Consequently, the author also believes that this also applies to leadership in the business world.
he article conducts a literature review that focuses on different aspects of leadership. here is some controversy in the study of leadership as the author alludes to. here are several research studies that show that there is empirical evidence to suggest that leaders play a critical part in an organization working toward organizational goals. However, some of works have…
The article continues to illustrate various components of leadership and how they are presented in the literature with Obama's and Clinton's leadership styles and campaign messages as the focal point. For example, the article mentions that Barack Obama's winning Democratic Party Nominee Elections campaign, his change message in particular, was far superior in 2008 from an ethical standpoint. This seems to be a fairly loaded assumption that is difficult to test empirically.
He contrasts Clinton's campaign as a more top down approach based on her political life that allowed her to mingle constantly with the political elite. By contrast, Obama's career formed from a more bottom up approach in he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. It is noted that transformational leadership can be facilitated by the level of trust in the leader. Therefore, based on these criteria, it is assumed that Obama's level of trust based on his bottom up career development would be higher and more legitimate among the populace. Although this seems like a reasonable statement, it is still highly speculative without any empirical analysis being conducted on the two candidates.
The actual experiment works to test some of the hypotheses that were generated in the literature review. The independent and dependent variables were measured with a survey that used the Likert Scale to measure responses. The study concludes that the leadership styles of Obama and Clinton are striking different. Barack Obama was perceived as a transformational leader while Clinton was perceived more as a transactional leader. Although I intuitively agree with the study's findings, the evidence that is presented is subject to some skepticism. There are a plethora of limitations that the study had to overcome to be able to test the hypothesis. One obvious one was the sample size. Another limitation that the author alludes to is the cultural variables of the sample which oversimplifies culture into either East or West categories as opposed to more specific geographies. Although I found the article interesting, I'm not sure that it adds significant value to the study of leadership.
Six Questions & Discussion on American Politics
During the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, two primary plans were forwarded that shaped the development and discussion at the convention that would forever impact the shape of American politics. The first plan, the Virginia Plan, introduced by Governor Randolph, was an effort to simply revise the existing Articles of Confederation. It was characterized by three major points: the structural exclusion of states from elections and representation at the national level, reductions of powers to individual states, and the abandonment of the some national features of republicanism like institutional separation of powers. The Virginia Plan was countered by two alternative plans, and a division at the Convention: the New Jersey Plan that believed the Virginia Plan went too far in affording power to the national government, and the Hamilton Plan that argued the Virginia Plan didn't go far enough (Lloyd).…
Burner, David and Rosenfield, Ross. "Polling." Dictionary of American History. 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .
"Evolution of American Political Parties from the Revolution to the Reconstruction." 2003. 15 Dec. 2009 .
Follesdal, Andreas. "Federalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 15 Dec. 2009 .
Green, John, Smidt, Corwin, Guth, James, and Kellstedt, Lyman. "The American Religious Landscape and the 2004 Presidential Vote: Increased Polarization." 15 Dec. 2009 .
This represents and should represent the last solution that the DNC could find, given the limited time until June. It is not the best solution, but it is definitely the best one under the current circumstances. The re-vote solution, if the necessary conditions are fulfilled, would be the fairest solution to the matter. Yet, under the circumstances that shall be explained in the following paragraphs, a re-vote is considered too complicated, time constraining and could create even more scandal within the Democrat Party.
In order to support the 50/50 position and the half-vote per delegate, one should analyze the other two possibilities, and by elimination, this one becomes the optimal one. The first solution, which Mrs. Clinton supports given her results, is to seat the delegates on the basis of the primaries results. Yet, if the DNC takes this decision, it would create a precedent for other states to dodge…
Broder, John. "Clinton and Obama Split Over Florida and Michigan." New York Times, March 2008, 2 April 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/12/us/politics/12cnd-delegates.html?hp
Clinton, Hillary. "Clinton: Florida, Michigan Primaries were "Fair" and Should be "Honored." The Huffington Post, April 2008, 2 April 2008. http://kydem.blogspot.com/2008/03/hillary-clinton-talks-about-florida-and.html
CNN Politics. "No deal reached on Michigan re-vote." CNN Election Centre 2008. March 2008, 2 April 2008. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/03/20/michigan.florida/
Hasen, Rick. " Worries About a Florida Primary Do-Over Through Vote by Mail," the Huffington Post, March 2008, 2 April 2008. http://www.huffingtonpost.com /rick-hasen/worries-about-a-florida-p_b_90583.html
Strategic Use and Impact of Social Media in the 2012 Elections
The goal of the research is to find evidence of the use and impact of social media in U.S.'s 2012 presidential elections. This is because it was reported that President Obama won the elections because of the ground operation presented by volunteers of his elections' campaigns (CNN ire 1). I chose this topic since reports in state media indicated that the Republican Party was heading in the pre-election polls, but in the end, the Democratic Party won due to the use of technological innovation (Edsall 1). An in depth analysis of the research problem intends to reveal that the presidential contest favored President Obama, for using social media. Social media is increasingly an easy, fast, and effective way for people to have personal contact through technology. The intention is to prove the political premise that the most effective means…
"Changing Face of America Helps Assure Obama Victory." Pew Research Center for the People & The Press. People-Press. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.
"Election 2012: Barack Obama wins with 'Better Ground Game'." CNN Wire. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.
Blow, Charles M. "Election Data Dive." New York Times. Nov 9, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.
Edsall, Thomas, B. "Campaign Stops: What We Already Know." New York Times, The Opinion Pages. Nov 4, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog
Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters
Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…
Hendricks, J.A., & Denton, R.E. (2009). Communicator-in-chief: How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the white house. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
Rosenau, J.N., & Singh, J.P. (2002). Information technologies and global politics: The changing scope of power and governance. Albany (N.Y.: State university of New York press.
Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
They argued that women would not have any reforming effect on the country because they would vote with their husbands (opposite of what they argued earlier). In states where they already had the vote, they had made no difference. Finally, they argued that women didn't really want the vote, anyway. This last charge had some truth to it. Susan . Anthony observed that the apathy of most women about the vote was the biggest obstacle for the movement. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 said that women would get the vote when "women as a whole show any special interest in the matter" (Woloch 242).
Terborg-Penn (113) points out that between 1910 and 1920 middle-class black women became active in the cause. She states that black feminists could never overlook the issue of racism; for them, it wasn't just a matter of being women; their color was a major cause of…