1000 results for “Warning System”.
Warning systems are essential to communicating threats, whether man-made, technological, or natural, to the public. In this paper, we provide a summary overview of at least two types of disaster warning systems used in the international disaster community or a nation's communication system (other than the U.S.). The disaster warning systems in this paper are the flood warning system (Flood Alerts Map) used in the UK and Japanese Earthquake Early Warning. We discuss the use of these two types of warning systems throughout the world (excluding the U.S.).
Flood Alerts Map-UK
The Flood Alerts Map is an interactive data visualization-based early warning system built by Shoothil, a firm which is based in Shrewsbury to provide a live flood warning map that employs data that is supplied by the United Kingdom Environment Agency (Brown,2012).The UK Environment Agency has an elaborate nationwide network of flood monitoring stations that are actively involved in…
Brown, M (2012. Live UK flood warning map uses Environment Agency data).Available online at http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-07/09/flood-map
Cloke HL, Pappenberger F. 2008. Evaluating forecasts for extreme events for hydrological applications: an approach for screening unfamiliar performance measures. Meteorological Applications 15(1): 181 -- 197.
Environment Agency (2012). The flood warning service.Available online at http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/homeandleisure/floods/58417.aspx
Japanese Meteorological Authority (2012). What is an Earthquake Early Warning? (?
hen the overindulge had taken place, the GuardianBlue Early arning System not only alarmed but also categorized the probable reason of the problem to be a fluoride overfeed. This then permitted a quick reply before customers of water were unprotected to possibly hazardous heights of fluoride. Fluoride, while deadly at reasonable to high doses, is usually measured helpful for dental health at doses that were very low. The most normally suggested dosage of fluoride for individuals is 1 mg per day.
The GuardianBlue has strength when it comes down alarming things way ahead of time. A lot of people are not aware that the GuardianBlue system had alarmed almost three full days before a catastrophic pipe burst and had noticed pipe burst proceedings in a lot of key United States cities? It is accurate, consuming its' distinctive algorithm with often checked limits, GuardianBlue had seen a change in both the…
Bennett, K.B. "Representation Aiding: Complimentary Decision Support for a Complex Dynamic Control Task." IEEE Control Systems 13.5 (2008): 23-34.
Berry, J., et al. "ensor Placement in Municipal Water Networks With Temporal Integer Programming Models." Water Resources Planning & Management.-ASCE, 3 May 2006.
Burns, C.M Hajdukiewicz J.R. Ecological Interface Design. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2004.
Bush, G.W. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 9: Defense of United States agriculture and food. 30 January 2004. 21 March 2012. .
To the extent the totality of circumstances suggest that possibility, even acceptance of the most nominal gratuities (i.e. A cup of coffee) is ethically inappropriate.
Similarly, even where the gratuity involved is of nominal value and there is no potential misunderstanding on the part of the individual proffering an otherwise appropriate gratuity, there is the issue of creating the appearance or inference of an improper relationship from the perspective of others observing the exchange. For example, while the proffer and acceptance of a single cup of coffee is excusable within the framework of ordinary positive community relations, the conspicuous regular transfer of even nominal gratuities in the presence of third parties can create an apparent inference of inappropriate influence regardless of whether or not that inference is necessarily accurate.
The SOI is intended to ensure that police officers do not misuse their duly authorized latitude to take different degrees…
Conlon E. (2004). Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam.
Peak K. (2002). Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges. New Jersey: Prentice
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Additionally, eston Smith's wife Susan Jones-Smith, was also a finance executive at the company, a further example of the incestuous relationships that characterized the financial leadership of HealthSouth. A failure of the company meant the failure in the financial future of the family of one's friends and spouses.
Another warning sign should have been the nature of the company's assets. The firm was able to conceal its financial shenanigans for so long from outside auditors because of its multiple and constant stream of acquisitions of a variety of inpatient and outpatient facilities. The nature of the acquisitions should have been a clear warning sign to be wary of HealthSouth's spiraling profits. The volume of transactions meant there was great difficulty in keeping track of the 'real' value of the different operations, despite the company's alleged revenues on paper.
Also, the existence of such superficial nods to ethical practices, such as…
Stuart, Alix Nyberg. (2005) "Keeping secrets: how five CFOs cooked the books at HealthSouth." CFO Magazine.
Fire Alarm Systems
Every year, thousands of people die in home and commercial building fires, but far more are saved as a result of fire alarm systems that provide them with sufficient notice to evacuate the premises. In the distant past, fire alarm systems consisted of men and sometimes animals, but more recently, increasingly sophisticated systems have been developed that form an essential part of the concentric layers of building defense. To identify current trends in this field, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning automatic fire alarm systems in general, as well as their composition and working principle in particular, including their design, basic configuration, and the types of notification devices that are typically used, as well as the detectors and emergency voice and other alarm communication systems that are currently deployed with respect to the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for…
Fire alarm systems. (2012). Integrated Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.tpub.com / celec/91.htm.
Liston, D. (1999). Museum security and protection: A handbook for cultural heritage institutions.
New York: Routledge.
Moore, W.D. & Wilson, D.K. (2004, May). Lighting the way to fire integration. Security Management, 45(5), 91-93.
Thus to sum up, the Primus Epic, a modern integrated avionics system created by Honeywell, was along with the Bell/Augusta AB139 on which it was found fit, was then extended to the Primus Epic AW139 for helicopters. The unique feature is that the Primus Epic is a single package that performs a number of integrated functions and the mentionable feature is the display technology and the interactive navigation system. This has condensed a number of flight related activities in a single unit. Landings have been made very safe with the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning system and there are reports of trails by various pilots which were conducted on many machines from the Cessna and many winged crafts. Particular mention has to be made on the trial on the Augusta Wetland Helicopters - the AW139 which has a special system designed for it and all the capabilities that a helicopter pilot…
Goyer, Robert. (2010) "EVS and SVS: The future of your PFD?"
Retrieved 20 February 2011 from http://www.flyingmag.com/avionics-gear/oem-avionics/evs-and-svs-future-your-pfd?page=0,0
Goyer, Robert. (2003) "Primus Epic Gets First Certification Flying"
Retrieved 20 February 2011 from http://www.flyingmag.com/gear/avionics/primus-epic-gets-first-certification
Other types of systems include carbon dioxide systems. This is ideal for electrical hazard areas; however, it's more expensive than sprinkler systems. Foam extinguishing systems use a foam producing solution. it's effective for combustible liquids; however, again, it is not cost effective for most applications ("Chapter 31").
Determination of ater Amount and How it Can be Provided:
The problems encountered regarding the determination of the amount of water required on premises for a system and how that amount of water can be provided begin with the layout of the system. So many factors come into play, from the length of the piping run, to the size of pipe, to the elevation of the floor on which the system is installed, to the number of sprinklers included in the system. Each of these affects the pressure at each of the sprinkler head, and the amount of water needed to meet the…
"Below Ground Smoke Control Systems." Europe's Leading Supplier of Ventilation Systems. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .
"Chapter 31 - Fire Protection." Army TM Manuals. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .
Fischer, D. "How Fire Sprinkler Systems Work." How Stuff Works. n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .
"HFD: All You Ever Wanted to Know About Fire Extinguishers ." Hanford Site. 5 Mar. 2001. Web. 18 Nov. 2010. .
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
Project Management and the Transformation System
In this research paper, the author discussed he concept of project management employing in a construction firm. The author described briefly, the mission of construction organization, i.e. its product and services, intended markets, and how the product or service is distinct from those offered by competitors. The author also analyzed the scope of integration of project management concepts such as; Project Planning, Portfolio, Life Cycle, Team Management, Scheduling and Controlling the Project. Firms can benefit by integrating project management concepts to overcome the issues like team management, planning and managing. A project is considered winning if it completes on time, goes on to follows a pre-set schedule, remain within the provided budget, and finally its customers are pleased. For successful completion and for the satisfaction of costumers, it should have a specific time frame and must achieve the prior set targets by deploying resources…
Bennet F. Lawrence (2003), The management of construction: a project life cycle approach, UK: Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Derek Torrington and Laura Hall (2001), Personnel Management HRM in Action, UK: Prentice Financial times
Gail Blackstone (2003), Performance Management in Project Management, UK: Journal of Personnel Management
Gelbard, R. & Carmeli, A. (2009). The interactive effect of team dynamics and organizational support on ICT project success. International Journal of Project Management, 27(2), 464 -470. doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2008.07.005
Designing a Safety System
Safety management system is a management policy to prevent or minimize injury within a workplace. Top organizations across the United States are increasingly investing in safety management because of the general believe that safety is central precondition to market competitiveness and "an integral part of high quality business operations." (Tervonen, Haapasalo, & Niemela, 2009 P. 17). Safety is defined as a state where all the business related risks are managed at acceptable level. Typically, safety management is a management policy used to protect workers from undetermined accidents. Safety management is very similar to corporate safety where corporate safety is a holistic management strategy to protect an organization as a whole against accidents, misuse, harm and crime.
Objective of this project is to design safety management system for Hobart Brothers Co. To design safety management system for the company, the paper provides essential components that could prevent…
Azadeh M.A.(2000). Creating highly and reliable manufacturing systems: an integrated approach. Intern J. Reliabil Saf Eng. 7(3): 205-22.
Honkasalo A. (2000). Occupational health and safety and environmental management systems. Environ Sci Policy. 3(1): 39-45.
Miettinen J. (2002). Corporate Safety Manual Jyvaskyla: Gummerus Printing Ltd. .
New South Wales Government (2012).Unit 2: Managing Workplace Hazards, and Consultation in the Workplace. NSW Education and Communities.
Therapy aims at deterring the criminals from committing crimes in the future. The therapy is where the offender undergoes a counseling and treatment system to help them recover from that mindset of committing the crime. Psychological counseling aims at creating a positive attitude in the criminal. Therefore, in rehabilitation, the justice and correctional system work towards the emancipation of individuals to stop committing criminal acts.
Which method is more effective in reducing crime, Punishment or rehabilitation?
The impact of punishment and rehabilitation in the society help to analyze which of the two methods of the correctional system is more effective. According to the Criminal Justice Statistics, a majority of the American society prefers swift punishment to rehabilitation (Blakely, 2008). In this survey, a resounding three quarters of people have the view that punishment is the primary justification of sentencing. Additionally, a 70% of people believe that, incapacitation is the surest…
Blakely, C. (2008). American criminal justice philosophy revisited. Federal Probation, 72(1),
43-47,72. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213978959?accountid=458
Edgely, M. (2010). Criminals and (second-class) citizenship: Twenty-first century attainder? Griffith Law Review,19(3), 403-437. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/848429174?accountid=458
Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in prison: A history of the correctional system with an insider's view. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Criminal Justice System
After heavy bombardment on London by fighter plans of Germany in Second World War, someone asked Winston Churchill that would ritain live long! Churchill replied immediately that if our courts are providing justice then there is no question about existence of ritain, which they are. Similarly, in World War 1 and World War 2 where Jews were brutally killed by Nazis then some of the Jews got refuge in America. Americans do not have discrimination for any community at that time and famous scientist Einstein was one of them, which proved its worth. Provision of justice for every community is very important for any society, so it is for ritain. From last few years' lot of questions have been raised on criminal Judiciary system in ritain.
Shami chakrabarti (Director of liberty) says
efore you decide whether the system is fit for purpose, you have to decide what…
BBC. (2001, MAY 7). BBCNEWS VOTE 2001. Retrieved from BBC NEWS|VOTE 2001|FACTS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/e
CNN. (2012, Feb 22). Cameron hosts talks on football racism. Retrieved from CNN: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/02/22/sport/football/uk-football-racism/index.html
Community Correction Punishments. (1996, May). California Research Bureau. Retrieved from Community Correction Punishments: http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/96/08/
Press TV. (2012, May 07). UK police racism complaints doubled. Retrieved from Press TV_UK police racism complaints doubled: http://www.presstv.ir/detail/239932.html
The basic structure of the United States legal system comes from the Constitution. Constitutions are living documents that lay down principles and rules, as well as overall functions of how law should be used within society. Constitutions tend to be macro in scope, in that they define responsibilities between the three organs of U.S. Government (Judicial, Legislature and Executive). Laws are individual (micro) edicts that are made to define specific issues under the Constitution. The Constitution is the basic framework, or the strategic direction of law; defining relationships and allowing for reasons that are fundamental to other laws (e.g. privacy, search, etc.). Laws are the manner in which the tactics of the legal system and/or philosophy are carried out and used within society. A Constitution defines the theoretical basis of law, while laws incorporate the process of law and allow the government and its officers to use the…
Neubauer, D., et al., (2010). America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. Belmont,
Plunkett, T. (2001). A Concise History of the Common Law. Clark, NJ: The Lawbook
Credible Warnings or False Alarms? What the U.S. Knew on September 10, 2001'
This case study is to be based upon the understanding and evaluation of the case 'Credible Warnings or False Alarms? What the U.S. Knew on September 10, 2001'. This case entails a detailed time line and research about the possible warnings that seemingly existed a day before the 9/11 incident in the U.S.A. The case study will focus on breaking down the events that occurred before that incident and carry out analysis and research to determine the possible events that could have been used to predict the occurrence of this terrorist plot and what events were irrelevant and could have been considered false alarms leading up to this catastrophe.
The case study on this subject matter would start with an introduction on the case on which the study is based, outlining the salient features of…
R.Rosenblum, M. (2011). U.S. Immigration Policy Since 9/11: Understanding the Stalemate over Comprehensive Immigration Program. Migration Policy Institute.
Rollins, J. (2011). Al Qaeda and Affiliates: Historical Perspective, Global Presence, and Implications for U.S. Policy. Congressional Research Service.
TIPS TO HELP KIDS PREVENT BULLYING
Cool Down -- Try to be calm when resolving conflict!
Describe the conflict, try to be logical!
What caused the conflict -- what can be done about it?
Describe feelings during conflict!
Listen respectfully, wait until other person has finished before talking!
Brainstorm solutions TOGETHER
Comes home with torn, damaged, or missing pieces of clothing, books, or other belongings;
Has unexplained cuts, bruises, and scratches;
Has few, if any friends, with whom he or she spends time;
Seems afraid of going to school, walking to and from school, riding the school bus, or taking part in organized activities with peers (such as clubs);
Takes a long, "illogical" route when walking to or from school;
Has lost interest in school work or suddenly begins to do poorly in school;
Appears sad, moody, teary, or depressed when he or she comes home;
This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…
Abelha, Antonio, Jose Machado, Victor Alves, and Jose Neves. (2004). "Health Data Management in the Medical Arena." Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal. [Online]. Available: https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/886/1/473-245.pdf.
Adelhard, K., S. Nissen-Meyer, C. Pistitsch, U. Fink and M. Reiser. (1999). "Functional requirements for a HIS-RIS-PACS-interface design, including integration of 'old' modalities." Method. Inf. Med. 38(1):1-8.
Albensi, B.C., E.V. Ilkanich, G. Dini and D. Janigro. (2004, December). "Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research. Bioscience, 54(12): 1127-38.
Arenson, R.L., K.P. Andriole, D.E. Avrin and R.G. Gould. (2000). "Computers in imaging and health care: now and in the future." Journal of Digital Imaging 13(4):145-56.
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
Various smart vehicle and smart highway technologies and systems offer tremendous potential for improving road and vehicular safety. Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) have already been developed in the United States and Japan, also called Road Transport Informatics (RTI) in Europe (Collier and Weiland, 1994, p. 27). Smart highways are also referred to as Automated Vehicle Highway Systems (AVHS) or Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The lack of global consensus on what to call smart driving and smart highways reflects the burgeoning nature and broad gamut of technologies that need to be further developed and integrated into standardized systems. The most important of the IVHS systems involve both vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) technologies. Both V2V and V2I technologies capitalize on software and hardware systems that have already been integrated into many newer automobiles, such as GPS and WiFi. Some systems also require Dedicated Short Range Communication…
Components contributing to the library's decision making process include the library per se; its purposes' its structure and organization' its functions and forms/kinds of data; its resources in/for staff/volunteers; its facilities; its equipment.
Management teams and other groups play a key role in strategic decision making," Nancy H. Leonard, Laura Beauvais, and Richard Scholl (2005) relate the importance of involving groups in strategic decision making. "These groups include top management teams (Hambrick and Mason, 1984), boards of directors (Forbes, 1999; Pettigrew, 1992), and planning task forces (Van de Ven, 1980)" (Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl ¶ 2). To effectively manage work groups and decision-making teams, Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl stress, managers must understand that underlying psychological cognitive styles and social interaction of an individual impact them and their decision making. hen mangers better understand the concept of group cognitive style, they may be able to create groups with various strengths based…
Burrows, Toby. "The 'digital library hammer'?" The Australian Library Journal. Australian Library and Information Association. 2004. HighBeam Research. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.highbeam.com .
Carpenter, Kenneth E. "A Library Historian Looks at Librarianship." Daedalus 125.4 (1996): 77+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000447498 .
The Columbia World of Quotations. Columbia University Press. New York. 1996, 2 Jan. 2009. www.bartleby.com/66/.
Dunham, J.. Developing Effective School Management. Routledge. New York.. Questia. 1995. 1 Mar. 2009. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108823897 .
Knowing in advance the terrain, the vegetation, and the water sources prepares the mission teams with the knowledge to confront the elements associated with the geographical conditions of the site. Analysis provides information for determining in advance the best sites to set up base camps, where the terrain is less vulnerable to hostile advances. t demonstrates in advance how supplies will most efficiently and expeditiously be delivered to the site. The GS can indicate to military coordinators how many helicopters, ground armored vehicles, and other military transport vehicles the use of which is dependent upon conditions of terrain. Whether or not supplies can be delivered via ground or air is an important consideration in planning and supplying a military exercise or event. GS is a valuable tool for military logistical purposes.
f we look at the layered data GS is capable of delivering, we find that the information is essential…
Intoccia, Greogry F., and Moore, Joe Wesey, Communications, Technology, Warfare, and the Law: Is the Network a Weapon System?, Houston Journal of International Law, vol 28, 2006, p. 467.
GAO, 2003, op cit.
Sznaider, 2005, p. 5.
eforming the Juvenile Justice System: In Search of Justice and Accountability
While the overall crime rate has steadily decreased over the last decade throughout the country, there is one segment of crime that has been increasing: criminal offences committed by juveniles (National Criminal Justice eference Service: 2002). In the last 15 years, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the incidence of criminal offences committed by juveniles (under the age of 15) increased 94%. While a number of these juveniles were convicted of committing petty crimes such as vandalism and theft, there has been a significant increase in the number of serious juvenile offences such as robberies, weapons offences, assaults, and murders. However, there is something that is not quantitatively measured in these crime statistics -- the increasing brutality and ruthlessness of the crimes committed by juvenile offenders. Over the last two decades, we have seen an increasing string of…
Richard Bonnie, "The Competence of Criminal Defendants: A Theoretical Reformulation," Behavior, Science, & Law 291(10), 1992.
Charlotte Faltermayer, "What Is Justice For A Sixth-Grade Killer?" Time Magazine 151(13): April 6, 1998
Thomas Grisso, "Society's Retributive Response to Juvenile Violence: A Developmental Perspective," Law & Human Behavior 229 (20), 1996.
Thomas Grisso, "The Competence of Adolescents as Trial Defendants, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law," (forthcoming)
The 11th Hour (film):
Global warning/climate change impacts all of humanity, and therefore it is not a local but a global concern that requires multidisciplinary intervention (general point made throughout film).
Weather and climate issues have been in the mainstream media, and events are happening more frequently (beginning of film).
Climate change can be framed as a matter of national security, and there may be "environmental refugees," (middle of film).
The rate of decline and tragedy is accelerating at a rapid pace, making immediate intervention necessary (throughout the film).
Existing and emerging technologies provide the solution (toward the end of the film)
Essence of Permaculture
Permaculture is an extension of "systems thinking" (3)
Permaculture is not just about land use but about a whole method of living and sustaining human communities that goes beyond food and energy and toward lifestyle (3)
The Permaculture Design Course " has been the…
Baxter, W.F. "People or Penguins."
The Eleventh Hour (Feature Film, 2007).
Predators has led to Decrease in Road-Side ombings in Afghanistan
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) started firing drones missiles in Afghanistan in order to reduce civilian casualties and reduce roadside bombings. These missiles known as Predators incorporate accuracy, wide efficient surveillance and precision target meant to reduce roadside bombings. To minimize civilian casualties, the Predator targets mobile insurgents as opposed to focusing on residential areas. The use of Predator has minimized roadside bombings and civilian as a result of increased surveillance.
Roadside bombing casualties represent a reduction from a 10% casualty level in 2009, 7% in 2011 to almost 3% in 2012. In line with this, rook (2012 ), adds that improvised explosive devices were a major cause of troop deaths untill the introduction of the Predator.
The most important feature of the predator is the detection of all types of improvised explosive devices. Data indicate that from January through…
Abbot, S. Study: Militants, not Civilians, are Primary Victims of Drone Attacks. Associated Press, 2012.
Brook, Tom Vanden. "Drones detection cutting into IEDs in Afghanistan."
www.theleafchronicle.com. July 16, 2012 . (accessed July 22, 2012).
Drew, C. "Drones Are Playing a Growing Role in Afghanistan ." The New York Times, February
ECS can be set-up as an early warning and emergency communications system in areas usually affected by natural disasters or conflicts and with high volume of mobile phone users and text message/SMS users. In case of an impending political conflict or natural disaster, UniComm's ECS will be part of an area's communication plan as people take action in response to the information/message they received through the ECS.
UniComm, as part of its preparations for the international launch, will set-up special launchings in one country in Asia (Philippines) and Africa (Kenya) where the ECS can be tested in terms of its overall packaging. As the nature of the ECS service is more on the side of public service, UniComm will seek partners from the private sector with strong relationships with the government and non-government units operating within the chosen sites in each country. ECS will be tested in the…
Coyle, D. And M. Childs. (2005). "The role of mobiles in disasters and emergencies."Enlightenment Economics. Accessed on April 24, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.enlightenmenteconomics.com/about-diane/assets/disasterreport.pdf
Habschle, A. (2011). "Novel uses of mobile phones, the Internet and Social Media." Institute for Security Studies. Accessed on April 24, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/novel-uses-of-mobile-phones-the-internet-and-social-media
Robnagel, H. And O. Junker. (2010). "Evaluation of a mobile emergency management system -- a simulation approach." 7TH International ISCRAM Conference, Seattle, USA.
He proved a poor fit for the
organization, demonstrating a lack of diligence, a slow pace of work,
engagement in frequent disagreements with co-workers and superiors and
frequently called in sick with little to no notice. As his supervisor and
his voucher upon hire, I was directly responsible for his efforts as well
as for the consequences which they have to our functionality. Therefore, I
was forced to dismiss this friend from the job, due to my ethically
grounded sense of responsibility to serve an organization to the fairest of
Naturally, the result of this would be two-fold. The organization
would benefit as I was able to make another hire with greater dedication
and capability in the position. My workplace stress and the load of my
responsibilities would be lessened by this improvement. On the other hand,
my friendship with this individual never recovered. e had clashed
Klein, S. (2002). The head, the heart, and business virtues. Journal of
Solomon, R.C. (1992). Corporate Roles, Personal Virtues: An Aristotelean
Spears, L.C. & Lawrence, M. (2004). Practicing Servant-Leadership.
Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis
Disasters in Australia.
Source of data EM-DAT (2012)
The above table is a summary of the disasters that have taken place in Australia over the last thirty years and the damage they have left behind in terms of deaths and property destroyed. It is worth noting that there are other disasters that in smaller scales hence may not have been captured but the above is a general reflection of the actual picture of what happens in Australia. It is also worth noting that some disasters exacerbate other, for instance the storms .often result in storms due to water disposed into the landmass from the oceans, an event that is possible due to earthquakes as well. Extremes temperatures have also been noted to create conditions suitable for the wildfires which are here above categorized…
Australian Journal of Emergency Management, (2001). Economic Costs of Natural Disasters in Australia. Retrieved September 2, 2012 from http://www.em.gov.au/Documents/Economic_costs_of_natural_disasters_in_Australia.pdf
Commonwealth of Australia, (2013). About Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved September 2, 2012 from http://www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/about/
EM-DAT (2012). Country Profile: Australia. Retrieved September 2, 2012 from http://www.emdat.be/result-country-profile
efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?
Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).
What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?
Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
DeCrescenzo, D. (2005). Early detection of the problem officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
74(7), 14-17. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204141156?accountid
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
The exercises and training divisions work with similar divisions in Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, a Continuity of Operations department designed to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, and an Office of Domestic Preparedness and Law Enforcement Liaison work with local and federal authorities to coordinate comprehensive disaster planning efforts. (Maryland Emergency Management Homepage, 2006, Official Website)
Different organizations that are involved, how the organizations interact with or are apart of the EOC/What is the responsibilities of each member to the EOC
The federal government, including FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Authority), the Department of Homeland Security, and the state Emergency Management offices of Delaware, Virginia, and Pennsylvania are all involved, as is the National Guard. These organizations do not have specifically delineated legal responsibilities to the state of Maryland's EOC, other than to serve the citizens of the U.S. In the case of the federal government. (Maryland Emergency Management…
Droneburg, John. (2006) "Letter from the Director: John Droneburg III." Maryland
Emergency Management. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at http://www.mema.state.md.us/MEMA/content_page.jsp?TOPICID=domprepare#
Florida State Warning Point." (2006). Florida Division of Emergency Management. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at http://www.floridadisaster.org/bpr/Response/Operations/swp.htm
Maryland Emergency Management Homepage. (2006) Official Website. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at http://www.mema.state.md.us/MEMA/index.jsp
p Executive briefing on current emerging issues in emergency management to brief a local executive
Executive briefing of emerging issues in emergency management:
Capabilities, vulnerabilities, and needs for Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha, Nebraska is subject to the specific geographic and meteorological conditions to its region that give it a unique profile for emergency managers. Unlike the major coastal cities of Los Angeles and New York, for example, it is not identified as a high-priority target for potential terrorists because of its cultural significance. But although it is not proximate to a national border, Homeland Security issues are still of great importance as reflected in the recent rebuilding of its Homeland Security office to LEED (environmentally sustainable) standards. This ensures that the building can be energy-efficient and can answer the needs of the community in the future (Omaha Department of Homeland Security, 2008, CBE Berkeley).
egarding natural disasters common to Omaha,…
Douglas County, NE local emergency operations plan (2010). Nebraska.gov. Retrieved:
Duggan, J. (2013). Plan for the worst with the Keystone XL pipeline. Omaha.com. Retrieved:
Managing Risks Associated With Stress
Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress
Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.
Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.
Though the potential for difficulty with the policy is there the standard is set for the concrete results of removing individuals from positions of physical power who do not have the skills to utilize the power in a safe and effective manner to protect and serve without further victimizing the community.
Though some would argue that such tactics do not take into account anomalous actions, such as in cases where individuals show little sign of abuse potential before incidences occur, but it is clear that these are anomalous and should not be regarded as the most significant risk of the program. Another concern would be that the program will deter officers from performing important tasks as a result of the fear of association with a permanent mark on ones record, as a result of a use of force incident. This may be a real fear, as the system may result…
Up to this point many technology-based systems and programs have been supplemented by federal funding, but even in the face of increased threats such funding may run out and leave the individual, especially small police forces in jeopardy of the loss of technology or the inability to upgrade to meet the demands of the changing face of crime or even quickly communicate between individuals and departments. (Schwabe, Davis & Jackson, 2001, p. 46) the foundational issues with regard to the utilization of technology and its cost to departments have yet to be answered fully, but likely they will, slowly and with many changes.
Lastly the society demands for technological policing, coupled with the collective fear of loss of rights of privacy is a puzzle the law enforcement community has yet to fully respond to. The public wishes for police to rely on servaialnce, both private and public to prevent and solve crimes and yet does not wish to be recorded and watched through the same system. This is an issue that will likely escalate in the coming years, partly as a result of terrorism prevention and response.
Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
HRP is organized to immediately notify the media so the information can be broadcast to all area residents via both radio and television.
HRP is organized to work carefully but efficiently. To generate an mber lert, a law enforcement agency first establishes that the missing person meets the criteria. Working quickly, a local, state or federal law enforcement agency verifies that certain circumstances exist:
the missing child is under 18 years old the law enforcement agency believes an abduction has occurred it seems likely that the child may be at immediate risk for physical harm the agency has enough information to give to the media to help find the child there is no other credible explanation to explain the child's absence (Klaas Kids).
The agency then quickly notifies the Texas Department of Public Safety with the information they have. They in turn issue the mber lert, which is broadcast using…
Accessed via the Internet 3/5/05. http://www.amber-plan.net/
How Amber Alert Works" in How Stuff Works. Accessed via the Internet 3/5/05. http://ibs.howstuffworks.com/ibs/bos/amber-alert3.htm
Klaas Kids Foundation. Updated 10/21/02. Accessed via the Internet 3/5/05. http://www.klaaskids.org/amst-tex.htm
Disasters and Their Management
egional Disaster Analysis
Both natural and human caused disasters have been an issue in the safety of human beings all over the world. Fortunately, there are international agencies that are created for the purpose of mitigation purposes and assist in the prevention of disaster effects that would be more adverse. State governments also have the obligation of adopting the right preventive and counter actions to assist in cushioning citizens from the effects of disasters. This paper, therefore, analyzes the types of disasters in Africa, and the theoretical approaches in the management of the disasters. Under management of disasters, different factors are discussed including response, preparedness and recovery and mitigation practices. There is also a review of both the International Agencies and Local Governments, relating to their preparedness in responding to disasters. Finally, there is an analysis on the partnership relationships between public and private…
Christopher, M. & Tatham, P. (2011) Humanitarian Logistics: Meeting of Challenge of Preparing for and Responding to Disasters. New York: Kogan Page Publishers.
Congress (2006) congressional Record, V. 149, Pt.2, January 21, 2003 to February 11, 2003. Congress.
Holden, S. (2003) AIDS on the Agenda: Adapting Development and Humanitarian Programs to meet the challenge of HIV / AIDS. New York: Oxfam Publishers.
Oniang'o, R. (2009) Food and Nutrition Emergencies in East Africa: Political, Economic and Environmental Associations. New York: International Food Policy Restoration Institution.
If the area they were placed in was prone to blizzards, earthquakes, terrorist outbreaks or anything else the public to be educated that if it heard the sirens it meant that specific disaster was likely occurring, had occurred or was about to occur.
The sirens are also universally recognized as a warning system therefore the process of installation and public education would not be significantly difficult to complete.
TSUNAMI WANING SYSTEM
The world was shocked and traumatized when the Indian Ocean Tsunami hit a few years ago and hundreds of thousands of people died as a result of that disaster.
When it struck there was very little or no warning for most of those who were impacted by its arrival.
Most people did not know it was coming until they saw the giant wave coming toward them as they stood on shore (Indian Ocean tsunami warning system (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4524642.stm).
Outdoor Warning System http://www.gocolumbiamo.com/EM/Disaster_Preparedness/sirens.php
Indian Ocean tsunami warning system http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4524642.stm
Disaster Preparedness Plan:
Georgia has been an area threatened by some of form of natural disaster that has a huge negative impact on the well-being of its residents and the personnel and financial resources of the emergency response agencies. The most common natural disaster that occurs in this area is tornadoes that have terrorized both the rural and urban areas while making everyone in danger of their perils. In the recent years, Georgia experienced deadly tornadoes that caused harm, damages, and deaths in approximately 15 counties within the state. Give the nature of these tragedies, residents of this state need to be prepared and planned on how to respond to such emergencies.
Tornadoes in Georgia:
Tornadoes are regarded as nature's most violent storms since they can generate wind speeds of over 250 mph and appear from nowhere with little warning ("March Marks Start of Active Tornado," n.d.). These natural disasters…
"Defining the Need." (2002). Georgia Amateur Radio Emergency Service. Retrieved January 31,
"Georgia Emergency Operations Plan." (2010, August). GEMA / Homeland Security.
Retrieved from Georgia Emergency Management Agency / Homeland Security website: http://www.gema.ga.gov/content/atts/prepare/Plans%20and%20Maps/Plan%20Library/GEOP2010.pdf
The decree also requires a negotiation with the police union and representation by attorney. (Simmons, 2008) Thus there are problems and countermeasures that could effectively bring down the power of investigating complaints.
(d) Critique the effectiveness of citizen oversight as a police management tool, and early warning device:
The tracking system essentially consists of identifying personnel who are exhibiting chronic misconduct patterns. This system could check the unconstitutional violations both with the citizens and within the department as a whole. The intervention systems are good in managing the police and are based on the principle of preventing misconduct by monitoring the police. It was as stated by the Christopher Commission's analysis of one thousand eight hundred Los Angeles police officers showed that the top five percent of the officers were involved in 20% of complaints and the top 10% accounted for 33%. (Simmons, 2008)
Following that the early warning system…
Alexander, Arthur. (2005) "Panel Polishes Police Oversight System"
The Register-Guard, p. d1.
Fielding, Nigel. (1995) "Community Policing."
Clarendon Press: Oxford.
Korean Financial Crisis in the Late 1990s: Lesson for Current Euro Area
The objective of this study is to examine what is unique or different about the Korean financial crisis as compared to other Asian financial crises and to determine the primary causes of the financial crisis in Korea. This work will further examine the government response to the crisis and what it is that can be learned from the Korean financial crisis and applied in Korea to the Euro Area.
The major components of the Korean financial system in the 1960s and 1970s are stated in reports to have been nationalized with "lending targeted toward favored sectors and firms including the exports and heavy industries. (Jeon and Miller, 2005) Regional banks came on in 1967 and could only operate in their own provinces, which provided encouragement for development that was regionally-based. In the early 1980s, plans were made for…
Athens University of Economics and Business. Cyprus Economic Policy Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 89-96 (2010) 1450-4561
Causes, Policy Response, and Lessons. Presentation at The High-Level Seminar on Crisis Prevention in Emerging Markets Organized by The International Monetary Fund and The Government of Singapore. Singapore July 10-11, 2006.
Global Economic Review: Perspectives on East Asian Economies and Industries. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rger20
Jeon, BN (2012) From the 1997-98 Asian Financial crisis to the 2008-09 global economic crisis: lessons from Korea's experience. 1 Feb 2012.
Advice, Not Color Codes
John Stossel, commentator for ABC news shows, is well-known for his TV segments titled "Give Me a Break!" In these short segments, he talks about instances he perceives as government waste.
On March 15 of this year, he talked about the new government agency, the "Office of Homeland Security." This office was created shortly after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States.
It seemed like a good idea at the time. e knew we had been incapable of protecting ourselves on September 11. Since we protected our federal buildings with ground barriers after the Oklahoma City bombings, our enemies simply commandeered passenger jets and used them as flying guided missiles.
Since we have had extra security in our airports since the late sixties, when hijackings to Cuba and other countries became common, we were aghast. e didn't know how to protect ourselves. e needed…
Stossel, John. "Homeland Insecurity. abc NEWS.com. Accessed 3/21/02 via the Internet. http://www.abcnews.com
The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the FAA ensure that commercial airlines fulfill the structural safety requirements. Any structural defects that are observed during the normal operation of an airplane or those that are revealed after an accident are issued as Airworthiness Directives (AD). The FAA periodically conducts certification reviews and aircrafts that report recurrent problems due to design issues will require compulsory design modifications. [FAA]
6. What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How are they be used for accident-prevention purposes?
Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders are very useful tools that can be used to understand the events that lead to the accident. Familiarly known as the 'black boxes' these units are helpful for aircraft investigators in reconstructing the disaster.…
1) Alexander T. wells, Clarence C. Rodriguez, (2003) 'Commercial Aviation Safety', Fourth Edition, McGraw Hill.
2) NASA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System', retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
3) NBAA, 'Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)' retrieved Apr 6th 2010, from, http://www.nbaa.org/ops/safety/asrs/
4) NTSB (2002) 'National Transportation Safety Board: Aviation investigation manual Major team investigations', retrieved Apr 6th 2010 from, http://www.ntsb.gov/Aviation/Manuals/MajorInvestigationsManual.pdf
Compendium to Research in Cardiology and elemetry
Cotiga, D., et al. (2007). Acute Conversion of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation During Dofetilide Initiation. Pacing & Clinical Electrophysiology, 30(12), 1527-1530. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.2007.00902.x.
he researchers look at the role of Dofetilide (D) as "a highly selective blocker of the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current;" approved for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). he study is a replication of clinical trials that concluded in a satisfactory safety/efficacy profile in patients with left ventricle (LV) dysfunction or heart failure. he participants to the investigation all received at least 6 dosing intervals D. while admitted in the elemetry unit. Seventy seven percent (77%) of the patients converted to sinus rhythm (SR) after the first 2.2 ± 1.2 doses. Findings to the investigation revealed that: 1) D. had an unusually high pharmacological conversion rate; 2) demonstrated response with incremental dosage; and 3) correlated with a high…
The stent-based antenna can be used in monitoring of blood pressure from a minimally invasive device inserted for tracking the pulmonary artery in diagnostic and early warning system for cardiac health. In cardiac diagnostics, the foremost challenge in using a like device is the wireless transfer of data and power from within the blood vessel to external devices; whilst maintaining unrestricted blood flow through the artery.
Paoletti, R., Suess, T., Lesko, M., Feroli, A., Kennel, J., Mahler, J., et al. (2007). Using bar-code technology and medication observation methodology for safer medication administration. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(5), 536-543. doi:10.2146/ajhp060140.
A three (3) inpatient nursing unit study on the implementation of a multidisciplinary approach to systematically decrease medication errors through the use of observation methodology and the deployment of electronic medication administration records (EMARs) and bar-coded-medication administration (BCMA) is discussed. Testing of two (2) intervention groups: 1) 20-bed cardiac control group in the telemetry unit; 2) a 36-bed medical-surgical unit. Testing was conducted utilizing a direct observation technique for data collection, the measurement of medication errors used the observation process was conducted in two (2) phases: 1) reimplementation; and 2) postimplementation. In the first phase of the study evaluating the medication administration process associated with a manual five (5) day medication administration record (MAR), a total of 188 errors were reported. During the second phase of the study, evaluation of the MAR process using EMAR and BCMA technology implemented under direct-observation. Accuracy rate in reporting before BCMA concluded at (86.5%); after BCMA, the rate rose to (97%). A (54%) reduction of errors to the MAR was observed following implementation the group's approach to medication safety.
Since modern medicine can sustain patients with proper medical follow-up for years, it becomes incumbent on the profession to follow the patients and provide them with the knowledge and tracking to insure that they are observing the procedures and medications which prolong their quality of life. Given hospitals' short-term orientation with the patients, there is a need to bridge patient care before, during and after acute-care visits.
While there are some nursing specialties which can be regarded as solely hospital- or community-based, many of the specialties call for a more holistic notion of patient care. y combining the CNS and NP specialties, this profession has a better chance of assuring better patient outcomes, and a better quality of life for the patient.
ennett, .J. (1998). Psychiatric mental health nursing: thriving in a changing environment through outcomes-based measurements. Semin. Nurse Manage., 144-148.
erger, a.M.-F. (1996). Advanced practice roles for nurses…
Bennett, B.J. (1998). Psychiatric mental health nursing: thriving in a changing environment through outcomes-based measurements. Semin. Nurse Manage., 144-148.
Berger, a.M.-F. (1996). Advanced practice roles for nurses in tomorrow's healthcare systems. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 250-255.
Chaska, N.L. (2001). The Nursing Profession Tomorrow and Beyond. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Cukr, P.L. (1997). The psychiatric clinical nurse specialist/nurse practitioner: an example of a combined role. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 2-12.
Radio Altimeter effectiveness and CFIT
How can technology be used to effectively diminish CFIT and ALA incidents?
Air travel is one of the safest means of traveling from one location to another in the world. Without air traffic, the business world would come to a screeching halt. Although businesses can transfer mass amounts of digital communications DATA, thus eliminating much of the demand on mail and fax transmissions of just a decade ago, businesses organizations can still not transfer products, mail, personnel, and other hard goods through electronic blips on the internet. Travel still relies on airliners and cargo air-busses which fill the skies around the world and around the clock. The experts are agreed that global commercial air traffic will grow at an average 5% per year over the next 20 years. This means that traffic will double in 15 years and will practically triple by the end of…
Jensen, D. (2000, November) EGPWS: look what it can do now. Retrieved 14 November, 2003. from Avaition Today, Website: http://www.aviationtoday.com/cgi/av/show_mag.cgi?pub=av&mon=1100&file=coverstory.htm
Matteo, Luccio. (2001, 1 Oct.) GPS and Aviation Safety. GPS World.
Unraveling the Mystery of General Aviation Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents Using HFACS. (2002) Retrieved 14 Nov. 2003 from Institute of Aviation. Website: http://www.aviation.uiuc.edu/new/html/ARL/conference/shappellwiegavpsy01.pdf
The authors report that such an event would cause flooding and could kill many people (Copeland & Cody 2003).
The authors further assert that Bioterrorism or chemical threats could deliver massive contamination by small amounts of microbiological agents or toxic chemicals, and could endanger the public health of thousands. While some experts believe that risks to water systems actually are small, because it would be difficult to introduce sufficient quantities of agents to cause widespread harm, concern and heightened awareness of potential problems are apparent. Characteristics that are relevant to a biological agent's potential as a weapon include its stability in a drinking water system, virulence, culturability in the quantity required, and resistance to detection and treatment. Cyber attacks on computer operations can affect an entire infrastructure network, and hacking in water utility systems could result in theft or corruption of information or denial and disruption of service (Copeland &…
Anderson R. (September 29, 2003).
Mayors Meet in Chicago to Discuss the Nation's Water Problems. Retrieved August 30, 2006 from; http://www.usmayors.org/uscm/us_mayor_newspaper/documents/09_29_03/UW_water_summary.asp
Coleman K. (Jan 16, 2005). Protecting the Water Supply from Terrorism. Retrieved August 30, 2006 from; http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=735&trv=1
Copeland C. And Cody Betsy. (2003) Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector: Resources, Science, and Industry Division. Report For Congress.
Crossair Flight 3597 -- Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis
The paper focuses on the Air crash of the Crossair Flight 3597 on 24th November 2001 and various ways and actions that could have led the plane to survive the air crash. This Aircraft Crash Survival Analysis will not only be highlighting the strategies that could have helped many people survive the air crash but also provides a detailed account of the crash, the reasons the crash took place and the contribution of human error in the crash.
On the 24th of November 2001, Crossair airline's flight CX3597, aircraft AVO 146 J 100 registered as HB-IXM, left the Berlin-Tegel airport from runway 26-L at 8 p.m. UTC for Zurich. The flight was scheduled to land at the Zurich runway 14 using the ILS (Instrument Landing System) approach. This approach provides the pilots directions for landing through the radio signals from…
Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau & Swiss Confederation, SKYbrary Bookshelf. (2004). Final Report No. 1793 by the Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau concerning the accident to the aircraft AVRO 146-RJ100, HB-IXM, operated by Crossair under flight number CRX 3597, on 24 November 2001 near Bassersdorf/ZH. Retrieved 22nd August, 2012 from http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/989.pdf
Aviation Safety Network, Flight Safety Foundation. (2004). Accident Description. Retrieved 22nd August, 2012 from http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20011124-0
Simula, Inc. (1989, December). Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide-Volume 1: Design Criteria and Checklists. Arizona, Pheonix: U.S. Department of Commerce-National Technical Information Service.
SyedN07. (2011, April 22). Brand NEW! 2011 - Air Crash Investigations - Cockpit Failure - Crossair LX Flight 3597 [Video File]. Retrieved 21st August, 2012 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oYDXQ-fCSyU .
Memo: Consumer Protection
In their article in the Harvard Business Review, Robinson, Viscusi & Zeckhauser (2016) argue that consumer warning labels are not effective. They resoundingly assert that the labels do not communicate adequate information for consumers, especially in terms of benefits and risks. Essentially, the current labeling system is miserably ineffective in differentiating between significant and insignificant risks, or between "wolves" and "puppies" as the authors put it. Most of the consumer warning labels place the same emphasis on both small and huge risks. Such a warning system, according to the authors of the article, is of little benefit to the consumer. In the long-term, consumers tend to disregard warnings as they come across considerably more insignificant risks (puppies) than significant risks (wolves). In other words, treating both minor and major risks with the same weight tends to increase consumers' skepticism about warnings, which may cause truly…
Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…
Bart, C., 1988. Budgeting Gamesmanship. Academy of Management Executive. vol.(2)4, pp. 285-294.
Hiller, D & Dempsey, B., 2011. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Oxfam International and Save the Children. Available at https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-dangerous-delay-horn-africa-drought-180112-en.pdf. [Accessed 25 April 2015]
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D., 1996. The balanced scorecard: translating strategy into action. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press
Mintzberg, H., 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review. Vol. (65)4, pp. 66-75.
It was not until July 15 that an actual heat warning was issued by city officials and living as they did in an 'urban heat island', the elderly was the most affected. The urban heat island is caused by the overcrowding and clustering of buildings, parking lots and roads, all of which put together tend to absorb excess heat during the day, and then radiate excess heat during the night. This is the reason why there is less cooling in urban areas in comparison to rural, and in Chicago in 1995, the elderly citizens living in overcrowded urban areas, all alone, would have their windows closed in fear of crime. To add to their problems, these people had no air conditioning, or lacked the resources to operate the one they had, and this resulted in an oven like atmosphere in their houses. One must remember the important fact that Chicago…
Angel, Jim. The 1995 Heat Wave in Chicago, Illinois. Illinois State Water Survey. 2007. http://www.sws.uiuc.edu/atmos/statecli/General/1995Chicago.htm
Buchanan, John M. Being Church, becoming community. Westminster John Knox Press.
Dying alone: An interview with Eric Klinenberg. http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/443213in.html
Hooke, William H; Rogers, Paul G. Public health risks of disasters, communication, and infrastructure. National Academies Press. 2005.
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
Efforts are made to make healthier choices in terms of energy and transport in both developed and developing countries. All legislators now acknowledge the need for alternative energy and transport choices to promote the health and well-being not only of current generations, but also those of the future. Indeed, on a wider scale, healthier choices can eventually mean the difference between the longevity of the human race or its ultimate destruction. It can therefore be said with certainty that the impact of the 1952 event can still be felt today. It forms the basis of the fundamental realization that air pollution is very detrimental to human health, and that alternative fuel sources are essential if the situation is to improve.
II the Fire at andoz Ltd.
II.1 the Crisis
The 1986 fire at andoz Ltd. occurred near Basel, witzerland on 1 November. Like the London smog, was more or less…
BBC News. 1986: Chemical spill turns Rhine red. On this day: 1 November. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/1/newsid_4679000/4679789.stm
BBC News UK. (2002, Dec. 5). The Great Smog of London. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/2545759.stm
Bitzer, Dirk. 1986 Environment: So many dead fish! Geschichte
Hazard Potential Grid
Fre- quen- cy
Speed of Onset
Scope and Inten- sity
Act of war
Lowest risk within ten years =1; highest risk = 5
Earthquake: St. Louis is about 200 miles from the New Madrid Fault, but because of the geology of the region, shock waves travel a very long distance with considerable force. A major New Madrid Fault earthquake could destroy many vulnerable buildings, do major damage to others, buckle highways and collapse overpasses and possibly bridges. Although the fault has not triggered a major earthquake in modern times, in 1809 and 1810 it triggered two earthquakes about six weeks apart that were both probably around 8.0 on the Richter scale. The region avoided major damage and loss of life only because…
Obviously, those situations include survivors of ditches and crashes, but equally important is the degree to which cell phones offer solutions to flight emergencies.
Salven acknowledges that cell phone use of this nature is specifically prohibited by FCC restrictions but relates the views of an FCC spokesman who relates that.".. The FCC isn't aware of any enforcement action having been taken against pilots using cell phones in emergency situations during the past 30 years." Salven describes situations such as cell phone communications between pilot and controllers necessitated by emergency conservation (i.e. shutdown) of electrical power caused by acute ammeter discharge in flight.
Equipment, Flight Hours, and ule Priority Ambiguity:
The other components of emergency communications relate to the relative capability of equipment to prevent emergencies (particularly on the ground), various factors capable of reducing the efficiency of pilot responses to emergencies, and the inherent ambiguity and even apparent contradictions in…
Berge, Paul. "Think ahead of ATC: sow your plan in the mind of ATC and watch it grow into a thing of beauty. it's just a matter of knowing what to ask for and when.(SYSTEM NOTES)(air traffic control).." IFR. 24.2 (Feb 2008): 17(2). Doane, Stephanie M., Young Woo Sohn, and Mark T. Jodlowski. "Pilot ability to anticipate the consequences of flight actions as a function of expertise." Human Factors. 46.1 (Spring 2004): 92(12). EASA. "AIR TRANSPORT: PILOTS' FLIGHT TIMES TOO LONG, SAYS STUDY. (European Aviation Safety Agency).." European Social Policy. (Feb 12, 2009): 243326.
Marks, Paul. "Urgent call to end frequent runway near-misses: collision warning systems that rely on a response from air traffic controllers don't give pilots enough time to act." New Scientist. 188.2519 (Oct 1, 2005): 22(2).
Miller, Bob. "Getting no WX from ATC: thunderstorms can catch you sleeping any time of year. Don't expect the controller to give you a heads-up, either. (SYSTEM NOTES)(weather report, air traffic control).." IFR. 24.1 (Jan 2008): 6(5). Rozendaal, Doug. "Approaches in a hurry: sometimes you've got to get set up for the approach at lightning speed. The secret is to pretend there's no hurry at all. (TRICKS O' the TRADE).." IFR. 23.3 (March 2007): 20(3).
Salven, Valerie. "Cell Phone to the Rescue: In the Air or on the Ground, it Could Save
Despite there being a "Federal Response Plan" in place, the bureaucratic machinery took a long time to activate. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which was supposed to implement the Federal Response Plan, was hardly in a state to respond adequately to the situation. The Agency was still geared to respond primarily to a massive nuclear attack and saw its main responsibility as distributing federal loans and grants to help rebuild an area after a disaster. It would not issue direct aid to a state until it was given a specific request by the governor, and the state was unable to issue specific requests for aid because it had no one was available to assess the damage (Franklin). Federal help was so slow in arriving that a frustrated director of Dade County's Emergency Office made the famous remark, "... here the hell is the cavalry on this one?" (Quoted by…
Franklin, Daniel. "The FEMA phoenix - reform of the Federal Emergency Management Agency." Washington Monthly, July-August, 1995. September 21, 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_/ai_17263136
Lerbinger, Otto. The Crisis Manager: Facing Risk and Responsibility. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Preliminary Report -- Hurricane Andrew." National Hurricane Center. Updated December 10, 1993. September 21, 2008. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1992andrew.html#FOOT1
Schneider, Saundra K. Flirting with Disaster: Public Management in Crisis Situations. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995
Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Activities
For most of the developing countries tourism industry is playing a very important role in boosting their economies. In 2004, it was found out that Asia Pacific was one of the fastest growing tourism regions (Cruey, 2005). According to WTO, up to 3% of world's tourism market is made up of Thailand, Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka. It was in 1970's that the development of Thai international tourism started (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). Tourism industry accounts for 5.1% of Thailand's National Gross Domestic Product (Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2009). For the purpose of providing a proper development direction, the National Economics and Social Development Plan (NESDP) served as a guide (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). The result of the survey which was conducted by the Universities of USA and Thailand, showed that Thailand stood on the first place as best hospital city for all the…
Blamey, R.K. (2001). Principles of ecotourism. In Encyclopedia of Ecotourism, Weaver D (ed). CAB International: Wallingford, England; 5 -- 22.
Brass, J.L. (1997). Community Tourism Assessment Handbook. Western Rural Development Centre, Utah State University, ed.
Business Day, (2005). Tourist Sector Wins 3.65BN Baht Budget. [Electronic bulletin board], February 24, 2005.
Carter, R. And Fabricius, M. (2007). UNWTO Conference in Topic is Creating campetitve advantage for your destination, Budapest, UNWTO Consultants (TEAM tourism Consulting).
Biodefense in America
Bioterrorism specifically refers to the use of biological agents such as bacteria, germs, or viruses to cause sickness or death in a population. A bioterrorist can contaminate the food, air, or water supply with infectious agents designed to cause illness. Bioterrorism presents difficulties in tracing the source of the terrorist act because symptoms may not appear for days. It is difficult to know when, where, and how a person was infected. Anyone can be at risk for bioterrorism at any time. Bioterrorism does not only affect combatants or enemy military personnel, it affects innocent people in the general population. Biodefense refers to measures taken to help eliminate or reduce the possibility of a bioterrorist attack on the population. Biodefense in the United States became an important issue in the public eye after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Towers. This research will…
Dennis, T., Wang, K., & Suppes, L. (n.d.) "A History of Bioterrorism." Retrieved from http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/Bio/Examples.htm
Valdes, J. (2005). "Biological Agents: Threat. Preparedness, and Myths." Security Studies
Program Seminar. December 7, 2005. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/ssp/seminars/wed_archives05fall/valdes.htm
Wyatt-Lorenz. (2009). "Bioterrorism Defense and Immediate Warning System." Wyatt-Lorenz,
Seaside Tsunami Awareness Program
Saving an indefinite and undeterminable number of lives has proven to depend on effective education and emergency management in tsunami events in the U.S. -- and likely, everywhere else (NAS, 2011). Safety and survival ultimately depend on communities and individuals at risk with the precise knowledge and capability to decide correctly and act promptly and preferably before the event. This knowledge and this capability can only be gained and developed through education before the event. Prolonged shaking of the ground and the drawing down of the shoreline are the natural indications, especially in local communities. These are hints of arriving waves within minutes. No assistance is likely in the early moments or even days, so knowledge and capability are the only things to rely on. There are better opportunities for those communities and individuals at risk to distant tsunamis. Official warnings may be able to…
Connor, D. (2005). The city of seaide's tsunami awareness program. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. Retrieved on October 29, 2015 from http://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/ofr/o-95=10_onscreen.pdf
FEMA (2015) FEMA federal emergency management agency. Retrieved on October 29, 2015
---------- -- -- . Chapter 12: Standards and Evaluation. Federal Emergency Management Agency.
I. Seeking to Define and Understand Joint Interoperability
There has historically been a challenge in attempting to properly understand in complexity in defining joint interoperability. This is related in the work of Faughn (2002) entitled: "Interoperability: Is it Achievable?" published by the Center for Information Policy Research at Harvard University. It is stated by Faughn that: "...the "shortfalls in operability among U.S. forces, first publicized by the press at the time of the Grenada invasion, became the catalysts for legislation and changes in defense policy, guidance, and procedures, and for numerous attempts to ensure joint interoperability. Despite tremendous planning and expenditure of funds, true interoperability, especially in the theaters with the greatest potential for conflict, continues to elude the Department of Defense (DOD)." (Faughn, 2002) Faughn relates that there are seven key factors that: "...hamper the achievement of interoperability." (p.7) These are stated to…
National Research Council, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, Committee to Review DOD C4I Plans and Programs, Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, December 1999), Chapter Two, 1, 2, [Online]. URL: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309064856/html/64.html
Hillman Dickinson, "Planning for Defense-Wide Command and Control," in Seminar on Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence, Guest Presentations, Spring 1982 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Program on Information Resources Policy, I-82-3, December 1982), 23, [Online]. URL: http://www.pirp.harvard.edu/pubs_pdf/dickinsdickins-i82-3.pdf
Snyder, Frank M. (1993) Command and Control: The Literature and Commentaries (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1993), 111.; as cited in Faughn (2002) p. 19
VADM Arthur K. Cebrowski, and John J. Garstka, "Network-Centric Warfare -- Its Origin and Future," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1998, pp. 28-35. VADM Cebrowski has since retired and is currently the Director of the Secretary of Defense's Office of Transformation; as cited in Roberts and Smith (2003) p.4.
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…
The result was a put-off United States. ealizing this furthered the need for an outside alliance, talks of NATO resumed. At this point, Canada saw NATO as more than just a defense strategy in the face of Communism. Canada fought and won a battle in discussions to require all members of NATO to cooperate economically. Additionally, the NATO alliance assured that Canada would have a say in combined foreign policy and security. Even further, Canada would be able to deal with the United States on more of a multilateral level, which would help ease the disparity between the nations (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). ather than simply following America's lead in foreign affairs, Canada was determined to make decisions in the best interest of the Canadian people.
By 1949, the threat of Communism was in full swing. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapon, and the world took notice. Now…
Aronsen, L.R. (1997). American National Security and Economic Relations with Canada, 1945-1954. Westport: Praeger Publishers.
Canada. (2003). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from Encarta Online. Web site: http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563379_7/Canada.html.
Canada and the UN. (2003). Canada and the United Nations. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Web site: http://www.un.int/canada/canadaandun.html .
Canada Department of National Defense. (May 1953). Canadian participation in the Korean War, Part I. Canadian Defense Report No. 62. Montreal: Canada Department of National Defense.
The other categories of biological weapons which need dispersal devices are regarded as having lower risk due to the sensitivity of the biological agents to heat, light and shock. (Unit 8: Terrorism and CET)
5. Effectiveness of the Training:
The training is effective on the grounds that team learns about (i) Disaster Preparedness: Under this team members are instructed to ready themselves and their neighborhoods for the various hazards which might catch them unaware (ii) Team organization & Disaster Psychology: Dealing with organization and management principles needed for a CET to function effectively covering critical incident stress for the victims as also workers. (Starting a CET Program - Step 7: Delivering Training)
The various reasons are (i) CET Training support a collaborative effort between emergency services and the people inside the community. The CET program equips people with practical knowledge regarding disaster preparedness for hazards which may strike their areas…
Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies. Retrieved at http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/12-NuclearPowerPlants-IG-Rev2.doc . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Rimer, Deb. Teamwork Counts; Anticipating the Best, Preparing for the Worst. Sedgwick County Newsletter. 10-12, August, 2004. Retrieved from www.rbcertaa.org/NL%207-03.pdf" http://www.sedgwickcounty.org/cert/CERTIssue%2001.pdf . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Starting a CERT Program - Step 7: Delivering Training. Retrieved at http://www.cert-la.com/manuals/Delivering-Training.pdf . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Unit 8: Terrorism and CERT. Retrieved at http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/IG-CERT-Unit8Rev2.doc . Accessed 4 September, 2005
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