The only difference is how the legend is carried and manipulated through subsequent generations. Unfortunately, such a sanguine point-of-view does not hold up either. Because the legend itself is regional in nature, the tale of the headless horseman conveys the sinister application of rhetorical devices used to exile the spirit of Americanism. If it were a legend, then the legend would have carried out beyond its geographical area.
Moreover, the legend itself read like propaganda more so than an actual tale, considering how the story applied scare tactics against ambitious fellows, such as Crane, who intended to infiltrate the secret society of the Van Tassel's. For example, towards the ending of the story, you get the impression that the narrator knows more then he lets on. He goes on to report the suppositions of the old country wives, segues into Brom Bones's suspicion grin, and then wraps up with a…… [Read More]
Washington Irving uses borrowed material from the Dutch and German's to create stories of his own.
Washington Irving was born in the year that America became officially recognized by England as an independent country. He spent much of his life in Europe so it is not surprising that some of his greatest literary work should imitate the people and countries of the continent. Even so, much of his work also reflected his love for New York as well as the changing political and social era that he was born into. Irving's greatest and most memorable works include, "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Sketch ook of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent" and though they are revered as American classics, they owe much of their storylines to European folklore and personas.
'The Sketch ook of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent" established Irving as a respectable author both in the U.S. And…… [Read More]
In this way, the young people used the superstitious beliefs dictated by the status quo to introduce a new way of life: love before marriage and marriage by choice.
The idea of dichotomy between the old and the new is substantiated via various other aspects within the story as well. One of these is the traditions that the Baron enjoys: he has inherited that traditions and habits attached to his title. Although the vastness of his wealth is somewhat diminished, he nonetheless has enough left to entertain the poorest of his relations on a regular basis. While many of his contemporaries have abandoned the inconvenience of their remote castles, the Baron however continues his adherence to tradition by maintaining his castle in the mountain. He also tends towards maintaining family feuds for the sake of tradition rather than any personal grudge. This is the case with the new, non-ghostly bridegroom,…… [Read More]
Melville and rving
The dawn of the American nation brought with it a need for a decidedly American culture, one depicted with careful precision by many of the authors that came to paint the literary landscape of the new magnate across the Atlantic. Washington rving, the first American great, told the story of the nascent, colonial United States through youthful folklore limned with great detail and attention to the inner workings of the human spirit in its new land. Half a century later, Herman Melville entranced the same people with his swashbuckling narration of pirates, whales, and sailors; America's best, who, against all odds, battled sea, spray, and monster to find their way back home. While Melville declared his preference for creative genius over adept imitators like rving, he could not escape rving's influence, from which he learned that realistic details of rural life in American can be worked memorably…… [Read More]
As the two protagonists battle wits, a subplot becomes evident: choices must be made between the old order and the new order. The sturdy Brom Bones, with his practical, quaint Dutch upbringing, is a cog in a hole (or the whole, that is the village). Brom fits Tarry Town, and his rowdy mischievous nature functions as a pleasant diversion in the quiet little village. Brom represents the virtues of the old, tried-and-true order of the original settlers of the Sleepy Hollow area. Should Katrina choose Brom, she knows exactly what she will be getting. Not much will change in Katrina's life, one assumes, should she decide to marry the local fellow. Brom would be likely to assume some lesser role in the operations of his father-in-law's farm, which means that the happy couple will remain under the watchful eye of Katrina's doting father. Perhaps, over time, Brom will win over…… [Read More]
Tim urton's 1999 film adaptation of Washington Irving's 1819 short story "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" is hardly a faithful or literal adaptation. R.. Palmer, in his introduction to Nineteenth-Century American Literature on Screen, is rather chilly in his dismissal of urton's adaptation; he claims that a simple survey of Hollywood adaptations overall reveals that a number of major figures, most prominently Washington Irving…had never or rarely (and then generally unsatisfactorily) been adapted for the screen. ecause it has been so dedicated to marketing modernity, broadly conceived, Hollywood production offers only a narrow view of nineteenth-century literature. Hollywood's most extensive engagement with nineteenth-century politics and culture is in fact through an essentially twentieth-century form: the western…(Palmer 6).
Of course, Irving's original tale makes a very poor western, despite Irving's own note that the town of Sleepy Hollow was once "infested with…cow-boys" (Irving 288). ut in order to refashion…… [Read More]
First, evil in Sleepy Hollow is more equating with a satirical view that, in this case, evil is a more benign humor, bumbling, caustic in disrupting the town, and, as it was in Ancient Greek and oman drama, simply more of an irritant than planned destruction. Focusing again on the time period, our first introduction to this theme is one of Dutch New York against Urban New England. The Dutch community is sylvan, nostalgically conceived, changeless, and an Eden for its inhabitants. Ichabod arrives as a Yankee whose spoiling of this Eden simply cannot be tolerated -- and even more, by marrying the daughter of a wealthy and high-ranking community member, becoming part of Eden himself. This simply could not happen to a community that is so "European in nature."
Sleepy Hollow, as a town is clearly Dutch, with Dutch values, culture, and mores, or for riving, "population, manners, and…… [Read More]
Irving's book "A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus" cannot be considered as an adequate authentic source because he put the book together speedily and impulsively, in the process sacrificing the deliberation needed for creating an accurate, reliable, and original work, as preferred by historians. Irving was even persuaded from time to time, perhaps to recompense for the impracticality of undertaking comprehensive and far-reaching research, to fully let his thoughts wander. As a consequence, perhaps, he reenacts imaginative scenes, not just from what the prevailing account and records evidently indicated had happened, but from what an acquaintance and understanding of the period of discovery directed Irving to believe might have happened (Hedges, 1956). On the other hand, the sources used by Irving for his book project can be deemed adequate. Alexander Everett, the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to Spain at the time summoned Irving to…… [Read More]
Sleepy Hollow: American Anxiety Via American Gothic
The early Americans lived in an America that many are unfamiliar with in this day. Early America was a fierce wilderness rife with uncharted territories and much uncertainty. Thus, there was no doubt that early Americans felt a great deal of anxiety: anxiety about their futures and anxiety about their decision to leave England. Published in 1820, the story, "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by ashington Irving is a classic example of American gothic fiction and is a strong representation of the anxiety of the early colonists. Many of the supernatural elements of the short story "Sleepy Hollow" demonstrate a sense of fear about what is, and a fear about the environment, along with an aggravated apprehension about what was to come.
The sense of grimness and gloom is present throughout Irving's story and are tools which he uses to set the tone…… [Read More]
Listen to Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God preached. Discuss in the discussion group.
Jonathan Edwards gives us a perfect example of the Calvinist beliefs of the Puritan settlers in early New England. Edwards studied theology at Yale University -- where today there is still a dormitory named after him -- but then became a noteworthy preacher in the Great Awakening, which exhorted an entire generation to renew their Christian faith. Edwards' skill in preaching lies in using literary imagery to get across abstract theological concepts. Calvinist theology believes in "total depravity" -- in other words, because of Adam and Eve eating the apple, human beings are fallen, and stained with "original sin." The most memorable image in Edwards' sermon -- the image of the spider being held over a fiery pit -- is meant to be a metaphor to enable the listener to imagine how…… [Read More]
Analysis of passage from The Ballad of the Sad Cafe and Other Stories by Carson McCullers (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1951; rpt. 1971), pp.3-5
Carson McCullers' short story "The Ballad of the Sad Cafe" is set in a town that is immediately established as remote, rural, and Southern: it is located near a cotton mill, there are peach trees all over the area, and there is only a single church. Even the buses are three miles away, which suggest the stranded and isolated nature of the residents. The main street is only two miles long, and there is "nothing whatsoever to do" during the long, hot summers. Even the nearest train stop (the significantly named 'Society' City) is far away. The largest building looks lonely and is boarded up completely. This large building, half-painted and left unfinished becomes a kind of metaphor for the town, as well as the woman…… [Read More]
He might have received his wish but that wish cost him 20 years.
In "Young Goodman Brown," Hawthorne allows us to look at the frail nature of man through Brown's curious nature. He wants to know what is happening in the woods and does not stop to think of the unintended consequences. He does not know what to think when he stumbles upon the scene in the forest. The sight of respectable citizens partaking in a satanic ritual makes Brown feel "overburdened with the heavy sickness of his heart" (Hawthorne 594). He looses faith in man and, subsequently, faith in God, wondering if there was a "heaven above him" (594). He vows to "stand firm against the devil" (294) despite everything but the knowledge of his wife in the forest proves to be more than he can bear. Hawthorne utilizes the aspect of change to demonstrate the fragile human psyche.…… [Read More]
In Irving's case, he expanded on his background of writing historical works, with his satirical approach individual and distinctive. This developed the genre partly by introducing satire as an effective element. At the same time, it also showed that literature could be expanded to suit any style.
Edgar Allan Poe is the third writer who contributed significantly to the development of American Romanticism. Poe added an element of horror and wrote short stories that were both disturbing and haunting. One of the interesting things about Poe is that the effectiveness of his stories did not rely only on the storyline. For example, the short story "The Fall of the House of Usher" is the narrator's account of his visit to a haunted house and his encounters with the strange brother and sister that live there. In this case, it is not the actual storyline that makes the story effective. Instead,…… [Read More]
Crane, Brunt, And the Prize in Van Tassel
Legend of Sleepy Hollow
The rivalry in ashington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow seem to indicate not a competition between one readily deserving lover over an undeserving antagonist, but a showcasing of economic greed and societal expectations. Ichabod and Brom Bones are two opposite spectrums of imperfect, though expected caricatures of men of the time period. Katrina Van Tassel, on the other hand, is merely part of the positive end to Ichabod and Brom Bones' means. hile Ichabod and Brom Bones find different methods in the attempt to win Katrina's heart -- Ichabod being more successful than his rival -- there is no doubt that the two view the hand of Katrina as a mere principle of a larger goal; there is no form of love in the tale.
Ichabod Crane's physical description depicts the schoolteacher as an ungainly man; he…… [Read More]
The expansion meant progress and it implemented the idea of progress into the minds of the new people. As Thomas Jefferson noted, the permanent moving forward of the boundaries and the idea of growth and multiplication enhanced the feeling of unfailing progress: "However our present interests may restrain us within our limits, it is impossible not to look forward to distant times, when our rapid multiplication will expand itself beyond those limits, and cover the whole northern, if not southern, continent, with a people speaking the same language, governed in similar forms, and by similar laws; nor can we contemplate with satisfaction either blot or mixture on that surface." (Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation, 1970, p. 746) Turner was the one who has actually laid the basis for a theory of the frontier in American history in the nineteenth century. Before him however, Jefferson, long before he came…… [Read More]
Humor in Literature
American literature is unique in that the attitudes of the works tend to reflect the spirit of the nation and of her citizens. One of the trademarks of American literature is that authors display a tone that can be very serious, but that also can be interpreted as humorous. hereas texts from other cultures are usually more concerned with message and in presenting that message in a dry, even stoic manner, American literature is uniquely capable of mixing the honest and the humorous. Even in the most serious and earnest stories, the sensibility of American humor can be detected. Of course, there are different types of humor. Some stories are flat-out ridiculous and make the reader laugh. Other stories are more sarcastic in their approach to humor and the funny moments have to be analyzed to be better understood. Still other tales are anecdotal and function as…… [Read More]
Blackest Bird opens on July 26, 1841 at midnight. A man, somewhat reluctantly and with a twinge of guilt, dumps Mary's dead body into the Hudson River. The killer audibly cries out, teeming with guilt as he wonders what have I done? "Oh Mary!" (Rose 11). Therefore, the killer knows Mary, and was likely either in love with her or a close companion. He could even be her relative.
Detective Jacob Hays is sixty-nine years old and in no mood to retire. He has long served the city of New York, as high constable. Known as Old Hays, he is obsessed with crime, and especially solving them. The murder of the as-of-yet unknown Mary captures his attention. hen he realizes that the body belongs not just to any Mary, but to Mary Rogers, Old Hays knows he's got a huge story on his hands. Mary Rogers is the locally famous…… [Read More]
It is a farce, founded on dishonesty: like the old regime itself. And Alex has become the neurotic, control-freak prime minister, acting on behalf of an ageing, debilitated monarch" notes Peter Bradshaw, the film reviewer of the Guardian. A real-life parallel might be that of a child in a nursing home who carefully controls his or her parent's visitors, diet, and lifestyle. Politically, Bradshaw's implication is that the love parents and children feel can mirror a kind of tyranny. The love of an old parent can distort the feelings that the young have a changing world as they become dependant upon propping up the lies of parents. This suggest that love the young for elderly people can inhibit and even unconsciously prevent the ability of the world to change, as they live for a dying, rather than a new ideal.
The film at its best shows how love, perhaps too…… [Read More]
As Yu Tsun himself describes the glum setting of his train trip:
There was hardly a soul on the platform. I went through the coaches; I remember a few farmers, a woman dressed in mourning, a young boy who was reading with fervor the Annals of Tacitus, a wounded and happy soldier.
The coaches jerked forward at last. A man whom I recognized ran in vain to the end of the platform. It was Captain Richard Madden. Shattered, trembling, shrank into the far corner of the seat, away from the dreaded window.
Moreover, Yu Tsun's final train ride toward killing and being killed is not even anything of a labyrinthine (or even mildly interesting) journey through the likes of gardens, or along forking paths. Instead, this is just a straight, direct, well-worn; non-ambiguous shot to another non-descript, poorly lighted train station replete with more dim lighting and plenty of shadows…… [Read More]
Betrayed by the American compatriots whom he helped, he languished in England in his climactic years, poor and lodged by a prostitute aided by a former student, until he died on a sea voyage back home. His death was mysterious in that shortly before his death he demonstrated signs of both depression and optimism.
Reasons for his depression were unclear. His optimism may have been due to the fact that he had prospects on the horizon.
Why then did he commit suicide, as details seemed to indicate? Or was he killed by his friend who was a double spy? There are numerous details of his life that will forever be unknown since they remain beyond our lens of experience.
Another story that is riddled with mystery is that of Mary Rogers.
In 1841, Mary Cecilia Rogers, a 21-year-old beautiful Connecticut-born girl disappeared from her mother's new York City boarding house.…… [Read More]
Last of the Mohicians
James Fennimore Cooper's The Last of The Mohicans was published in 1826, part of a pentology, but the best known work for contemporary readers. The story takes place in 1757 during the French and Indian War, when France and Great Britain were at odds for dominance of the North American Colonies. During this war, the French made treaties and allied themselves with many Native American tribes to up the balance between the far more numerous British and colonialists. It was written in a popular genre of the time in which historical accuracy came second and numerous inaccuracies in terms of Native culture were simply overlooked, or became part of White popular culture (Peck). Ironically, there is a famous American author who took great pains to deride the material, Mark Twain. Twain found the novel lacking in variety with excessive verbiage, and even suggested that before praising…… [Read More]
Blacks in Blues Music
Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…… [Read More]
One of his major works was a long poem written in three cantos about the horrors he experienced while being held prisoner on a ritish prison. ship. There we see a much edgier, angry Freneau who is willing to write about real life in real terms:
Here, generous ritain, generous, as you say,
To my parch'd tongue one cooling drop convey;
Hell has no mischief like a thirsty throat,
Nor one tormentor like your David Sproat."
All of these influences eventually came together, resulting later in the 19th century in Transcendentalism. This time when American writers reached to the past, they combined the best higher ideals of both the Puritans and the Enlightenment, and the love of nature from neoclassicism, and produced bodies of work that transcended all its previous influences. The roots for the literary movement that would bring us "Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry…… [Read More]
Amazingly, all of the movies mentioned above ranked in the top ten at the box office. atman was the most financially lucrative with a number one box-office rating and a total gross of just over $251 million followed by atman Returns with a number two box-office rating and a total gross of nearly $163 million. Ed Wood was the least successful and came in at number nine at the box office and grossed about $5.8 million (Tim urton FAQ).
In 2001, urton's Planet of the Apes was panned by the critics, leaving some to question if urton had lost his luster. (Andac). About the same time as Planet of the Apes, both of urton's parents died within a short space of time (Jackson and McDermott, 2004). In 2003, he bounced back with ig Fish, a story of a man trying to reconnect with his dying father. This was one of…… [Read More]
Salud my family and fellow Spaniards! My fellow Andalucians! We are gathered here today to celebrate customs that are centuries old, customs that have survived the vicissitudes of Spanish social life and politics, customs that have transcended any economic, social, or political woes that might happen to occupy the consciousness of our citizenry. The great kingdoms of our past do mingle with the democratic ideals of our current nation. It is in the tradition of cultural continuity that I share this heavenly beverage with you. Salud!
Now some of you may know that my parents and I do not always see eye-to-eye. This is especially true when it comes to politics. Yet the reason why I am speaking now is because what we share in common, what all Spaniards share in common, is the connection with our past. Our connection to the past is felt deep within our soul…… [Read More]
Lies My Teacher Told Me stresses how students can repeat the same social studies class three times and still be ignorant of American history. Today, U.S. young adults leave most history courses with the false belief that the subject is only a bunch of facts and dates, completely boring, irrelevant to their lives and out of touch with the real world. Especially if a student is Latino, African-American, Asian or other nonwhite, Anglo-Saxon American, the "stories" are so removed from his/her life and culture that there is little or no connection with the written textbook words.
Loewen's main critique centers around the heroification of the nation's historical figures and the in-depth nature of events to rote memorization. It is no wonder that students say history and social studies are their least favorite classes -- despite the fact that they often get better grades in this subject than in math or…… [Read More]
Curious young astronomers who ask, "what are stars made of?" And "Why do astronauts float in space?" will find answers here. A brief survey of the universe in a question and answers format.
Reading level: Ages 4-8
Paperback: 28 pages
Tayleur, K. Excuses! Survive and Succeed by David Montimore Baxter. (Mankato, MN) Stone Arch Books: 2007
Young David Mortimore Baxter, who knows how to stay out of trouble, shares excuses for avoiding chores, bullies, homework, and vegetarian dinners. David experiences his fifteen minutes of fame and the impacts it has on his friends and family.
Reading level: 9-12
Paperback: 80 pages
Williams, M. The Velveteen Rabbit. Square Fish: 2008.
By the time the velveteen rabbit is dirty, worn out, and about to be burned, he has almost given up hope of ever finding the magic of love. The original "Toy Story."
Reading level: Ages…… [Read More]
Point ONE: Billy Budd: Critic Eugene Goodheart is the Edythe Macy Professor of Humanities Emeritus at Brandeis University. He writes that while critics are generally divided between those who see Captain Vere as "an unwitting collaborator" with Claggart and those who feel Vere was correct to have Billy sent to the gallows. In his piece Goodheart explains that Billy is "…variously seen as Adam before the fall, as a noble barbarian, as Isaac the sacrificial victim…and as a Christ figure" (Goodheart, 2006, p. 81).
Point TO: Goodheart makes the most of his assertion that no matter what allegorical link to Billy, the protagonist is symbolic of innocence. hen Billy lashes out at Claggart, it is due to his innocence. He is first of all innocent of the charge that he was leading a mutiny, Goodheart explains. Secondly, Billy is innocent when it comes to the existence of evil (Goodheart, p.…… [Read More]
Recognizing that the film's title functions on both of these levels is important because it reveals how Alfredson deploys common vampire tropes in novel ways which serve to elevate the emotional content of the film, so that the "rules" surrounding vampires become metaphors for the emotional development both characters undergo. Thus, following Hakan's death, Eli goes to Oscar and he invites her into his room at the same moment that she implicitly invites him into her life, revealing to him the first explicit hints that she is something other than a twelve-year-old girl. From this point on, the two work to protect and comfort each other while providing each other with the confidence and companionship they need in order to be happy. Oscar confronts his bullies, and after a period of initial unhappiness, Eli gains a friend who accepts her as a vampire.
Though Eli initially has far more agency…… [Read More]
It is impossible in six short pages to fully comprehend the attitudes that hite Americans had to Native Indians and black Americans in the early centuries of our nation's founding. That was m not my intent. My goal rather, was to illustrate first that although we are often presented a dominant narrative as the narrative, the truth is that in surveying American attitudes towards American Indians and Blacks a single cohesive narrative does not exist. If such a narrative did exist the Native American Seminole tribe of Florida would not exist. The Seminoles were a tri-racial tribe composed of Creek Indians, remainders of smaller tribes, runaway slaves and whites who preferred to live in Indian society (Loewen). The First and Second Seminole wars (1816-18, 1835-42) in which the Seminoles fought against invading hites who demanded that they surrender their African-American members, were fought not for economic value but to eliminate…… [Read More]
11-13). These frames also explain how people see situations differently. For instance, two individuals might frame the same activity as volunteering or work. Without frames, society would consist of numerous unrelated interactions. No one would know how to relate to each other. However, Goffman emphasizes that framing can be inhibited by the social organization, which takes the primary role with framing of experiences in everyday social situations. Experiences are organized by each person into frameworks, keys and keyings, and designs and fabrications. The meaning behind an event can be changed by the key from what it actually seems to be into something else. For example, a person might say something may be perceived as an objective statement or keyed as a pun or joke.
ecently, Deborah Tannen is observing how framing works in different settings, where people are not sure of the meaning behind the words. She gives the following…… [Read More]
The interview questions will be prepared based on the literature review. Merrian (2006) describes
4. Chapter Structure
The dissertations will be divided into five chapters. Chapter-1: Introduction will consist of an introduction of the research issues, problem statement, significance and scope of the research. Chapter 2-Literature eview will be review of the literature relevant to the research topic. The researcher will focus on discussing the conceptual framework or theory for the research, a detailed discussion of the concept of neoconservative and its connection to Iraq War, the views of opponent and supporters of neoconservative as well as its long-term impacts on United States.
Chapter 3-methodology will consist of research design, selection of research instrument, sample population and sampling techniques as well an elaboration of data collection and analysis methods will be described. Chapter 4-Discussion of esults in which results of study will be described and analyzed while chapter 5 will…… [Read More]
“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”: Who is the Antagonist?
Washington Irving’s “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” is an unusual horror story, because it does not have a clear antagonist, although the hero Ichabod Crane is pursued by the legendary headless horseman of the titular legend. For the most part, the horseman is a character who is spoken about, rather than actually takes part in the story. Instead, the actual antagonist is that of Ichabod Crane’s fear, which leads him cower and runaway from a rival lover who pretends to be the decapitated horseman. Crane’s fear makes him easy prey for Brom Bones Van Brunt, who uses the fragile psychology of the schoolmaster against Crane and eventually steals his bride from Crane by his successful impersonation of the horseman.
In Crane’s defense, the town of Sleepy Hollow itself is said to be prone to ghost story-telling, which likely contributes to Crane’s…… [Read More]
In fact, during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Slonim notes that the need for a bill of rights was not even a topic of discussion until Virginian delegate George Mason raised the issue just several days before the Convention was scheduled to rise on September 17; Mason suggested that a bill of rights "would give great quiet to the people." Following this assertion, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved that the Convention add a bill of rights to the Constitution and Mason seconded his motion to no avail: "The Convention unanimously rejected the proposal by a vote of 10 to 0, with one state absent. Failure to heed Mason's counsel was to plague the Federalists throughout the ratification campaign" (emphasis added).
The first major confrontation concerning the ratification of the Constitution involving the need for a bill of rights occurred in Pennsylvania several weeks after the close of the Constitutional Convention; at…… [Read More]
African-American Vernacular English
There are a couple of theories as to the origin of African-American Vernacular Englsh (AAVE). Some linguists believe that the language derives from est African languages. This dialect theory is based on the knowledge that most African-Americans who were brought to the United States from Africa had to learn how to speak English by ear. The may have picked up some of the English words incorrectly and incorporated the incorrect words in their language. Another theory is called the Creole Hypothesis. This theory bases its origin on the thought that slaves developed the language themselves. The slaves, who came from many different countries in Africa formulated AAVE so that they may talk amongst themselves. They developed with is called a pidgin by combining words from their own language with new words from America. They used grammar and speech patterns that were known to them from their own…… [Read More]
Reuther made sure that the workers enjoyed economic benefits as well as job security, pensions, vacations, and most important of all supplemental unemployment benefits. He was successful in the campaign for wage increase. Reuther managed to bargain for a great wage for workers at GM in 1948. He managed an accord where GM had to increase annual wages per annum and had it tied up to a cost of living allowance. This is one reason why the working and living standards of workers were improved. He also pressed for workers early retirement. According to him, workers should be retired after 30 years of service. It is sad that the current generation takes these benefits for granted.
They benefited from healthcare programs, profit sharing, severance pay, plans for legal assistance, increment in vacation time, holidays and rest time. They were also given profit sharing benefits too.
Supplemental unemployment benefits were implemented…… [Read More]
The administration's disregard for international norms led to the excesses at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, and attempts to circumvent congressional oversight over the activities of the Administration backfired. Faced with increasing criticism at home and the inability to stabilize Iraq, the Bush Administration began to temper its approach with realism. The Administration agreed to a bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by former Secretary of State James Baker and Democratic Congressman Lee Hamilton (Baker & Hamilton, 2006). The report prepared by the group was quite critical of the Bush Administration's policies in Iraq, and though many of those criticisms were rejected, the Administrated still took the criticism seriously, and a year later began to pursue a new approach, which eventually helped to decrease the level of violence in Iraq.
The Obama Administration's approach to Iraq War reflects the liberal views of Obama who warned in 2002 that "a U.S. occupation…… [Read More]
Michel Klein, the local police chief said, "The liberators have failed. The gnomes are now going to spend the rest of their lives locked up in dusty cupboard."(Philip Delves Broughton)
So the gnomes being liberated are not being put to any useful purpose but are being left homeless to litter the forests and lakes and in some cases streets.
THE POBABLE AGENDA OF GLF:
In Britian it is said that the GLF might be involved in the re-sale of the gnomes stolen by them and money is the only objective of this organization. However that is not how the objectives of GLF are perceived in the rest of Europe. There appears to be a hidden message or higher purpose behind all these gnome robberies. The Gnome Liberation Front appears to practice a form of culture jamming. Culture jamming is a form of political communication, which has emerged as rebellion against…… [Read More]
Franks (along with the Bush war cabinet, including Vice President Dick Chaney) "met repeatedly" to plan the attack on Iraq. It was groupthink through and through. At the same time Bush was saying publicly he was "pursuing a diplomatic solution" (Hamilton, 2004), "intensive war planning" was going on during the whole year 2002. It "created its own momentum" in the administration, Hamilton wrote.
In oodward's book, which was recognized as conveying authentic details about the Bush war planning and strategies, he covers much of the pre-war discussions Bush had with top members of his administration, along with decisions Bush made on his own and with help from people like his Foreign Policy Advisor, Condoleezza Rice. But according to an excerpt from oodward's book, Bush waited until the last minute (among his top staff) to brief Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had not been an advocate of going to war,…… [Read More]
In addition, both governments and churches began to grow suspicious of the group, probably because of the "organization's secrecy and liberal religious beliefs" (Watson, 2009). As a result, Portugal and France banned Freemasonry; in fact, it was a capital offense to be a Freemason in Portugal (Watson, 2009). Moreover, "Pope Clement XII forbade Catholics from becoming Freemasons on penalty of excommunication" (Watson, 2009). Feeling pressure in Europe, many Freemasons decided to flee the Old World and travel to the European colonies scattered throughout the world, most notably, America.
Influence on America
Anyone with even a rudimentary knowledge of the Freemasons and American history understands that, whatever resistance the Freemasons met with in Europe was not to be found in America. The Freemasons set up lodges in Boston and Philadelphia, and some of the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. More importantly, the Freemasons are reported to have played…… [Read More]
According to Montgomery (2003), "Higher floors of buildings tended to rent at a substantial discount, due to the need to climb several flights of stairs to reach one's workplace or residence. Otis's invention of the safety elevator at mid-century heralded the end of this constraint on vertical real estate development" (495). Likewise, Masden notes that the increasingly confident use of the relatively new ' elevators' also fueled demand for more steel frame structures; such new steel-framed buildings were known during this early period as "elevator buildings" instead of skyscrapers, a term that was first coined in 1883 (Marsden 78).
The underlying theory behind steel frame construction during its early use, though, fueled some well-intentioned but misguided efforts that adversely influenced future applications, selection of building materials, site selection and other salient factors involved in construction. In this regard, Mumford (1959) reports that, "Unfortunately, the skyscraper was an almost automatic response…… [Read More]
Organized Crime Control
Controlling Organized Crime
The purpose of this paper is to research "Organized Crime" historically and what effects it has on society in the present time as well as implications for the future and then to examine what suggestions have been offered for asserting effective control over that which is termed "organized crime."
Organized crime can be defined as structured business framework that with no regard to moral, ethic or societal concerns or standards prospers from that which promises to prosper the individual and group within that network the most. Some examples of organized crime are the drug trafficking trade, illegal weapons and nuclear arms trade, slave trade, gambling rings, pornography rings among many other variations of the major crime categories.
Many of the Organized Crime networks are based on familial relations although there are networks defined by religion, government, country, political persuasion among other groups which characteristic…… [Read More]
No doubt, such feelings are greatly exacerbated by the current hard-line policies of the U.S. government in the Middle East,
There is a general perception in the estern world that the religion of Islam is inherently incompatible with the ideals of democracy such as individual liberties and freedom of speech. The recent controversy over the cartoons of Prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper, and the violent reaction of Muslims has further solidified the impression. A deeper look at the basic Islamic beliefs and history indicates that such a perception may be misplaced. The apparent unbridgeable gulf between Islam and modern day democratic societies can be breached if the commonalities between the two instead of their differences are highlighted.
The Internal Jihad." BBC ebsite. 2006. November 12, 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml
Is Islam Compatible with Democracy?" Oxford Analytica International. September 14, 2004. November 12, 2006. http://www.cmf.ch/transfert/_sCrans/press/INTERNATIONAL_%20Is%20Islam%20compatible%20with%20democracy_.pdf?PHPSESSID=a38d9661926c82c05cced11e8feee1a2
The Last ord:…… [Read More]
Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).
There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. ith the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the orld Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of…… [Read More]
Primarily, both Bushes wanted to show the world that America is a powerful force with which to be reckoned -- even if not a single or sole superpower, a force that can at least militarily have its way in the world, especially with regard to rogue, weaker states.
Also, both Bushes believed in cut-and-dried reactions. Communism and Saddam Hussein are simply "bad" without complicating factors such as reasons or motivations for their actions. Going hand in hand with that assessment, communism and Saddam Hussein must be defeated thoroughly, recognizing that even small victories on the part of Iraq, for instance, could draw support to Hussein's ranks and erode America foreign policy world opinion.
However, that is where the similarities ended. For George Bush, the homeland in the United States was never under a serious threat. The most perilous years of the Cold War were behind America when Bush took the…… [Read More]
" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)
The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…… [Read More]
Kushi, L.H., Cunningham, J.E., Hebert, J.R., Lerman, R.H., Bander, E.V., and Teas, J. (2001, November 1). The macrobiotic diet in cancer. Journal of Nutrition, 131 (11), 3056S-3064S.
Author credentials. While we don't learn all the author credentials from the article details, the Principle Investigator, Lawrence Kushi, is affiliated with Columbia University.
The author affiliations, in order of authors as listed in the reference, are as follows:
Program in Nutrition, Department of Health & Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY;
Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY;
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC;
The Institute for Functional Medicine and Functional Medicine Research Center, Metagenics, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA;
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ; and Department of Health Promotion, Research and Education, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health,…… [Read More]
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
A Dissertation Presented using the Meta-Analysis Technique
Komi E Fiagbe Comment by Owner: This is exactly what I wanted to see Komi. Your literature review should also identify the 20 studies that you want to analyze to give your readers an understanding of what you are doing. I want you to email me all three chapters as we move into the next course.Dr. A Christina Anastasia PH-D Chair
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best…… [Read More]
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…… [Read More]
The creation of the state of Israel in Palestine lent Jews in America a degree of legitimacy. And Jewish-Americans were now on the cusp of a new reality.
Unit IV: 1946-1976
In the 1950s the Anti-Defamation League sought to have the immigration laws of decades prior repealed. President Truman was sympathetic to the millions of displaced persons, a good portion of which were Eastern Europeans of Jewish descent. Even though America was largely outraged at news of the Holocaust, many Americans reserved the suspicion that Jews were crooked bankers secretly poised for world domination. The immigration laws were not repealed.
The 1950s also saw a debate concerning the census of 1960: should it contain religious questions? Here was an issue that embraced social, political and religious points all at once. The way Jewish-Americans faced the issue had repercussions for the entire nation. The book Protestant-Catholic-Jew had helped establish the idea…… [Read More]
It has been mentioned above that staff are chosen on the basis of the field expertise as well as educational excellence (Strayer University, 2010). Staff and faculty are dedicated not only to the teaching and learning process, but also to the students themselves. Input by these individuals concern the clients directly, and is provided in the form of direct service. All staff are available for consultation outside of classroom hours, to provide extra help to students who need this. In addition to such personal communication, education is also provided in a practicable way, so that students can use the education they receive immediately within their existing workplace or when entering a new profession.
Groups are identified both internally and externally. Within each campus, the University has functional groups in the form of various faculties, including Business and Management, Liberal Arts, and so on, to cater for each subject field offered.…… [Read More]
It was plainly obstruction of justice, and Al Haig knew it immediately.
It must also be noted, however, that, as the president tried to cover his tracks, Al Haig was given orders by Nixon to help him do it. In that capacity, for instance, Haig helped arrange the wiretaps of government officials and reporters (Gearan).
He played a key role in attempting to persuade Nixon to resign. Most believe it was Haig who first suggested to Gerald Ford that he pardon Nixon for his crimes while in office. It was this advice and Ford's acceptance of it that is believed to have cost Ford the presidency in 1976.
In "Nixon: An Oral history of His Presidency," (Strober & Strober, 2003), Haig says this:
"It is totally untrue that I raised the question of pardon with Ford...a series of options was given to him, including pardons...There were five options written by…… [Read More]
Since his first dance routine more than half a century ago, Paul Taylor has become one of the world's most popular and respected choreographers. His works are performed by companies throughout the globe. Taylor has created more than 150 dance pieces. His style is unique and he is often seen as a distinctly American artist.
critics and audiences all over the world agree that Taylor is a giant among modern dance choreographers. He has developed what is very much his own style of dance -- a style that celebrates vigor, athleticism and strength -- making Taylor, in a very special sense, an American choreographer. (iography of Paul Taylor)
Taylor has been responsible for the choreography of more than ninety performances with his own company, which has a distinguished history. The company has also performed in more than 300 cites in the United States, as well as performances in…… [Read More]
Domestic Drug Trafficking
The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world, and attracts the most sophisticated and aggressive drug traffickers (Drug pp). According to U.S. Customs Service, sixty million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights, and another 6 million enter by sea, and some 370 million by land (Drug pp). Moreover, 116 million vehicles enter by crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders, and more than 90, 000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports carrying more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo, with an additional 157,000 smaller vessels docking at various coastal towns (Drug pp).
Amid all this trade, drug traffickers conceal cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine shipments for distribution into U.S. neighborhoods (Drug pp).
The traffic and distribution of illegal drugs involves diverse groups (Drug pp). Criminal…… [Read More]
Frankfurter landed on the Harvard law faculty, thanks to a financial contribution to Harvard by Felix Warburg and Paul Warburg..." (Viereck, 1932; as cited by Mullins, 1984)
In the "Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and anking Influence" as cited by The World Newsstand publication is that chart one "...reveals the linear connection between the Rothschilds and the ank of England, and the London banking houses which ultimately control the Federal Reserve anks through their stockholdings of bank stock and their subsidiary firms in New York. The two principal Rothschild representatives in New York, J.P. Morgan Co., and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. were the firms which set up the Jekyll Island Conference at which the Federal Reserve Act was drafted, who directed the subsequent successful campaign to have the plan enacted into law by Congress, and who purchased the controlling amounts of stock in the Federal Reserve ank of…… [Read More]
Many of the electric gadgets we use today like the cell phones and the home computers were invented in the 80s. Many multinational corporations came into existence in the 80s this spur the growth to a record 3.2% per year (Bellis, 2012). This was the highest nine-year rate in American history. This was occasioned by a number of factors some of which were economic, financial, legislative, and regulatory frameworks. This unprecedented growth led to failure of a number of banking institutions. From these failures, a term "corporate greed" was coined. This essay seeks to enumerate how technology advanced in the 80s (Coppens, 2012).
In 1980, Hepatitis B Vaccine was invented by Baruch Blumberg. This research physician discovered an antigen that provoked antibody response against Hepatitis B Other took queue from this discovery to develop a vaccine against this viral hepatitis. Baruch together with Irving Millman invented a vaccine…… [Read More]
Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped, non-spore forming, curved, Gram-negative bacteria which is most often found in animal feces. This bacteria comes from the intestinal tracks of animals where is exists as a mixed surface-associated community, protected by an extra cellular material called a biofilm. The protection afforded to the bacteria by the biofilm makes it an extremely resilient bacteria. (Siringan, 2011) It was originally discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1886 and called "Vibrio," but in 1963 a new genus was created for this organism, called Campylobacter. C. jejuni is one of the "most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacter." (Nachamkin, 2008, p. 14) This bacterium is microaerophilic and "requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal grown conditions." (Bad Bug Book) Prior to 1972, C. jejuni was believed to be primarily an animal pathogen causing enteritis and abortions in cattle and sheep, but it…… [Read More]
finance and financial entrepreneurship. The basis of the article is on a discussion that was held on this subject among four leading lights of financial entrepreneurship in the United States - Michael Milken, Lewis Ranieri, Richard Sandor and Myron Scholes. These people are famous in their own right and have had a sizeable role in financial entrepreneurship in the U.S. over the last 20 years. We have first discussed their achievements to get a clear idea about their personal achievements. This would certainly give a clear idea of what is possible in the U.S. today. They are of course interesting characters and one has to remember that the ideal entrepreneur of the 21st century cannot be thought of as an updated version of Henry Ford. After the discussion of the people, the meeting and the discussions held there are summarized. ased on the total information collected, we have come to…… [Read More]
ORGANIZATIONAL EHAVIOR: ARE QUALITY CIRCLES EFFECTIVE
Quality Circles became popular during the mid 1980s, when buzzwords such as Total Quality Management and efficiency teams became popularized in U.S. companies seeking to gain a competitive advantage over international production giants including Japanese manufacturers. A great deal of controversy exists however, as to whether or not quality circles truly accomplish what they are set out to do: improve organizational efficiency, worker productivity and performance. While many companies have argued that quality circles have resulted in dramatic cost savings, a large body of research suggests that quality circles have generally failed in a majority of companies that have implemented them. The aim of this study is to examine the nature of quality circles, and to ascertain whether or not they are effective mechanisms for organizational improvement.
ORGANIZATIONAL EHAVIOR: ARE QUALITY CIRCLES EFFECTIVE
According to research, more than 50% of the…… [Read More]
It is known as The Bermuda Triangle, The Devil's Triangle, and some call it the Hoodoo Sea, but whichever name you choose, the Triangle remains a mysterious triangle of ocean that has seen the disappearance of numerous unexplained losses of shops, small boats, and aircraft. This triangle encompasses an area of ocean located off the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida. The apexes of the triangle are pinpointed to be Bermuda, Miami, Fla., and San Juan, Puerto Rico (Navy Historical Center 2001). hile the U.S. Board of Geographic Names does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle as an official name or keep an official file on the triangular area, the name Bermuda Triangle was established with a 1952 article that appeared in Fate magazine (Loxton 2003) and it continues to remain unexplained how disappearances have occurred over time.
Some scientists believe that violent, unexpected storms or downward air currents destroyed…… [Read More]