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Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
A Dissertation Presented using the Meta-Analysis Technique
Komi E Fiagbe Comment by Owner: This is exactly what I wanted to see Komi. Your literature review should also identify the 20 studies that you want to analyze to give your readers an understanding of what you are doing. I want you to email me all three chapters as we move into the next course.Dr. A Christina Anastasia PH-D Chair
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991). Meta-analysis in educational research. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
Environmental considerations related to hazardous chemical storage include concepts like green chemistry, which is a method of engaging in this process in such a way that hazardous chemicals are actually made obsolete. However, green chemistry is not always feasible; therefore, it is possible to reduce the negative impact that storage of hazardous chemicals could have on the environment by storing them in small batches and containers and thus reducing the level of risk that exists should the chemicals manage to leak or actually become pollutants (National esource Council Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory, 2011). Hazardous chemicals can become toxins in any environment and therefore precautions should be taken when storing them for the sake of the environment. Several strategies such as air pollution management, water pollution management, and soil pollution prevention can be implemented alongside control measures, the cost of which should also be considered.
National Research Council Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory. (2011).
Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and management of chemical hazards. DC: National Academies Press.
Spiegel, J., Maystre, L. (2015). Environmental Pollution Control. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Retrieved from http://www.ilocis.org/documents/chpt55e.htm
Waste & Energy
Waste products and fossil fuel usage are in part byproducts of our civilization and in part they are drivers of our civilization. Disposing of waste and managing fossil fuels present tremendous challenges to our society. We know that climate change is going to have a significant effect on the world, so that the world 100 years from now is quite different from the world today. We know that our waste cannot simply be thrown out, or it will pollute our environment. This presentation will outline specific examples to illustrate the problem.
I want you to take out your phone. It's probably already out. When will you be replacing that phone? Within the next year or two, maybe three if it's a new one. What's in a phone and where does it go? Electronics are a major category of waste, and a massive environmental challenge. Batteries are a…
Clean Air Council. (2014). Waste press delete. Clean Air Council. Retrieved November 7, 2014 from http://www.cleanair.org/waste_delete
EPA. (2014). Where you live -- state medical waste programs and regulations. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved November 7, 2014 from http://www.epa.gov/waste/nonhaz/industrial/medical/programs.htm
The waste group contains 3 items:
AS1 -- Storing of Recyclable Household aste and Non-recyclable aste
AS2 -- Building Location aste Management
AS3 -- Composting
Household Recycling facilities
here the following recycling
services are given:
• 3 internal storage bins for recyclable waste with -- min total capacity of 60 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller than 15 ltr
-- all of the bins in a devoted position that is accessible to disabled people
here full recycling facilities
• 3 internal storage bins with -- min total capacity of 30 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller
than 7 ltr
-- all bins in a dedicated position that is accessible to disabled people
• a Local Authority collection scheme for recyclable materials covering at least three streams of waste with sufficient space for…
Agyeman, J., & Evans, B. (2004). 'Just sustainability': The emerging discourse of environmental justice in Britain? The Geographical Journal, 170, 155-164.
Apitz, S.E. (2010). Waste or resource? classifying and scoring dredged material management strategies in terms of the waste hierarchy. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10(8), 1657-1668.
Babin, R., & Nicholson, B. (2011). How green is my outsourcer? Measuring sustainability in global it outsourcing. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 4(1), 47-66.
Ball, S., & Abou Taleb, M. (2011). Benchmarking waste disposal in the Egyptian hotel industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(1), 1-18.
This approach has been regarded as one of the best and safest approaches. Despite this, there is widespread concern about proper radioactive waste management. (National esearch Council (U.S.), 1)
According to a 1976 EDA report, the nine facilities for radioactive waste disposal have been referred to as significant health hazards. Leaks and spills at such facilities are not very uncommon. In fact, the radioactive waste storage facility at ichland has reported around 18 leaks in a period of 20 years discharging approximately 430,000 gallons of radioactive wastes, shows the enormity of the situation. Leaks have also been reported in Kentucky, New York State, and in Tennessee. (Gyorgy, 130) it has been reported that the U.S. generates radioactive PCB wastes at a rate greater than 5 million tons annually. Moreover, the U.S. has more than 200 million tons of uranium mill tailings in which 85% of its original radioactivity still persists.…
Brown, Lester R; Earth Policy Institute. Eco-Economy.
Cember, Herman. Introduction to Health Physics.
McGraw-Hill Professional, 1996.
Hazardous Waste at Pharmacy
The pharmaceutical business generates some waste that is considered to be hazardous. Some of this waste is in the form of drugs that are dangerous. Up until this point, a lot of the regulations surrounding the handling of these drugs has come from OSHA, and thus the regulations pertain to occupational safety, rather than environmental safety. OSHA has had recommendations for the safe handling of dangerous drugs for at least thirty years. Most hazardous drugs are cytotoxic, but some others are also potentially harmful, among them drugs for chemotherapy (Polovich, 2004).
The current regulations at the federal level are from OSHA and are designed to protect the people who either produce or dispense pharmaceuticals that fall into the hazardous class (Connor & McDiarmmid, 2006). Chemotherapy agents, for example, have been linked to secondary leukemia and other cancers (Polovich, 2004). When OSHA brought in its…
Connor, T. & McDiarmid, M. (2006). Preventing occupational exposures to antineoplastic drugs in health care settings. CA: A cancer journal for clinicians. Vol. 56 (6) 345-365.
EPA.gov (2015). Proposed rule: Management standards for hazardous waste pharmaceuticals. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved April 8, 2016 from Patwary, M., O'Hare, W. & Sarker, M. (2011). Assessment of occupational and environmental safety associated with medical waste disposal in developing countries: A qualitative approach. Safety Science. Vol. 49 (8-9) 1200-1207.
Polovich, M. (2004). Safe handling of hazardous drugs. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved April 8, 2016 from http://www.nursingworld.org/mainmenucategories/anamarketplace/anaperiodicals/ojin/tableofcontents/volume92004/no3sept04/hazardousdrugs.html
radioactive waste disposal and also the factors that need to be taken into account when it comes to nuclear waste disposal.
The issue of radioactive waste disposal has been a global headache ever since countries started using nuclear energy. The health and safety concerns associated with nuclear waste have meant that used radioactive material have to be disposed in a controlled manner and in secure locations. Disposal of radioactive waste is further complicated by the half-life length of many radioactive substances, many of which retain up to 50% of their harmful characteristics for more than a hundred thousand years after being disposed (Agar). Nuclear waste disposal is one of the major challenges that have limited the widespread adoption of nuclear power as an energy source.
The United States EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) classifies nuclear waste into six categories. Namely (Agar):
Accelerator-produced and naturally occurring radioactive materials.
Low level waste
Agar, R. (n.d.). EHow -- How to - Discover the expert in you! -- eHow. Problems With Nuclear Waste Disposal -- eHow. Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://www.ehow.com/about_5393400_problems-nuclear-waste-disposal.html
alarm concerning the disposal of nuclear waste in the United States. The report determined that the United States government should consolidate the interim storage of nuclear waste and use dry casks to do so. The report touted the fact that dry casks were "stronger, safer, more secure, more manageable and ultimately more affordable" (osner, Lordan, 2014, p. 48) than what is currently being used to dispose of nuclear waste. osner and Lordan (2014) determined that dry casks were safer than what is currently being used because the casks are built as 100-ton structures designed to withstand earthquakes, floods, fires, and the impact of airplanes. An additional caveat to using dry casks according to osner et al. is that they do not require any energy once stored, and they are relatively inexpensive to build.
One of the reasons why the osner and Lordan report is so important is because of the…
Bala, A.; (2014) Sub-seabed burial of nuclear waste: If the disposal method could succeed technically, could it also succeed legally? Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 41(2) 455-486
Mascarelli, A.; (2013) Eternal Challenge, New Scientist, 220(2941) 42-45
Rosner, R. & Lordan, R.; (2014) Why America should move toward dry cask consolidated interim storage of nuclear fuel, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 70(6) 48-62
There are several groups involved in fighting the Yucca Mountain site, including local grassroots organizations in Nevada and larger organizations around the country. Many Native American tribes do not support the site, as it is located on their ancient tribal lands. The Nevada Piutes are one group who is organized in opposition to the site, as are several other western Native American tribes. A larger organization is the Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, a group who opposes the site for a number of reasons, including transportation safety issues, the geology of the site, and the fact that other sites were not seriously considered.
What are the future prospects of Yucca Mountain? That is still not clear. Congress OK'd the dumpsite in 2002, but since then, many things have changed politically in Washington and around the country. Many groups and citizens are protesting the dump, mainly due to safety and transportation…
Editors. "Earthquakes in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain." State of Nevada. 1996. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.state.nv.us/nucwaste/yucca/seismo01.htm
Editors. "Yucca Mountain Repository." U.S. Department of Energy. 2007. 4 Dec. 2007. http://www.ocrwm.doe.gov/ym_repository/index.shtml
Fraud Allegations Roil Yucca Mountain Project." Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2005: 20+.
Rosenheck, Dan. "Digging a Deeper and Deeper Hole." New Statesman 29 Sept. 2003: xxii+.
Waste Crisis in Campania, Italy
Since early 1990s to late 2000s, the Italian government issued a formal State of Emergency in the region of Campania, south-west Italy because of the saturation of regional waste treatment facilities. During this period, there was huge evidence including a study by World Health Organization that showed increased accumulation of legal, illegal, urban and industrial waste, which in turn contaminated water, air, and soil. The contamination was brought by a series of toxic pollutants from the waste including dioxins. This case provides significant insights regarding sustainability and demonstrates various ecological economics sustainability concepts. Moreover, this case study raises some sustainability challenges or questions that are helpful when considering environmental sustainability.
Synopsis of the Case
Campania region in south-west Italy was under a formal State of Emergency for nearly 14 years i.e. between 1994 and 2008 (Civil Society Engagement with Ecological Economics, 2010). This emergency was…
Barker, T. (2013, March 6). What is Ecological Economics, as Distinct from the Neoclassical Environmental Economics? Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.camecon.com/Libraries/Downloadable_Files/Ecological_Economics-Barker2013.sflb.ashx
Civil Society Engagement with Ecological Economics. (2010). The CEECEC handbook: ecological economics from the bottom-up. CEECEC, Belgium.
Domestic Waste Production
The production and disposal of waste has a dramatic environmental impact. There are three main sectors of waste generation in the UK, including commercial and industrial, construction and demolition, and local authority collected or municipal waste (including household waste) (1). Household waste generation in the UK has decreased in recent years, while recycling behaviors have increased (1). Behaviors and drivers associated with waste generation among households are explored in the following discussion.
There are many sources from which waste can arise, including households, business, construction, agriculture, mining, and sewage (4). Strategies for dealing with these various types of waste can be conceptualized in a hierarchy that indicateds which methods of waste management should be considered given the environmental impact of each type of waste (4). This framework entails waste prevention through reducing use resources, then the reusing of products, and finally recycling of materials (4). This framework…
1. Department of Environmental Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 2011, Waste data overview (June 2011), viewed 11 March, 2012, http://www.defra.gov.uk/statistics/files/20110617-waste-data-overview.pdf.
2. Department of Environmental Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 2012. Local authority collected waste for England -- annual statistics (2011), viewed 11 March, 2012, http://defra.gov.uk/statistics/environment/waste/wrfg23-wrmsannual/ .
3. Eurostat 2012, Environmental data centre on waste (2012), viewed 11 March 2012, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/waste/data/sectors/municipal_waste .
4. UK National Statistics 2012, Waste and recycling (2012), viewed 11 March, 2012, http://www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/agriculture-environment/environment/waste-and-recycling.
Over the last several years, the issue of how to store and dispose of radioactive waste has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because of the hazards to human life are well beyond acceptable levels for many decades after the material has been used. This is problematic because, it is highlighting a common challenge that many countries are facing in disposing of radioactive waste. To fully understand the challenges that these nations are dealing with requires examining the different types of nuclear waste. Once this occurs, it will provide specific insights about the overall problems faced with: the disposal and storage of this material. (Rechard, 1999, pp. 737 -- 807) (Helton, 1993, pp. 327 -- 367)
Summarize all of the Sources of Radioactive Waste
There are a number of different categories that are used in the classification of radioactive waste. Listed…
Helton, J. (1993). Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis. Reliability Engineering, 42 (3), 327 -- 367.
Rechard, R. (1999). Historical Relationship. Risk Analysis, 19 (5), 737 -- 807.
" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)
Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.
The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.
The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…
reference: being reused repaired and modernized; being recycled and the most ecologically disadvantageous solution is simply being land filled. But the realization of these practices faces a lot of obstacles mainly of financial character. All of them are quite expensive and do not bring desired return.
That's why scientists and economists agree in the following: recycling of e-waste has to be the concern of electronics manufacturers. Loop industry is the most optimal solution to the problem as the manufacturer becomes responsible for the recycling of the products he makes. Introduction of such practices has the negative outcomes of course. Because technological process becomes more complicated and intensive, requires involvement of additional equipment and facilities on the hand with new labour the net value of the production increases and so the customers would have to pay more for electronics.
Another direction in the solution of e-waste problem is export of e-waste to the developing countries, where the process of recycling is cheaper and the possibility of e-waste to be reused, repaired and modernized is higher. Moreover some third world countries use unpopulated territories for e-waste. Anyways, this kind of solution is not appropriate again, because most of these practices somehow avoid law regulations of these countries and cannot have a mass character. It only creates additional problem which would have to be solved in close future.
As most of experts agree that recycling of e-waste has to be the problem of e-products manufacturers they have to develop different effective strategies and technologies for the most optimal solution of this problem: starting form transportation of e-waste from customer to the process of recycling. At this point global environmental community has to cooperate and share new practices and approaches in solving this problem. It refers both to technology and legislative regulation of the problem.
And in developing own strategy for e-waste management the officials of different countries have to work together and adopt practices of each other that are being effective. Countries of European Union had already made the first steps to the solution of this problem, making manufactures to be responsible for the waste caused by their products. The United Sates and Canada should start to introduce these practices as well, if they want to achieve ecological balance and safe coexistence of scientific and technological progress with health of humanity.
Disposable batteries have transformed the way that we live and the types of activities that we do. The purpose of this discussion is to provide the reader with a natural history of disposable batteries from the time the raw materials are extracted from the earth to the time they are recycled or in a land fill. We will seek to explain the environmental impact that batteries have along the path of creation, use, and disposal. This paper will also discuss the Peripheral impact, of batteries including: how they are shipped, how much fuel is used, and how much pollution is created. Finally we will discuss the social impact of batteries and facts about the societies that make, use, and dispose of batteries.
Natural History of Disposable Batteries
The concept of batteries was first discovered between 1780-1786 by Luigi Galvani. Galvani found that connecting iron and brass created an electrical current.…
Battery, Electric. 2000. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. New York:Columbia University Press.
Carpi John. 1994. Green Batteries: Powering Innovation. E. Volume: 5. Issue: 2. Publication Date: April 1994. Page Number: 46+.
Frazer, Lance. 2002. Leading the Charge for Better Batteries. Environmental Health Perspectives. 110 (4): 200.
Moyers Bill D. 1990. Global Dumping Ground: The International Traffic in Hazardous Waste. Center for Investigative Reporting (U.S.) - Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press.
Environmental egulations and Industry Best Practice for Efficient Use of esources
The inappropriate disposal of electronic or so-called "e-waste," including office consumables such as laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges, represents a major environmental threat. In fact, according to Taylor, "E-waste' is growing in landfills at three times the rate of general refuse."
In the past, identifying ways to recycle laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges was complicated by the fact that these cartridges contain a "complex mix of plastics, metals, foams and toner."
Identifying ways to recycle laser printer and photocopier toner cartridges, though, is worthwhile. For instance, "Printer cartridges contain valuable metals such as steel, aluminium and copper, as well as ink, toner powder, plastics, rubber, silica and foam, much of which can be recycled."
Nevertheless, Weissman emphasizes that the fact that, "Disposal of electronics waste is complicated, because many of the more than 1,000 different substances in…
Gray, Gerry. (1999, Spring). "Corporations Go Green," American Forests, 104(1): 3-5.
"Recycle Your E-Waste Today." (2013, June 6). The Old Gympie Times, 37.
Taylor, Rachel. (2006, April-May). "He's Closed the Loop: A Single Environmental
Commitment Turned Steve Morris into an Entrepreneur with a Company That's about to Go Global," Ecos, 130: 8-10.
Future Waste Scenarios
Based on the statistics and research regarding the current waste generation and disposal situation within the UK, there are reasons to feel optimistic. The amount of household waste generated in the UK is continually decreasing while effective recycling behaviors are continually increasing. However, as the population continues to grow in the UK, even if waste generation and recycling behaviors continue to change at the current rate, it will not be enough to keep up with the growing population. There are several areas where further awareness and consistent effort are required in order to keep the UK on the right track to a greener future for generations to come. The broad categories under which effective behaviors fall include the reduction of consumption, the reuse of products, and the recycling of products used. Each of these behaviors is successive to the last, meaning individuals should focus first on where…
1. What is e-waste? What is so dangerous about e-waste? Many well-meaning individuals thought that recycling was the answer to the e-waste problem. But why hasn't e-waste recycling yielded the results hoped for?
E-waste (electronic waste) refers to the discarded electronic or electrical devices that are no longer being used, are unwanted, non-working, and obsolete. All used electronics that are destined for resale, reuse, recycling, salvage, or disposal are also considered to be e-waste. E-waste affects nearly every system in the human body mainly because they contain a plethora of toxic components like lead, calcium, mercury, barium, lithium, cadmium, polybrominated and flame retardants (Cucchiella, D’Adamo, Koh, & Rosa, 2015). Recycling of e-waste is still the answer to the e-waste problem, but recycling has to be carried out in a laid-out manner and not just anyone should be allowed to recycle e-waste. Recycling of e-waste is labor intensive and recycling employees…
The WITE initiative was a collaborative approach that drew upon industry, state, local governments as well as the EPA's isk eduction Engineering Laboratory with the overall goal of developing more effective pollution prevention technologies that could assist the electronics manufacturing industry in developing a "crade to grave" approach to managing these products (appaport, 1999).
Besides these earlier efforts, in more recent years, increasingly rigorous laws and regulations have been implemented by the EPA with the goal of minimizing the impact of electronics and electrical device waste on the environment have began to make a major difference in recovering these toxic substances before they ever have a chance to become waste. For instance, pursuant to the above-mentioned esource Conservation and ecovery Act, it is now illegal for companies in the United States to simply discard hazardous waste, including electronics and electrical devices, in normal trash receptacles (The importance of recycling computers,…
Brown, V.J. (2004). Electronics, lead and landfills. Environmental Health Perspectives,
Gaba, J.M. (2008). Rethinking recycling. Environmental Law, 38(4), 1053-1054.
Gebrewold, F. (1999). Current hazardous waste management and disposal practices among small quantity generators. Journal of Environmental Health, 57(2), 11.
In Florida, responsibility is held by the Bureau of Solid & Hazardous Waste, which falls under the auspices of the Department of Environmental Protection. Moreover, the state sets some of the environmental definitions - a key one to CBI is the state of Florida's stringent definition of petroleum contact water.
Among the key points of the regulations is that used oil must be tested to determine the hazard that it poses, before disposal is commenced. CBI tests used oil both at the customer site and then when it arrives at the Miami facility.
The county and city governments also have their own environmental regulations, and Cliff Berry must adhere to those as well. There are specific statutes with regards to the Miami iver and air pollution in both the city and Miami-Dade county.
Plans for the Future
Cliff Berry Inc. has undertaken significant expansion in the past few years. They…
No author (2008). Dissolved Air Flotation Design and Application. Envirowise. Retrieved May 20, 2008 at http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/page.aspx?o=166728#n2
No author (2008) Laws & Regulations. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 20, 2008 at http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/laws-reg.htm
No author (2008) Hazardous Waste. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 20, 2008 at http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazwaste.htm
No author (2004) Hazardous Incinerators? Waste Treatment Facilities Linked to Health Problems. Science News. Retrieved May 20, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n21_v143/ai_13797900
Optimal Toxic Chemical Disposal Approach
Given their relatively commonplace occurrence, identifying optimal toxic chemical disposal approaches following accidental spills represents a timely and important enterprise. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature to determine the optimal course in action with respect to the incineration of the collected spilled acid at a manufacturing facility as a final disposal approach or incineration of the waste elsewhere. A discussion concerning the critical considerations for, or against, the incineration approach is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning chemical waste disposal following an accidental spillage in the conclusion.
Most states require that companies ensure that their toxic waste is either properly disposed of on-site or is otherwise disposed of in an off-site facility (McKenrick & Keiko, 2009). For companies that experience significant numbers of spills, the decision to dispose of these toxic materials on-site or through a contract…
Combustion. (2016). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www3.epa. gov/epawaste/hazard/tsd/td/combustion.htm.
Cournier, S. A. & Lomnicki, S. (2006, June). Origin and health impacts of emissions of toxic by-products and fine particles from combustion and thermal treatment of hazardous wastes and materials. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(6), 810-814.
Incineration. (2016). Waste Management Resources. Retrieved from http://www.wrfound.org. uk/articles/incineration.html.
McKenrick, L. L. & Keiko, L. B. (2009, November). Helping the auto repair industry manage hazardous wastes: An education project in King County, Washington. Journal of Environmental Healt, 66(4), 9-12..
disposable" society that is dependent upon fossil fuels, trash disposal and hazardous waste disposal are not just concerns, but are potential threats to human life, and the lives of everything else within the environment. The National Priorities List, a document prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency, consists of sites that have been found so contaminated they present an immediate threat to persons living or working near the area. Among those noted on this list is The Florida Petroleum eprocessors (FP) site in Broward County, which was a waste oil transfer station from 1978-1992. When the EPA investigated FP, they discovered a plume of groundwater contamination over 600 acres in size, extending into the Biscayne aquifer to a depth over 140-feet.
This is but one example of violations of hazardous waste disposal laws. In Broward County alone, other contaminated sites on the Priorities List are the Davie Landfill, Chemform, Hollingsworth Solderless…
National Priorities List, updated September 9, 2002. 10/3/02 http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/npl/fl.htm#Davie_Landfill
Untitled review of Wingate Dump and Lake Stupid. 10/3/02 http://www.xso.com/news/morgue/0910toxi.htm
Public health as a discipline is really both the science and art of preventing disease, improving health, and prolonging the quality of life within a given society by use of public and private organizations. Overall, it is concerned with threats that are the type that may hurt society as a whole -- epidemics, dangers, social and mental well-being, etc. Modern public health is a multi-disciplinary field that includes medical professionals, statisticians, biologists, ecological and environmental professionals, dental professionals, nutritional experts, veterinarians, engineers, lawyers, sociologists, anthropologists, academics, and the political process itself (Rosen, 1993).
Historically, disease vectors, polluted water and pathogens, and lack of sewage without any scientific basis for control or actual understanding of pathogens created public health problems. In the modern world, public health focuses on several levels of health: local/regional, state, national and global -- typically based upon population statistics, demographics and the analysis of disease. Even in…
Breslow, L. (Ed.). (2002). Encyclopedia of Public Health. New York: Macmillan.
Centers for Disease Control. (2012, April). National Public Health Performance Standards - Local Public Health Systems. Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/od/ocphp/nphpsp/documents/Local_v_1_OMB_0920-0555.pdf
National Association of County and City Health Officials. (2011, February). Programs and Information. Retrieved from Naccho.org: http://www.naccho.org/
Rosen, G. (1993). A History of Public Health. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.
Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida
Urban areas in the U.S.…
Ackermannn, T., Soder, L. (2000). Wind energy technology and current status: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(4): 315-374.
Boyle, G. (2012). Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future. UK: Oxford.
City of Tampa. (2013). Solid Waste Recycling. Tampagov.net. Retrieved from http://www.tampagov.net/solid-waste/programs/automated-recycling
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.
In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.
The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.
The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.
During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.
It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…
History Lesson: Contaminated Water Makes a Deadly Drink
Kathy Jesperson on Tap Editor (accessed 4-20-07)
Apostles of cleanliness (accessed 4-23-07)
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
Nu Star Energy L.P. is a limited partnership that is publicly traded and headquartered in San Antonio. It has 9,063 miles of pipeline, eighty-six terminal facilities, four storage facilities for crude oil and two refineries for asphalt. It is the second in size among independent liquid terminal operators in the United States. It operates in the U.S., Netherlands, Canada, United Kingdom, Antilles and Mexico. The entire system of the partnership can hold up to 86 million barrels in its storage infrastructure. It has refineries for asphalt, crude oil and has pipelines for refined products. Also present are terminals for refined products, a storage facility for petroleum, a terminal operation as well as storage facilities for crude oil. NuStar strives to protect the environment and continually works to improve its programs and processes so as to meet even the most stringent of environmental practices. This has resulted in better environmental performance.…
Becker, R., & Henderson, V. (2000). Effects of air quality regulations on polluting industries. Journal of Political Economy, 108(2), 379-421.
Bradbury, J. (2010). EPA, The Clean Air Act, and U.S. Manufacturing. Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://www.wri.org/blog/2010/11/epa-clean-air-act-and-us-manufacturing
Deschenes, O., Greenstone, M., & Shapiro, J.S. (2012). Defensive investments and the demand for air quality: Evidence from the nox budget program and ozone reductions (No. w18267). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Environmental Decision Making, Science, and Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://environ.andrew.cmu.edu/m3/s7/us_laws.shtml
Protection against Abuse (deterrence)
Deterrence and the legal system
The notion of deterrence plays a significant role in the present system. In most cases, laws are put in place to ensure those who break the laws do not escape unpunished but also to discourage potential offenders from committing the offenses. This is the reason the state has opted to pass laws that ensure citizens sort their trash to enable recycling of the wastes to be much easier. The objective of the regulation is not to punish offenders, but to prevent them from disposing recyclable material inappropriately.
Sorting out of waste disposal
Different households produce different wastes, and this becomes a problem to dispose the wastes especially in urban areas. In instances that piles of garbage are left unattended in residential areas and offices, they become a nuisance. This is because of their biological as well as chemical decomposition that produce…
Paul, J.A.J., & Daniel, T., (January 01, 2008). Standardization of Sampling Method for Physical
Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 5, 1, 95-98.
Wilcox, C. (2009). Earth-friendly waste management. Minneapolis, Minn: Lerner.
With the depletion of the ozone, there results global warming and also the ultraviolet rays affect the skin and eyes.
There is money in recycling waste. Within BC, homes, hospitals and many other institutions there are bound to be some items that are left to lie without use for years. These might just one day end up in the dumpsites. Cell phones, ink cartridges, broken refrigerators, broken down cars etc. could earn one money if taken for recycling (Midwest Fiber, 2009).
ecycling also creates jobs. There are many stages through which an aluminum can will go through. From collection from the recycle bins in BC, the driver, the carriers, the off loaders, the recycle plant operators, etc. all benefit from the recycling process. So as the environment will be conserved, there will be no loss of jobs at the same time.
ecycling also helps in building a strong economy. When…
Ackerman & Frank. (1997). Why Do We Recycle?: Markets, Values, and Public Policy.
Washington, DC: Island Press.
Baird & Colin (2004). Environmental Chemistry (3rd ed.) New York: W.H. Freeman.
Midwest Fiber, (2009). Recycling Financial Benefits. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from www.midwest-fiber.com/resource.../recycling-financial-benefits.html
This information was used to assess the level of compliance by drivers with company policies and procedures, as well as to ensure that all transportation of product was performed in a safe and efficient fashion.
Application of Engineering Knowledge and Skills: This project required an extensive review of existing GPS technologies and how they could be used to capture the requisite telemetry from the GPS-equipped vehicles in a real-time manner. In addition, the requisite telecommunications required to provide this information was thoroughly investigated and an optimal solution was developed that was based on these findings.
Delegated Tasks and How They Were Accomplished: With approval from the company's general manager, two tasks that were part of the overall engineering project were delegated to other team members who had the requisite expertise in order to successfully complete the project by the management-imposed deadline. These two tasks were as follows:
1. Recapitulation and…
The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.
The Case for Nuclear Energy
In the past few…
Cavanagh, R. & Cochran, T. (2013, November 6). Nuclear Energy Film Overstates Positives, Underplays Negatives. CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/opinion/pandora-nuclear-energy-opinion-cavanagh-cochran/
Kemfert et al. (2015, November). European Climate Targets Achievable Without Nuclear Power. DIW Economic Bulletin, 5(47), 619-625.
Koffler, D. (2008, July 8). The Case for Nuclear Power. The Guardian. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jul/08/nuclearpower.energy
Totty, M. (2008, June 30). The Case For and Against Nuclear Power. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121432182593500119
Less need for more landfill space reduces the cost and resources needed to secure new landfill space. "Composting also extends municipal landfill life by diverting organic materials from landfills and provides a less costly alternative to conventional methods of remediating… contaminated soil." (EPA, 2008)
It is evident that the advantages and benefits of composting are quite substantial, and arguably outweigh the disadvantages or issues involved with the process. Nevertheless, the previously discussed issues can be impeding to achieving the full benefits of composting, and thereby need to be dealt with suitably. For a government intending to implement a mandatory composting regulation, it would be necessary for them to also ensure that all residents within the region are properly educated on the procedure. Also, the government would need to make appropriate arrangements for residents living in apartments, business owners who are not in charge of their building's waste management, and…
Brown, Sally. "ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS of COMPOST USE." BioCycle. June 2007 http://www.jgpress.com/archives/_free/001355.html .
CBS Broadcasting. "SF Mandatory Compost Law Is Food for Thought." CBS. 2 August 2009 http://cbs5.com/food/recycling.composting.sf.2.1039894.html .
Coker, Craig. "Environmental remediation by composting." BioCycle. December 2006 http://www.jgpress.com/archives/_free/001206.html .
Environment Canterbury. "Types of Composting Systems." New Zealand Government. 2 August 2009 http://www.ecan.govt.nz/Our+Environment/Waste/ReuseRecycleRethink/Composting/CompostingTypes.htm .
Richard T. Wright, Dorothy Boorse, Population and Resources
Before sewer systems and water treatment plants, there were many people who were still able to live hygienically. Even today, there are a number of people whose homes are not attached to city sewer systems, and whose waste products do not make their way to a water treatment plant. These people generally have septic tanks buried in their yards, and a drain field extends from the tank, also buried in the yard. This allows the waste products to be safely and hygienically removed from the home, and these products eventually go back to the earth. This takes time, and there can be problems with the system. Tanks can crack, become too full, or the drain system can fail to drain properly. If the slope in the pipes from the sinks and other facilities to the septic system are not correct, there could…
solid waste management in impoverished areas versus affluent areas by examining the social, economic, ethical, and political reasons for placement of landfills and other waste removal facilities in poorer neighborhoods. By exploring the background of specific social movements, the first section of the assignment will seek to explore why the government placed landfills in certain locations versus others. The essay will also seek to examine what caused the social movements. As well as why the issue evolved from placement of landfills in poorer neighborhoods to placement of landfills in minority-majority poorer neighborhoods.
The next section will seek to analyze which candidates would be best for a nonprofit. Candidate one is a business-savvy employee wishing to change things by dismissing all the older employees and hiring new ones. Candidate two is a college graduate with experience in the field. By looking at the various perspectives of public administration theory, this section…
Aston, R. (1999). The Legal, Engineering, Environmental and Social Perspectives of Surface Mining Law and Reclamation by Landfilling: Getting Maximum Yield from Surface Mines (p. 120). World Scientific.
Brownell, P. & Kelly, J. (2013). Ageism and mistreatment of older workers. Dordrecht: Springer.
Frederickson, G. (1994). Ethics and Public Administration. Routledge.
Hill, B. (2014). Environmental Justice (p. 103). Environmental Law Institute.
In Indonesia, this shoreline litter covers about 90% of the upper shore.
How plastic debris affect marine life
There are two major ways in which detrimental effects to marine life occur. One is when these marine animals become snarled up in the marine debris and the other way is when they ingest the plastic wastes. Some of the materials which can cause the snarl up are pieces of fish lines or nets and rings which are used to bind six-pack beverages. These materials can cause the marine animals to drown or suffocate thus killing them. Death can also be an effect of the materials strangling the animals or starvation when the animal is trapped and unable to reach any food. These materials can also cause severe injuries to the animals. Entanglement is especially important to sea lions and seals. These animals are known to have a curious nature like that…
Allsopp, Michelle, et al. Plastic Debris in the World's Oceans. Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, 2006. Print.
Arthur, Courtney. Plastic Marine Debris: An in-Depth Look2010. Print.
Dong-Oh, Cho. "The Incentive Program for Fishermen to Collect Marine Debris in Korea." Marine Pollution Bulletin 58.3 (2009): 415-17. Print.
Jose G.B, Derraik. "The Pollution of the Marine Environment by Plastic Debris: A Review." Marine Pollution Bulletin 44.9 (2002): 842-52. Print.
Additionally, the water intake near Chelsea may be used, at times, to supplement New York City's water supply, during times of drought. The Town of Waterford and the Town of Halfmoon both get their muncipal water supply from the Upper Hudson iver ("Hudson iver PCBs," 2008).
GE's Involvement in the Build Up of PCBs in the Hudson iver
From 1947 to 1977, the General Electric Company discharged as much as 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into the Hudson iver, polluting 197 miles of the river and creating America's largest Superfund site. Two of GE's facilities, one at Hudson Falls and one at Fort Edward are reported to be the source of the pollution. As Angelo (2009) notes, PCBs were used as high-temperature insulators in the manufacturing process of transformers and capacitors, at the GE facilities. Even today, more than three decades later, PCBs still leak into the river from GE's…
Angelo, W. (25 Feb 2008) Hudson River PCB cleanup projects under construction. Engineering News Record, 260(7). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.
(1 Jun 2009). PCB remediation work starts in the Hudson River. Engineering News Record, 262(17). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.
Historic Hudson River cleanup to begin after years of delay, but will General Electric finish the job? (23 Mar 2007). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/hhudson.asp .
Hudson River PCBs. (31 Dec 2008). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.epa.gov/region02/superfund/npl/0202229c.pdf .
However, the author devotes the other major focus of her book to the excessive consumption and waste that unnecessarily increase the amount of garbage that society must deal with.
In that regard, the author provides an awareness that many readers might have lacked into the imperfect nature of waste disposal from two perspectives: first, she describes the degree to which even the highly regulated approved methods of storing waste are susceptible to leakage and to exposing society to dangerous chemicals; second, she explains that certain forms of mass consumption result in pollution that cannot be mitigated even by the most sophisticated waste disposal methods. For example, in the case of ordinary shoes, she writes:
" & #8230;conventional rubber soles are stabilized with lead that degrades into the atmosphere and soil as the shoe is worn. Rain sluices this lead dust into sewers, and thence into sludge bound for agricultural fields.…
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
Notwithstanding the challenges involved, the stakes are high and there is little room for false starts or experimentation; therefore, identifying a general set of best practices that Gambian organizations can follow in developing their own set of sustainable productivity practices represents a valuable and timely undertaking, which relates to the purpose of the study which is discussed further below.
Purpose of Study
The overall purpose of this study was to study to provide a review of the relevant juried and scholarly literature together with the findings of a survey of Gambian business leaders to generally identify the most pressing priorities for developing the nation's infrastructure and sustainable organizational productivity. The specific purpose of the study was to determine whether SMEs face the same types of challenges of to optimum performance as their larger corporate counterparts, and to identify any peculiar organizational characteristics that determine levels of performance between SMEs and…
Walking on grass while it rains, looking at the blue sky and hearing the bird chirp, and letting cool breeze touch the skin are amongst some of the most refreshing moments which one would loathe. The refreshment and serenity arising from such moments rather define environment as a miraculous beauty. Despite the ease and satisfaction associated with nature, ecological problems go hand in hand with the reality of the surrounding. Ecological issues are environmental issues such as overpopulation, climatic changes, land degradation, pollution and many more. These problems do not only destroy the splendor of nature, but they adversely affect life. As a matter of fact, these ecological issues are a result of human activity which leaves a drastic impact on the environment.
While considering the different environmental issues, it is important to shed light on urbanization which is a major ecological issue. Urbanization is…
Jiang, L. (2008). Population, Urbanization, and the Environment: Growing Cities Stress Their Natural Surrounding, but They Can Also Help Protect Them. World Watch. Vol. 21, No. 5
Logistics Report Template to Alberta Government on Test Oil Rig Deployment-Team Employment Environmental Issues
The Alberta government is currently under severe pressure to manage the environmental impact of the drilling for oil in environmentally sensitive sites. For this reason, this report will have much the same format as environmental compliance report that will be issued later. This will include the consideration of issues such as waste management, land use, and air and water pollution resulting from the extraction/processing of oil. Additionally, combustion and thermal processing produce waste material. These must be disposed of. Harmful atmospheric emissions (CO2) will also be captured, stored and recycled or disposed of in order to qualify for Canadian and Alberta carbon credits which may financially offset waste disposal/recycling costs. On site experimental conversion processes and carbon capture/storage technologies may reduce some of these costs in the future (more carbon credits), but may raise others, such…
Government of Alberta. Alberta Environment Department. Assessing Drilling Waste Disposal Areas:
Compliance Options for Reclamation Certification. Edmonton: Alberta Governmental.
"Turning the Corner: Canada's Offset System for Greenhouse Gases."
Environment Canada. Ec.gc.ca, 07 March 2008. Web. 15 Nov 2011.
Coasts are the dynamic junction of water, air, and land. Winds and waves, tides and currents, migrating sand dunes and mud flats, a variety of plant and animal life -- all combine to form our ever-changing coasts." (USGS, 2004) Coastlines all over the world are subjected to a wide variety of erosion and denudation effects. Some of these effects are natural occurrences while many are the result of human interaction with the environment. While natural occurrences have be taking place for thousands of years, threats to coastlines from coastal communities in the form of recreational and residential development, waste disposal, spill accumulation and waste disposal are all cause damages to the coast line at a much faster rate.
Wave action, wind, surf and rising sea levels are all impacting coastlines all over the world. Many of these actions of coastlines are very gradual; the effects on the coastlines take many…
http://www.minesandcommunities.org/Action/press359.htmENS. (2004). Europe's Coastlines Eroding Into the Sea. Environmental News Service. Retrieved December 5, 2004, from the World Wide Web:
FEMA. (2004). Significant Losses From Coastal Erosion Anticipated Along U.S. Coastlines. Retrieved December 5, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.fema.gov/nwz00/erosion.shtm
Richmond, Bruce. (2004). Effects of Major Storms on Pacific Islands. U.S. Geological Survey; Marine and Coastal Geology Program. Retrieved December 5, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://marine.usgs.gov/fact-sheets/pacificstorms/pacific.html
UNESCO. (2004). Beach erosion in Anguilla. Retrieved December 5, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.unesco.org/csi/act/cosalc/projec10.htm
Therefore should such an employee be fired, and then the basic tenets of corporate social responsibility would have been violated. The enterprise would be therefore in essence sanctioning the gross mutilation of its moral and ethical guidelines. Every employee, irrespective of their employment rank has a right to fair dismissal. Dismissing employees due to budget cuts is unethical, immoral and irresponsible. This means that it is the moral duty of the firing authority to ensure that the fired employee has a safe landing or a negotiated layoff.
Protection of the society from harm/hazardous wastes/effluents is an ethical and moral responsibility of responsible companies/
While defining CS as the act of conducting the affairs of a given enterprise in a manner that would maintain an equitable and yet workable balance among several claims of numerous directly interested parties comprising of a harmonious balance among the stakeholders such as employees, clients and…
Bowen H.R. (1953). Social responsibilities of the businessman. Harper and Row: New York.
Brincat, C.,Wike, vs (1999). Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work. Pearson; 1st ed.
Frederick, W. (2006). Corporation, be good! The story of corporate social responsibility. Indianapolis: Dog Ear Publishing.
The Wimbledon Tennis tournament as a hallmark-sporting event creates these social and cultural impact of the community. This is because according to theory transient and recurring events act as important methods of collecting identification of host communities. They present opportunities of asserting, reproducing, reinforcing, and contesting prevailing cultural values and beliefs and social norms (Quinn 2009). Hallmark events are identified as functions that support and reinforce the image of established social and cultural norms.
PR Newswire (2012) indicates the unpredictability of the effects of Olympics as its impact may be difficult to evaluate. However, in the case of London's 2012 Olympics, the games left a lasting impression on the socio-cultural context of ritain. According to Dhar (2012), the games led to the unification and social spirit of unity among the ritish during 2012, as compared to the divided and lawlessness associated with urban riots in 2011. The games increased the…
Akerlund, U 2008. Implementation of hallmark events among tourism stakeholders: the discourses of Umea's bid for European Capital of Culture 2014
Andersson, TD, Armbrecht, J and Lundberg, E, 2008. Impact of Mega-Events on the Economy. Asian Business & Management, 7(2), pp. 163-179.
Andrea, C, Andrew, F, Munday, M, and Roberts, a 2007. Assessing the Environmental Consequences of Major Sporting Events: The 2003/04 FA Cup Final. Urban Studies, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 44(3), pp. 457-476.
Anonymous 2012, Apr 18. Olympics 2012: The Economic Impact Market Assessment 2012. PR Newswire.
Recycling in Apartments
Date Here (Day, Month, Year)
Providing Better Facilities for Recycling to Apartment Dwellers
Recycling is highly beneficial to the natural environment as it plays a vital role in preserving natural resources. Recycling caters with the benefit of reducing the amount of material entering landfills. Moreover, recycling can save money for building owner. It costs less to recycle discards than to throw them away (Rankin, 11). The process of making new products from raw materials costs a great deal in comparison to making them through recycled products. This paper highlights the challenges encountered by people living in apartments or multi-family building in terms of recycling materials. It also explains the current practices in this regard and recommends prospects solutions for improving recycling facilities for apartment dwellers.
Recycling Challenges Faced by Apartment Dwellers
The physical structure, environment and management of multi-family complexes give birth to varying systems and approaches…
Ando, Amy W., "Recycling in Multifamily Dwellings: Does Convenience Matter?" Economic
Enquiry, 43(2005), 426 -- 438, 5 October, 2012,
A salary survey of and statistical analysis of similar municipalities with similar budgets, and services per capita is ideal to determine the market value for sanitation labor services. This is to indicate that Toronto does not have adequate analytical human capital present to properly analyze the entire nature of this environmental economic disaster.
Summary and Conclusion
The unsanitary and unhealthy environmental impact rendered from discontinued municipal sanitation services for a metropolis the size of Toronto is a common problem. Throughout the world, there are cities and urban centers with no landfill space and that lack a comprehensive sanitation pickup and removal system. Toronto is not alone in facing fiscal constraints against the operating budget but still must weigh the cost against the benefits of renewing "grandfathered" contracts from old administrations. If the city allows itself to be crippled by the demands of a powerful union then the constituency will be…
Charlie Gillis and Kate Lunau. Toronto stinks. July 22, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www2.macleans.ca/2009/07/22/toronto-stinks/2/
Chaz Miller. Garbage & Health. July 1st, 2003 Retrieved from: http://wasteage.com/mag/waste_garbage_health/
Lee, Jones-Lee. Impact of Municipal and Industrial Non-Hazardous Waste Landfills on Public Health and the Environment: An Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.gfredlee.com/cal_risk.htm
ecycling, educing, eusing
The items I identified as being recyclable during the week under consideration include: plastic bottles, steel cans, and paper cups. The total population of the community/subdivision currently stands at 2,000 people. This effectively means that if every member of the community in which I live recycles an exact amount of trash as I did for only 7 days, my area would be able to recycle 34,000 (17*2000) plastic bottles, 36,000 (18*2000) steel cans, and 28,000 (14*2000) paper cups. Assuming that each year has a total of 52 weeks, this means that the community would save 1,768,000 (34,000*52) plastic bottles, 1,872,000 (36,000*52) steel cans, and 1,456,000 (28,000*52) paper cups per annum.
In my opinion, my community does not recycle enough. This is particularly the case given that the recycling program in place is not as efficient as it ought to be. There are various ways through which the…
McKinney, M.L. & Schoch, R.M. (2003). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
State of West Virginia. (2013). Recycle Infrastructure and Market Development in other States. Retrieved from http://www.state.wv.us/swmb/RMDP/2013StatePlan/2013%20Plan%20-%20Appendix%20E.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency -- EPA. (2014). Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Recycling Basics. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/recycle/recycling-basics
business environment, organizations are required to adhere to the environmental regulations in order to comply with the federal and state laws. One of the strategies that an organization can employ to be environmental friendly is to integrate an environmental accounting in the conventional accounting system. An environmental accounting is a subset of accounting that incorporates the environmental information to determine the costs reduction that an organization can enjoy by integrating the environmental accounting in the organizational traditional accounting system.
Objective of this paper is to discuss the benefits that our organization can derive from practicing an environmental accounting system.
Benefits of Eliminate Unnecessary Cost
Several unnecessary costs cam make an organization to increase the cost of operations. The unnecessary costs include environmental fines, costs to remediate or clean up the contaminated facilities, and waste management costs. Since our organization is a chemical manufacturing company, we are bound to incur these…
European Environmental Agency (1997). Life Cycle Assessment. A guide to approaches, experiences and information sources. Environmental Issues Series 6
Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). Valuing Potential Environmental Liabilities for Managerial Decision Making. USA.
The United States currently garners about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power plants ("Nuclear Power Now" nd). Moreover, nuclear power poses fewer direct dangers than coal-produced electricity ("Nuclear Power Now" nd).
Furthermore, nuclear physicists are working towards solutions to the problem of radioactive waste disposal. Scientists hope also to devise new ways of improving nuclear power production processes, and most importantly, to minimize the creation of radioactive waste. As waste creation is minimized and waste storage is made safer, nuclear power will become a more sensible option. Until then, it should remain a small but significant percentage of all electricity generation worldwide because nuclear power does not exacerbate the immediate problem of greenhouse gas emissions.
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/30/particlephysics.energy1
Till, C. (nd). Interview…
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/30/particlephysics.energy1
Till, C. (nd). Interview with PBS Frontline. Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction/etc./faqs.html
Design Project -- A&P Lab
Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood ammonia levels in people, thereby circumventing the need for medications such as to treatment to prevent hepatic encephalopathy and conditions associated with a failing liver. The hydrosome functions similarly to a primary lysosome, also containing a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases. However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste that is then excreted by the kidneys.
About this Organelle
I came up with the idea for this organelle…
Batshaw ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. Journal of Pediatrics. 2001; 138: S46-55.
Haberle J, Boddaert N, Burlina A, Chakrapani A, Dixon M, Huemer M, Karall D, Martinelli D, Crespo PS, Santer R, Servais A, Valayannopoulos V, Lindner M, Rubio V, and Dionisi-Vici C. "Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders." Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2012: 7, 32. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-32. PMC 3488504. PMID 22642880 Retrieved http://www.ojrd.com/content/7/1/32
Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations. John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc. 2002. Retrieved http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm
Prasad S, Dhiman RK, Duseja A, Chawla YK, Sharma A, Agarwal R. "Lactulose improves cognitive functions and health-related quality of life in patients with cirrhosis who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy." Hepatology 2007: 45 (3): 549 -- 59.
The simple fact is this that the initiation of offshore oil drilling can be used effectively as a threat to lower the overall importing prices of oil from the Middle East States. The actual drilling, if looking at its impact internally, might or might not result in the actual decrease in gas prices or increase of alternative fuel and energy production. But in the recent times, the real reason for such a high debate on the offshore drilling aspect has been to use it merely as a strategy and a negotiation tool.
This approach and application of this strategy is something that neither I, nor people like who think that offshore drilling has more negative effects then positive, have a problem with. I do have a problem however with how offshore drilling is portrayed as the savior for the American dependency on foreign oil. Its like love is cast off…
Daniels, B. Offshore Drilling: Pros and Cons. 2008.Taken from: http://www.411mania.com/politics/columns/81832
Gertz, E. Can Offshore Drilling Really Make the U.S. Oil Independent? Even if U.S. energy policy goes "drill baby drill," there will be no escape from the vicissitudes of the global oil market. Scientific American. 2008.
Gross, D. Drilling for Answers: Will we find the oil we need offshore? Newsweek, 18-06-2008.
Parsley, J. Wellington chamber weighs pros, cons of offshore drilling. South Florida Sun-Sentinel. 2008.
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.
Portable Nuclear Power
Is a Portable Nuclear Power Device Feasible?
As the global population grows, we find ourselves facing growing energy consumption needs. In industrialized nations, this translates into rising energy costs to power our homes and businesses. Power outages are a major concern in metropolitan areas that depend on power to meet humanity's most basic needs. For those in poorer nations, we do not even have a way to supply them power. It is hard to believe, but there are still many in the world who are not close enough to a power grid to be connected.
What if there was a way to cut energy costs in half? What if we could eliminate the possibility of power outages in the future? What if we did find a way to supply power to those in even the most remote areas, even though there is no grid close by? What…
Asher, M. "Miniature Nuclear Reactors to be on Sale Within 5 years." Daily Tech. November 10, 2008. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Biomass For Electricity Generation. U.S.
Department of Energy. Electricity Analysis Reports. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
Fehrenbacher, K. "Hyperion's Nuclear-In-A-Box by 2013." Gigaom. August 1, 2008. (Web)
Coase Theorem is a concept developed by Nobel Prize winning economist, Ronald Coase. It revolves around the efficiency in the economic allocation of trade in externalities. The theorem states that if there are negligible transaction costs, then bargaining between conflicting parties will lead to an efficient outcome and allocation regardless of initial allocation of property rights, given that a trade in the externality is possible (Andrew & Schlafly, 2007). Externality is defined as the cost or benefit that arises as a result of an economic activity that may have an impact on an uninvolved third party (Evans, 2011). The uninvolved third party often doesn't choose to incur the cost or benefit, but is a part of the chain as a consequence of the nature of these circumstances. Property rights often relate to the determination of who owns a resource and how it is being used. In economics, property rights are…
Andrew, L., & Schlafly, E. (2007, June). The Coase Theoram: The Greatest Economic Insight of the 20th Century. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons .
Evans, D. (2011). "Comodification, Division of Labour, Externalities, Re-use and recycling" in D. Southern (ed.) Encyclopedia of Consumer Culture . London Sage .
O' Driscoll, G.P., & Hoskins, L. (2003, August 7). Property Rights: The Key to Economic Development. Retrieved from CATO Institute: http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-482es.html
Sustainability More About Politics Than Science?
The environment is a word which refers to the natural effects around us including the atmosphere, seas and oceans, rocks and mountains, plants, ice formations, human beings, stars and several others. These effects are best left in their natural state because when they get disturbed, they could have serious consequences on the atmosphere, electricity, water, weather, fire and the earth's magnetism. Sadly, this is the situation of things now and these consequences are real. Several problems are facing the environment causing global adverse effects and putting the people in it at risk. This research studies these problems and determines if the scientific and political measures put in place are effective in mitigating them
Environmental issues facing the world
The disturbances in the environment have brought about noticeable changes in climate and high frequencies of natural disasters. Take for example; the problem of global warming…
Abraham John et al. The Importance of Science in Addressing Climate Change. Climate science. 2011. Print
Scorce Jason. The Role of Government in Environmental Protection. Grist. 2006. Online journal
Burns Steven. Environmental Policy and Political Tends in Public Debate. Natural resources and environment. Vol 23. No. 2. 2008. Print.
Rinkesh. Current Environmental Issues. Conserve energy future. 2017. Online journal.
Tennessee Scrap ecyclers Association v. Bredesen, the court affirmed the law in question and upheld the state's ability to set the terms under which it would allow transactions regarding scrap metal to take place. The court noted that the problem the law was designed to thwart was a local issue and thus did not violate the Fifth Amendment's Commerce Clause (State law, 2009, Cengage). Also, the additional burdens imposed upon the scrap metal dealers were so minimal it did not affect their ability to participate in interstate commerce, nor did it give additional privileges to in-state dealers. "The government did not take possession of any property; it only regulated the method in which the business is lawfully transacted" and there was a compelling law enforcement issue at stake -- to prevent transactions in stolen merchandise (State law, 2009, Cengage).
In the case of American Canine Foundation v. City…
About the Privacy Act (2014). FOIA. Retrieved from:
City may ban dangerous dog breeds. (2009). Cengage. Retrieved from:
Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)
"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm
"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website: http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212