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Water Quality and Lake Winnipeg Watershed Management
Eutrophication is the process by which nutrients in natural waters increase, causing an overgrowth of algae. Lake Winnipeg is one lake that has been adversely affected by eutrophication. Using Lake Winnipeg as a case study, this text demonstrates the causes of eutrophication, the effects of the same on aquatic life, and ways of minimizing its overall effects.
What are the key differences in the physical, chemical and biological features observed in a comparison of oligoptrophic with eutrophic water bodies? Which condition is more desirable based on the concept of sustainability? Why?
Eutrophication is the process by which nutrients in natural waters increase, causing a subsequent increase in the growth of algae and higher plants. A water body starts from a natural state (the oligoptrophic stage) through a mesotrophic state, and finally reaches the eutrophic state with the further addition of nutrients. In the…
California Department of Public Health. (2015). Blue-Green Algae: Cyanobacteria Blooms. California Department of Public Health. Retrieved December 1, 2015 from https://www.cdph.ca.gov/HealthInfo/environhealth/water/Pages/Bluegreenalgae.aspx
Malley, D. F., Ulrich, A. E. & Watts, P. D. (2009). Food and Water Security in the Lake Winnipeg Basin: Transition to the Future. The Thomas Sill Foundation. Retrieved December 1, 2015 from http://www.pdkprojects.com/pdf/Food%20and%20Water%20Security%20in%20the%20Lake%20Winnipeg%20Basin.pdf
Moshiri, G. A.(Ed.). (1993). Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvements. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Shaw, G. R., Moore, D. P. & Garnett, C. (2004). Eutrophication and Algal Blooms. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Retrieved December 1, 2015 from http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c06/e6-13-04-04.pdf
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…
Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered
Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.
Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water
Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html .
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Sustainability of the Water Supply in the Caribbean
Water sustainability is not merely an environmental problem. It is a political and social issue as well. esearch articles such as "Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean" by Iglesias (et al. 2007) focus on issues which specifically impact environmental changes such as global warming but do so in a manner to suggest specific policy prescriptions to scientists attempting to curtail crises created by the phenomenon. The paper suggests a different framework to cope with water scarcity that emphasizes preparation and prevention rather than taking a crisis management approach only after scarcity is in evidence. "The importance of local management at the basin level is emphasized, but the potential benefits depend on the appropriate multi-institutional and multi-stakeholder coordination" (Iglesias et al. 2007: 775). Stakeholder analysis is still required: something can be feasible on a technical…
Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788
Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)
Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability analysis for Yellow River.
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Other areas of water engineering include flood prevention and a multitude of environmental specialties, many of which relate to other areas of water engineering. Finding ways to divert runoff to prevent erosion, for example, has both civil and environmental applications, and involves identical principles in most situations (Kalle 2009). Effective strategies for collecting and draining runoff water in a way that doesn't simply divert the problem can be a lot more complex than it might at first seem, especially in environmental situations, and this is precisely why water engineers remain must have a comprehensive view of many different areas of engineering, including fluid mechanics, a knowledge of different materials for conducting water, effective ways of filtering and/or treating water, etc. The amount of knowledge required to take on any major water engineering project virtually guarantees that the engineer will have the knowledge and skill set for other jobs, too, meaning…
BLS. (2009). "Engineers." Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm
DOT (2003). "Civil Engineering Occupations." Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.occupationalinfo.org/defset1_880.html
Kalle, M. (2009). "Water engineer: Job description and activities." Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/water_engineer_job_description.jsp
NACE (2009). "New & Emerging Occupations: Science and Engineering Occupations." National Association of Colleges and Employers. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.jobweb.org/studentarticles.aspx?id=1795
This makes the issue a complex one without a clear answer; carbon dioxide is preferable to other potential byproducts of fossil fuel combustion due to the ease with which it can be trapped and its relative innocuousness in these sinks, but undesirable due to its volume and the lack of current capabilities to provide adequate sinks.
7) While it is understandable that the EPA would desire to increase public safety by revising standards for ground level ozone production and concentration, in reality this move is not entirely necessary. As business owners and operators, you know all too well the incessant environmental regulation can create significant operational difficulties and reduce if to eliminate profitability, often with no effect on environmental risks or damage. The EPA itself has found that ground-level ozone quickly dissipates and presents a minimal danger to health if properly vented and dispersed, yet they are revising regulations as…
Clegg, S. & Abbatt, J. (2001). Oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 on ice surfaces at 228 K: a sink for SO2 in ice clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 1:77-92.
EPA. (2011). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks. Washington, DC.
Garrison, T. (2004). Oceanography. New York: Thomson Brooks.
operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.
According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to…
Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.
Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS
Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319
However, the wisdom of that approach is predicated upon there being sufficient market, reachable at a price that allows large profits quickly, so that if the market is refined to one or two major players, Blair would already have realized all it wanted from the Indian market. His choice of the partnership arrangement does mesh well with a skimming market entry. Moreover, there are currently many companies in the market, although most are involved with the older candle technology. As India upgrades its electrical delivery, and as more and more good-paying jobs are lured to the nation driving up personal income and the desire -- not to mention need -- for personal convenience in accomplishing the tasks of life, then candle technology is likely to be as popular as the hand-cranked wringer washing machine. In short, setting Blair up to compete with the has-beens in the marketplace seems shortsighted and…
Controlling water infrastructure
Much contemporary research and literature over the need for water include recognition of ethical issues for example water like a public good assert Gleick (2004) and Tipping et al. (2005). Hence, overall scope of management should be extended to incorporate the social size of water systems; which means all stakeholders have to be informed and incorporated in making decisions for the development and use of long-term sustainability water systems. Exterior systems or water stresses could possibly be the primary change motivators for controlling water systems. Global warming might be one particular example heavily affecting water systems because of elevated frequency of extreme weather for example flooding, storms and droughts (Clemitt, 2007). Around Australia, droughts and water stress within the primary metropolitan areas forced the adoption of an entire new selection of methods to controlling water. Water sector is facing institutional changes that need modernization as well…
Ashley, R. And Cashman, A. (2006). The impacts of change on the long-term future demand for water sector infrastructure. Infrastructure to 2030, Chapter 5 OECD, pp. 241 -- 349.
Clemitt, M. (2007). Ageing infrastructure: is neglected maintenance putting Americans in danger? Congressional Quarterly Researcher, 17 (34), pp. 793 -- 816.
Copeland C, Tiemann M. (2008). Water infrastructure needs and investment: review and analysis of key issues. Congregational research service report, RL31116.
Doshi, V., Schulman, G. And Gabaldon, D. (2007). Lights! water! motion! Booz Allen Hamilton.
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
Pesticides that have widespread use in California also have the same effect.
California as a state has been is water crises for decades, particularly in Southern California. The closest, most convenient resource is Northern California. The geography of Northern California is a water haven for the southern part of the state. With lakes, rivers and reservoirs, there are abundant water sources. Unfortunately these resources are not sufficient for the entire state. They are perfect for the surrounding area, but not for the southern, dry part of the state.
Although one state, the North and the South have set up trade agreements over water. The South is given a set amount each year and the remaining water is kept by the North. This is not a problem if the water resources are at a secure level for the year.
Ironically, Fountain Valley, California, is responsible for managing the groundwater basin under…
Brosman, D.R. (1999) The Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant and its role in El Paso's water supply, Microsoft Powerpoint Presnetation, 12 slides.
Brown, L.R. (2000) "Population growth sentencing millions to hydrological poverty," San Diego Earth Times.
Orance County Water District (1997) "Groudwater Replenishment System being explored to meet water supply needs," Groundwater Replensihing System, 17 Dec.
Orange County Water District (2000) Overview of Water Factory 21, OCWD Online, 19 September. http://www.ocwd.com
There is a direct correlation between the lack of clean safe water for drinking and cooking with nutritional problems. The lack of clean drinking water leads to diseases like diarrhea. Nutritional deficiencies are directly related to lack of potable water. This is because a person does not get enough calories, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals in their body. Undernutrition has been associated with 45 percent of global deaths and nearly 7.4 percent of the world's children are at risk of undernutrition. Malnourished children have weakened immune systems that make them more susceptible to diarrhea when they are exposed to dirty water. The lack of clean water means that individuals will be living in non-sanitized environments and this increases the risk of suffering from diarrhea. People suffering from diarrhea will eat less and they are unable to absorb the nutrients they need from the food they eat, which results in…
However, although fewer cases of milkborne ailments exist today, the possibility is still realistic. For example, more than 300 people in the United States got sick from drinking raw milk or eating cheese made from raw milk in 2001, and nearly 200 became ill from these products in 2002 (ren, 2004). Most health people recover from foodborne illnesses within a short period of time, but others may have symptoms that are chronic, severe, or life-threatening. Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly, children and those with certain diseases or conditions, are most at risk for severe infections from pathogens that may be present in raw milk. In pregnant women, listeria monocytogenes caused illnesses that resulted in miscarriage, fetal death, or the illness or death of a newborn infant (ern, 1994). Furthermore, escherichia coli infection has been linked to hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that…
Bren, L. (2004). Got Milk? Make sure its Pasteurized. FDA Consumer Magazine, September-
Cornell University. 2000. Pasteurized vs. Ultra0Pasteurized Milk - Why such Sell-by
Dates? Retrieved September 29, 2006, from Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Web site.
clarion call for the people and leaders of El Paso to better focus (or at least start focusing) on the subject of soil erosion, water runoff and sedimentary issues relating the land and material around the roads and bridges of our town. While some may treat this subject as relatively or completely unimportant, this could not be further from the truth. As shown by what can happen with things like flash floods, landslides and so forth, the proper management of waste and rain water runoff is very important and should be handled in an evidence-based way rather than a cobbling together of a budget line item here and there. While a lot of the calls for more infrastructure funding and better infrastructure management are over the top, this is not one of those messages and not one of those subjects that should be easily dismissed or set aside.
Haiyan, L., Liang, L., Mingyi, L., & Xiaoran, Z. (2013). Effects of pH, Temperature,
Dissolved Oxygen, and Flow Rate on Phosphorus Release Processes at the Sediment and Water Interface in Storm Sewer. Journal of Analytical Methods In
Chemistry, 1-7. doi:10.1155/2013/104316
Karlsson, K., & Viklander, M. (2008). Trace Metal Composition in Water and Sediment
TVA Company Profile
The TVA is a self-financed government agency with approximately 13,000 employees, as of 2002 estimates.
It realized a $6.99 billion sales from hydroelectric power generation, fossil fuel, electric power generation, nuclear power generation, other electric power generation, electric bulk power transmission and control and electric power distribution. Its mission is to bring prosperity to the Tennessee Valley through excellent business performance and public service. These are to be achieved by supplying low-cost but reliable power, maintaining a thriving River, and fostering economic growth throughout the southeaster region, traversing 7 States. At the peak of its growth, TVA was serving more than 8 million users in more than 80,000 square miles of region
The TVA's integrated management of water resources, combined with its exceptional institutional capacity enabled it to lift one of the poorest regions in the U.S. into a strong economy and healthy environment today.
Findley, M. And Alavian, V. (2000). Tennessee Valley authority experiment. Case Study
in Integrated Water Resource Management. USAID Water Team: United States
Agency for International Development. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/water/case_studies/tva.basin.pdf
Funding Universe (2010). Tennessee Valley Authority: company profile.
Preventing Terrorist Attacks on the Water and Wastewater Systems Sector
Terrorism is nowadays an already established threat that is part of every security strategy of modern states. It is not only an un-conventional threat at the address of national security but also it drove the re-definition of the term of security as it was understood and worked with some twenty years ago. Currently, there is talk about economic, political, social security as part of the areas that the state must take into account when drafting and enabling a national security strategy. At the same time though, especially after the events from September 2001, the security of the infrastructure and that of natural resources has become an increasingly important aspect to consider.
Currently in the United States, the country considered to be the most targeted by terrorist threats, an important part of the security strategy is related to the economic sectors…
Copeland, C. 2005. "Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities: Impacts, Needs, and Response" CRS Report for Congress. Available at http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=463973
Copeland, C. 2010. "Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector" Congressional Research Center Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32189.pdf
Dept. Of Homeland Security. 2013. Water and Wastewater Systems Sector. Available online at http://www.dhs.gov/water-and-wastewater-systems-sector
Leuven, L. 2011. "Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Security: Threats and Vulnerabilities" in R.M. Clark et al. (eds.), Handbook of Water and Wastewater Systems Protection, 27 Protecting Critical Infrastructure, available online.
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )
Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges
Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
Even in my current extracurricular activities, such as on my Varsity football team, sacrificing my need to be a 'star' and instead serve the common good is a necessity. Teaching the novice debaters is an integral part of my duties on my school's Lincoln-Douglas Debate team. I must help them see the world from competing perspectives, and to see issues in terms of grey, rather than stark black and white.
I am so thankful for the people in my life who have taught me this spirit of community: the people I met over the summer in Texas taught me what it means to be a good neighbor, the children and senior citizens I have befriended who have shown me that friendship knows no age or socioeconomic status. I have, despite the shortness of my life, tried to craft an open soul with few fences, with no barbed wire around my…
Rachel Carson, she asserts that water is our most precious natural resource and goes on to state that "most of the earth's abundant water is not usable for agriculture, industry, or human consumption because of its heavy load of sea salts" (1) and therefore "in the midst of this plenty we are in want" (1).
Okay, so let's examine this particular argument; first she says that the earth's abundant water is not usable for consumption etc., due to the fact that the water contains a heavy load of sea salts. Really? Rachel offers no facts and no figures to back up her assertion, instead she implies that we are desperately in need of drinking water because most of the water is so heavily sedated with salt that it is undrinkable.
Even assuming that her assertion was true, the logical answer to the dilemma is that the water would have to…
ACME QA eview
The author of this report has been asked to submit a nine-page report on the quality assurance situation at Acme Corporation. While the business is doing some things right, there are some obviously flaws that will be identified and brought out. Along with the identification of the issues, there will also be a pointing to scholarly literature that buttresses the points and assertions being made by the author of this report. While some people over-analyze and obsesses about quality assurance, it is something that matters a great deal and should be taken seriously.
The way in which the analysis will go below is that each point that Acme should pay attention to will be mentioned as its own bullet point. After the flaw or concern is mentioned, there will be a scholarly source that will be used to explain and justify why that particular item was brought…
Automated QA Testing at Electronic Arts. (2014). Communications of the ACM, 57(7),
Peters, G.F., & Romi, A.M. (2015). The Association between Sustainability
Governance Characteristics and the Assurance of Corporate Sustainability
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…
Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm
Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury
Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment
Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.
A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…
Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8
Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246
Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364
Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
"Water is starting to become an issue" in Harper County, Kansas, where groundwater reserves are running dry (Vaidyanathan and Gilmer, 2012). Low rates of precipitation, coupled with diversion of groundwater to the oil industry, are threatening to diminish available water used for farming and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of groundwater in Harper County, Kansas and the flow rate of pumps in order to prepare for the future.
Harper County is in south-central Kansas, and abuts Oklahoma. The county "lies partly in the Wellington Lowland minor division of the Arkansas iver Lowland section of the Central Lowland province and partly in the ed Hills minor division of the Dissected High Plains section of the Great Plains province," (Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960). More recent geological surveys divide Harper County into six main areas: the Upland area, the Bluff Creek area (with Pleistocene deposits), the…
Barlow, Paul M. And Leake, Stanley A. 2012. Streamflow Depletion by Wells -- Understanding and Managing the Effects of Groundwater Pumping on Streamflow. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved online: http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1376/pdf/circ1376_barlow_report_508.pdf
Ellis, Blake. Water grab in Kansas oil boom. CNN Money. 12 June 2012. Retrieved online: http://money.cnn.com/2012/06/12/pf/kansas-water-america-boomtown/index.htm
Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960. Geology of groundwater resources of Harper County, Kansas. Retrieved online: http://www.kgs.ku.edu/General/Geology/Harper/index.html
Kansas Geological Survey, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/ED10/04_occur.html
EQI in Siwa
Environmental Quality International (EQI) in Siwa
Environmental Quality International in SIA
This essay examines project risk management challenges faced by Environmental Quality International (EQI) in furthering the Siwa Sustainable Development Initiative.
EQI, a private Egyptian development firm, was tasked with promoting sustainable development projects. The firm launched a project in SIA consisting of several commercial ventures intended to promote economic development, while at the same time meeting EQI's objectives of maintaining Siwa's environment and revitalizing its cultural heritage. EQI intended the project to keep Siwa's culture, traditions and heritage intact as much as possible. EQI planned to do this by combining the wisdom, skills, and creativity of Siwa's local community with modern expertise that would result in a model of sustainable development (Story, 2009).
The Siwa initiatives consisted of a series of projects that took advantage of the Andrere Amellal (hite Mountain in the native Siwa language)…
Ibrahim, S.O. (2001). Towards environmentally sustainable development of Siwa through NGO-Government partnership." Matrouh Governate. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from: http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/english/main/Env2003/Day1/PublicPrivate/said.scdec.pdf
Nakla, M. (2007). The role of the private sector in local development -- The Siwa experience. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from: http://www.euromedina.org/bibliotheque_fichiers/DeadSea_MounirNakhla2.pdf
Story, J. (2009 April). Environmental quality international in Siwa. INSEAD-Rensselaer.
Building a Water Park
Statement of Work Project- Project Description and Project Product
The project will be to develop a water park. It is both an indoor and outdoor facility. The basic idea is to offer consumers with an assortment of rides throughout the year. We intend to do this, by purchasing a 500 acre property and developing two parts of it. The basic idea is to have enough room to address the current needs and expand in the future. The steps that will be taken include: buying the land, constructing the park, building a following of customers and continuously expanding to meet their needs. The final product will have a heated indoor wave pool. It offers over 30 different slides everyone can enjoy. In the summer, this will be connected with the outdoor pools and slides. (Mill, 2007)
The tangible outputs are the access to the rides,…
Mill, R. (2007). Resorts: Management and Operations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
As will be shown below, the bottled water market is increasingly competitive and consumers have a dazzling array of choices available to them. It is clear that Voss has taken this into account when developing its sophisticated packaging, some samples of which are shown in Figure ____ below.
Figure ____. epresentative Sampling of Voss Packaging Techniques.
Source: noisedfisk.com/illustrations/vosswater.jpg, www.uncrate.com/men/images/voss-water.jpg, http://www.urbanfare.com/featuredfare/images/weeklyad/voss_water.jpg
In fact, one new admirer of the Voss brand unashamedly proclaimed that even though she liked the water, it was the "wicked cool" Voss packaging that sold her: "Yesterday, I drank a few bottles of Voss Artesian Water from Norway. One was Still. One was Sparkling. Both were pretty good but its wicked cool glass bottle is the best thing about it. My friend Sharon said she paid $20 for a bottle of Voss at the tres upscale Michael Mina estaurant in San Francisco, which was more than she…
AquaMaestro: The Source for Fine Waters. (2007). Available: http://www.aquamaestro.com/innerview.asp?catid=33 .
Aras, Bulent. (2004). "The Future of Liberal Islam," Futures, 36(9), 1034.
Beer, Cider and FABs in Turkey to 2010," 2007, MarketResearch.com. Available: http://www.market research.com/product/display.asp?productid=1474151&xs=r.
Brown, F.E., S.J. Neary and M.S. Symes. The Urban Experience: A People Environment Perspective (London: E & FN Spon), 1994.
The larger particles can influence the absorption rates of solar energy by a factor of three over particulates such as phytoplankton and minerals (Stramski and Woz'niak, 2005). This means that a small concentration of these particles can do a lot for the absorption rates of the water they are suspended in. The smaller particles can also have this effect, but their concentrations need to be proportionately higher to exact this same influence. The smaller particles are more influential as far as backscattering is concerned, and represent a massive shift in the way that scientists think about light diffusion and backscattering within the ocean. Previously, scientists thought that only the larger of these particles combined with other particulates were responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption (Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L., 1981). Now scientists understand that in shallow, mineral-rich waters, even a small presence of these tiniest of…
Babin, Marcel, and Dariusz Stramski. (2004). "Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water." Limnology Oceanography. 49(3), pp. 756 -- 767.
Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L. (1981). "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea
(yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains." Limnology, Oceanography 26 (1). pp.43-53.
Dera, J., S. Sagan, and D. Stramski. (1993). "Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new results from the Black Sea." Oceanologia, 34. pp. 13-25.
Management and Control of Quality
The HMO pharmacy crisis
One has to understand the role played by the science of statistics in managerial decision-making. It is vital that managers think statistically in order for them to understand the processes, which would offer the context to determine variation effects and proper managerial actions. Looking at work as a process, a manager can apply the tools of statistics to identify consistent, predictable processes. Armed with such information or knowledge they would be able to study and improve upon the processes. Variation does occur everywhere, but many business decisions fail to account for variation. It is vital that one understand the variation nature for them to concentrate on reducing variation.
Dover was able to pick up some solid statistical thinking when he attended the "Statistical Thinking for Continuous Improvement" course offered to all employees of the organization. From the course, he also received…
Gomez, M., Oliete, B., Rosell, C.M., Pando, V., & Fernandez, E. (2008). Studies on cake quality made of wheat -- chickpea flour blends. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41(9), 1701-1709.
Morrow, C., Moore, D., & Lockner, D. (2000). The effect of mineral bond strength and adsorbed water on fault gouge frictional strength. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(6), 815-818.
The diamond water paradox is a classic example of the numerous paradoxes that can be seen in everyday life. According to the diamond water paradox, the cost of diamonds is more than the cost of water despite the fact that water is essential for human existence while diamond is more of an optional luxury item. A good application of this paradox is the difference in the wages of essential employees like teachers and firefighters as against that of the sporting athletes. While the salaries of teachers, firefighters, policemen and other essential services workers are low, those that of the professional athletes is high. So, what is the reason behind this discrepancy? The analysis below will throw more light on this difference.
The first step to understanding the paradoxes that exist in salaries is to understand how wages are determined. Many factors are taken into account while…
McLaughlin, Dan. (July 11, 2007). Rich Athletes, Poor Teachers. Mises Daily. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/daily/2626
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Occupational Outlook Handbook 2010-2011 Edition. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos251.htm
USA Today. (2011). Major League Baseball salaries. Retrieved from: http://content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/baseball/mlb/salaries/player/top-25
Bottled portable water was not a significant product in the beverage industry in the US two decades ago. The industry was dominated and controlled by such giants as Groupe Danone SA’s Evian and Nestle SA’s Perrier. By 2002, the industry was worth $3.5 billion. In 1997, Pepsi made attempts to join the bottled water market. Some of the efforts included buying a spring water company and a shot at selling a brand that was sparkling. However, these efforts did not yield fruit. The management came to the conclusion that the best method to create a successful water brand was to exploit a resource that was already in existence, i.e. the water treatment equipment already at the bottling plant locations. These were being used to purify water for the soft drinks that the company produced (McKay, 2002).
The then Pepsi beverage main CEO along with his team figured out that there…
Taylor ranch's Parting the Waters is subtitled "America in the King Years 1954-63"
should be enough to tell us that the purpose of the author was to give out a biographical story of Martin Luther King, but, at the same time, integrate it in the American society of those times, as a complementary piece of information in relation of the 1954-1963 decade. Further more, the relationship between Martin Luther King and the civil rights movement is intrinsic. So, the historical thread is presented on several levels that are closely interconnected: the American society, Martin Luther King and the civil tights movement.
The previous paragraph has some key elements that are of importance to the narrative. First of all, obviously, there is Martin Luther King. Central figure of the movement and of the entire period discussed, he is presented as he rises to the highest levels of respect as leader of…
1. Amazon Reviews. On the Internet at http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0671687425/104-8012339-9563948?v=glance
2. The Paula Gordon Show. On the Internet at http://www.paulagordon.com/shows/branch/
3. A Book Review of: Parting The Waters by Taylor Branch. On the Internet at http://www.wayneandtamara.com/martinlutherking.htm
4. Branch, Taylor. Parting The Waters. Touchstone. First Edition. 1989.
1. Community Health Concerns
Georgia is predominantly faced with the risk of mosquito related infections due to the numerous viruses that are breed by mosquitos. These viruses are still in circulation in Georgia and they have the potential to cause human and animal diseases (Georgia.Gov, 2017). Here are the most pronounced mosquito viruses that Georgia has had to contend with over the years:
· Eastern equine encephalitis
· West Nile
The mosquito viruses are assessed as being very active during early the Georgia early fall season. The viruses are capable of infecting humans and animals such as horses, birds and other types of animals. According to the Georgia Department of Public Health (GDPH) any reports of infected horses or birds in Georgia or the presence of large mosquito numbers could be an indication of greater risks of getting infected as well (Georgia.Gov, 2017). Georgia residents are advised to…
He or she is also entitled to proper medication to deal with the disease.
It's not just the responsibility of medics to offer health care but the family members of the sick too play a very important role in caring about health. y accompanying the sick person to hospital and administering the prescribed medicine at home. As well, family members offer support by praying and giving the sick member company. Did you know that even loneliness is a health hazard.
Quality health care is individual responsibility. Every individual is supposed to make sure they have the best health always. Contagious diseases should be avoided at all costs, however, should we contact them then we should care for ourselves. A sick person should maintain bodily cleanliness and eat the right foods. Ones health should not also cause harm to neighbors at home and in public. Global concerns are also rising quickly…
Baum F (1998).The new public health: an Australian perspective, Oxford University Press,
Mannion R, Konteh F, Davies H (2008) Measuring culture for quality and safety improvement: a national survey of tools and tool use, Quality and Safety in Health Care (in press).
Mannion R, Davies H, Marshall M (2005) Cultural attributes of 'high' and 'low' performing hospitals. Journal of Health Organization and Management 19(6):431-9.
Decreasing Quality in Construction
In the modern estern world, quality construction is generally taken for granted. Although it was once expected that each member of a town or village participate in construction. few people today are involved in the building of their own homes. Only a small percentage of the population is involved in the construction of the roads on which the majority of the population drives. It is a vast minority of people that have played any part in the creation of the structures in which they live, work, or shop. To the average person, there is little connection made mentally between the solid floors supporting his or her weight many stories above the ground, or the protective roof keeping out the elements overhead, and the actual labor which was put into these things. If the construction process is flawless, then no one will have to think about it…
(2003, August 19) China launches crackdown on fake, inferior construction products. People's daily Online. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://english.people.com.cn/200308/19/eng20030819_122575.shtml
Chini, A.R., & Brown, B.H., & Drummond, E.G. (1999, April) Journal of Construction Education. ASC Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference, California Polytechnic State University. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://asceditor.unl.edu/archives/1999/chini99.htm
C-Risk. (2001) Construction defect. C-Risk Consultants in Risk Management. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://www.c-risk.com/Construction_Risk/CR_CDs_01.htm
Garrity, K. & Olson, S. (1998, May 5) Local groups trying to bring workers into construction. The Seattle Daily jounal of Commerce. Retrieved on February 27, 2005 from http://www.djc.com/special/constequip98/10038833.htm
"More to the point," another authority advises, "the objective of a PMO is to establish the procedures, processes, and standards that lead to a Center of Excellence -- not so much for itself as for the projects and organization it supports" (Pohlman, 2002, cited in Thorn, 2003, p. 48).
In this regard, Thorn points out that there are three basic approaches that can be used to establish a PMO to help facilitate the integration of Six Sigma or other management techniques with the CMM:
Project epository -- The PMO serves as the primary source of information on project methodology and standards. It assumes, rightly or wrongly, that the organization has established and follows a cohesive set of tools for project design, management, and reporting. Often a first step in establishing the idea of consolidating or sharing management practices, it still falls short, both in direct project oversight and as a…
Bertels, T. (2003). Rath & Strong's Six Sigma leadership handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Cook, J., & Semouchtchak, V. (2004). Lean object-oriented software development. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 69(2), 12.
Hahn, G.I., Hill, W.J., Hoerl, R.W., & Zinkgraf, S.A. (1999). The impact of Six Sigma improvement -- A glimpse into the future of statistics. The American Statistician, 53(3),
Mccabe, P.T. (2004). Contemporary ergonomics 2004. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Lowering the Water
The author of this report has been asked to give a brief set of responses to a test case relating to a company by the name of Smitheford Pharmaceuticals. The company is undergoing a review that has its goal of being the lowering of inventory costs. Concurrent to that will be a picture diagram that is a stack of rocks that is under water. The concept behind the picture is that more and different faults and issues will be exposed if the water level of the pond is lowered. Each rock will be explained and the obvious metaphor that is being created and explained via the picture will be laid out to the people in the meeting. While reducing inventory costs is a good goal to have, revealing the problems and shortcomings that are keeping costs high is imperative when it comes to fixing the problem.
Poler, R., Hernandez, J., Mula, J., & Lario, F. (2008). Collaborative forecasting in networked manufacturing enterprises. Journal Of Manufacturing Technology Management, 19(4), 514-528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17410380810869941
Saraph, J., Benson, P., & Schroeder, R. (1989). An Instrument for Measuring the Critical Factors of Quality Management. Decision Sciences, 20(4), 810-829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1989.tb01421.x
Talking Logistics with Adrian Gonzalez,. (2015). The High Cost of Poor Supplier Relationships - Talking Logistics with Adrian Gonzalez. Retrieved 2 March 2016, from http://talkinglogistics.com/2015/05/20/the-high-cost-of-poor-supplier-relationships/
Quality: VIP -- E-Cigs and Vaporizers under the ECIG Umbrella
VIP is an electronic cigarette and vaporizer producer and whole seller that specializes in the new smoking trend commonly known as "vaping" in the UK. VIP operates over 100 kiosks throughout the UK with additional venues in Ireland, Europe and the United States. This is a company that is very dedicated to quality control because of the nature of the business, which is in delivering e-liquids. E-liquids are the different flavors of liquid (made of water, flavoring, nicotine and other additives) that are used in vaporizing devices. VIP sells both e-cigarettes and vaporizers both online and at the different kiosks. Buyers can purchase e-liquids and they can even mix and match flavors and liquids to make unique flavors that suit their own taste. This is what is occurs at the VIP Boutiques in areas like London.
How is VIP's quality…
Allen, J., Flanigan, S., LeBlanc, M. et al. (2015). Flavoring chemicals in E-Cigarettes.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12): 23-29.
Chaudhui, S. (2015). Study finds e-cigarettes contain chemical tied to 'popcorn lung'.
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/study-finds-e-cigarettes-contain-chemical-tied-to-popcorn-lung-1449681247
Commercial Use of Michigan Groundwater
Appropriately named the "Great Lakes State," Michigan is the only state whose borders lie completely within the world's largest system of fresh surface water, the Great Lakes basin, which constitutes 18% of the world's water supply.(4)
Traditionally, Michigan has relied primarily on "riparian" rights analyses derived from English common law to regulate the commercial use of its largest natural resource. Since riparian concepts focus primarily on the relative rights of competing users of surface waters, there has, until very recently, been comparatively little regulation of the underground springs or aquifer system which feeds the surface water system, or of the rights of the state to control removal of water resources for use or sale elsewhere.
On November 25, 2003, Mecosta County Circuit Court Judge Lawrence Root issued a lengthy opinion that finally addressed the problem and defined many of the issues under the laws of…
1. Howlett, D., Water Battle Dredges Up Acrimony; USA Today (June 22, 2003)
Accessed at http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/mi/062203_great_lakes.htm
2. Michigan Citizens for Water Conservation v. Nestle Waters North America Inc.
49th Judicial Circuit Mecosta County Circuit Court Opinion (Nov 25, 2003) Accessed at http://www.envlaw.com/decisions/MCWC2.txt
Arab-Israeli region is one in which water is a critical problem, and being able to get access to clean, safe water on a regular basis is one element of the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict. While there may be serious, conflicting views on political and religious issues, along with many other aspects of the way people in the various areas live their lives, it is no secret that they all have to work together if everyone is going to have enough water to enjoy. A report in 2010 indicated that there were a number of challenges with ensuring that everyone in the region received enough clean water for drinking, irrigation, and other needs (Schneider, 2012). In order to attempt to combat that, Israel, Jordan, and Palestine all have water departments who are looking into working with one another. Without that level of cooperation, there will be numerous people in those areas without…
Schneider, V. (2012). Regional water data banks -- Overview of Middle East water resources. USGS International Programs. Retrieved from http://international.usgs.gov/projects/pawc-overview.htm
The ecreational Water Facility in consideration will be physically located East Downtime. This is deemed an effective position as it is not only easily accessible to the target market, but also due to the fact that it is in a central position within the expanse. The facility will largely thrive owing to the different cutting-edge and appealing amenities that will be offered to the general public. The operational strategy of the recreational water facility will include the following amenities for the members and also general clients.
Leisure lap pool
Pool w/Juice Bar
Water Fitness Class
The success of the operational plan of the facility will be measured in different manners. To start with, the facility will consider the remarks and comments given by the consumers on the surveys piloted. In addition, the facility will frequently set different goals and objectives purposed to…
IDEA Health and Fitness. (2001). Successful Water Fitness Programs. Idea Resource Series.
Morgan, M. J., Summers, J. (2005). Sports Marketing. London: Thompson.
Patel, S. (2015). How Businesses Should Be Using Social Media in 2015. Forbes. Retrieved 21 November 2015 from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/sujanpatel/2015/06/24/how-businesses-should-be-using-social-media-in-2015/
Torkildsen, G. (2011). Sport and Leisure Management. London: Taylor Francis.
Though municipal untreated tap water can be used for premix (as opposed to post mix when soda syrup was mixed on site) that comes from the beloved soda fountain in most restaurants the marketing of the Aquafina brand is still likely to be present and bottled Aquafina is often sold there. If on the other hand an individual asks for a cup for water and then pours water from the "water" bypass tap on the soda fountain they are getting municipal tap water, usually unfiltered.
Endorsements are often developed in a similar way to those associated with other types of soft drinks and sports endorsements are common in the bottled water industry as even the Aquafina spin off products that contain the Aquafina (seven step) water and additional flavorings and sweeteners are considered by many to be healthier than soda, but to some degree this remains to be seen. As…
Aquafina (2010) Website Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
Brown, Bruce. The Skinny on Bad Bottled Water: Due diligence reveals why America drinks Coke & Pepsi. (January 2005) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
"Factory Accident Risks and Injuries" (November 2010) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from
Quantus Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Drinking Water Alternatives & Consumer Beverage Consumption in North America (February 2010) Web. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from < http://beveragelcafootprint.com/?page_id=102// >
The Flint, Michigan water crisis has become a poster child for environmental injustice, environmental racism, and inequitable resource distribution in the United States. It has also represented a case of bleak mismanagement of precious natural resources and the inability of the United States to adequately respond to the most basic human needs. The water crisis was but a grim manifestation of decades of racist land use policies and political realities, which can be traced back to periods of segregation and the white flight to the suburban sprawl. Moreover, the Flint water crisis showcases the role government plays in colluding with polluters, with issues related to the not in my back yard (NIMBY) phenomenon also relevant in this case. As Bell (2012:28) points out, “environmental justice...concerns patterns of inequality in the distribution of environmental goods.” Flint residents lacked access to environmental “goods,” such as clean drinking water given the long-term contamination…
As a consequence, social unrest can then be avoided only by subsidies. The town is socially and entinancially heavily burdened. Another problem is that the spontaneous rainwater flow, mixed with wastewater in a heavy downpour, pollutes the river or lake once again and provides more problems for gaining potable water.
Scenario 3: As a result of climatic and geological conditions there is little potable water available; the resources are quickly exhausted. The possibilities for development by the town are therefore restricted. The cost of a long-distance water supply is prohibitive.
This paper examines possible applications of rainwater utilization and application in an urban context. In doing so, it examines some of the more available technologies for this purpose, and draws on Germany's experience in dealing with the related issues. As part of this discussion, variants of practice and boundary conditions of decentralization issues are raised.
Questions and demands
existence of tap water contamination. The topic interests me due to the fact that I have long heard that tap water is contaminated and that, in order to avoid this contamination, one has to spend money on any number of schemes ranging from the comparatively cheapest of buying bottled water to the enormously expensive project of retrograding and dismantling the entire water system with a purification procedure. It strikes me that it is particularly important to find out whether this is simply a moneymaking scam on the part of businesses or whether there is any reality to this situation. Even were I to adopt the cheapest of all alternatives, which were to buy bottled water, in the long run the accumulation of expense is worrisome. On the other hand, purifying the tap water may be a necessary step as safeguard for my health. To that end, it may be well…
McGeehin, M.A., Reif, J.S., Becher, J.C., Mangione, E.J. (1993).Case-control study of bladder cancer and water disinfection methods in Colorado. Am J. Epidemiol 138, 492-501.
Weisel, C.P. & Jo, W.K. (1996). Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water. Environmental Health Perspectives 104, 48 -- 51.
West, L. Tap Water in 42 States Contaminated by Chemicals. About.com. http://environment.about.com/od/waterpollution/a/tap_water_probe.htm
Clean Water Crisis
Every human being on earth necessitates at least 20 to 50 liters of clean, safe water on an everyday basis for the purposes of drinking, cooking, and basically maintaining themselves to be clean. However, there is a significant need for clean water in countries. In the contemporary setting, statistics indicate that 1 in 9 individuals lack accessibility to clean and safe water (Water.org). There are 844 million people across the globe that are presently living without access to clean water. This lack of clean water has resulted in a health crisis as it causes diseases. Notably, access to safe water leads to poor sanitation, which consequently adds to deteriorated health and increases the spread of infectious diseases. The inference of this is that it results in increased child and mortality rates. Statistics further indicate that every 2 minutes in the present day, a child does because…
edland Wastewater Treatment Plant
edland Water is the department of the edland City council that oversees the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste water in edland City. esidential households and commercial premises such as shopping centers, cafes, commercial laundries, butchers, car-washing centers, and restaurants are the main sources of waste water in edland City. Once collected, waste water is stored temporarily in abattoirs, before being released for treatment in one of the seven treatment plants located in Point Lookout, Dunwich, Mount Cotton, Victoria Point, Thorneside, Cleveland, and Capalaba (edland City Council, 2012). The author paid the Capalaba Treatment Plant a visit, and found that the plant had just upgraded to a new waste water treatment technique referred to as the Vetiver Grass System, herein referred to as the VS. The Vetiver system, "a green and environmentally-friendly waste water technology as well as natural recycling method," had just been approved by…
AMPC, 2005. Waste Water. AMPC [online] Available at http://www.ampc.com.au/site/assets/media/reports/Resources/Wastewater-enviromental-best-practice-manual.pdf
Ash, R. And Truong, P., n.d.The Use of Vetiver Grass Wetlands for Sewerage Treatment in Australia. Dokuz Eylul University Library [online] Available at http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/ana58/new80.pdf
Piemonte, V., De Falco, M. And Basile, A. Eds., 2013. Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering: Innovative Technologies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons
Redland City Council, 2010. Waste Water. Redland City Council [online] Available at http://www.redland.qld.gov.au/EnvironmentWaste/Water/Pages/Wastewater.aspx
Microfiltration and reverse-osmosis are both used commonly in the purification of water. Combining microfiltration and reverse-osmosis can enhance the strengths of each method. In particular, microfiltration can be used prior to a reverse-osmosis system to create a higher quality, more purified final product. Moreover, the microfiltration as a pretreatment of the water extends the life of reverse-osmosis membranes. This paper addresses the background of both microfiltration and reverse-osmosis systems, before exploring current and future applications of the combined microfiltration and reverse-osmosis systems in water treatment.
Reverse-osmosis is a high-efficient technique for dewatering process streams, concentrating/separating low-molecular-weight substances in solution, or cleaning wastewater, (Reverse Osmosis, Nano, Ultra & Micro Filtration, n.d.). The name of the process describes what it entails: it reverses natural osmosis. Osmosis is the movement of water through a membrane, motivated by the search for equilibrium in the chemical potential. During the osmosis process, a solute would…
"Reverse Osmosis," (2012). GEA Filtration. Retrieved online: http://www.geafiltration.com/technology/reverse_osmosis.asp
"Reverse Osmosis, Nano, Ultra & Micro Filtration," (n.d.). GEA Filtration. Retrieved online: http://www.geafiltration.com/technology/membrane_filtration_process.asp
Vial, D. & Doussau, G. (2003). The use of microfiltration membranes for seawater pre-treatment prior to reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination 153(1): 141-147.
4. "Making condoms work for HIV prevention," UNAIDS/04.2E (English original, June 2004), ISBN 92 9 1745 8
5. "The Philippines - Unprotected: Sex, Condoms, and the Human Right to Health," (Human Rights Watch, 2004)
1. Burhans, Dirk, E., "Crunch!: A History of the Great American Potato Chip," (Terrace Books, 08.10.2008)
2. Kops, Deborah, and Thompson Collin, W., "Were Potato Chips Really Invented by an Angry Chef?: And Other Questions About Food," (Lerner Publications, 01.01.2011)
. "Snack Chip Deep Fat Frying," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Website: http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch09/final/c9s1-.pdf
4. "Potato Chip," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Website: http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/crum.html
1. Antensteiner, Martin, "Super Glue: The Superman of the Adhesive World," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the PennState Website: http://www.ems.psu.edu/sites/default/files/u5/students/Martin%20Antensteiner%20Paper_Third.pdf
2. Brubaker, Carrie, "The Chemistry of Superglue," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the UCLA Website: http://voh.chem.ucla.edu/vohtar/spring00/0H/pdf/Brubaker.pdf
3. Pendergrast, Mark, "For God, Country, and Coca Cola: The Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and the Company That Makes it," (Basic Books, 16.03.2000)
4. Schildt, a. And Siegfried, Detlef, "Between Marx and Coca-Cola: Youth Cultures in Changing European Societies, 1960-1980," (Berghahn Books, 01.12.2006)
5. Wagenknecht, Edward, "American Profile: 1900-1909," (Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1982)
Total Quality Management in Emirates Global Aluminum Company
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM is a method of enhancing the competitive advantage of the organization in pursuit of a significant market share to increase the profit margins of the organization. This is primarily done through effective leadership. It entails managerial functions such as; coordination, staffing, control, organizing, and planning. Furthermore, TQM requires proactive and strategic leadership in executing these quality control measures.
Every business entity or project comprises of internal and external customers. The internal customers are the workers of the organization while the external customers are the clients. Clients are of varied nature. There are those who are linked to the business directly. Others are linked indirectly. The indirect customers are the shareholders of the company.
As a management principle, TQM is geared towards improving the production process and also satisfying people. The primary goals of TQM are to ensure…
Charantimath, P. M. (2011). Total quality management. New Delhi, India: Dorling KIndersley (India.
Dhamija, P. (2008). Exploring total quality management in stent-device companies.
Franceschini, F., & Galetto, M. (2006). Benchmarking in total quality management. Bradford, England: Emerald Group Pub.
In Tetteh, E. G., & In Uzochukwu, B. M. (2015). Lean six sigma approaches in manufacturing, services, and production.
Diet on a Univesity Student's Psychological Well-being
This aticle povides a eseach poposal fo a study to be conducted on the impact of a diet on the psychological well-being of a univesity student. The pape poposes conducting an expeiment on univesity students using Mediteanean diet as the basis of exploing the impact of diet on psychological well-being. The eseache demonstates that thee is evidence in existing liteatue egading the impact of diet on psychological well-being, especially Mediteanean diet. The poposed independent vaiable fo the study is Mediteanean diet while the dependent vaiables include physical and mental health, isk of depession, and cognitive decline. The eseache poposed conducting a coss-sectional study on students fom the univesity's nusing depatment using a self-administeed questionnaie. The data analyses will entail the use of SPSS statistical softwae and Chi-squae tests. The final section of the pape discusses potential impotance of findings if the hypotheses ae…
references and have addictive properties.
Highly-processed snack and takeaway food products, rich in tasty fat and sugar, have now displaced much of the fruit, vegetables and other nutritious, unprocessed foods in our diets.
Largely as a result of these changes, there has been a staggering increase in the proportion of overweight and obese people across many countries. Common non-infectious illnesses, many driven by poor diets, are now the leading cause of death worldwide.
And we're now realizing that unhealthy diets may also be contributing to poor mental health.
For instance, in the movies James Bond wears a olex (olex, December 14, 2007); but so in real life did Pope John Paul II (Watchuseek olex Forum, November 16, 2006).
As Liebskind (Fall/Winter 2004) also explains, a key factor in olex's sustained success in high-end watch manufacturing is that it has always eschewed trends or fads in watch making in favor of careful but innovative craftsmanship and top quality (What makes olex tick?). In terms of the brand's independence, competitive edge and market share:
Over the past century, olex has built and defended a strong position in the high-end watch market. And it has remained independent even as many competitors have sought the shelter of conglomerates. Today, olex is the largest single luxury watch brand, with revenues of about $3 billion and annual production of between 650,000 and 800,000 watches. The secret to its success: a strategy that eschewed fashion…
Liebskind, D. (Fall/Winter 2004). What makes Rolex tick? SternBusiness.
15 December 2007 http://www.stern.nyu.edu/Sternbusiness/fall_winter_2004 rolex.html
The 100 top brands. (August 6, 2007). Business Week. 15 December 2007. http://www.businessweek.com/pdfs/2007/0732_globalbrands.pdf .
Rolex." Wikipedia. 14 Dec 2007. 15 Dec 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolex.html .
The company was also performing less profitably than other companies in beverages industry.
The profit margin of the company 7.12% which is lower than those of major company competitors, namely, of Pepsi Co and Hansen, Embotell and must be managed carefully by the corporate headquarters.
The competitive advantages of the company include very high market capitalization, the highest in the industry, very high brand awareness and well developed network of retail locations all around the globe, though facing fierce competition from world wide brands and local brands, good marketing tactics and developed employee selection and retaining process. These factors ensure the company diversifies its' output markets and also enjoy searching of outsourcing and thus less cost consuming production facilities, and spread the output network.
The management of the company clearly identifies the major risk factors associated with the company business and ensure to develop risk management system within the corporation.…
Coca Cola Annual Report, Available at http://ir.thecoca-colacompany.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=94566&p=IROL-sec&control_selectgroup=Annual%20FilingsAvailable at http://biz.yahoo.com/ic/ll/348g5r.html
Brealey, Myers. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Coca Cola Annual Report, Available at http://ir.thecoca-colacompany.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=94566&p=IROL-sec&control_selectgroup=Annual%20FilingsAvailable at
On the other hand, Harris suggests that some observers believe high turnover among employees is "not only inevitable, but also desirable… [because] employee mobility within the industry promotes workforce flexibility, allowing employees to acquire and develop new skills as they move through different organizations" (73). Harris takes it one step further when he reports that the "acquisition of transferable skills" has a powerful appeal to the "entrepreneurial aspirations of hospitality employees." Hence, Harris points out on page 73, "turnover is actively encouraged" by some leaders in the hospitality industry, along with ambitious workers, because this high turnover practice helps to "…create future managers for the industry." Moreover, turnover can be seen as a positive dynamic because "new ideas" are thus brought into the workplace -- as a way to "prevent stagnation in creativity" -- although in reality HR managers are often loathe to see highly energized, talented staff leave the…
Altarawneh, Lkhlas, and Al-Kilani, Mohammad H. 2010. Human Resource Management and Turnover Intentions in the Jordanian Hotel Sector. Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, vol. 18, 46-73.
Andrews. 2004. Sales & Marketing: A Textbook for Hospitality Industry. India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Furunes, Trude. 2005. Training Paradox in the Hotel Industry. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, vol. 5, 231-248.
Harris, Peter. 1998. Accounting and Finance for the International Hospitality Industry. Maryland Heights, MO: Butterworth -- Heinemann.
The solution that Hardin proposes is that of a coercive method; as always he gives a lucid example to support the point that he proposes. Hardin reminds the reader that society mutually agreed to make it illegal to rob banks, rather than appeal to the sense of responsibility to those who wish to rob banks as a means of deterring them. Bank robbers (real and potential) know that very immediate consequences await them, such as police chases which could end in injuries or fatalities, jail time and other comparable results. These consequences are real and immediate because they're reinforced by the state, the judicial system and by the police force. This form of coercion prevents more people from attempting to rob banks. Our natural resources of water need to be treated as though they're as valuable as banks filled with money. Dumping chemicals such as fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and personal care…
Environmentalgraffitti, n.d. 7 Extinct Animals: Rare Photographs. [Online]
Available at: http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/featured/rare-photographs-
Magnuson, M.L. et al., 2005. Responding to Water Contamination Threats. [Online]
What would make you decide to put an end to th e project/
What are you solutions for dealing with the problem?
Part of the problem of cost and procrastination is the continuous spate of law suits. What can be done, if anything, to resolve conflicts between the opposing parties and to make opposing parties more amenable to th ugar deal?
Learn & Teach About the Everglades
Water's journey Everglades
Burnham, Michael. (2010). Energy and Environment News. Energy by the Acre.
Caperton Morton, Mary. (May 20, 2010). Land Deal Likely to Improve Everglades, Ecologists ay. Inside cience News ervice.
Freechild, a. (2010).ugar Barons and takeholders:the Impact of the U.. ugar Deal on Everglades Restoration
Eye on Miami Blog. (2010) Kendrick Meek's sweet tooth could doom his political campaign for U.. enate.
National Research Council of the…
Burnham, Michael. (2010). Energy and Environment News. Energy by the Acre.
Caperton Morton, Mary. (May 20, 2010). Land Deal Likely to Improve Everglades, Ecologists Say. Inside Science News Service.
Freechild, a. (2010).Sugar Barons and Stakeholders:the Impact of the U.S. Sugar Deal on Everglades Restoration
Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States
Regulation of etlands in the United States
Defining etlands and their Value
A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…
Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010
Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:
Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.
Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
Prenegotiation Memorandum (pm)
Re: Tamarack, MN and Twin Lakes Mining Company
Twin Lakes Mining Company
The Twin Lakes Mining Company (hereafter known as 'company') makes significant contribution to Tamarack, Minnesota - employing 21% of the residents, providing 33% of the total real estate tax base - and is considered an integral entity to the town's longevity. The city needs Twin Lakes to maintain the current standard of living the residents enjoy.
The City of Tamarack
The city operates on a zero deficit per annum decree. Twin Lakes Mining Company has directly caused some of the need for improvements concerning water quality, air quality, and effluvia and pollution management. The city also relies upon the heavy property taxation to provide economic, culture, and recreation services to the community. Twin Lakes Mining Company does not need the City of Tamarack (hereafter known as 'city') to continue operations in…
Moreover, the health of the water in Lake Okeechobee, the main reservoir for South Florida, is in jeopardy as a result of human intervention in the Everglades (Ibid.)
There are other agricultural uses for Everglades water. Nurseries grow for use in home gardens. Demand for their product is affected by water shortages that arise from poor management of the Everglades water. This issue is significant in Miami-Dade and Broward counties. In Palm Beach County, sugar is the main agricultural crop, dependent on the Everglades for irrigation (Frogameni, 2008).
ater from the Everglades also impacts several other industries as well. Some fishing industries rely on the Everglades to provide clean water and nutrients to estuaries and bays. The mix of salt and fresh water results in a unique ecosystem that supports a rich variety of wildlife, including commercial seafood species including shrimp and stone crabs. The economic impact of Everglades-dependent fisheries…
USGS Circular 1182. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/circular/1182/
Cave, Damien. (2008). Florida to Buy Sugar Maker in Bid to Restore Everglades. New York Times. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com /2008/06/25/us/24cnd-sugar.html?hp
No author. (2002). Everglades Information: Water Resources. South Florida Water Management District. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://glades.sfwmd.gov/empact/home/02_everglades/05_water_resources/index.shtml
No author. (2007). The Southern Everglades and Florida Bay. The Audobon Society. Retrieved March 19, 2009 at http://www.audubon.org/states/fl/fl/PDFs/pubs_policydocs-florida_bay_report_main.pdf