Water Resources Essays (Examples)

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Hydrological Hazard or Water Resource

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75990949

The land could not resist to the saturation caused by the winds and the heavy rain and it had not been long before the aftermath materialized into swollen mountain streams. This later resulted into cascades of mud mixed with water running down the slopes in serious amounts. In spite of the fact that the island had several drains and catch basins which could be very effective in case of a small flood, they had been no match for the one on the February 20. The three rivers crossing Funchal, apparently meant to prevent flood water from entering the city, had been one of the motives for the waters quickly moving towards the streets.

A state of panic overtook the area, as the authorities were practically powerless. The intervention of the military had been crucial, as engineers could repair some of the structures that had suffered minor damage, while military rescue…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Elliot Larry & Tremlett Giles. "Madeira floods: death toll rises to 40." Retrieved April 27, 2010, from the Guardian Web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/feb/21/madeira-floods-death-toll-rises
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Water Pollution Water Is an Important Natural

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17375894

Water Pollution

Water is an important natural resource upon which all the living beings rely for their existence and growth. Nature has blessed the earth with uncountable water resources but usable quantity is limited. Hence, it is important to use water sparingly. The irony is, human activities result is high water pollution which further shortens the water supply for use.

"In an age when man has forgotten his origins and is blind even to his most essential needs for survival, water along with other resources has become the victim of his indifference" (Carson, 2002, p. 39).

Water is considered to be most crucial one among all the world's natural resources. Although it covers the largest part of the earth's surface (70%), yet it is the limiting factor most of the times. This is because most of this water is not available for use in agriculture or for other human needs…… [Read More]


Carson, R. (2002). Silent Spring. New York: Houghten Mifflin.

Chiras, D.D. (2012). Environmental Science. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Dowdeswell, E. (1996, October). Water. Our planet. Retrieved from  http://www.ourplanet.com/imgversn/83/editoral.html 

Duhigg, C. (2009, September 17). Health Ills Abound as Farm Runoff Fouls Wells. New York Times. Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com /2009/09/18/us/18dairy.html
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Water and Sustainability Economic Approaches

Words: 3130 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85679247

Although the Murray-Darling River covers only about 14% of Australia's irrigated land, 50% of Australia's sheep and 25% of Australia's cattle rely on this source. Also, 40% of the nation's rice crop and 80% of its canned fruit product relies on the Murray-Darling River Complex. In all, three-quarters of Australia's water comes from the Murray-Darling River (Hussainy, p. 205).

Of course there are conflicts when so much is at stake. For one, the river carries about 2.5 tons of sale into South Australia "every minute," Hussainy writes. Inflows of saline groundwater are attributable to the problem -- and also, the removal of "native vegetation" and irrigation causes the salt to become a problem. hen the native vegetation is replace with shallow rooted crops, it is bad ecologically. The authors say that "sustainable development ecology should be regarded as part of economics" but the "myopic view of technocrats" views ecology and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, F. Lee. "Water Markets and Traditional Water Values: Merging Commodity and Community Perspectives." Water International Vol. 22 (1997): 2-5.

Global Water Partnership / Technical Advisory Committee. "Integrated Water Resource

Management. TAC Background Papers No. 4.

Gopalakrishnan, Chennat, Tortajada, Cecilia, and Biswas, Asit K. Water Institutions: Policies,
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Water Global Human Needs System Thinking and

Words: 2096 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95107404

Water Global Human Needs

System Thinking and Transformative Social Systems in Sustainability

It is a fact that above 70% of the surface of the Earth is water. However, the real issue despite the abundance of water is the availability of fresh water (Amanda, 2013). Of the total waters on Earth, 97.5% of this is salty water; this leaves only a 2.5% as fresh water. To add on this deafening fact, of all the fresh water, about 70% of this water remains solid in the Antarctica and Greenland icecaps. Moreover, the residue of the fresh water is at hand as soil moisture or lies in aquifers deep dissident as ground water not reachable for use. Amazingly, less than 1%, amounting to approximately 0.007% of all fresh water is accessible for the direct consumption for human needs. This is the water in fresh water lakes, rivers, reservoirs and tapped shallow underground sources.…… [Read More]


Amanda, S. (2013). Global water supply. Mother Earth News, 255. p. 16.
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Water Pollution Remains One of

Words: 2012 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39096343

In the absence of proper waste management laws and regulations, as well as poor enforcement of existing waste disposal laws, an increase in the number of manufacturing entities would inevitably increase instances of water pollution. According to Goel (2006), the mere fact that smaller cities report less instances of water pollution than larger cities is a clear indicator of the relationship that exists between population density and water pollution levels. In the final analysis, "population growth and industrialization, both work synergistically to increase the levels of pollution" (Goel, 2006).

With the various issues presented in the text above in mind, prevention remains one of the best and most valid solutions to the problem of water pollution. To begin with, there exists a need to ensure that all toxic chemicals are disposed off in a proper and safe way. Proper treatment of waste material is also another critical preventive measure. The…… [Read More]


Girard, J. (2009). Principles of Environmental Chemistry (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Goel, P.K. (2006). Water Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Control. New York: New Age International.

McKinney, M.L., Schoch, R.M. & Yonavjak, L. (2007). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. (2008). Environmental Science. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
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Water Sustainability What Is Your

Words: 2519 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61480694

The case of the orld Commission on Dams is a good example of how this tendency to centralize water resource management can be mitigated, if not completely eliminated.

The political reality of the world is that government represents more than just laws and policies, just as management and governance has to be about more than just enacting laws and edicts, but should reflect the values of the community and the interests of the communities that will be summarily affected by those policies. In the case of water resource management, this means that it must be a prerequisite to involve a wider variety of community stakeholders as part of the decision-making process in order to make more "equitable and sustainable use of rivers. But in most countries, the cards are stacked heavily against an inclusive and more balanced process. Patterns of governance for the most part still reflect the utilitarian mind-set…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bates, Sarah F., Getches, David H., MacDonnell, Lawrence J., and Wilkinson, Charles F. Searching out the Headwaters: Change and Rediscovery in Western Water Policy. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993.

Bauer, Carl J. Siren Song: Chilean Water Law as a Model for International Reform. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 2004.

Bauer, Carl. "Water Resources Management." A World Bank Policy Paper. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1993.

Briscoe, John, Salas, Pablo Anguita, and Pena, Humberto. "Managing Water as an Economic Resource: Reflections on the Chilean Experience." Environmental Economics Series. Washington, DC: The World Bank, April 1998.
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Water Shortage in the Middle

Words: 3722 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66686844

Given water scarcity, the high costs of desalinisation and other unconventional methods of supplying water, and the pollution of surface and ground waters, Israel sought other natural supplies of water from the Litani" (Dolatyar, 2002). The Israeli then invaded Lebanon, but were met with extreme resistance.

1990 - Present - Period of return to bargaining tactic

The fall of the Soviet Union, the Gulf War (1990-1991) and the interference of the United States led to more amiable relationships between the countries of the Middle Eats, which were committed to creating the "New Middle East." Several treaties were signed which were aimed to increase the collaboration and lead to the resolution of impending problems, such as environmental concerns and water resources. "For example, the peace treaty between Israel and Jordan, signed on October 26, 1994, includes five annexes, two of which address water and environmental issues. Negotiations between Israel and Syria…… [Read More]


Amery, H.A., Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat, the Geographical Journal, Volume 168, 2002

Associate Professor at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, Hussein a. Amery holds a BA, an MA and a PhD in geography. Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat is based on extensive research of the previous works on water issues in the Middle East. It debates on issues such as causes for conflicts and the characteristics of the water shortage in Palestine and Israel.

Dale, W.N., Middle East Water Problems, American Diplomacy, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2001_07-09/dale_water/dale_water.htmllastaccessed on April 7, 2008

William N. Dale was a minister-counselor in Tel-Aviv, Israel during 1946-1968, when he got the opportunity to first hand analyze the problems of the Middle East. His findings are formulated in a clear and unbiased way and his American nationality helped look at the isses with an objective eye.
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Water Geography Part One Terms

Words: 2762 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16776764

But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."

TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered

Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.

Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water

Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html.
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Water Awareness and Education for Sustainable Watershed Management

Words: 2917 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54484234

Water Awareness and Education for Sustainable Watershed Management

Today, the human society continuously deals with the issue of limited resources, as compared to an extensively growing amount of needs. Among these limited resources, water is vital, not only because mankind cannot survive without it, but also because it is essential to producing so many other secondary items, including food and clothing. At the same time, water and watersheds are an essential part of the environment, home to numerous species of animals and plants. Conservationism and environmental protection has a definite impact on the existence and evolution of mankind as well.

With that in mind, this project proposal will focus on identifying a set of solutions that the inhabitants in the Medina River Watershed (exar & Medina County TX) can use to address water pollution in this area, as well as the means by which water conservation can be consolidated and…… [Read More]


1. Engel, F.L. (n.d.) Geomorphic Classification of the Lower San Antonio River, Texas. Texas Water Development Board. Project 0604830637. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/0604830637_LowerSanAntonioRiver.pdf

2. HDR Engineering [HDR] (2000, December). The Edwards Aquifer Watershed Brush Control Planning Assessment & Feasibility Study. Texas State Soil & Water Conservation Board. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.nueces-ra.org/II/brush/

3. Moore, E.A., & Koontz, T.M. (2003). Research Note A Typology of Collaborative Watershed Groups: Citizen-Based, Agency-Based, and Mixed Partnerships. Society & Natural Resources, 16(5), 451. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

4. O'Neill, K.M. (2005). Can Watershed Management Unite Town and Country? Society & Natural Resources, 18(3), 241-253. doi:10.1080/08941920590908097
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Water in the Middle East

Words: 22307 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58217118

While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).

The conflict in the Future

It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]


Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.

Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html

Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm

Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
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Water Engineering the Role of

Words: 1007 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51077245

Other areas of water engineering include flood prevention and a multitude of environmental specialties, many of which relate to other areas of water engineering. Finding ways to divert runoff to prevent erosion, for example, has both civil and environmental applications, and involves identical principles in most situations (Kalle 2009). Effective strategies for collecting and draining runoff water in a way that doesn't simply divert the problem can be a lot more complex than it might at first seem, especially in environmental situations, and this is precisely why water engineers remain must have a comprehensive view of many different areas of engineering, including fluid mechanics, a knowledge of different materials for conducting water, effective ways of filtering and/or treating water, etc. The amount of knowledge required to take on any major water engineering project virtually guarantees that the engineer will have the knowledge and skill set for other jobs, too, meaning…… [Read More]


BLS. (2009). "Engineers." Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm

DOT (2003). "Civil Engineering Occupations." Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Accessed 17 November 2009.  http://www.occupationalinfo.org/defset1_880.html 

Kalle, M. (2009). "Water engineer: Job description and activities." Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/water_engineer_job_description.jsp

NACE (2009). "New & Emerging Occupations: Science and Engineering Occupations." National Association of Colleges and Employers. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.jobweb.org/studentarticles.aspx?id=1795
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Water Legislation Origins of Environmental

Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87395038

The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…… [Read More]

Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."

"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.

"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."

Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.

First Nations
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Water in Sub-Saharan Africa

Words: 2389 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54779850

Water in Sub-Saharan Africa is of special interest because of my background but water is a fascinating issue in general, one that I think will play an increasingly large role in the 21st century, as the effects of population growth and climate change bring about significant changes to our water usage and availability. A lack of water in particular has a substantial destabilizing effect.

Water as a social issue combines a lot of different elements. As an issue, water sits at the intersection of social justice, politics, economics and agriculture are all areas weather. This is probably because water is so essential to human life. We drink it, we use in for domestic purposes, agricultural, industrial, transportation. Yet clean water is not always easy to come by. Some feel that access to clean water is a human right. So there is a significant importance attached to water in most parts…… [Read More]


Acerman, M. & Hollis, G. (1996). Water management and wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa. IUCN: Switzerland.

Bayliss, K. & Fine, B. (2007). Privatization and alternative public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa: Delivering on electricity and water. Palgrave MacMillan.

Bojo, J. (1996). The costs of land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics. Vol. 16 (2) 161-173.

Conway, D., Persechino, A., Ardoin, S., Hamandawana, H., Dieulin, C. & Mahe, G. (2008). Rainfall and water resources variability in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Retrieved April 18, 2014 from  http://tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/wp119.pdf
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Water Sustainability in the Developing World

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12437467

Water Delivery

Water sustainability has been of increasing concern in academia as a political as well as an environmental problem. My dissertation will specifically focus on water sustainability in the Caribbean and how to improve methods of delivery. Water is a finite, not an infinite resource, and must be treated as such. Additional research is needed to see how best to improve current quality and availability in the region. One useful method of doing so is reviewing how governments have tried and in some cases failed in the past to improve water sustainability in other areas of the developing world.

Technology provides many potential benefits for improving water quality, according to Jha (et al. 2007). In the article "Groundwater management and development by integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems: prospects and constraints" the authors examine how the pollution and exploitation of groundwater is causing a critical problem for the…… [Read More]


Biswas, A. 2004. Integrated Water Resources Management: A reassessment.

Water International, 29:2, 248-256. DOI: 10.1080/02508060408691775

Jha, M. et al. 2007. Groundwater management and development by integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems: prospects and constraints. Water Resource Management 21:427 -- 467. DOI 10.1007/s11269-006-9024-4.

Jonker, L. 2007.Integrated water resources management: The theory -- praxis -- nexus, a South African perspective. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 32, 1257 -- 1263.
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Water Sustainability

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68192544

Sustainability of the Water Supply in the Caribbean

Water sustainability is not merely an environmental problem. It is a political and social issue as well. esearch articles such as "Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean" by Iglesias (et al. 2007) focus on issues which specifically impact environmental changes such as global warming but do so in a manner to suggest specific policy prescriptions to scientists attempting to curtail crises created by the phenomenon. The paper suggests a different framework to cope with water scarcity that emphasizes preparation and prevention rather than taking a crisis management approach only after scarcity is in evidence. "The importance of local management at the basin level is emphasized, but the potential benefits depend on the appropriate multi-institutional and multi-stakeholder coordination" (Iglesias et al. 2007: 775). Stakeholder analysis is still required: something can be feasible on a technical…… [Read More]


Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788

Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)


Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability analysis for Yellow River.
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Water and Sewer Pricing

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15439741

Pricing Water From a Utility Perspective

Water is usually a scarce commodity but not in all situations, such as in Virginia, which is characterized by plentiful ground water supply. However, the relevant agencies in this state incur costs relating to drilling and pumping water from the ground, procurement and infrastructure costs. Because of this, pricing of water has become an important factor in water management. For utility companies in Virginia and other states, selling the water at the appropriate price is increasingly important since low costs do not cover operational costs, whereas high costs contribute to inadequate sales. The determination of the most suitable pricing model or scheme requires critical evaluation from a utility perspective and whether this commodity is affected by the same principles of economics as other goods and services or utilities.

Price Sensitivity of Water

From a utility perspective, water has seemingly weak price sensitivity as compared…… [Read More]


Gaudin, Sylvestre, Ronald C. Griffin, and Robin C. Sickles (2001). Demand Specification for Municipal Water Management: Evaluation of the Stone Geary Form. Land Economics, 77(3), 399-422.

Gaudin, S. (2007, February 2). Effect of Price Information of Residential Water Demand.Applied Economics, 38(4), 383-393.

Gaudin, S. (2004, March).Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Practices on Residential Water Use. Retrieved from Department of Economics -- Oberlin College website: https://new.oberlin.edu/dotAsset/96202.pdf

Howe, C.W. & Linaweaver, F.P. (1967).The Impact of Price on Residential Water Demand and Its Relation to System Design and Price Structure.Water Resources Research, 3(1), 13-32.
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Water Usage Methodology Section

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73353804

Operation and Data Management at the Water-Authority: will there be a sustainable water supply for the next century. A case study of Water Infrastructure Management in the Caribbean. As the research problem implies, I intend to conduct a case study examining water infrastructure management in the Caribbean with the goal of determining whether existing water infrastructure management will provide sustainable water usage for the next century. The nature of the research problem requires a comparison of the currently available water resources, the renewable water resources, current water usage, and projected water demand over the coming century to determine if the water resources are adequate and will continue to be adequate for the foreseeable time period. Although the question could be approached from a quantitative perspective or a mixed-methods perspective, I believe that water usage and water management are as much about perceptions and beliefs as they are about quantitative analysis…… [Read More]


Brikci, N., Green, J. 2007. A guide to using qualitative research methodology. Available from:

. [2 September 2014].

Shah, A. 2010. 'Water and Development', Global Issues. Available from:

. [2 September 2014].
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Causes Implications and Intervention Strategies Water Scarcity

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28496950

Water Scarcity

The World Water Council estimates that approximately 1.1 billion people, which translates to one-sixth of the world population, lacks access to safe drinking water. Another 2.6 billion lack access to proper sanitation facilities (World Water Council, n.d.). It is estimated that by 2025, almost 3 billion people will be finding it almost impossible to meet their basic water needs (Concern Worldwide, 2012). This text discusses the potential causes of the current water scarcity problem, its implications on the environment, and the various strategies that could be used to ease or eliminate the problem.

Population growth, industrialization, and inefficient agricultural/food supply systems are the main causes of water scarcity in the world today. Population increases that are not matched with concurrent increases in the available resources put a strain on the existing resource base and increase the risk of faster depletion. Forests are cleared to create more room for…… [Read More]

References Cited

Concern Worldwide. (2012). Water: How can we Improve the World's Access to Clean Water? Concern Worldwide. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Water.pdf

The World Water Council. (n.d.). Water Crisis: Towards a Way to Improve the Situation. The World Water Council. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25

Toledo, V.J. & Harvey, M. (2015). Thirsty Crops Cause Water Shortages and Pollution. WWF Global. Retrieved April 22, 105 from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/
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Water and Plastic Bottle Burden

Words: 1800 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79110006

With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.

This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…… [Read More]

7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, (http://www.fluoridealert.org/health...)

8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )

9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation...)
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Water Pollution

Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58281193

Water Pollution

The vast majority -- over 70% -- of our earth is covered by water. Unfortunately for our thirst, 97.5% of all the water on the planet is salt water. Only 2.5% of the water on planet earth is fresh drinking water. Given that there is such a small percentage of drinkable water on the planet, the resource has become a scarce commodity. Making matters worse is the fact that much of the available drinking water on the planet is becoming polluted -- contaminated by the same people who rely on it to sustain life. There are many sources of water pollution, including untreated human waste from sewage, lack of sanitation, agricultural chemicals, and factory chemical runoff. If nothing is done to prevent these sources of pollution from continuing to contaminate water, waterborne illnesses and infectious disease could become more prevalent. Scarcity could also be an issue, as the…… [Read More]


Walls-Thuma, D. (n.d). How can water pollution affect animals, homes, and health? National Geographic. Retrieved online: http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/can-water-pollution-affect-animals-homes-health-2921.html

Water.org. Website:  http://water.org/ 

"Water Pollution and Plants," (2008). Pollution and Plants. Retrieved online:  http://pollution-plants.blogspot.com/2008/02/water-pollution-and-plants.html 

Wieman, B. (n.d.). How does pollution affect all living things? National Geographic. Retrieved online: http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/pollution-affect-living-things-including-humans-2193.html
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Water Geography - Definitions -

Words: 2268 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15979937

They can also enable countries to become more self-reliant rather than relying on international sources of energy. In these five ways, dams may prove very beneficial to countries utilizing them.

Many cities that build dams take advantage of damns as a resource for tourism and revenues. Because dams often pose a majestic view, and provide the opportunity for recreation in the form of boating and camping, many cities use them as a secondary source of revenue. In this sense dams are positive because they attract commerce in cities that need additional capital or revenues. However, along with these advantages come some disadvantages or problems, discussed below.


As with anything dams also have many disadvantages. For every five advantages dams provide, five disadvantages may be defined. For example, Qing & Sullivan (1999) note that while dams can stimulate economic growth and provide greater energy and power for a city, they…… [Read More]


EPA. (2006). Safe Water Drinking Act. Environmental Protection Agency, Retrieved October 16th, 2007: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa/index.html

Mayhew, S. (2004). A dictionary of geography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved October 16th, 2005:


University of Texas. (2005). Water surplus and deficit. UTexas.com. Retrieved October
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Water Restrictions Block Billing and

Words: 1408 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56172472

While these solutions are expensive, and are certainly years away, the City of Lubbock should begin studies now, to ensure a safe and secure water supply for the future. In addition, the city should look at tougher restrictions for new building and landscaping as alternate ways to save water and ensure a consistent water supply for the future. Basing a block billing system on water usage in the winter is simply a route to disaster. The block billing system does not encourage water savings, as the current water emergency clearly indicates. It is not enough to ensure residents have enough water, it is based on faulty calculations, and it has already been overtaken by Stage Four emergency restrictions. It is too little too late and other ways of conserving water must be addressed. It took three years to implement this system, over much controversy and dissent. It seems now that…… [Read More]


Blackburn, E. (2007). New water rates discourage use of high volume. Retrieved from the Lubbock Avalanche Journal Web site: http://lubbockonline.com/stories/022307/loc_022307069.shtml22 June 2007.

2007). Comprehensive water conservation requirements. Retrieved from the City of Santa Fe Web site: http://santafenm.gov/waterwise/newcompwaterconservreq.pdf22 June 2007.

Editors. (2007). Water rate information calculation method. Retrieved from the Lubbock Power and Light Web site: http://www.lpandl.com/waterrates.htm22 June 2007.

Editors. (2007.) Desalination. Retrieved from the General Electric Web site: http://www.gewater.com/equipment/membranehousing/desal.jsp22 June 2007.
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Water Cycle Performance Objectives Understanding the Water

Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18957131

Water Cycle

Performance objectives

Understanding the water cycle

The cycle of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the earth's water as it evaporates from bodies of water, condenses, precipitates, and returns to those bodies of water.

The targeted students need to posses a prior knowledge of living things and general knowledge of the earth and the earth's physical settings. During this unit the students will have the opportunity of learning new terminology, use technology, posing questions, and seeking answers.

Instructional goal:

The student should be able to not only identify but also describe the four main phases of the water cycle which include Evaporation, Condensation, and Collection and distinguish the functions played by each phase.

The student will be able to recognize the relationship that the water cycle and weather have.

Students will have a discussion covering the effect of human on the environment (or weather) both locally…… [Read More]

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Water An Overlooked Essential Nutrient

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58749567

Our company encourages that its personnel stay in good physical shape and exercise at least three times a week. Our employees' health and mental well being is a highest priority.

Because of this importance on health, it is essential to choose the most essential foods and beverages for the largest number of people.

Hydration during sporting activities is a necessity. Heat exhaustion and dehydration can lead to major health problems and even injuries.

According to nutrition experts, when exercising for less than 60 to 90 minutes, water should be adequate to meet one's fluid needs.

Water is a great source of fluid when exercising for one hour or less.

According to an article in the Journal of the American Dietary Association (by SM Kleiner, 1999, p. 200), the following are the standards for fluid intake.

Drink a minimum of 1 quart (4 cups) of fluid for every 1,000calories you eat…… [Read More]

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Water Supply the Dearth of

Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15688796

Water infrastructure and safety issues are far more pressing in the developing world, and large numbers of research teams and laboratories are engaged in developing better and safer water system in Africa and much of Latin America (Helmholz 2009). A lack of clean drinking water and reliable systems is a growing problem in much of the world, and so attention is shifted away from infrastructure issues in the developed world to where there is a greater need (Helmholz 2009). This leads to a lack of research in domestic water supply infrastructure issues.


Briscoe, J. (1983). "Selective primary health care revisited: water supply and health in developing countries." Arlington, Virginia, Water and Sanitation for Health Project NO. 28, pp. 18. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.popline.org/docs/0627/023354.html

Helmholz. (2009). "esearch to secure a safe water supply." Helmholz association of German research centres. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/03/20/research.secure.a.safe.water.supply… [Read More]


Briscoe, J. (1983). "Selective primary health care revisited: water supply and health in developing countries." Arlington, Virginia, Water and Sanitation for Health Project NO. 28, pp. 18. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.popline.org/docs/0627/023354.html

Helmholz. (2009). "Research to secure a safe water supply." Helmholz association of German research centres. Accessed 11 October 2009.  http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/03/20/research.secure.a.safe.water.supply
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Water Taxis Interviewee Research This Person Has

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55704845

ater Taxis

Interviewee Research

This person has been involved in water taxi projects before, so should be a good source of information about getting such a project under way.

I know a little bit about the topic in terms of having seen these types of projects before. Several cities have them and they seem quite popular. I also know that Miami is a water-oriented city with Biscayne Bay, and a lot of canals. Putting these two things together is the genesis of the water taxi idea.

Primary Questions

O1. How would you describe the challenges in getting a water taxi venture running?

O2. hat is the role that the public and private sectors can play in a water taxi project?

O3. How have these programs been received in the past, by the public and by politicians?

hat is the current ridership of your water taxi program?

C2. Is your water…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cooke, A., Mahon, R. & McConney, P. (2007). A livelihood analysis of the water taxi operators in the Grenadines. CERMES Technical Report No. 9. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://cermes.cavehill.uwi.edu/Technical_Reports/Cooke_2007_livelihoods_analysis_water_taxi_Grenadines_CTR.pdf

Damart, S. & Roy, B. (2009). The uses of cost-benefit analysis in public transportation decision-making in France. Transport Policy. Vol. 16 (2009). 200-212.

Savas, E. (2000). Privatization and public-private partnerships. CES Madrid. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://www.cesmadrid.es/documentos/sem200601_md02_in.pdf
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Water Math Water Flow 12f

Words: 467 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98649198

This makes the issue a complex one without a clear answer; carbon dioxide is preferable to other potential byproducts of fossil fuel combustion due to the ease with which it can be trapped and its relative innocuousness in these sinks, but undesirable due to its volume and the lack of current capabilities to provide adequate sinks.

7) While it is understandable that the EPA would desire to increase public safety by revising standards for ground level ozone production and concentration, in reality this move is not entirely necessary. As business owners and operators, you know all too well the incessant environmental regulation can create significant operational difficulties and reduce if to eliminate profitability, often with no effect on environmental risks or damage. The EPA itself has found that ground-level ozone quickly dissipates and presents a minimal danger to health if properly vented and dispersed, yet they are revising regulations as…… [Read More]


Clegg, S. & Abbatt, J. (2001). Oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 on ice surfaces at 228 K: a sink for SO2 in ice clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 1:77-92.

EPA. (2011). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks. Washington, DC.

Garrison, T. (2004). Oceanography. New York: Thomson Brooks.
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War for Resources Chris Hedges

Words: 3478 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90746667

Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004).

Use of esources to Finance Conflict

Forest products are also often used to pay for conflicts. Timber requires little investment and can be converted to cash more cheaply than oil, which requires technology. Control over timber resources can shift the balance of power during a conflict and affect how long the conflict lasts. Underfunded armies, military, police, and rebel forces often finance themselves by cutting trees. Conflicts in Cambodia, Burma and Liberia have been funded with timber, and in each of those countries the wood produced more than 100 million dollars per year (Global esources, 2004).

Incompatible Uses Leading to Conflict

Use or misuse of resources can be very profitable on one hand but ruinous to another. For example, jurisdictional conflicts have heated up…… [Read More]


Breaking the habit (2004). The Nation (Feb 9), 178 (5), 11-14.

Brown, V.J. (2004). Battle scars: Global conflicts and environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (17), 994-1003.

Coles, C. (2004). Resources for peace. The Futurist (Jan/Feb), 38 (1) 6.

Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (2002). IUCN/IISD E&S Task Force. Johannesburg: World Summit on Sustainable Development.
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International Water Policy

Words: 2453 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48183499

operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.

Water management

According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to…… [Read More]


Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.

Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS

Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319

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Sustainable Engineering Practice Water Is

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23967953

As a consequence, social unrest can then be avoided only by subsidies. The town is socially and entinancially heavily burdened. Another problem is that the spontaneous rainwater flow, mixed with wastewater in a heavy downpour, pollutes the river or lake once again and provides more problems for gaining potable water.

Scenario 3: As a result of climatic and geological conditions there is little potable water available; the resources are quickly exhausted. The possibilities for development by the town are therefore restricted. The cost of a long-distance water supply is prohibitive.

This paper examines possible applications of rainwater utilization and application in an urban context. In doing so, it examines some of the more available technologies for this purpose, and draws on Germany's experience in dealing with the related issues. As part of this discussion, variants of practice and boundary conditions of decentralization issues are raised.

Questions and demands

Centralized water…… [Read More]

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Shortage of water in California

Words: 2061 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59868225

California Drought

Many parts of the United States have had droughts at one time or another. However, they generally go away and they generally do not last all that long. That being, California has been a different story in more than one way. The high agricultural use of water in the state combined with the lack of rainwater coming into the water table has led to a situation that is already dire and is getting worse by the day. This issue is important because the long-term viability of the water in California is a major concern for everyone that works and lives there or that will do either in the future years and generations. This report shall cover the totality of the problem and then offer solutions. While desalinization and shifting of agricultural priorities are seemingly on the horizon, the current prospects of the water resources and status in California…… [Read More]

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Humanity's Global Need for Water as the

Words: 556 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44887400

Humanity's Global Need For Water

As the Earth's population of human inhabitants continues to swell in exponential fashion, moving from 6 billion to 7 billion during the last decade alone, humanity has been forced to confront a crisis it has long ignored: the finite amount of fresh water on the planet. Seemingly every human behavior, from agriculture to armed conflict, requires massive amounts of potable water for a wide array of reasons. Drinking, bathing, waste disposal, washing clothes and dishes, watering lawns and gardens; all of these daily activities are dependent on an available supply of running water. Even specialized activities like cooling heavy machinery during construction projects, clearing silt and debris within mine shafts, and extinguishing house or wild fires necessitate the collection, storage and dispersal of tremendous reserves of water. Despite the seemingly endless supply of fresh water emanating from the world's creeks, streams, rivers, lakes and ground…… [Read More]


Hoekstra, A.Y., & Chapagain, A.K. (2007). Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water resources management, 21(1), 35-48.
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Strategic Resource Management Hewlett Packard Enterprise

Words: 4914 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96894266

Activity 1: Human Resource Management (HRM)

HP Corporate Objectives

Profit: Recognizing that profit constitutes the single most effective measure of the organization's contributions to the community, in addition to being the most basic source of business strength. Attaining maximum possible levels of profit in line with other business goals is the aim.

Striving for constant advancement in company offering (i.e., services and products) quality, value, and utility (Hewlett-Packard, 2016).

Field of Interest: Focusing efforts and constantly pursuing fresh development opportunities, whilst simultaneously limiting participation to areas wherein the company possesses capability and is able to effectively contribute.

Growth: Underscoring corporate growth as one of the prerequisites for survival and one of the measures of corporate strength.

Employees: Offering employment opportunities to the workforce, including a chance to be a part of corporate success by helping to make it possible. Personnel must be afforded job security on the basis of their…… [Read More]

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Southwest - Water Issue Southwest

Words: 405 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25131691

It is clear that conservation is needed. If the water that is left in the Southwest asin is squandered, it will disappear completely. Land use planning is also vital, because there are many different things that land around the Southwest asin can be used for - or not used for. When farms expand and urban areas are built, they cut into the water that currently exists, and this cannot continue without some way to get more water. It is necessary for leaders who have control over these types of issues to stop people from continuing to deplete water resources through the use of conservation measures and proper planning for the land that is left. While more land is often needed for development, consideration needs to be given to how fast that development takes place and the resources that are available to support it.


Great asin Water Issues. (n.d.). Great…… [Read More]


Great Basin Water Issues. (n.d.). Great Basin Water Network. http://www.greatbasinwater.net/issues/index.php

Sharp, Jay W. (2008). Part II: Southwest Water Resources - the Problems We Face. DesertUSA.  http://www.desertusa.com/mag08/jun08/water-southwest-problems.html 

Water Demands (n.d.). http://ibcc.state.co.us/Basins/Southwest/MajorWaterIssues/WaterDemandsProjections/SouthwestBasinWaterDemandsProjections.htm
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Show Concepts Territory Flow Understand Conflicts Water Mexico US Border Region

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12018051

territory flow understand conflicts water mexico-U.S. border region

Across the borders throughout the world there have been numerous cases of disputes for different reasons, which vary from illegal immigrants to the use of natural resources that cross the borderlines. A situation is also at the American border with Mexico concerning the water resources available and their use.

The issues between the two countries are not necessarily a matter of conflict but rather one that needs constant monitoring and international regulations. The problem revolves around the sites that are shared by the two countries that are the aquifer region of the Colorado iver and the io Grande. In 1944 a Treaty was signed between the two countries that share the water potential available on the shared border and initially it was believed that such international law would solve the matter. Moreover, "The 1944 Treaty also provides each country one-half of all…… [Read More]


Vina, Stephen. "The United States -- Mexico Dispute over the Waters of the Lower Rio Grande River" CRS Report for Congress. 2005. Available online at http://www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/4079.pdf

Wolf, Aaron T. And Joshua T. Newton. "Case Study of Transboundary Dispute Resolution: U.S./Mexico shared aquifers" Oregon State University. N.d. Available online at  http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/US_Mexico_Aquifer_New.htm
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Southern California Water System Turn

Words: 1109 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54511801

Pesticides that have widespread use in California also have the same effect.

California as a state has been is water crises for decades, particularly in Southern California. The closest, most convenient resource is Northern California. The geography of Northern California is a water haven for the southern part of the state. With lakes, rivers and reservoirs, there are abundant water sources. Unfortunately these resources are not sufficient for the entire state. They are perfect for the surrounding area, but not for the southern, dry part of the state.

Although one state, the North and the South have set up trade agreements over water. The South is given a set amount each year and the remaining water is kept by the North. This is not a problem if the water resources are at a secure level for the year.

Ironically, Fountain Valley, California, is responsible for managing the groundwater basin under…… [Read More]


Brosman, D.R. (1999) The Fred Hervey Water Reclamation Plant and its role in El Paso's water supply, Microsoft Powerpoint Presnetation, 12 slides.

Brown, L.R. (2000) "Population growth sentencing millions to hydrological poverty," San Diego Earth Times.

Orance County Water District (1997) "Groudwater Replenishment System being explored to meet water supply needs," Groundwater Replensihing System, 17 Dec.

Orange County Water District (2000) Overview of Water Factory 21, OCWD Online, 19 September.  http://www.ocwd.com
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Commercial Use of Ground Water

Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81742978

Commercial Use of Michigan Groundwater

Appropriately named the "Great Lakes State," Michigan is the only state whose borders lie completely within the world's largest system of fresh surface water, the Great Lakes basin, which constitutes 18% of the world's water supply.(4)

Traditionally, Michigan has relied primarily on "riparian" rights analyses derived from English common law to regulate the commercial use of its largest natural resource. Since riparian concepts focus primarily on the relative rights of competing users of surface waters, there has, until very recently, been comparatively little regulation of the underground springs or aquifer system which feeds the surface water system, or of the rights of the state to control removal of water resources for use or sale elsewhere.

On November 25, 2003, Mecosta County Circuit Court Judge Lawrence Root issued a lengthy opinion that finally addressed the problem and defined many of the issues under the laws of…… [Read More]


1. Howlett, D., Water Battle Dredges Up Acrimony; USA Today (June 22, 2003)

Accessed at http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/mi/062203_great_lakes.htm

2. Michigan Citizens for Water Conservation v. Nestle Waters North America Inc.

49th Judicial Circuit Mecosta County Circuit Court Opinion (Nov 25, 2003) Accessed at http://www.envlaw.com/decisions/MCWC2.txt
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Arab-Israeli Region Is One in Which Water

Words: 1370 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45106553

Arab-Israeli region is one in which water is a critical problem, and being able to get access to clean, safe water on a regular basis is one element of the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict. While there may be serious, conflicting views on political and religious issues, along with many other aspects of the way people in the various areas live their lives, it is no secret that they all have to work together if everyone is going to have enough water to enjoy. A report in 2010 indicated that there were a number of challenges with ensuring that everyone in the region received enough clean water for drinking, irrigation, and other needs (Schneider, 2012). In order to attempt to combat that, Israel, Jordan, and Palestine all have water departments who are looking into working with one another. Without that level of cooperation, there will be numerous people in those areas without…… [Read More]


Schneider, V. (2012). Regional water data banks -- Overview of Middle East water resources. USGS International Programs. Retrieved from  http://international.usgs.gov/projects/pawc-overview.htm
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Public Management and Administration of Water Scarcity

Words: 1688 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25037550

Public Management and Administration of ater Scarcity Scenario

You are a successful upper manager at an important federal agency. The President and Congress have become concerned about scarcity of potable water in the United States. (ater levels in lakes, reservoirs, and rivers have been dropping steadily, perhaps as a result of climate changes.) Because of the faith the President and Congress have in you, you have been confirmed as the head of a new but relatively small agency to address this threat. In an unusual move, you are given adequate funding and a free hand in designing this new agency. hat do you want this agency to look like? How big would it be? hat kind of organizational design would you want? How will it behave?

From a purely knowledge-oriented perspective, the current drought may be due to a variety of causal factors, including climate shifts, poor conservation, or a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kloza, Brad. (2004) Wet Water Shortage. Science Central. Retrieved on July 16, 2004 at http://www.sciencentral.com/articles/view.php3?article_id=218391704

Kulzick, Raymond (2001) "Organizational Types." Retrieved on July 16, 2004 at  http://www.kulzick.com/milesot.htm
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Terrestrial Resources at a Global

Words: 1567 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43090427

This would require the full support of government and state authorities to punish those who break the rules. For instance, officers should patrol the forests and severely fine the tourists who leave trash in the nature. Also, a radical change should come from the multinationals, which should respect stricter environment protection rules and should pay drastically when breaking these rules. The first point in this direction would be achieved once the population has an environment education and would then punish and ban the organizations which break these rules. With a damaged reputation and customers refusing to purchase their products, the corporations would have to reconsider their actions. Then, the second direction would appeal to the good will of the people and would state that the good deeds relative to the natural habitats are a social duty of each and every one of us. Therefore, if these two courses of action…… [Read More]


Leonard, a., 2008, the Story of Stuff, http://storyofstuff.ethicalbrand.org/,last accessed on July 10, 2008

January 10, 2000, Impact of Solid Waste, Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council, http://www.ceroi.net/reports/johannesburg/csoe/html/nonjava/Waste/solid/Impact.html. Ast accessed on July 10, 2008

1997-2008, Garbage - How Can My Community Reduce Waste?, the Annenberg Media

http://www.learner.org/interactives/garbage/solidwaste.htmllast accessed on July 10, 2008
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Lactating Women's Water and Energy Needs

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48028533

Energy and Water Needs for Lactating Women

Breastfeeding is one of the most important times in a young child's life. It establishes the immune system and ensures proper nutrition and growth. For this reason, it is also vital for women who lactate to understand their energy and water needs. It may be assumed that these will increase during lactation, since the body is using both energy and water to produce lactation.

Butte, Wong, and Hopkinson use measures of total energy expenditure (TEE), the output of milk energy and the mobilization of energy from tissue stores to determine the needs of women who lactate. To determine this, the researchers included 24 participants who were well-nourished and exclusively breastfeeding at three months after birth. Specific components that were measured included TEE, BM, and physical activity levels. These levels were the same for both lactating and non-lactating women. For the lactating women, the…… [Read More]


Butte, N.F., Wong, W.W., and Hopkinson, J.M. (2001, Jan 1). Eenergy Requirements of Lactating Women Derived from doubly Labeled Water and Milk Energy Output. The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 1. Retrieved from:  http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/1/53.full 

Martinez, H. (2014). Fluid Consumption by Mexican Women during Pregnancy and First Semester of Lactation. BioMed Research International. Retrieved from:  http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/603282/
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Natural Resources as a Cause of War

Words: 1660 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42897272

Natural esourcs

War is one of the primordial human traditions. Man has always been enthusiastic about fighting, murdering and stealing from others. However, it doesn't derive us to the conclusion that interpersonal associations are dependent on war as a requisite or obligatory institution (Mises 10+).

Many believe that war is a natural necessity and man can only attain full human importance if he behaves aggressively and antagonistically (Mead 415). If the militarist theory is taken into consideration for the sake of argument, it can be accepted that man is gifted with an intrinsic natural feeling to struggle, battle and to cause destruction and damage. Nevertheless, man cannot be characterized with these instincts and primal inclinations to harm and destroy. Man is distinguished from other mortals on the basis of his intellect, rationales and imagination. It is the 'reason' and 'logic' that teaches and guides man to the right path. The…… [Read More]


Bannon, Ian, and Paul Collier. Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003. ix. Web. .

"Conflict & Natural Resources." Environmental Literacy Council. The Environmental Literacy Council, 26 August, 2008. Web. 23 Sep 2011. .

Gausset, Quentin, Michael A. Whyte, and Torben Birch Thomsen. Beyond Territory and Scarcity: Exploring Conflicts over Natural Resource Management. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2005. 20. Web. .

Kaptur, Marcy. " Feb 15, 2007- Kaptur: No Troop Surge in Iraq." Marcy Kaptur Representing Ohio's 9th District. U.S. House of Representatives, n.d. Web. 23 Sep 2011. .
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Tva Tapping Water Power the

Words: 3061 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10227249

TVA Company Profile

The TVA is a self-financed government agency with approximately 13,000 employees, as of 2002 estimates.

It realized a $6.99 billion sales from hydroelectric power generation, fossil fuel, electric power generation, nuclear power generation, other electric power generation, electric bulk power transmission and control and electric power distribution. Its mission is to bring prosperity to the Tennessee Valley through excellent business performance and public service. These are to be achieved by supplying low-cost but reliable power, maintaining a thriving River, and fostering economic growth throughout the southeaster region, traversing 7 States. At the peak of its growth, TVA was serving more than 8 million users in more than 80,000 square miles of region

The TVA's integrated management of water resources, combined with its exceptional institutional capacity enabled it to lift one of the poorest regions in the U.S. into a strong economy and healthy environment today.

It accomplished…… [Read More]


Findley, M. And Alavian, V. (2000). Tennessee Valley authority experiment. Case Study

in Integrated Water Resource Management. USAID Water Team: United States

Agency for International Development. Retrieved on November 11, 2010 from http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/water/case_studies/tva.basin.pdf

Funding Universe (2010). Tennessee Valley Authority: company profile.
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Water in Your Area Your Perspective on

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363722

water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)

Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?

There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:

To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.

To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.

To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening

In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.

Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…… [Read More]


FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm

Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/)

Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges

Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
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Water Sanitation We Discuss the

Words: 2180 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74394821

The role of community in achieving proper water and sanitation standards in times of disaster

It is important to note that whenever a natural or manmade disaster hits a particular region, the entire community is put at risk since it is them who suffer the direct results of the disaster. These negative outcomes of the disaster could be social, economic and even psychological. It is therefore necessary to properly educate the entire community on how they can cope with water shortage and sanitation problems that are as a result of either flooding or hurricanes. The various community drinking water treatment plants should have elaborate emergency plans that are to be put in action should there be a disruption of the service. It is integral that the community water treatment facilities comply with the stringent requirements that are laid down by both the federal and state regulations.

After the emergency for…… [Read More]


Associated Contents,(2010) The Importance of Water to Health and to Human Life


Copeland, C (2005). Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities:Impacts,

Needs, and Response
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Resource the Everglades Subtropical Wetlands in Florida

Words: 1640 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29382359


The Everglades subtropical wetlands in Florida are recognized for their unique features and for the fact that they are one of the most beautiful places in North America. The territory is also impressive for the fact that it is one of the largest wetlands in the world. ater and fire are two of the two main elements shaping the land, given that floods and draughts constantly affect it. In spite of the qualities that Florida Everglades has, the land is severely harmed by outside factors and it is essential for society to acknowledge the fact that urgent action needs to be taken in order for it to be brought back to its initial status.

The Everglades are full of sawgrass that moves as a result of the fact that water goes through the marshes. This is the reason for which the region came to be known as "The River…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Levin, Ted, "Listening to Wildlife in the Everglades," National Wildlife June-July 1998

Ridgley, Heidi, "Second Chance for a Dying Estuary - the Monumental Task of Restoring the Everglades Begins 100 Miles to the North," National Wildlife Aug.-Sept. 2002

Stoneman Douglas, Marjory, The Everglades: River of Grass (New York: Rinehart, 1947)

"Everglades: Overview," Retrieved May 20, 2011, from the Florida Everglades Website:  http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/everglades/FEeverglades1.html
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Water Conservation

Words: 632 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57300019

The water from my hometown in the Greater Cincinnati region is produced by the Miller Treatment Plant, which takes surface water from the Ohio River and is responsible for providing almost all of the region’s drinking water.

Water is first tested before entering the treatment plant and the region has a number of alerts in place to allow it to proactively monitor the water situation. For example, there is a detection system used on the Ohio River that “warns treatment plants downstream about spills so that measures can be taken before the spill reaches water intakes” (GCWW, 2017). Since the Ohio River is susceptible to contamination, it is important that these detection systems be in place to avoid any problems in the treatment process.

To protect drinking water, the Greater Cincinnati Waterworks (GCWW) can turn off the intake and water in storage while pollution dissipates and passes in the…… [Read More]

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Resource Shortage

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95915513

region suffering from resource shortages. The writer explores the region of Iraq and its current problems with water, food, power and other issues. The writer looks at the problems, the political and economic issues behind the problems and how the problem is affecting the society. The writer then defends the resource management decisions that are being proposed. There were four sources used to complete this paper.

In recent years the world has become painfully aware that it is running out of resources. Nations have begun to work together to preserve fuel, water, power, food and other needed sources for mankind's survival. Different regions struggle with different issues. The middle east is well-known for its water and food problems and recently Iraq has moved to the forefront of publicity because of the war, but before the war began the nation was struggling with its resource needs. Today, the problems have intensified…… [Read More]


Author not available, As thick as blood.(water supply in the Middle East). Vol. 337, The Economist, 12-23-1995, pp 53(3).

Author not available, U.S. BLOCKS ELECTRICITY CONTRACTS: IRAQ., Xinhua News Agency, 12-07-1999.

James Cox, Iraq's economic problems have deep, tangled roots., USA Today, 11-11-2002, pp 03B.

WAIEL FALEH, Associated Press Writer, Iraq: Food Rations Are Insufficient., AP Online, 12-23-1999.
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Water Supply and Demand in 2075 Global

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54059361

Water Supply and Demand in 2075

Global esource Proposal

Difference in Water Demand and Supply in 2075

The World Health Organization has quantified the amount of water needed to sustain human life (Howard and Bartram, 2003), although the organization's primary concern is water quality (WHO/UNICEF, 2013). Given the projected growth rates in population and its expected peak around 2075 (U.N., 2004), there is a need to better understand whether the world's water supply will be sufficient.

The world's water supply will also be strained by growing economic activity, which is currently growing fastest in developing nations like China (Behren, Giljum, Kovanda, and Niza, 2007). Based on computer simulation models, the regions experiencing the greatest population growth will face limited water supplies that may be insufficient to sustain human life (Hanasaki, 2012).


By 2075, the world's population is expected to reach about 9.22 billion (U.N., 2004). Computer simulation models predict…… [Read More]


Behren, Arno, Giljum, Stefan, Kovanda, Jan, and Niza, Samuel. (2007). The material basis of the global economy worldwide patterns of natural resource extraction and their implications for sustainable resource use policies. Ecological Economics, 64, 444-453.

Hanasaki, N., Fujimori, S., Yamamoto, T., Yoshikawa, S., Masaki, Y., Hijioka, Y. et al. (2012). A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways -- Part 2: Water availability and scarcity. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussion, 9, 13933-13994.

Howard, Guy and Bartram, Jamie. (2003). Domestic Water Quantity, Service Level and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved 13 Sep. 2013 from  http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/WSH03.02.pdf .

U.N. (United Nations). (2004). World Population to 2300. New York: United Nations.
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Water and Our Life

Words: 830 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3833023

Rachel Carson, she asserts that water is our most precious natural resource and goes on to state that "most of the earth's abundant water is not usable for agriculture, industry, or human consumption because of its heavy load of sea salts" (1) and therefore "in the midst of this plenty we are in want" (1).

Okay, so let's examine this particular argument; first she says that the earth's abundant water is not usable for consumption etc., due to the fact that the water contains a heavy load of sea salts. Really? Rachel offers no facts and no figures to back up her assertion, instead she implies that we are desperately in need of drinking water because most of the water is so heavily sedated with salt that it is undrinkable.

Even assuming that her assertion was true, the logical answer to the dilemma is that the water would have to…… [Read More]

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Resource Wars

Words: 1058 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82908879

played a dominant role in other countries' local conflicts because of our interest in the petroleum resources of these countries. The U.S. has been at the center of heated internal political debates in Iran. For example, the U.S. sided with the Shah, and when the Shah was overthrown, there was a great backlash against us. In addition, the U.S. has been involved in conflicts in Mexico over oil. Currently, our country is involved in a resource war in Colombia, which is as much about oil as it is about drugs.

According to the Secretary of State for the U.S., Alexander Haig, the efforts by the Soviet Union to extend its influence in Africa were the beginning rounds of a "resource war" aimed at the United States and its industrial allies. Haig was particularly concerned about cobalt and manganese, for which the U.S. is 100% dependent on imports. Most comes from…… [Read More]


N. Choucri and R.S. North Nations in Conflict. Freeman, 1975.

White Paper: The Resource War and the U.S. Business Community. Washington, CENS.

Knight and Behr, "Strategic minerals acquire news prominence in U.S.." The Guardian, April, 1981.

Klare, Michael. Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. Henry Holt, 2001.
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Polluting Water and Poisoning Fish

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79641449

Water Pollution

Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )

The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…… [Read More]


Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm

Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury

Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005.  http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html 

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
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Future of Southeastern Water in the U S

Words: 1681 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95360864

ater ars: Georgia, Florida and Alabama

The 'water wars' between Georgia, Florida, and Alabama specifically revolve around the ownership and allocation of water "in two major river basins that cross their borders (the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa and the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint basins)" ("Tri-State water wars"). Georgia, an 'upstream user' of these bodies of water is concerned about having enough water to fuel development in the cities of Atlanta and Columbus while also having enough money to support the state's agriculture. Alabama, in contrast, is a downstream user and needs water to support its power industry, to ensure it has enough municipal supplies for residents, and to support its fishing industry ("Tri-State water wars"). Florida is also concerned about the impact that a limited water supply could have upon its fisheries as well as its critical agricultural products such as oranges. "The dispute has involved several local, state and federal agencies, courts and mediators, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Chattahoochee blues." The Economist. 16 Sept 2010. Web. 2 Apr 2015.

Cotterell, Bill. "Water wars between Florida, Georgia advance at U.S. Supreme Court."

Reuters 3 Nov 2014. Web. 2 Apr 2015.

Oforiaa-Amoah, Abigale. "Water wars and International Conflict." Water is Life. 2004. Web.
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Human Resource Management It a Case Study

Words: 3730 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83397825

Human Resource Management. It a case study format Academic Essay. Use Harvard style reference list intext reference, Do include bibliography. Number reference: 20 Academic References Detail find upload file.

In today's challenging economic and business environment, managers are often faced with a dilemma regarding the human resource policy that is best applicable. In this particular case study, an important problem is brought forward: what is the optimum dimension of the workforce in an organization? There are several dimensions to this problem that will be discussed in this paper, including the challenges and consequences of having an adequately large workforce, motivational theories that apply to the employees etc.

The premise of the issues described in the case study is simple: in the present time, the economy no longer has a predictable trend. With stagnation and economic recession just passed, the economic and business environment has not truly returned to the levels…… [Read More]

15. Randstad. 2008. The world of work 2008. Rochester, NY: Harris Interactive, Inc.

16. Eaton, S.C. 2003. If you can use them: Flexibility policies, organizational commitment, and perceived performance. Industrial Relations

17. Galinsky, E., Bond, J.T., & Hill, E.J. 2004. When work works: A status report on workplace flexibility. New York: Families and Work Institute.
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California Natural Resources California Is

Words: 1647 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95643761

Oil was tucked deep in the belly of the earth and was often mixed with brine. It required innovations in drilling and refinery. In timber production, it demanded innovation in the felling of trees, sawing mills and processing of wood. California was the first place to have an offshore drilling station. Water had to be moved for long distances for hydroelectric power and irrigation. Technological innovations allowed all this demands to be met and increase output which had the net effect of a rapid growth of California's economy.

With prospectors flocking to California in the mid-18th century to 19th century, supportive institutions were created to foster growth in region. The U.S. government made policies which favored the economic growth of California. It was granted instant statehood in 1850. Californians took the reins of government and setting up policies which favored the growth of the industries. The state also levied taxes…… [Read More]


Walker, a. Richard. California's Golden Road to riches: natural resources and regional capitalism, 1848-1940.