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..certain common elements of religious orientation that the great majority of Americans share....and [these still] provide a religious dimension for the whole fabric of American life, including the political sphere
The inauguration of a President is an important ceremonial event in this religion. It reaffirms, among other things, the religious legitimation of the highest political authority." (Bellah, p.3-4) Relevant examples in this regard can include the speeches that Nixon held in order to justify the situation, the entire ceremony of the hearings and even the forgiveness that President Ford granted to the "guilty party." Again, an action that is largely based on feelings which at its turn, stirs up feelings. It seems that D'Souza is right and that the connection between feeling and morality in the American society is very strong and makes itself present at every social level. The American society listens to the ideal of authenticity that Rousseau…
Alexander, J., "Watergate and the Durkhemian Sociology"
Bellah, R., "Civil Religion in America" in "The Broken covenant: Civil Religion in time of trial," Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1967
Durkheim, Emile, "The concept of the state," in Anthony Giddens, ed. Durkheim on Politics and the State, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1986
D. D'Souza, "What's So Great About America," New
What happened with Watergate was exactly this type of unfortunate substitute of the democratic process with the will of another institution.
The subject of the paper is very important for U.. history exactly because of the implications of what was previously described. It is not a singular case of an American President attempting to substitute himself to the general democratic framework or usual democratic channels.
Andrew Jackson had attempted to decrease the role played by Congress and rule absolutely and despotically. Just in the same manner, the U.. institutions (namely the legislative and judicial branches) joined together in order to ensure that President Nixon could not use his executive prerogatives to bypass some of the usual procedures and means by which things are done, including in issues concerning the national security. Ideally, Watergate should have also emphasized the idea according to which nobody is above the law. Because of the…
This source gives the historical and political context of Watergate, brief biography of Richard Nixon. Also gives a detailed study of Nixon's resignation speech on August 8, 1974. There is also a brief timeline of events. Also gives a transcript of the Smoking Gun tape, June 23, 1972. Also included are detailed information about the impeachment and Judiciary Committee Hearings.
This source gives a word-for-word account of President Ford's pardon of Richard Nixon, September 8, 1974. It also gives a brief response from Nixon himself. Also describes the aftermath of Watergate and the subsequent events. This article answers many of the questions people had in regards to Watergate; example what was CREEP?, who was Deep Throat? Etc.
The term "Watergate" is generally used to explain an intricate maze of political scandals that popped up between 1972 and 1974. The word refers to the Watergate Hotel in Washington D.C. In particular. In fact, the Watergate is a series of scandals that involve the government of President ichard M. Nixon and more distinctively includes the robbing of the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C. that was the national headquarters of the Democratic Party (Faragher, Buhle, Czitrom & Armitage, 2009).
In June 1972, 5 men were taken into custody by the police due to their attempts to burglarize and wiretap the offices of the Democratic Party offices. In Jan., 1973, these men were put on trial and found guilty along with two other co-conspirators. It was found that all the 7 convicted men were the employees of the reelection committee of President Nixon. This fact led a lot…
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). "Out of Many: A History of the American People." Volume II (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Print.
Nixon, Richard Milhous. (2012). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Retrieved January 4, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-Nixon-Ri/nixon-richard-milhous
Watergate Affair. (2012). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Retrieved January 4, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-Watergat/watergate-affair
Watergate scandal was a political scandal that took place in the United States in the 1970s due to a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters situated at Watergate office complex in Washington D.C. The Nixon administration attempted covering up its involvement in 1972.the whole affair began when five men were caught breaking in and entering into the Democratic National Committee headquarters within the Watergate complex. This took place in June 1972 .the FBI established a connection between the cash that was found on the burglars to a slush fund that had ben used by the committee behind president Nixon's reelection.in 1973 there was mounting evidence against president Nixon's staff which included testimonies provided by former members of staff (Gill, 2010).
The evidence surfaced during an investigation that was carried out by senate Watergate committee. There was tape recording system in President Nixon's office that had caught in tape many…
Gill, K.(2010). What Was The Watergate Scandal? Retrieved October 11, 2013 from http://uspolitics.about.com/od/presidenc1/a/what_watergate.htm
Watergate.info. (1995). Watergate: The Scandal That Brought Down Richard Nixon. Retrieved October 11, 2013 from http://watergate.info/
Wiegand, S. (2010). President Richard Nixon and the Watergate Scandal. Retrieved October 11, 2013 from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/president-richard-nixon-and-the-watergate-scandal.html
R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman and Attorney General Richard Kleindienst. In his speech, President Nixon said of the Watergate break-in that he was "appalled... and... shocked to learn that employees of the Re-Election Committee were apparently among those guilty." He then claimed that "there had been an effort to conceal the facts both from the public, from you, and from me." In his speech he said though he had been told about the personnel involved, he had not taken any action because he didn't want to do anything that would reflect badly on innocent people and that he wanted to be fair. "ut I knew that in the final analysis, the integrity of this office -- public faith in the integrity of this office -- would have to take priority over all personal considerations." He then announced the resignations of H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman and Attorney General Richard Kleindienst and the…
Bernstein, Carl and Woodward, Bob. All the President's Men. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
Carter, Jimmy. Our Endangered Values. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Dean, John. Conservatives Without Conscience. New York: Viking, 2006.
Emery, Fred. Watergate. Chicago: Touchstone, 1995.
467). While Woodward and Bernstein got the credit for first bringing the story to light, as media reports increased, later research showed that much of what newspapers, radio and television reported to the public had already been discovered by investigative agencies such as the FBI (Feldstein,-PAGE), which suggests that perhaps the famous informer who met periodically with Woodward might have been someone from inside the FBI.
Eventually, money paid to two of the burglars, James McCord and G. Gordon LIddy, were traced to the Committee to e-Elect the President ((Staff writers, p. 467). However, that did not implicate President Nixon. Jeb Magruder, Deputy Director for the Committee to e-Elect the President (Emery, p. xvii), had begun the initial cover-up activities. Eventually, however, White House Counsel John Dean took over the task of coordinating the cover-up. When called before a Congressional committee, Dean spoke the truth and reported extensive White House…
Rosen, James S. 1997. "Anniversary gate: twenty-five years later, the Watergate scandal continues to unfold. National Review, July 14.
Staff writers. "Watergate Affair." Encyclopedia Americana, International Edition. Vol. 28, pp. 467-469. Danbury, CT: 1999.
Washington Post Staff. The Fall of a President. New York: Delacourte Press, 1974.
The four men involved fired their attorney and changed their pleas to "guilty." (Bernstein and oodward, p.233). The judge clearly did not believe that they had not been bribed or that they did not know the source of the money they received. (Bernstein and oodward, p. 233-235).
Even though there is still a considerable amount of mystery regarding atergate and the surrounding events, what is certain is the impact that the atergate scandal had on the face of American politics. All presidencies following Nixon's have been tainted by the lingering impact of atergate. The direct result of Nixon's actions was that "presidents not only would be subject to doubt and second guessing, they would be suspected of outright criminality. Nixon's tapes of his office and telephone conversations left an irrefutable historical record that the president abused government power for political purposes, obstructed justice, and ordered his aides to do so…
Apple, R.W. "In 2 Years, Watergate Scandal Brought Down President Who Had Wide Mandate;
At End, Nixon Had Lost Confidence of the People Felled by Watergate Scandal the Fielding Break in." The New York Times. 9 Aug. 1974. NYTimes.com. 2 Sept. 2008 http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20E15FB35581A7493CBA91783D85F408785F9 .
Bernstein, Carl and Bob Woodward. All the President's Men. New York: Simon and Schuster,
Clymer, Adam. "National Archives has Given up on Filling the Nixon Tape Gap." The New
Although government decisions and operations at all levels in the United States continue to be hampered by the lack of effective leadership as well as ethical standards, the Watergate Scandal has had some positive impacts on government. For instance, the scandal became a huge factor in passing the Freedom of Information Act in 1986, as well as laws requiring new financial disclosures by key government officials. Passed in 1974, the Freedom of Information Act has been hailed as one of our greatest democratic reforms because it allows ordinary citizens to hold the government accountable by requesting and scrutinizing public documents and records (Rosen, 2002). The Ethics in Government Act of 1978, amended by the Ethics in Government Act of 1989, subjected senior executives and other high-ranking officials to financial disclosure as part of post-Watergate ethics reforms. Its rules were designed to reduce corruption and prevent the improper use of knowledge…
Ethics in Government Act. http://www.answers.com/topic/ethics-in-government-act
Genovese, M.A. (1999). The Watergate crisis. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Kenslea, M. How Watergate changed what people do. Columbia Scholastic Press Association. http://cspa.columbia.edu/docs/spr/2007-03/03-Alicia-Shepherd-Watergate/index.html
Rosen, R. (2002, January 7). The day Ashcroft censored freedom of information. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0108-04.htm
The atergate scandal began with some confidential papers, bungling burglars, a preeminent hotel complex in ashington, D.C., and a trail of fraud leading directly to the Committee to Re-Elect President Richard M. Nixon. The scandal didn't stop at inept hite House staffers, but went all the way to the Oval Office and the president himself. atergate was the ultimate political crisis brought about by one man's ruthlessness and paranoia. In the end, Richard M. Nixon's own worst enemy was himself.
hen former defense analyst for the Rand Corporation, Daniel Ellsberg, leaked the Defense Department's secret history of the Vietnam ar to The New York Times, Nixon wanted information to discredit Ellsberg. Nixon aide, G. Gordon Liddy, a former FBI agent, and E. Howard Hunt, a shadowy figure rumored to be a CIA agent, agreed to place a wiretap on the telephone line of Ellsberg's Beverly Hills psychiatrist, Dr.…
Carlson, Margaret, "Watergate Revisited: Notes from Underground," Time, June 17, 1991.
Garment, Leonard, "In Search of Deep Throat," Basic Books, New York, New York, 2000.
Kissinger, Henry, "Years of Renewal," Simon and Schuster, New York, New York, 1999.
Liddy, G. Gordon, "Will, The Autobiography of G. Gordon Liddy," Dell/St. Martin Press, New York, New York, 1980.
1972 Watergate Break in
Nixon's Connection to the Watergate Break In
ichard Nixon (the 37th president of the United States), in 1974, went into America's books of history as the first and the only president to resign from office. Nixon would evidently enjoy a successful political career, dating back to 1946, when he first got elected to congress. According to Kutler (2010), many viewed Nixon as "an ongoing presence in American politics" (p.1). Promises to bring unity, peace, and prosperity to the American electorate would see him amass support; sufficient enough to enable him ascend to the presidency in 1968. In November 1972, Nixon got re-elected, amidst the discovery of evidence by reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, linking the Committee to e-Elect the President and some White House officials to a number of illegal activities, including the Watergate burglary.
With the presidential election only four months away, Geis (2011)…
Duignan, B. (2010). The Executive Branch of the Federal Government: Purpose, Process and People. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.
Geis, G. (2011). White Collar and Corporate Crime. California: ABC-CLIO.
Klein, W. (2008). All the Presidents Spokesmen: Spinning the News, White House Press Secretaries from Franklin D. Roosevelt to George W. Bush. Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Kutler, I.S. (2010). Watergate: A brief History with Documents (2nd ed.). Malden, MA: John Wiley and Sons
Kennedy won the election by a very narrow margin, 120,000 votes or 0.2% of the electorate. Most historians believe that the primary reason John F. Kennedy won the Presidential Election was because of the non-verbal "poor body language" on the television debate with ichard Nixon in 1960 -- especially valid since radio audiences overwhelmingly voted that Nixon had won the debate. Nixon's body language was furtive, he was perspiring, he looked unshaven, and he did not look at the camera -- Kennedy, on the other hand, was jovial, looked at the camera just as if it were a real person, making the home audience trust and feel like he was talking directly to them (Kennedy - Nixon Debate 2001). Nixon supporters unsuccessfully challenged the votes in Texas, Illinois and 9 others, but after the initial Court battles Nixon conceded in order to avoid a Constitutional Crisis. He and Kennedy met…
A Hold is Broken 1957, viewed August 2010, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,865640,00.html .
Ambrose, S 1988, Nixon: The Education of a Politician, Simon and Schuster, New York.
Bernstein and Woodward 1976, The Final Days, Simnon & Schuster, New York.
Black, C 2007, Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full, Public Affairs Books, New York.
The Watergate Scandal
While the Watergate Scandal in American government erupted in June of 1972 when five men connected to President Nixon were arrested for breaking and entering the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in the Watergate building in D.C., the real scandal encompassed many more months and years that those of the summer of 1972. Indeed, Nixon’s presidency eventually became synonymous with Watergate, as the public began to view him with ever-increasing skepticism and scorn—scorn for a president who represented the abuses of power that the public was tired of seeing—abuses that had led to more and more American casualties in Vietnam, more and more lies told to the American public over popular media, more and more cover-ups of the truth and governmental conniption fits when the truth (such as the Pentagon Papers leaked by Daniel Ellsberg) came to light (Schulzinger, 1997). This paper will describe…
Barone, M. (2018). Obama’s spying scandal is starting to look a lot like Watergate. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2018/05/27/obamas-spying-scandal-is-starting-to-look-a-lot-like-watergate/
Dean, J. (2014). The Nixon defense: What he knew and when he knew it. NY: Viking.
Hougan, J. (1984). Secret Agenda. NY: Random House.
Nixon, R. (1974). Resignation speech. Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/newshour/spc/character/links/nixon_speech.html
Schulzinger, R. (1997). A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941-1975. Oxford University Press.
After Vietnam and atergate, the issue of executive privilege had not registered much of a blip on the radar. However, the recent Enron scandal has allowed Congress to question the validity of the executive privilege argument. In January 2002, Comptroller General David alker, head of the non-partisan Government Accounting Office, announced that he would sue Vice President Dick Cheney in order to obtain information about the National Energy Policy Development Group that Cheney chaired last year. alter contended that the unprecedented lawsuit was made necessary by Cheney's refusal to cooperate voluntarily.
President George . Bush has not claimed an "executive privilege" in connection with the GAO's information requests. However, it is likely that the Administration will assert such a privilege as the case proceeds. Certainly that is the tenor of public statements by the Vice President and the hite House. According to the Administration, GAO is an arm…
Amar, Akil Reed. "Cheney, Enron, and the Constitution." Time Magazine. Retrieved 8/05/02 at http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,198829,00.html
Dorf, Michael C. "A Brief History Of Executive Privilege, From George Washington Through Dick Cheney." Retrieved 8/05/02 at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dorf/20020206.html
Holt, Pat M. "Steady the Privilege Pendulum." Retrieved 8/05/02 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0404/p13s01-coop.html
Marshall, Joshua Micah. "Bush's Executive-Privilege Two-Step." Retrieved 8/05/02 at http://www.salon.com/politics/feature/2002/02/07/bush_records/index.html
Modern-Day Corruption and Graft
The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?
Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…
Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html
Brunner, B. (2011b). Heroes of Civil Rights Movement. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html
Digital History. (2011). Hypertext History: Our Online American History Textbook -- Interactive Timelines. Accessed 25-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/hyper_titles.cfm
Digital History. (2011b). Guided Readings: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?titleID=65
consult a minimum academically credible sources. Bibliographies citations Chicago Manual Style format. The subject: How account atergate scandal? hat significance?.
The atergate scandal is one of the most intriguing discussions in the history of the U.S. And it provided the whole world with the opportunity to see that corruption could reach unimaginable levels. President Richard Nixon's determination to win the 1972 presidential elections proved to be in disagreement with ethics and with the position that he wanted to keep. Nixon and his advisors practically chose the most effective way to gain an advantage over their opponents, despite the fact that such behaviors were clearly illegal. The atergate scandal was the materialization of Nixon's struggle to stay on top and this is why it had such an impact on the masses: people were unable to understand how a person chosen by the majority could be so corrupt.
The atergate scandal involved…
Anderson, Dale, "Watergate: Scandal in the White House," (Capstone, 01.07.2006)
Bernstein, Carl, and Woodward, Bob, "Bug Suspect Got Campaign Funds," Retrieved July 10, 2013, from the Washington Post Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/bug-suspect-got-campaign-funds/2012/06/06/gJQAyTjKJV_story.html
Stern, Sheldon, "Averting 'The Final Failure': John F. Kennedy and the Secret Cuban Missile Crisis Meetings," (Stanford University Press, 2003)
The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran…
orse Than atergate
All students are familiar with the creed of the X-files, a popular recent science fiction television show that instructed its viewers, young and old, to 'trust no one.' At the time this motto of secrecy and distrust, particular distrust of government policy and institutions was much criticized, as fostering cynicism in the hearts of the young about the potential of political involvement to create change in an open society. How is it possible to encourage students to question and to engage in governmental debate, when policy so vitally affects their lives yet when many feel ostracized by a government of secrecy and shame? In an era where every vote counts, and when a teacher is confronted with a classroom of potential voters, he or she is constantly faced with the civic as well as educationally responsible challenge of making politics accessible and interesting to students in an…
Csmonitor.com "Selling the Public." (January 16, 2003) Christian Science Monitor Online. Retrieved November 27, 2004 at http://c5.zedo.com/jsc/c5/ff2.html?n=305;c=127/1;s=78;d=19;w=400;h=450;t=III-INTERACTIVE
Dean, John. (2004) Worse than Watergate. Little, Brown.
"John Dean." (2003) The Washington Post. Watergate Revisited Homepage. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-adv/advertisers/popunders/usforgrowth_nov04_wp_3.html
Santayana, George. (2004) Homepage of author's works. Retrieved November 27, 2004 at http://members.aol.com/santayana /
orse Than atergate: The Secret Presidency of George . Bush, by John . Dean: Implications for Modern American Education
The book orse Than atergate: The Secret Presidency of George . Bush, by John . Dean (Little, Brown, 2004) has as its central theme the excessive secrecy of what Dean calls the "Bush-Cheney presidency (xi) or the "Bush and Cheney presidency" (21)since, according to Dean, Cheney, not Bush, often makes key decisions. Dean asserts that "in many ways it is a co-presidency" (11), with Bush as the front man, and Cheney, being the actual decision-maker, preferring the shadows. Both men are excessively secretive, and their secretiveness, argues Dean, threatens democracy, liberty, and public accountability, and also encourages incompetence by allowing Bush and Cheney to escape public scrutiny (185-88). Moreover, Dean portends the potentially harmful effects the Bush-Cheney presidency has had, and may continue to have, on the rights and protections of…
Dean, John W. Worse Than Watergate: The Secret Presidency of George W. Bush. New York:
Little, Brown, 2004.
Woodrow Wilson used the radio to appeal to the American public directly to support the nation's entry into the then-unpopular World War I. Franklin Roosevelt, of course, was the master of the fireside chat, and even after his demise, the rapid rise of the Soviet power and the Cold War enabled Harry Truman to "scare hell" out of the country by using the media.
Popular, collective fear of the Soviets tipped the balance even farther in favor of the powers of the chief executive. The Johnson Administration refused to spend the funds allocated to crucial agricultural programs, to bully Congress into accepting its deficit spending for the Great Society and the Vietnam War (87). These examples, along with the escalation of the Vietnam War, show how Democratic presidents were often just as guilty as Republican presidents of abusing the office's authority. In recent memory, the Clinton Administration went to court…
Ethics in Public Administration
orking in the City Hall Supervisor Office, the code of ethics include accurately representing areas of competence, education, training, experience, and professional affiliations, including from boards and colleagues. Make employees aware of consumer rights to privacy and confidentiality. Obtain ongoing supervisory training. Make employees aware of ethical standards and legal responsibilities. Shall avoid conflict of interests. Shall not promote personal, religious, political, financial, or business interests. Personal issues shall be addressed with supervision only. Shall not supervise own relatives or 'significant relationships' (boyfriend, girlfriend, etc.). Shall be honest and uphold integrity. Supervision shall be professional and in a consistent manner without discrimination towards others. ill not delegate responsibilities outside the scope of individual capabilities. Shall not exploit employees for financial gain. And, shall not instruct employees in ways to violate the code of ethics.
Ethical standards are especially important in public administration to advance public interest…
Code of Ethics (revised March 2013). (2013, Mar). Retrieved from American Society for Public Administration: http://www.aspanet.org/public/ASPA/Resources/...1.aspx?hkey=acd40318-a945-ba7b-18e037b1a858
Lindblom, C.E. (n.d.). The Science of Muddling Through. In Classics in Public Administration (pp. 177-187).
Maslow, A.H. (n.d.). A Theory of Human Motivation. In Classics of Public Administration (pp. 123-130).
McGregor, D.M. (n.d.). The Human Side of Enterprise. In Classics in Public Administration (pp. 171-176).
Media in America as the Fourth Estate: From Watergate to the Present
During the 1970's, the role of the media changed from simply reporting the news to revealing serious political scandals (Waisbord, 2001). The media's role during Watergate was viewed as the mirror that reflected the most that journalism could offer to democracy: holding powers accountable for their actions. This became a trend in the American media and journalism had high credibility in the years that followed, and a great increase in journalism school enrollment followed.
However, during the 1980's and 1990's, this trend withered away. Investigative journalism is no longer rampant the firmament of American news. While the tone of the press was self-congratulatory in the post-Watergate years, the state of American journalism is currently viewed in a less positive light.
For the elite, the shift in journalism is welcomed. For example, according to John Dean, an American journalist,…
Altbach, Philip. (1995). International book publishing, and Encyclopedia. Fitzroy Dearborn.
Bagdikian, Ben. (1993). The Media Monopoly. Beacon Press.
Barton, C. Franklin, Jay B. (1994). The First Amendment and the Fourth Estate: the Law of Mass Media,6th ed. Foundation Press.
Coronel, Sheila. (July 31, 2000). Investigative Reporting: The Role of the Media in Uncovering Corruption. Southeast Asian Press Alliance.
Clinton's Lewinsky Speech
Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…
Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.
Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.
At the same time it was the fatal mistake that provoked and legitimized resistance to the revolutionary presidency." The Watergate scandal and the events leading to it were, from the perspective of the components mentioned above, the manifestation of both an imperial presidency visible in the way in which Nixon tackled the issue of Vietnam, and a revolutionary presidency, as the resignation of the president marked the beginning of a new period in the history of the presidential administrations.
The example of the Vietnam War is probably one of the most representatives for the issue under discussion, the idea of imperial presidency. In this sense, the author considers the right of Nixon to wage war against the authorization of the Congress. The main justification for the continuation of the war in Vietnam was the title of the president as Commander in Chief
Overall, the perspective offered by the book is…
McDonald, Forrest. The American Presidency: An Intellectual History. Lawrance: University Press of Kansas, 1994.
Rudalevige, Andrew. The New Imperial Presidency: Renewing Presidential Power after Watergate. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.
Schlesinger, Arthur Jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973
Arthur Jr. Schlesinger, the Imperial Presidency. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), 299
Nixon and the Legacy of the War in Vietnam
Nixon & Vietnam
President ichard Nixon set out policy goals for the conflict in Vietnam in a speech to the nation on November 3, 1969. At the time the country was deeply divided over the question of our presence in the region. In this speech Nixon claimed a nation cannot remain great if it betrays its allies and down its friends and that a unilateral withdrawal of all United States forces would humiliate our nation and promote recklessness in the councils of those great powers who have not yet abandoned their goals of world conquest and spark violence wherever the nations commitments helped to keep the peace. A withdrawal of American forces would in the final analysis cost more lives and not bring peace, but more war. Nixon asserted that for these reasons he would not end the war…
Kerry, J. (1971, April 22). Vietnam war veteran John Kerry's testimony before the senate foreign relations committee, April 22, 1971. Ernest Bolt (Ed.). University of Richmond, Online ACS Course Fall 1999. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from https://facultystaff.richmond.edu/~ebolt/history398/JohnKerryTestimony.html
Nixon, R. (1969, November 3). Nixon's 'silent majority' speech. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://watergate.info/ 1969/11/03/nixons-silent-majority-speech.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
1960's through the 1980's (and eyond)
The chosen historical event is actually a 4 1/2-year phenomenon: Kenneth Starr's extensive investigation of President and Mrs. William Clinton, culminating in the impeachment of President Clinton. Given the leeway of choosing an event from later than the 1960s through the 1980s, an event was chosen from the 1990s. The choice was not necessarily made due to the writer's relative youth but due to the searing controversy and clear memory of the event. Patterson's recollection of the event is genteel compared to the acidic nastiness and political maneuvering recalled by this writer.
The appointment of Independent Counsel for investigation and possible prosecution was authorized by the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, passed in at least partial reaction to the Watergate Scandal.[footnoteRef:1] According to Patterson, this appointment was used by conservative members of Congress to counter the political savvy of President William Clinton, "who…
Carville, James. ...and the Horse He Rode In On: The People V. Kenneth Starr. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
Harris, John F. The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House. New York, NY: Random House, 2005.
Patterson, James T. Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Schmidt, Susan, and Michael Weisskopf. Truth at Any Cost: Ken Starr and the Unmaking of Bill Clinton. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2000.
In addition, protests against the war were readily televised at that time and protesters became more aware of the benefits of televised protest.[footnoteRef:4] the efforts of black anti-segregationists also benefits from televised coverage and became more conversant with valuable uses of the medium.[footnoteRef:5] in addition, popular culture became more open to black citizens: a "black sitcom" called "The Jeffersons" debuted in 1975 and revolved around the lives of a prosperous, cantankerous wealthy black man, his family and an interracial couple.[footnoteRef:6] in addition, in 1977, the 7-part mini-series "Roots" -- a story of numerous generations in of a black family stretching from capture/slavery to freedom in America -- aired with approximately 130 million Americans -- more than half the U.S. population of that time, watching at least part of the series and approximately 100 million viewers watching the final episode.[footnoteRef:7] There was also increased "agitation" for women's rights, which was aided…
The US constitution is a supreme law guiding the conducts of government, people, and organizations in the United States. The U.S. constitution comprises of seven articles that delineates the form of government. However, before the constitution came into force in 1789, there were philosophical thinking that influenced the compilation of the American constitution.
The objective of this essay is to discuss the philosophical influences on the U.S. Constitution.
John Locke was an English Philosopher and his thinking had the great impact on the American constitution. John Locke believed that all people has alienated rights and they are created equal. John Locke was political philosopher was the early proponent of social contract theory believing that there were certain inalienable rights that people should enjoy. Locke believed that it was people who created the government, and people could overthrow the government if they failed to protect their rights. In his philosophical thinking,…
She writes, "The tendency among modern leaders to ignore constitutional or legislative restrictions when it suits their personal convictions on particular issues and to take secret actions, especially on foreign policy matters, is a serious problem for all mature Western democratic nations" (Hoff 13). Perhaps she is more intuitive than first expected. Her comments seem extremely relevant during a time when foreign countries are ignoring sanctions on nuclear weapons and genocide, and the U.S. is in turmoil over the war in raq and other human rights issues. Hoff seems to understand the nature of the modern president in great detail, and it would be interesting to read more of her work and opinions on current and recent presidents like Clinton, Reagan, and G.W. Bush.
n conclusion, author Joan Hoff offers an intimate and fascinating look inside the life and thoughts of former President Nixon. Nixon was one of the most…
In conclusion, author Joan Hoff offers an intimate and fascinating look inside the life and thoughts of former President Nixon. Nixon was one of the most notable and disliked American presidents, but this book shows many of his accomplishments and successes. She quotes another historian, "If we have peace over the next fifty years, I think Nixon will go down in the history books as one of our truly great Presidents. The Watergate episode will then receive a mere footnote in the history books. -- Arthur Burns, remarks at a public forum, October 29, 1985" (Hoff 329). This may not be the conclusion of many other historians, but Hoff uses her research to present and prove her thesis, backs it up with examples, and even though she may have some bias on the issues, she does not allow them to cloud her conclusions entirely. There may be a more balanced view of Nixon and his presidency, but Hoff's research outweighs her bias and indicates that perhaps Richard Nixon is one of the most misunderstood presidents of the modern era. His accomplishments just may outweigh the Watergate affair, but unfortunately, that is what most people remember about Richard M. Nixon. Perhaps if they read this book, they would have a different opinion of the man and his legacy.
Hoff, Joan. Nixon Reconsidered. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
Gordon, Joy. "The Accusations against the Oil for Food Program: The Volcker Reports." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 28.3-4 (2006): 19+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018509671.
Harper, Jennifer. "At 25, atergate's Details Have Gotten Hazy: Americans Have Grown Used to Scandal." The ashington Times 17 June 1997: 1. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001562718.
Josipovic, Ivona. "Conflict Diamonds: Not So Clear-Cut." Harvard International Review 25.2 (2003): 10+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001987469.
Niven, David. "A Fair Test of Media Bias: Party, Race, and Gender in Coverage of the 1992 House Banking Scandal." Polity 36.4 (2004): 637+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008316309.
Posner, Sarah. "Security for Sale: The Department of Homeland Security Has a Section on Its eb Site Labeled "Open for Business." It Certainly Is." The American Prospect Jan. 2006: 28+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015061684.
Reports Gleefully Transform Bush Oil…
Gordon, Joy. "The Accusations against the Oil for Food Program: The Volcker Reports." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 28.3-4 (2006): 19+. Questia. 8 May 2007
It was plainly obstruction of justice, and Al Haig knew it immediately.
It must also be noted, however, that, as the president tried to cover his tracks, Al Haig was given orders by Nixon to help him do it. In that capacity, for instance, Haig helped arrange the wiretaps of government officials and reporters (Gearan).
He played a key role in attempting to persuade Nixon to resign. Most believe it was Haig who first suggested to Gerald Ford that he pardon Nixon for his crimes while in office. It was this advice and Ford's acceptance of it that is believed to have cost Ford the presidency in 1976.
In "Nixon: An Oral history of His Presidency," (Strober & Strober, 2003), Haig says this:
"It is totally untrue that I raised the question of pardon with Ford...a series of options was given to him, including pardons...There were five options written by…
Answers Corp. "Biography: Alexander M. Haig, Jr. ." 2006. answers.com. 22 February 2010 .
Eyman, S. "Alexander Haig, former secretary of state, dies." 20 February 2010. palmbeachpost.com. 24 February 2010 .
Gearan, a. "Alexander Haig Dead: Former Secretary of State Dies." 10 February 2010. huffingtonpost.com. 23 February 2010 .
Jackson, H. "Alexander Haig." 20 February 2010. guardian.co.uk. 22 February 2010 .
In Iran, the American-backed Shah had become increasingly unpopular throughout the 1970s. The Shah fled Iran in 1979, finding temporary refuge in the United States. Religious extremist Ayatollah Khomeni easily filled Iran's political and social need for a backlash against American interventionism.
Iran's 1979 Revolution had a major impact on its relationship with the United States and with the rest of the world. hereas the Shah had guaranteed a steady supply of oil to the United States in exchange for "economic and military aid," the Ayatollah Khomeni did not ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The situation created a second oil crisis and subsequent inflation. Moreover, the Iranian Revolution soured American relations with the nation when on November of 1979, Iranian militants "stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive," ("The Hostage Crisis in Iran"). The hostage scenario symbolized the rise of terrorism and specifically, anti-American…
The 1964 Civil Rights Act to the Present." Infoplease.com. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858852.html
Aberman, Samara. "The War on Drugs." PBS NewsHourExtra. 2001. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drug_war.html
Dirks, Tim. "Film History of the 1970s." The History of Film. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://www.filmsite.org/70sintro.html
Halber, Deborah. Seventies oil crisis was a 'perfect storm' for U.S. MIT. March 23, 2007. Retrieved Feb 8, 2009 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2007/jacobs.html
Most Americans know that former President Clinton just had his library dedication in Arkansas. He was a popular president and even the Monica Lewinski scandal was not enough to taint his legacy. Unfortunately, Richard Nixon's library does not seem to have the same prestigious following as Bill Clinton seems to have. Consider that just after Christmas of last year; the Nixon's Foundation and Library won an award that almost no American on the street knows anything about. I have to admit that before I saw the Dimitri Simes who is the current President of the Nixon Center in ashington, D.C., I never even considered that there was a Nixon Foundation. "The Nixon Center is the Nixon Foundation's programmatically independent public policy institute. It recently celebrated its 10th anniversary by acquiring The National Interest, a prestigious foreign policy journal, and by presenting its Distinguished Service Award to Mikhail Baryshnikov at…
C-Span. Interview with Simes, Dimitri. Nixon Center Chief On C-SPAN: Simes Enters Ring on Boxing Day. Washington, D.C. December 23, 2004.
Nixon, Richard M. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Touchstone, 1990.
Reeves, Richard. President Nixon: Alone in the White House. New York: Touchstone, 2001.
Detente means a period of strained relationships between one party and another with each trying to gain certain ends.
Nixon had this type of relationship with the Soviet Union shortly after he gained office in 1969. He started the talks on limitation of arms. An interim pact was signed in Helsinki, Finland, and later taken to the U.S.S.R. In 1972 by Nixon and Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev. Brezhnev visited the U.S. The following year where Nixon and he signed the nuclear nonaggression pact as well as several agreements for technology, science, and cultural exchanges. Nixon again visited the U.S.S.R. In 1974, but he and Brezhnev did not come to any final agreements regarding limiting proliferation of nuclear weapons.
As regards China, Nixon conducted a detente with that state too. He lifted the anti-Chinese embargo restrictions in 1971. In return, Mao allowed American athletes to be officially welcomed in their country.…
On June 17, 1972, some burglars were caught in the lobby of the Watergate hotel attempting to wiretap phones and steal secret documents. They were eventually connected to Nixon's reelection campaign. Nixon may not have been aware of the plans before they occurred, but he endeavored to cover the plot afterwards raising "hush money" for the burglars, and trying to prevent the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from investigating the crime. He also destroyed evidence and fired uncooperative members.
In August 1974, after these activities were discovered, Nixon resigned with his successor Gerald Ford pardoning him of any of these errors.
The Watergate scandal had an enduring effect on American attitude towards the presidency leading them to question their leaders' actions.
As the first female publisher of a major U.S. newspaper—The Washington Post—Katherine Graham made her mark in American history, not only for being at the helm of one of the nation’s most prominent papers but also for leading the paper through its coverage of one of the most controversial moments in U.S. history—Watergate. Graham’s story would go on to be told in film by Steven Spielberg, Meryl Streep and Tom Hanks in the Academy Award nominated film The Post. It was Graham’s refusal to bow to pressure from the highest office in the land, the White House, that earned her the legacy she has achieved. Known as a stalwart, a fighter for free press, and—at the end of the day—a true reporter, Graham displays all of these qualities in her memoir Personal History, where she explicitly acknowledges the characteristic about her that made her such an indomitable spirit in…
Walton suggests that increasing reports of crimes on campus is one way to resolve the seeming conflict between FEPA's dictates of student privacy and a university's legitimate concerns about the ability to exercise authority over students, since FEPA only addresses educational records and does not speak to criminal records (Walton, 2002).
In addition to using a literature review to examine this problem from a global perspective, this researcher engaged in two types of evidence-gathering to investigate attitudes towards FEPA. The first type of evidence-gathering involved surveying students at Maryland State University to determine their attitudes towards FEPA and whether they believed it helped or hindered their success in college. The second type of evidence-gathering involved an interview with a representative at the Office of the Dean at Maryland State University to ask his opinion about the utility of FEPA.
The results of both the survey and the interview…
The College of New Jersey. (2010, October 4). Student privacy rights for students, parents, and college officials. Retrieved April 7, 2012 from http://www.tcnj.edu/~recreg/policies/privacy
Daggett, L. (2008). FERPA in the twenty-first century: Failure to effectively regulate privacy for all students. 58 Catholic University Law Review 59.
Friedman, S. (2002). Andy's right to privacy in grading and the Falvo vs. Owasso Public
Schools Case. The Clearing House, 76(2), 62-65.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: What it Is and What it Does
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 as amended was passed in response to the discovery of numerous corporate misdeeds, including accounting irregularities, by Northrop, Lockheed, Gulf Oil by the Watergate special prosecutor and a subsequent investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission that found these practices were prevalent in American business, including nearly a quarter of the Fortune 500 companies. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine the rationale in support of the passage of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and what it prohibits. An analysis concerning the impact that the Act has had on American business at the national and international level is followed by a discussion concerning penalties for violations of the Act. An assessment of the impact on U.S. commerce is followed by a discussion concerning enforcement responsibility for the Act…
Boedecker, K.A. (2011, July 1). Rising risks and uncertainties for U.S. firms' gifts, travel and entertainment expenses for marketing in foreign countries: The implications of increased
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act enforcement. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory
Issues, 14(2), 73-77.
Culp, C.L. & Niskanen, W.A. (2003). Corporate aftershock: The public policy lessons from the collapse of Enron and other major corporations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
lens into the worlds of interesting people, movements, cultures, and practices. Three films, two of which are documentary, show how the presidents of the United States behaved and were involved in scandal. Although the films were effective in highlighting the lapses in judgment these former American presidents have, it did little to help the audience viewing the film understand why it was done and how it impacts the country. ith the exception of the atergate scandal, a lot of the information shown in these films was meant to drive entertainment values more than anything else. Sadly that is what the news is slowly becoming, something that is meant to grab ratings.
Unlike the news, documentaries have the ability to truly develop character and persona in their subjects of interest. There is a scene in the film, "Journey's with George" that discusses George Bush Jr.'s dietary habits. One of which is…
All the president's men. Dir. Alan Pakula. Perf. Robert Redford. Warner Bros., 1976. Film.
Downie, Leonard, and Robert G. Kaiser. The news about the news: American journalism in peril. New York: A.A. Knopf, 2002. Print.
Journeys with George. Dir. Alexandra Pelosi. Perf. George W. Bush. HBO Video, 2002. Film.
The War Room. Dir. Chris Hegedus. Perf. George Stephanopoulos. Chris Hegedus, D.A. Pennebaker, 1993. Film.
The following till take a look at Foreign Corrupt Practice Act or in other words the FCPA.
Discovering the corporate payments difficulty in the middle of the 70s from a blend of work by the Watergate Special Prosecutor office, this includes related additional work and inquiry by SEC-Security and Exchange Commission and the Multinational Corporations Subcommittee by Senator Frank Church. In 1975, within four months, separate hearings were held by the Church Committee on Gulf Oil, Mobil Oil, Northrop, and Lockheed (Koehler). Every one of these corporations became the main subjects of allegations, concerning uncertain payments made either directly or indirectly to officials of foreign government or foreign political parties bearing a business purpose in mind. For example, the Gulf Oil primarily involved the contributions made to political campaigns of the epublic of Korea President. Northrop was mainly involved in making payments to a general in Saudi Arabia. Principally,…
Burns, D., Sullivan, & Gibson. (2009). Navigating the FCPA's Complex Scienter Requirements. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.gibsondunn.com/publications/Documents/Burns-Sullivan-NavigatingTheFCPAComplexScienterReq.pdf
Harris, A. (2011). Scholarship @ Claremont -- Claremont Colleges Research. The Impact of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act on American Business from 1977-2010. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/
International Whistleblower Reward Law Information Center. (n.d.). History of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from http://www.internationalwhistleblower.com/history.html
KOEHLER, M. The Story of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Ohio State Law Journal, 73(5). Retrieved, from http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/students/groups/oslj/files/2013/02/73.5.Koehler
S. actions in Vietnam. His main mission turned into destroying Vietnamese communism before his troops left the country. The war spread to Laos and Cambodia as the U.S. had been attempting to damage the communist resource routes. In spite of the fact that heavy bombings continued throughout North Vietnam, the government there did not show any signs of being overcome.
In addition to his citizens lobbying for the war to be ended and the North Vietnamese keeping their strength, Nixon also had to deal with the atergate scandal. This meant that he had lesser time to deal with the problem in Southeast Asia or to assist the South Vietnamese government.
The Paris Peace Agreement from the 27th of January, 1973, had put an end to the fighting between the U.S. And the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In spite of the peaceful character of the situation, matters did not change much,…
1. Cheng Guan, Ang, "Singapore and the Vietnam War," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 40.2 (2009).
2. Liebovich, Louis W., Richard Nixon, Watergate, and the Press: A Historical Retrospective (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003) iii.
3. Mueller, John, Retreat from Doomsday: The Obsolescence of Major War (New York: Basic Books, 1989) null3.
4. Schulzinger, Robert D., A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941-1975 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997) 299.
Partisan differences of support and disapproval of our two most recent presidents are quite clear, with the personal popularity of President Bush among Democrats lower than was President Clinton's among Republicans while his impeachment proceedings were under way. The ongoing
Iraqi war is especially indicative, with diametrically opposite opinions on whether the conflict is going well or has improved national security.
In a purely logical sense it would seem that Jimmy Carter's presidency would have been anything but a galvanizing force for America's right-wind Christian conservatives. Ironically, though, that was not the case. For example, Joy Porter examines the ironically ground-breaking, unintended political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., the impacts (or, as Porter actually argues, a lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing; relatively liberal Evangelism, on future religiously-based American political discourse. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 and 1980 campaigns especially, Carter's faith-based but also distinctly liberal…
Another approach Carter championed, and which represented a departure from his predecessors (and successors) was an approach that would not promote fear of communism to the degree of supporting "any dictator who joined us in that fear," (p. 275). Carter also believed it would be possible to pursue a detente policy with the Soviets while simultaneously pushing for human rights reforms.
The human rights underlying impetus for foreign policy was believed to be a winning strategy, and indeed, conservatives initially showed support for Carter's policies. Democrats also issued their support of Carter's program. The fusion of civil rights with foreign policy is comparable to the way FDR conjoined New Deal programs with the United Nations and its policies such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, passed in 1948. Carter also understood the major political and human rights blunders the United States was party to during previous generations, supporting anti-democratic…
Zelizer, Julian E. Arsenal of Democracy. Basic, 2010.
A police officer's proven dishonesty is not a minor matter. Ignoring or covering up that dishonesty, if discovered, could be devastating to the police department's credibility. Furthermore, due to Due Process laws in the United States, his/her dishonesty could affect the outcome of past cases in which he/she testified and future cases in which he/she may testify. Finally, the prosecution is required to hand that information to defendants' attorneys. Simultaneously, the officer has served the department for 15 years with only 2 "bad" incidents. Handling this officer's proven dishonesty will require swift action that is fair to the department, the Prosecutor's office and this officer.
Decision: Remove The Officer From Active Duty And Offer Him An Alternate Departmental Job That ould Never Entail His Testimony In Court
You are the Chief of Police of a municipality. Your Deputy Chief of Police advises you that one of your…
Bernstein, C., & Woodward, B. (2012, June 8). Woodward ad Bernstein: 40 years after Watergate, Nixon was far worse than we thought. Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from www.washingtonpost.com Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/woodward-and-bernstein-40-years-after-watergate-nixon-was-far-worse-than-we-thought/2012/06/08/gJQAlsi0NV_story.html
Justia. (n.d.). Brady v. Maryland - 373 U.S. 83 (1963). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from Supreme.justia.com Web site: http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/373/83/case.html
Justia. (n.d.). Giglio v. United States - 405 U.S. 150 (1972). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from supreme.justia.com Web site: http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/405/150/case.html
Justia. (n.d.). United States v. Bagley - 473 U.S. 667 (1985). Retrieved on June 29, 2012 from supreme.justia.com Web site: http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/473/667/case.html
In this essay, we will investigate the topic of Russian interference in the United States’ 2016 Presidential election. This essay will contain a list of topics related to Russian meddling, possible titles for essays covering those topics, an outline of the essay, and an example demonstrating how to write a strong essay. Our free example essay will not only explain how Russian interference influenced the election, but also show you how to write each part of an essay: introduction, thesis statement, and body paragraphs that combine evidence and analysis. The essay will conclude with a review of the information presented in the essay and suggestions for further action.
A New Kind of Cold War: Russian Meddling in the 2016 Election
Is Putin the De Facto President of the United States: How Russia Influenced the 2016 Election
Should Russian Interference in the 2016 Election Invalidate the Results?
What Does Russian…
In all ways, Bush sought to rule the United tates like a king.
We have seen but three of the many ways President Bush, and his puppetmaster, Vice President, Dick Cheney, sought to, and did, expand the power of the presidency. Other examples, from Cheney's ultra secret Energy Commission, to the destruction of documents and terminantion of Justice Department attorneys who would not do their bidding, abound. Taken together, it was a dark, regressive time for the United tates and its people. The legacy will remain.
Barry, John, Michael Hirsch, and Michael Isikoff. " the Roots of Torture." Newsweek May 24, 2004. Web. http://www.newsweek.com/id/105387/page/1
Boston.com. Boston Globe. "Examples of the president's signing statements." April 30, 2006. Web. May 16, 2010. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/04/30/examples_of_the_presidents_signing_statements/
Critchlow, Donald T. The Conservative Ascendancy: How the GOP Right Made Political History. Cambridge, MA: (2007).
Kaye, Jeff, Firedoglake. "
Withholding Information to Congress on Torture"…
Barry, John, Michael Hirsch, and Michael Isikoff. " the Roots of Torture." Newsweek May 24, 2004. Web. http://www.newsweek.com/id/105387/page/1
Boston.com. Boston Globe. "Examples of the president's signing statements." April 30, 2006. Web. May 16, 2010. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/04/30/examples_of_the_presidents_signing_statements/
Critchlow, Donald T. The Conservative Ascendancy: How the GOP Right Made Political History. Cambridge, MA: (2007).
Kaye, Jeff, Firedoglake. "
This would create a reactionary agency which, rather than gathering intelligence to the extension of its security, would approach what would come to be known as the 'containment theory,' using whatever resources and tactics were at its disposal to deflect against the spread of communism.
At its time, the 1947 Act would be seen as projecting considerable vision. As one conservative think-tank reports on this idea, "until fairly recently, CIA considered its appropriate time horizon to be fairly long. It was, I believe, generally longer than the focus of either the Defense Intelligence Agency or the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR). The Directorate of Intelligence made forecasts in some areas that went out 20 years, and collectors and analysts tried to anticipate events 'over the horizon' -- situations policymakers did not then know they were likely to be worrying about in the future. CIA did this because…
Answers. (2009). United States Intelligence, History. Answers Corp. Online at http://www.answers.com/topic/united-states-intelligence-history
Bush, G.W. (2002). The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. The White House.
Federation of American Scientists (FAS). (2008). A Framework for Reform of the U.S. Intelligence Community. Federation of American Scientists. Online at http://www.fas.org/irp/gentry/chapter2.html
Johnson, L.K. (2007). Strategic Intelligence. Greenwood Publishing Group.
The empathy which comes through here is not fabricated either. Thompson's very approach in "Fear and Loathing," and another cornerstone to the gonzo movement, is the concept of full immersion into his own stories. The long-suffering tone that shrouds all of his work is the repercussion of Thompson's journalism-by-personal-experience, an ongoing quest to find America in himself and those around him. For better and worse, his writing illustrates that he succeeded in doing so.
The rebellion of the 1960's, guided as it was by an optimistic emphasis on peace, love and cultural freedom, would take on a far more militant imperative as the decade wound to a close. Thompson takes this transition head on, highlighting the violence which had invaded an insular world of counter-cultural ideology. The hostility of the mainstream, which the activist culture had rallied so hard to reject, had infected its thinking and its approach to action.…
Thompson, H.S. (1979). The Great Shark Hunt. Simon & Schuster.
President Nixon also was personally fascinating with this area of policy has hand-written notes to astronauts are enclosed in plastic for reading and review. What's fascinating about this exhibit is the budget for the space programs including NASA is also posted. By today's figures, it looks quite small, and it's deliberately posted to show how small the investment is for how much value is generated as a result. This is one of the most patriotic exhibits there are in the entire library and museum.
Richard Nixon's involved in Watergate is lightly touched on; there is not that much investigative analysis of the events as there is an exhibit which was closed. Domestic policy including the Vietnam War and the plight of prisoners of war is shown graphically. The anti-war protests are also given equal presentation. The curators of the library and museum attempt to show how complex and…
By Chapter 11 McDonald begins discussing how presidents from ashington on dealt with the law based on the Constitution. And while federal law gradually gave way to state and local laws, because some issues and problems were simply easier to deal with at the local and regional level, it was also true that presidents and their attorneys general had problems enforcing what federal laws did require federal jurisdiction. Part of this problem, McDonald write on page 285, was "the penchant of Congress to enact bad legislation"; bills that were well intentioned turned out to be "poorly crafted," or plainly impossible to enforce. The author gives examples of laws that attempted to legislate morality, that didn't work; the "Mann Act," which made it a federal crime to "transport a female across state lines for 'immoral purposes'"; and the Volstead Act (prohibition), which attempted to ban the sale or production of booze.…
McDonald, Forrest. (1994). The American Presidency: An Intellectual History. Lawrence, KS:
Barone's conclusion is based on exit polling conducted anyway, by the polling firm Sumate/Penn, Schoen & Berland, showing that Chavez should not in fact have won the election.
Porter, Joy. "Jimmy Carter: the Re-Emergence of Faith-Based Politics and the Abortion Rights Issue." Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35 (2005). HighBeam
Research. Retrieved January 30, 2007, from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-134172066.html.
he article by Joy Porter examines one-time potentially (but never truly realized) long-term ground-breaking political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., impacts (or, as Porter actually, finally, argues, the lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing, comparatively liberal Evangelism, on religiously-based American political discourse (and activism) up to 25 years after his Presidency concluded in 1980. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 campaign for the Presidency especially, although he clearly used his own distinct faith-based politics as its centerpiece, Jimmy Carter's own personal Christian faith did not in fact promote the agenda of the…
The article by Joy Porter examines one-time potentially (but never truly realized) long-term ground-breaking political effects of Jimmy Carter's Presidency, i.e., impacts (or, as Porter actually, finally, argues, the lack of them) of the former President's non-right-wing, comparatively liberal Evangelism, on religiously-based American political discourse (and activism) up to 25 years after his Presidency concluded in 1980. As Porter argues, during Carter's 1976 campaign for the Presidency especially, although he clearly used his own distinct faith-based politics as its centerpiece, Jimmy Carter's own personal Christian faith did not in fact promote the agenda of the religious right, even if it was Carter himself who (ironically) initially awakened right wing Christians themselves to the galvanizing potential of their political agenda(s). Further, because Jimmy Carter's faith-based Presidency was in fact what originally stimulated, right-wing Christians to begin coalescing around their own distinctive political issues, the right wing itself ultimately rejected him for a second term, instead favoring Ronald Reagan since his own conservatism was comparable to theirs.
The U.S. And Israel Stand Alone." Spiegel Interview with Jimmy Carter. August 15, 2006. Spiegel International Online. Retrieved February 16, 2007, at http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,431793,00.html .
In this interview with Germany's Der Spiegel online magazine that took place with former U.S. President Jimmy Carter in mid-August 2005 during the international publicity run-up to the January, 2006 publication of his then-newest book, Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis (2006), Former President Carter, discusses frankly what he sees as both the political and moral failings, into his second term as president, of George W. Bush, e.g., especially, the war in Iraq and his handling of it. Carter further notes within the interview that America now is in an especially precarious spot vis-a-vis the Middle East in general, and that the United States is alone in the world in its unconditional support, under George W. Bush as President, of Israel's overly aggressive political actions and attitudes. Carter also talks to Der Spiegel about Cuba's Fidel Castro, his protracted illness, and how Castro's eventual death will likely impact Cuba and its neighbors.
In recent years, the greatest failures of government have been in the economy and foreign policy, and public opinion polls demonstrate overwhelming distrust of both Republicans and Democrats on these issues. According to recent headlines on the Daily Beast Cheat Sheet, almost all stories about the local, state and federal governments as well as politicians and the political process as a whole, reflect a mostly negative, cynical and distrustful public mood. Every since the days of Vietnam and atergate, such lack of confidence in government has been commonplace and shows up in poll after poll, decade after decade. In general, ordinary Americans regard government as corrupt, unconcerned with their problems and ineffective at dealing with them. In the last two days, for instance, headlines like "Obama, GOP Clash over Debt Limit" and "Stocks Plunge on Economic News" reflect this widespread loss of trust and confidence, especially given the fact…
The Daily Beast Cheat Sheet, http://www.thedailybeast.com/cheat-sheet/archives/2011-06-01/
Sit-Ins -- 23:12, 15-16
All of the assigned sources seem to have as their major emphasis a support and acceptance of what the sit-ins were meant to accomplish. The writers seem sympathetic to the cause of Civil Rights. However they all seem to frame their subjects in language that misses the real point of any Civil Rights Movement in any era, any country; they also all seem to miss one of the biggest reasons the sit-ins worked where nothing else had.
In 23:12 oodward 1966 is talking about what a better movement the one of the '60's was than one of 1867. He however seems to miss the point that another 100 years of terror and repression has gone by.
In 23:15 Franklin 1974, the writer can look back and see how government and activists worked together.
In 23:16 Chafe 1980, this very interesting commentary is offered. He says,…
Watergate -- 27:6, 8-11
27:6 Commager 1974 -- The main emphasis here seems to be an almost exalted view of what Watergate "meant. I am not familiar enough with internal government workings to know if the attitude is appropriate but I think I disagree with it. I think this writer is trying to make just plain criminal behavior something more than it was.
27:8 Garraty 1975; 9 Parenti 1980; 10 Kutler 1990; 11 Dallek 1992 -- it seems that all of these sources either want to praise the "system" for how well it "worked" or offer the idea, with the exception of source 9, that this was the only time such despicable things had been done by our government. I disagree. Did the system work when it was pure accident that the original five were discovered? Did the system work when even to this day "Deep Throat" is unknown, probably in fear for his or her life? Furthermore, a person would have to be very naive or dumb to believe that people in positions of such power don't use that power any way they want to no matter who gets hurt -- as long as it isn't them!
The narrative, reporting-driven style of this book also draws criticism for rarely making conclusions or passing judgment on the characters and actions that he recounts in such detail. Some of Woodward's critics accuse him of abandoning critical inquiry to maintain his access to high-profile political actors.
Others praise his detached and evenhanded style for allowing readers to absorb the facts and come to their own conclusions. From a factual standpoint, Woodward's balanced account of the events seems to agree with other sources, such as Ari Fleischer's Taking Heat.
No reporter has more talent for getting Washington's inside story and telling it cogently.
In a Washington Post review of the book, Fouad Ajami said in 2002, "Why Woodward's sources divulge to him the deep inner workings of government shall remain a mystery of the craft. He lives by the leak, and the leaks are here in ample supply - memos and…
Ajami, Fouad. "Bush at War' by Bob Woodward." The Washington Post. November 24, 2002.
Fleischer, Ari. Taking Heat: The President, the Press, and My Years in the White House. New York: William Morrow, 2005.
Michiko Kakutani. "Inside Bush's War Room." The New York Times. November 22, 2002. http://query.nytimes.com/search/full-page?res=9D00E1DF1539F931A15752C1A9649C8B63 .
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…
Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.
Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.
Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.
In the United States, the government has had to deal with accusations of corruption and duplicity from the beginning of the nation's creation. Unfortunately, many of these accusations have been found to be true and those in positions of political power have been guilty of abusing their roles and of committing illegal acts while purportedly representing the people. In recent years, the corruption has become even more blatant and obvious. Instead of properly representing their constituents, elected officials are becoming more concerned with their political careers and with increasing their power and expanding their bank accounts. This is completely antithetical to the original purpose of the representational government system that the Founding Fathers instituted (Barbour 20). In Bill Moyer's documentary Capitol Crimes, the filmmakers explore just how bad the issue of political corruption has become and how it affects everyone who is led by that corrupt government. Examining…
Barbour, Christine, Gerald C. Wright, Matthew J. Streb, and Michael R. Wolf. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics. Washington, DC: CQ, 2006. Print.
Bill Moyers: Capitol Crimes. Acorn Media, 2012. DVD.
Grimaldi, James and Schmidt, Susan. "Report Says Nonprofit Sold Influence to Abramoff."
Washington Post. Oct. 13, 2006. Print.
Fred I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama, Third Edition. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Fred I. Greenstein's central point The Presidential Difference is that in the modern U.S. political system since the Great Depression and Second World War, the presidents are now they key actors, far more so than the pre-1933 period when Congress was the most important branch of government. Because the role of the executive expanded exponentially in both foreign and domestic affairs, the leadership style of the presidents became a crucial factor in policymaking and policy failures. He analyzes the leadership style of the thirteen presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama, including their communication abilities (or lack thereof), personality and emotional makeup, cognitive/intellectual abilities, and organizational talents. If Roosevelt set the pattern and served as the template for the modern chief executive -- and there seems to be little doubt that…
Iran-Contra Affair. Specifically, it will discuss what the Iran-Contra Affairs were, how they developed, how they were discovered, the Congressional hearings, and the aftermath of the affairs. The Iran-Contra Affair was really a series of covert operations initiated by the Reagan administration and carried out first by the CIA and then the NSC. These affairs were investigated by Congressional committees after they became public, and were as detrimental to the government as the Watergate affair, because they subverted the Congress and the Constitution.
THE IRAN-CONTRA AFFAIR
In reality, there was more than one Iran-Contra Affair, but the entire turn of events has become known as simply the "Iran-Contra Affair." In fact, the scandal surrounding the arms deal to Iran, and to the Central American contras were many different undercover operations, led by a variety of members of the National Security Staff. The first event to take place in the affairs…
Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affairs. New York: Hill and Wang, 1991.
Editors. "Iran-Contra Affair." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.
Kornbluh, Peter, and Malcolm Byrne. "Iran-Contra: a Postmortem." NACLA Report on the Americas XXVII.3 (1993): 29-34.
Lynch, Michael, and David Bogen. The Spectacle of History: Speech, Text, and Memory at the Iran-Contra Hearings. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996.
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
Giddens believes "the 'rules' of social order may only be 'in our heads' - they are not usually written down, and often have no formal force to back them up - but nevertheless, people can be shocked when seemingly minor social expectations are not adhered to" (Gauntlett 2001, p.2). For Giddens, while language and symbols may be manipulated, human beings are still empowered to change them -- there is no utter subsuming of the real by symbols because of our ability to be conscious of 'the rules' of the social order.
Baudrillard offers an explanation of why things seem 'less real' in the postmodern present, but Giddens denies that 'we' are in a state of postmodern reality at all. Tradition may be dead, Giddens states, but we have merely replaced it with a new, post-traditional culture. We have not gone 'beyond' culture as Baudrillard suggests, and the postmodern love of…
Felluga, Dino. (2002). Definition: Simulacra. Introductory guide to critical theory. Purdue University. Retrieved April 29, 2010
Felluga, Dino. (2002). Modules on Baudrillard: On postmodernity. Introductory guide to critical theory. Purdue University. Retrieved April 29, 2010
176). She experienced prejudice early on in her life, and it helped build her belief that black people could make it in a white world, but that integration was extremely necessary. She attended Boston University Law School, and passed the bar in 1959. She returned to Houston to practice law, but turned to politics when her law practice stalled. She volunteered for the Kennedy campaign in 1960, and soon became well-known in Houston political circles.
She ran for the state legislature twice unsuccessfully, but she did not give up, and dedicated her entire life to politics and her constituents. She ran again in 1966, and "Her concerns were those of the people-industrial safety, welfare programs, insurance rates, vocational education, low wages, and voter registration" (Hendrickson, Collins, & Cox, 2004, p. 181). When she won the race, she was the first black woman to serve in the Texas legislature. Her character…
Clarke, M. (2005). Race, partisanship, and the Voting Rights Act (VRA). Texas Journal on Civil Liberties & Civil Rights, 10(2), 223+.
Gallagher, Julie. "Waging 'The Good Fight': The Political Career of Shirley Chisholm, 1953-1982." The Journal of African-American History 92.3 (2007): 392+.
Hendrickson, K.E., Collins, M., & Cox, P. (Eds.). (2004). Profiles in power: Twentieth-Century Texans in Washington (New ed.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
"Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm 1924-2005." The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education Jan. 2005: 45+.
This as an important moment in the history of the Cold War because it marked the start of a new series of talks between the Palestinians and the Israeli side. This moment also proved the importance of the State Secretary in relation to the issues of foreign policy and the international community.
At this moment, some of the most important cabinets in the executive concern issues such as internal affairs and job security. These are essential portfolios from the perspective of internal and external factors. The homeland security refers in particular to aspects which take place inside the borders of the U.S. And tackle the threats that are visible on the U.S. territory. There are several departments inside the Homeland Security portfolio. These concern issues of counterterrorism, border security, immigration, or cybersecurity
. Counterterrorism measures are crucial at this moment, especially given the national security advisory which changed to orange…
Department of Homeland Security. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
Department of Homeland Security. Counterterrorism. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/files/counterterrorism.shtm
Department of Labor. On the Recovery Act. 2009. Accessed from http://www.dol.gov/recovery/
Department of Defense. Travels with Gates. 2010. Accessed from http://www.defense.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>