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n most fast foods there is a kid's corner and there are even nice persons entertaining them while you indulge yourself with their good, but not so healthy food.
However, all over the world, fast food restaurant chains started diminishing the quantity of fat they use in preparing their products due to societal pressure and obesity statistics. Moreover, they have started to introduce on their menus, dishes such as salads or organic made products. Seems like organic is the strongest trend of the future, no matter if we talk about a fast food restaurant or a highly posh restaurant because it will enable one to sustain a healthy lifestyle, and lose weight.
Green restaurants are even more than just places where they serve organic food.
Certified Green Restaurants ™ meet the following standards: they use a comprehensive recycling system for all products that are accepted by local recycling…
ABC News, 2007, Fast food industry to lower fat content, Abc.net.au, Online, Available at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/09/26/2044152.htm , Accessed on the 24th of October 2007
Green Restaurant Association, 2002, Certified Green Restaurant ™ Guide, GRA, Online, Available at http://www.dinegreen.com/restaurant_guide.asp , Accessed on the 24th of October 2007
hough the issue does not specifically address food sustainability, i.e. better healthy options in the industry it does demonstrate a change that was significant in the industry and made McDonalds and other convenience restaurants more aware of the lack of sustainability in their practices, an excellent step in creating a more sustainable built environment.
Marvin, Simon, and Will Medd. "Fat City." World Watch, September-October 2005, 10.
A fascinating study done by a men's fitness magazine is detailed in this work, demonstrating the previously assumed connection between the built environment and the level of obesity that is present in any given community. he health magazine Men's Fitness set out to measure, city by city, "the relative environmental factors that either support an active, fit lifestyle, or nudge people towards a pudgier sedentary existence." Using existing surveys and data, the magazine's analysis ranked the 50 largest U.S. cities according to per-capita numbers…
The Liverpool Echo highlights a movement in Europe to promote health through existing healthy environmental offerings, with existing restaurants creating even more of internal emphasis on health as the goal of food preparation and offerings.
To Serve and Protect; Restaurants Are Focusing on Helping Their Patrons Stay Fit and Healthy." Sarasota Herald Tribune, 27 January 2005, D1.
Sarasota Herald Tribune, is also focusing on the movement of existing restaurants, in the U.S. To build the health of their fares and market these changes and stresses to consumers seeking more sustainable options for food choices.
Maybe hundreds of years ago it was enough to eat food without supplements, but now too much of the food supply is drained of its natural nutrients for a dieter to get enough nutrients without supplements. As part of my Fat Flush plan, the first thing a person has in the morning is a laxative known as psyllium husks, and they take cranberry drinks as a diuretic.
Haas: I recommend fiber, vitamin C, other antioxidants, chlorophyll, and glutathione, mainly as amino acid L-cysteine. Herbs such as garlic, red clover, Echinacea, or cayenne are also part of my detoxification program (Haas 2008:8). The Master Cleanse, which I recommend, makes use of lemonade and maple syrup.
Gittleman: The problem I have with the Master Cleanse and other 'simple fasts' that basically cut calories is that yes, they cause quick weight loss, but because they release the stored-up environmental toxins from processed foods…
Fat Flush." (2008). Diets in Review. Retrieved 24 Jul 2008 at http://www.dietsinreview.com/diets/Fat_Flush_Plan/
Gittleman, Anne Louise. (2005). The Fast-Track One Day Detox Diet. New York: Broadway.
Gittleman, Anne Louise. (2002). The Fat Flush Plan. New York: McGraw Hill.
Haas, Elson. (2004). The New Detox Diet: The Complete Guide for Lifelong Vitality With Recipes, Menus, and Detox Plans. New York: Celestial Arts.
The text asked for the patient's fasting blood sugar and included the date and time of the message. When patients entered their blood sugar, the system sent a confirmation message. Any results below 70 or greater than 400 were flagged and routed for further intervention by a registered nurse dedicated to the study. Additionally, the patient received appointment reminder messages at 7 days, 3 days, and 1 day prior to their scheduled appointment. The system asked for a "yes" or "no" response as to whether the patient planned to attend the appointment. The system then acknowledged the response and indicated that it was received (Fischer, et. al., 2012).
At the conclusion of the study, outcome measures included appointment attendance rates and response rates to blood sugar text messages. More than three-fourths (79%) of the participants responded to more than 50% of their prompts. Two-thirds (65%) of patients provided glucose readings…
Weight Management 3 UD Physical/Biological
Physiological Consequences and Health Risks of Excess Body Weight
Description of Concrete Experience: I chose to have gastric bypass surgery because I was dealing with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes due to my weight. Over time, my weight had just continued to creep up until it reached a point that made it really dangerous for me. Additionally, back pain, knee pain, and joint pain were always present, and it hurt to walk and move around, so daily life activities were difficult to handle. I got out of breath when walking even short distances, and with that and the joint pain, exercising to lose weight was really not possible for me anymore. Even though I used to exercise, it was not something I could go back to until some of the weight was gone and the stress on my joints was lessened.…
health and quality improvement. Specifically it will discuss how to manage weight with proper diet and exercise, including the quality improvement process of how to achieve a healthy weight. As with many people in the United States today, I have experienced a weight gain, and this seems to be increasingly common in college. My weight is out of control, and I want and need to improve my health with proper diet and exercise. This paper will detail the QI process of how I will achieve this goal.
The Goals of My Program
I need to lose weight, and I am not alone. A group of authors writes, "Due to a lack of healthy eating and regular exercise, a significant proportion of college students are becoming increasingly susceptible to overweight and obesity" (Stellefson, Wang & Klein, 2006). The first step in this process is to identify my short- and long-term goals…
Editors. (2009). Seven benefits of regular physical activity. Retrieved 23 Feb. 2010 from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/exercise/HQ01676 .
Gruber, K.J. (2008). Social support for exercise and dietary habits among college students. Adolescence, 43(171), 557+.
Hunt, B.P., Bogle, V., Gillentine, A., & Daughtrey, C. (2001). Weight loss 101: A healthy weight loss program for college students. American Journal of Health Studies, 17(1), 26+.
Lott, A.M. (2009, November). Managing diabetes: One professional learns that her diabetes diagnosis is not a death sentence. Black Enterprise, 40, 82+.
For years, people have been told that the key to weight loss is reducing calories and increasing activity. While the calories-in, calories-out model of weight loss works for many people, the fact that there is an obesity epidemic suggests that it is not the right approach for all people. Instead, there seem to be other factors that contribute to weight loss and to individual resistance to weight loss, which go beyond simple calories equations. In addition, some people seem to naturally consume more energy to perform basic functions. These people have higher metabolisms, which means they can consume more calories before experiencing unwanted weight gain. Other people have lower metabolisms, which means that they experience unwanted weight gain after consuming a lower number of calories than average. This outline for a weight loss essay will explore some of the factors that can help contribute to a successful weight…
Weight Loss & Osteoarthritis
The PICOT question addressed in this proposed study focuses on an examination of the influence of weight loss counseling and implementation of a physical exercise regimen on the reported osteoarthritis symptoms of obese patients with a BMI greater than 25. The proposed evidence-based study would extend the research that indicates that brief, in-office weight loss sessions conducted by their physicians contributes to patients' implementation of physical exercise regimens or increased daily activity. The subjects in the proposed research differ from those in earlier investigations in that they are suffer from osteoarthritis and are obese.
Despite the fact that activity across the day and physical exercise provide some protective benefits to people who are obese, many people are not physically active and do not maintain an exercise regimen. esearch on the benefits of an active live has extended to overweight people who have also managed to become…
Do, B., Hootman, D., Helmick, C.G., and Brady, T.J. (2011, March-April). Monitoring healthy people 2010 arthritis management objectives: education and clinician counseling for weight loss and exercise. American Family Medicine, 9(2), 136-141. doi: 10.1370/afm.1210 Retreived http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403140
Fineout-Overholt, E., Hofstetter, S., Shell, L., and Johnston, L. (2005). Teaching EBP: getting to the gold: how to search for the best evidence. Worldviews Evidence-Based Nursing, 2(4), 207-11.
Fontaine, K.R., Haaz, S., and Bartlett, S.J. (2007, February). Are overweight and obese adults with arthritis being advised to lose weight? Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 13(1), 12-15. Retreived http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17278942
McInnis, K., Franklin, B.A., Rippe, J.M. (2003, March). Counseling for Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Patients, American Family Physician, 67(6), 1249-1256. Retrieved http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0315/p1249.html
Sugar is a food element that must be avoided in excessive amounts in order to maintain the healthiest body possible. Foods high in sugar have become mainstays in American diets and comprise such empty-calorie foods as candy and soft drinks (Insel et al., 2010). These sugary foods provide energy but contain little, if any, fiber, vitamins, or minerals, and contribute to weight gain, the development of type II diabetes, and dental cavities (Klein et al., 2004; Insel et al., 2010). Studies have emerged that link the rising prevalence of obesity in children to the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks (Bleich et al., 2009). From 1997 to 2001, the consumption soft drinks and fruit drinks increased by 135%, and the prevalence of obesity doubled (Bleich et al., 2009). I now better recognize the need for sugar in a diet; however, sources of sugar should be obtained from fruits, vegetables, and carbohydrates. Consuming…
Bleich, S, Wang, Y, Wang, Y, & Gortmaker, S. (2009). Increasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among us adults: 1988-1994 to 1999-2004. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89, 372-381.
Boyle, M, & Long, S. (2010). Personal nutrition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Brown, J. (2011). Nutrition through the life cycle. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Colditz, G, Willett, W, Stampfer, M, London, S, & Segal, M. (1990). Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 1100-1105.
The second week, I increased the intensity to maintain a heart rate of 70%, of the maximum, or 131 beats per minute, and maintained my duration of 30 minutes per session, 5 sessions per week.
By the end of this second week, I began to feel more comfortable with my routine. I also had begun to see the results of my efforts on the scale. By the end of the second week, I had lost seven pounds, and felt comfortable enough to increase the duration of my jogging sessions.
For the third week, I maintained a 70% of maximum heart rate. I also maintained the frequency of five sessions per week. However, as I felt my abilities increasing, I increased the duration to 40 minutes per session.
The fourth week, I again increased my duration of my jogging sessions to 45 minutes per session. I also increased the intensity to…
Prescription weight loss pills are diet drugs, regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. If certain side effects exist, then they are advertised and prescribed for weight loss only under certain criteria and in certain pill-dosages. Examples of prescription diet pills include Merida and Phentermine, and these types of diet pills are principally designed for those suffering from serious obesity. Diet and weight loss prescription drugs are not a cosmetic solution for weight loss, and neither are they intended to replace convention diet and weight loss programs.
Over-the-counter Diet Pills
Over the counter diet and weight loss pills is a rapidly growing market in the weight loss sector. These pills are classified as food supplements rather than diet drugs, and are fairly unregulated. These diet pills are not tested by the Federal authorities, not subject to the same advertising, dosage or labeling requirements, even though some experts consider that over-the-counter…
American Association of Obesity. (2004). Health Effects of Obesity. Retrieved Sept. 12, 2006, from Obesity.org Web site: http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Health_Effects.shtml
American Heart Association. (2004). Weight and Blood Pressure. Retrieved Sept. 12, 2006, from MyDna.com Web site: http://www.google.com.search?hl=endlr&q=%22high+blood+pressure+obesity%22
Collins, a. (2006). Diet Pills. Retrieved Sept. 14, 2006, from Anne Collins Web site:
There was response rate of over 70%. 716 subjects were able to actually participate in the study.
The instruments in the study included a questionnaire utilizing demographic and background information used in old surveys. The questions included inquiries into performance history, and weight loss methods, dietary practices and supplements, as well as questions regarding binge eating and bulimic behavior. Though self-evaluation questionnaires regarding the prevalence of severe eating disorders, including bulimia has rarely been utilized; however a study concerning alcohol use helped to support that in fact self reporting questionnaires are a valid method.
The research utilized factor analysis to determine the convergent validity of the binge scale. 71% of the variance was explained by items representing concerns and guilt about binge eating, and 16% was related to feelings of satiety and the duration of binge eating. Test- retest reliability of the binge scale was .88 and internal consistency was…
Lakin, J.A., Steen, S.N., & Oppliger, R.A. (1990). Eating Behaviors, Weight Loss Methods, and Nutrition Practices Among High School Wrestlers. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 7(4), 223-234.
Camellia Sinensis to Assist Weight Loss
Obesity has become one of the major illnesses in America seeming more on the rise than in regression. Interestingly enough, green tea (Camellia sinensis Xihu Longjing) seems to show a string of successes in reducing obesity (e.g. Lin, 2006). (Incidentally too, green tea may reduce blood lipid levels but this association remains unclear). One such study was conducted by Paradee et al. (2008) on obese Thai. The researchers reasoned that both catechin polyphenols and caffeine "may be effective promoters of thermogenesis and fat oxidation, resulting in the reduction of body weight in Caucasians, Chinese, and Japanese" (25). They wanted to see whether the same effects would hold upon other races and ethnicities and so they therefore studied the effects of obesity-reduction of green tea on Thais.
The researchers, therefore, conducted a randomized, controlled trial on a large segment of 60 obese individuals. All the…
Murase, T., Nagasawa, A., Suzuki, J., Hase, T. And Tokimitsu, I. (2002) Beneficial effects of tea catechins on diet-induced obesity: stimulation of lipid catabolism in the liver Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 26, 1459 -- 1464
Nagao, T et al. (2005) Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men Am J. Clin Nutr;81:122 -- 9
Chantre, P. And Lairon, D. (2002) Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity Phytomedicine 9, 3 -- 8
Kao YH, Hiipakka RA, Liao S. (2000) Modulation of endocrine systems and food intake by green tea epigallocatechin gallate. Endocrinology;141:980 -- 7.
Care for Bariatric Surgery Patients
Comorbidities exist from obesity related health conditions, such a hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, etc. Racial and cultural factors also play a part in lifestyle habits and belief systems. ith incidences of bariatric surgery on the rise, there is a need for effective strategies to engage post bariatric surgery patients in follow-up care to support healthy weight loss and maintenance and reduce risk of obesity related health conditions. Several studies have examined how group visits, shared medical appointments, and technology could be used in efforts to engage patients in self-management, skills building, and education.
Shared medical appointments (SMA) after bariatric surgery was studied with a two-fold purpose: 1) to design a patient-validated SMA satisfaction survey and 2) to determine satisfaction as a means of follow-up after surgery (Seager, 2012). This study was chosen as an examination of the SMA as an intervention strategy…
Bradford, J.B. (2007). The Promise of Outreach for Engaging and Retaining Out-of-Care Persons in HIV Medical Care. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, vol 21, Supplement 1 doi: 10.1089/apc.2007.9983, s85-s91.
Greer, D.M. (2011). Implementing and evidence-based metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment program utilizing group visits. Journal of American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, vol 23, 76-83.
Hasin, D.S. (2014). Health Call for the smartphone: Technology engancement of brief intervention in HIV alcohol dependent patients. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 9(5), Retrieved from http://www.ascjournal.org/content/9/1/5.
Kirsh, S. e. (2007). Shared medical appointments based on the chronic care model: A quality improvement project to address the challenges of patients with diabetes with high cardiovascular risk. Qual Saf Health Care, vol 16 doi: 10:1136/qshc.2006.019158, 349-353.
Generally, weight loss involves a loss of both fat and muscle in comparable proportions; it is impossible to lose only one type of tissue through dieting. A 20-pound weight loss may represent approximately fifty percent fat and fifty percent muscle tissue.
On the other hand, when temporary weight losses are followed by a return to the starting weight, most of the weight regained is specifically fat. Every cycle of short-term weight loss and regain, therefore, (in effect) exchanges more and more muscle for body fat in every cycle (Larson-Duyff, 2002).
Weight loss is a medical necessity for millions of Americans, yet most of those who do make the attempt to lose weight choose methods that are ineffective in the long-term. Most dieters actually increase their overall body fat every time they lose weight and then regain it back. In many cases, they would actually have been better off simply…
Baldauf, S. (2008) Too Fat? No More Excuses: Research Is Revealing How Very Damaging Extra Baggage Is. U.S. News & World Report. Jan 14/08 (pp. 57-61)
Larson-Duyff, R. (2002) American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Taylor, C., Lillis, C., LeMone, P. (2005) Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
obesity NYT databases
New York Times writer Anemona Hartocollis (2012) followed 20-year-old Shani Gofman through a year with a weight condition. Shani provides a case study for obese Americans in general, who struggle with surgical and behavioral treatment for a disease that has reached alarming proportions, and for a subgroup, young obese Americans aging out of Medicaid coverage (Hartocollis, 2012). Once they become adults, Medicaid no longer provides the same coverage if any at all, although "bariatric" surgical weight-loss procedures have increased by a factor of seven over the last ten years (Hartocollis, 2012).
The Brookings Institute corroborates these statistics, citing various estimates of direct cost of obesity-related conditions and obesity itself at around 10% of all U.S. medical spending, or around $147 billion for 2008 (Finkelstein, et al., cited. In Hammond and Levine, 2010). "Private payers bear the majority of estimated costs," Hammond and Levine explain (2010),…
Hartocollis, A. Young, obese and in surgery. Health. New York Times (7 Jan. 2012).
Lee, J.S., Sheer, J.L.O., Lopez, N. And Rosenbaum, S. (2010). Coverage of obesity treatment: A state-by-state analysis of Medicaid and state insurance laws. Public Health Reports 125(4), 596-604. PubMed Central. PMCID: PMC2882611
Mann, T. Tomiyama, A.J., Westling, E., Lew, A-M., Samuels, B., and Chatman, J.
PICT -- Arthritis & besity
The Healthy People 2020 objectives for people who suffer from arthritis are focused on reducing the number of individuals who experience pain, limited activity in general, limited capacity to attend to daily affairs, and disability that prevents or impacts employment, and so on. The nexus of the Healthy People 2020 objectives and the role of the advanced care nurse offers a valuable opportunity to help patients with arthritis establish healthy exercise habits that help them lose weight and, accordingly, reduce their arthritis symptoms.
Advance practice nurses are in a position to provide educational information about chronic disease related to obesity, and to support patients' ability to problem solve about lifestyle changes that can foster health. Moreover, the advance practice nurse is likely to obtain the vitals for the patient during an office visit, which would include current height and weight measures. Further discussion about symptoms…
Obesity is a common problem with people who suffer from arthritis, yet it is a modifiable risk factor. Indeed, obesity has been associated with the limitation of activity and disability due to pain, and to reduced quality of life due to restrictions on independent functioning. More total joint replacement operations are performed on people who have arthritis and are obese than on non-obese people with arthritis; additionally, following joint replacement surgery, obese people experience poorer outcomes. Among adults with arthritis, the prevalence of obesity is 54% higher than it is for adults without arthritis. Moreover, the prevalence of obesity among adults increased significantly in 15 states between the years of 2003 and 2009.
Hootman, J.M., Pan, L., Helmick, C.G., & Hannan, C. (2011). State-specific trends in obesity prevalence among adults with arthritis, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003 -- 2009. MMWR, 60(16), 509-513.
Institute of Medicine. (2012, September). Cross-sector work on obesity prevention, treatment, and weight maintenance: Models for change.
Therefore, equal amounts of weight loss should not be expected" (Paez and Kravitz). However, other studies led to different conclusions, including increased body fat loss by participants who only exercised and did not control their calories. Thus, there is disagreement with the ACSM conclusions, and other scientists have research that indicates at least some of the conclusions were false.
The conclusions of the research indicate that exercise alone will not help combat obesity. However, challenges to that conclusion maintain that the studies the ACSM and scientists used did not effectively measure or compare "caloric restricting programs to increased energy expenditure programs. They conclude that if these factors were equal, exercise alone can be as effective as caloric restriction for weight loss" (Paez and Kravitz). Ultimately, losing weight requires discipline, and adding exercise to calorie control can only aid in overall weight loss and successful treatment of obesity.
Paez, Christina J. And Len Kravitz, Ph.D. "Exercise vs. Diet in Weight Loss." 2000. 12 March 2007. http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/exandwtloss.html
Date of Research 4 / / 09 -- Authoritative Web Sites:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2009) The Surgeon General's
Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved April
22, 2009 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration public website, at:
National Institutes of Health (2008) NIH Obesity Research. Retrieved April 22,
2009 from the National Institutes of Health public website, at:
The main thrust of the two government websites is the direct link between overweight and obesity and numerous diseases such as diabetes and various cardiac, circulatory system, and other serious diseases. According to the sources, overweight and obesity is increasing at nearly epidemic proportions in the U.S., and even includes
children of whom a very high percentage are clinically overweight and at risk of lifelong obesity (HHS, 2009; NIH, 2008). Both the U.S. Surgeon General and the National
People wok had to lose pounds fom thei abs, with the pesistence to make evey step geat and had objective to lose few pounds each time they execise. In fact, some of the encouagements ae not moe than umos. Scientists evealed tuths and oppotunities in the aticle, aiming to give eachable goals and simple methods to bun fat.
Accumulating body fat could be elated to pesonality inetness and high fatty food intake fo yeas, theefoe it is impotant that people incease thei awaeness to educe fatty components in thei diets fo egula basis, while at the same time incease active body movement fom daily activities and mild execises.
The aticle explained, while a numbe of people misundestood that cutting fat intake and aising execise fequency gow linea with body fat loss, in eality, half of the points may need second thought. Thee ae many factos contibuting to obesity.
Meyer, M. (1999). The Truth About Losing Body Fat. Better Homes and Gardens. Mar. 1999
Common Mistake That Prevents Most People from Losing Weight and How to Avoid It. Better Nutrition. May, 2003. Primamedia Intertec.
Bemben, M.G. (1998) Age-Related Variability in Body Composition Methods For Assessment of Percent Fat and Fat-Free Mass in Men Aged 20-74 Years. Age and Ageing.
Even if we ourselves are to analyze how we consume foods, we can realize that these influences listed by Food Psychology online have been actual influences to how we consume food. Isn't it that true that we tend to over-eat a particular food not only because we like its taste but because there is a characteristic in the food that we particularly like? For instance, there are those who unknowingly over-eat crackers because they like playing its crunchiness in their mouth. I myself tend to over-eat M&M chocolates not merely because I like chocolates, but because I like playing with its crispy chocolate shells in my mouth. Although it is known to me that too much sweet can cause weight increase, the external cue of the M&M chocolate somehow gives me the addiction to over-consume it. Or, isn't that there are those who tend to over-eat popcorns when watching movies.…
Wansink, B., Van Ittersum K. Bottoms Up! The Influence of Elongation on Pouring and Consumption Volume. Food and Brand Lab, University of Illinois.
Chandon, P., Wansink, B. (2002). Does Stock Piling Accelerate Consumption? A Convenience-Salience Framework of Consumption Stockpiling." Journal of Marketing Research, 39:3 (August), 321-335.
Retrieved on May 22, 2006, from Online.
To truly reduce obesity would require us to give up some of our values of an easy life.
Consumers and regulators should not be surprised that unregulated 'speed' weight-loss supplements like Hydroxycut are dangerous. Furthermore, its illegal allure might be a great 'marketing tool' for people who wish to sell it illegally on the Internet. Perhaps its sales will only rise, if it can be sold from a location outside of the U.S., and it may be marketed as something that 'must work,' otherwise 'why would they ban it?'
In America, we as a society promote the idea that if there is a will, there is a way, and a slender body that conforms to a manufactured media ideal is promoted as what everyone should desire, a product of willpower and drive. The obsession with image and commodities is very American, as is the obsession with self-transformation. The…
By educating patients on early warning signs of hepatotoxicity, this rare but potentially fatal consequence could be detected early to allow appropriate intervention." (Wright and Vandenberg, 2007) it is extremely critical to understand the nature of psychiatric nursing in today's clinical environment.
IV. ROLE of NURSE PRACIIONER in RANSIION
Specifically stated in the work of Kathryn R. Puskar entitled; "he Nurse Practitioner Role in Psychiatric Nursing" published in the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing is: "Commercialization of psychiatric care is underway. Psychiatric inpatient admissions have decreased, admissions to general hospitals have decreased, while outpatient admissions are increasing. Academic centers are purchasing smaller hospitals as affiliates; satellite clinics and networks of services are being established. Physicians in solo practice are merging into group practices. New health care professional roles must be restructured and "cross trained" to maintain competitiveness by offering flexible, cost-saving effective care. his is the background environment in…
To improve participation in outpatient programs, social workers can identify and address client barriers to keeping appointments, such as inadequate transportation, non-cooperative employers or family members, limited financial or child care resources, or even poor client motivation. Pairing newly diagnosed patients with "diabetic sponsors" -- individuals who are experienced and successful at managing their diabetes -- also may enhance attendance. Rather than relying on clients to come to clinics, social workers may need to bring the clinics to clients by organizing diabetic health fairs, outreach, or training programs in work settings, church facilities, or community centers. It is related that: "For people with Type 2 diabetes, Medical Nutritional Therapy (MNT) is often the "first-line therapy of choice" (Lipkin, 1999). The goal of MNT is to maintain near-normal glucose levels by matching dietary consumption with actual caloric (energy) needs, necessitating that the right foods in correct proportions be eaten at prescribed times for many MNT may include a secondary goal -- weight loss. Nutritional self-management or compliance with a prescribed diet can be handicapped by many of the same factors that impede self-care knowledge and skill mastery. In MNT, food assumes an almost medicinal quality, and many may resist altering long-held consumption patterns, inasmuch as food plays a part in their cultural heritage or serves as a source of pleasure; therefore, dietary changes are interpreted as loss of either function. For some patients, making these lifestyle changes may require assistance with concrete resources. As resource brokers, social workers can assess needs and link clients with community agencies for nutritional assistance, fitness training, additional diabetic education (professionals or material), medical care, health insurance, insulin and glucose monitoring supplies, prescription assistance, transportation, and counseling or support groups" (Lipkin, 1999)
VII. RESOURCE-BROKERING and COLLABORATION AMONG PROFESSIONALS
The social worker is also experienced in 'resource brokering' and as related by Lipkins (1999): "As a therapist, the social worker may practice independently or in conjunction with other professionals (such as psychiatrists and psychologists) to treat more serious mental health issues inhibiting the management of diabetes. In this role a social work practitioner may screen and treat illnesses with high rates of comorbidity among diabetes patients, such as major depression or eating and anxiety disorders. The social worker also may ensure the management of preexisting chronic mental illnesses like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol or substance abuse." (Lipkin, 1999) the social worker also has the capacity to: "...coordinate a comprehensive assessment, treatment plan, and intervention, striving for an optimal level of collaboration among professionals, patients, and families. Financially, social work case management can effectively and efficiently use community resources, creating an optimal environment that promotes glycemic control to delay complications and reduce hospitalizations."
Another popular fat reduction program that focuses on the negative effects of carbs is the Atkins diet. Unlike the South Beach Diet, Atkins places a more stringent elimination on the consumption of all types of carbohydrates. According to Atkins, Western eating habits are prone to creating obesity because of the large focus on refined carbohydrates found in sugar, flour and high-fructose corn syrups. Further, Atkins argues that saturated fat is not an obesity factor but that trans fat is and thus need to be completely avoided. With such a foundation, the Atkins Diet essentially argues against the food pyramid, arguing that the base level of grains is actually what causes obesity instead of health.
A third fat loss program is Weight Watchers, a company that focuses on providing dieting products to assist individuals in obtaining weight loss. One method of weight loss advocated under this program is the Flex System.…
Also, there have been cases of people having a life that they have only dreamed of in the past because they have experienced considerable weight losses. (Evening Chronicle)
Even though most people are not aware of it, obesity is one of the most dangerous problems they face. Obesity is surpassed only by smoking when considering the main cause of death worldwide. One of the most disastrous diseases that overweight can lead to is diabetes. This is obvious through the fact that most people that have diabetes are usually overweight. (Mark Kimathi)
Overweight problems are certainly underestimated, with people believing that there is nothing wrong with a few extra pounds. In reality, overweight has terrible consequences on the human body. Among numerous other diseases, overweight people face the risk of developing various forms of cancer. All in all, overweight can lead to a lot of life-threatening affections, and, among the only…
1. Hamilton, Linda. "Appearance and Health: A Sensible Approach to Weight Loss." Dance Magazine, Vol. 71, November 1997.
2. Kimathi, Mark. (2006). "8 Reasons to Lose Weight Now." Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Ezine Articles Web site: http://ezinearticles.com/?8-Reasons-to-Lose-Weight-Now&id=169909
3. Papazian, Ruth. "Should You Go on a Diet?." FDA Consumer, Vol. 27, September 1993.
4. "We'll Pay You to Lose Weight." The Daily Mail (London, England), January 24, 2008.
Particularly after her PANSS test results, the client in this case has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, paranoid type, in which positive symptoms like delusions are prevalent. The purpose of this paper is to clarify three key psychopharmacological treatment decisions made on behalf of the client. Goals of all three decisions are symptom reduction and the promotion of the client's mental health and psychosocial functioning.
The decision was to give the patient Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate) 234 mg intramuscular X1 followed by 156 mg intramuscular on day 4 and monthly thereafter, instead of either Zyprexa (olanzapine) or Abilify. The reasoning is based primarily on the fact that Invega Sustenna is a long-acting injectable with fewer compliance complications than orally administered drugs. Although Abilify has been available as a long-acting injectable, Invega Sustenna is recommended in this case because it presents fewer side effects than either Zyprexa or Abilify, particularly those…
Amiaz, R., Rubenstein, K., Czerniak, E. et al. (2016). A Diet and Fitness Program Similarly Affects Weight Reduction in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Typical or Atypical Medications. Pharmacopsychiatry 49(3): 112-116.
Bak, M., et al. (2014). Almost All Antipsychotics Result in Weight Gain: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 9(4): e94112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094112
Khanna, et al. (2016). Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD006569. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006569.pub5.
Park, E.J. et al. (2013). Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia. Archives of Pharmacal Research 36(6): 651-659.
If an underlying condition is the cause of the loss, then the logical procedure would be to treat the underlying cause. In some cases the sense of smell may return and for others the loss will be permanent.
Research supports the existence of changes in smell due to age. The causes of this loss are varied. There has not been considerable research into searching for a treatment as with other sensory declines. Loss of out sense of smell is not considered to be of greater consequence in our society. ith the rare exception of those whose careers depend on it, there is little societal impact caused by a loss of sense of smell. For the person, they may not enjoy all of the things that they used to, but it does not carry any significant impairment with it.
There has been no formal effort dedicated towards research to restore the…
Arabi, A. (2004) Cochlear Implants: My Perspective. Term Paper. NBB421 - Effects of Aging on Sensory and Perceptual Systems. Professor Halpern. Friday, December 3, 2004. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Bauman, N. (2004) Hair Cell Regeneration -- Overcoming the Challenges. Center For Hearing Loss Help. November 2004. http://www.hearinglosshelp.com/articles/haircellchallenge.htm. Accessed December 15, 2006.
Cain, W., Stevens, J. (1989) Uniformity of olfactory loss in aging. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 561, 29-38.
Cochlear Implants. The Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center at the Cochlear.org (2006a) Total Costs for the Procedure. http://www.cochlear.org/sys-tmpl/cochlearimplantcosts/. Accessed December 15, 2006.
Loss of Function on the Quality of life and Independence, and Quality of life for the elderly Population
Although living longer comes with a price, having a good social relationship, support system, social relationships, and residing in their own abode is what could give seniors independence, happiness, and quality of life. Before discussing how a given loss of function influences the quality of life and the independence of an aging person, it is crucial to define some concepts. These concepts are the quality of life, independence, and activities of daily living, as they will be used in this discussion. Quality of life has varying meanings for different individuals particularly to the elderly population. Quality of life could mean good pension or income, family and friends, being active, being independent, good and safe living conditions, opportunity to learn latest concepts, developing new things, religion, and social relationships among others. Quality of…
Brunner, L.S., & Day, R.A. (2009). Brunner & Suddarth's textbook of Canadian medical-surgical nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Dawson, D.R., & Stern, B. (2007). Reflections on facilitating older adult's participation in valued occupations. Occupational Therapy Now, 9(5), 3-5. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/229614344?accountid=35812
Loue, S. (2008). Encyclopedia of aging and public health: With 19 tables. New York, NY: Springer.
Whitbourne, S.K., & Whitbourne, S.B. (2011). Adult development and aging: Biopsychosocial perspectives. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
.....bereavement research has focused primarily on heterosexual, married couples, frequently within the later years of life. The latest research has taken a step towards understanding bereavement among members of the LGBTQ community, particularly, lesbians (Fenge, 2013). By understanding main themes in relation to same-sex bereavement, one can better draw a clear plan of assessment to help someone like Emily deal with the grief of losing a loved one. Some main themes seen in recent research in this area is disconnection from family, internalizing homophobia as well as seeking a place for sincerity and acceptance, benefits of friendships displaying cross-sexual orientation, and intimacy of relationships among women (Ingham, Eccles, Armitage, & Murray, 2016). With this information in mind, the questions asked center on depression, PTSD, available support, and desire to perform daily activities.
The first question would be: "How many times do you shower, eat, and sleep each week?" This is…
Type I diabetes
The type I diabetes is often referred to as the juvenile or the insulin-dependent diabetes. According to heem G., (2013) Type 1 diabetes is basically an auto-immune disease where the cells responsible for producing insulin in the pancreas are attacked by the immune system and the person has no control over this. Type 1 diabetes renders the patient dependent on lifelong injection of insulin into the body to help manage the blood glucose levels. It occurs predominantly among children and young adults, yet the Type 2 diabetes is predominant among the ages of 40 years and above. The victims of Type 1 diabetes are usually of normal weight or thin. Here, the body produces no insulin or too little to be of significant function for the body and the onset is usually observed to be sudden.
There are three cardinal signs of this type of diabetes…
American Academy of Otolaryngology, (2014). Dizziness and Motion Sickness. Retrieved November 8, 2014 from http://www.entnet.org/content/dizziness-and-motion-sickness
Diabetes Digital Media, (2014). Diabetes Signs. Retrieved November 8, 2014 from http://www.diabetes.co.uk/The-big-three-diabetes-signs-and-symptoms.html
Mayo Clinic, (2014). Type 1 Diabetes. Retrieved November 8, 2014 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/basics/symptoms/con-20019573
Rheem G., (2013). Types 1 and 2 Diabetes: A Comparison and Contrast. Retrieved November 8, 2014 from http://amarris.homestead.com/Type_I_and_II_diabetes.htm
Learning Disabilities and Juvenile Delinquency
Popular vs. scientific press: Weight loss studies
The popular media often sensationalizes the cautious findings of scientific research, in an effort to catch the casual reader's attention at all costs -- even if the cost is the truth. This can be seen in the CNN piece "Exercise lengthens your life -- even if you're overweight," a title designed to communicate an unequivocally positive message in an America where the majority of the population is overweight or obese. CNN reports the findings of a recent scientific journal article in which researchers suggest that moderate exercise can add years to a person's life, regardless of weight status. Although the CNN article does not directly misstate the findings of the original journal article on which it was based, it neglects to mention some of the caution of the studies' authors regarding an excessive BMI.
Hagan, Caitlin. (2012). Exercise lengthens your life - even if you're overweight.
CNN. Retrieved: http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2012/11/06/exercise-lengthens-your-life-even-if-youre-overweight/
Moore SC, Patel AV, Matthews CE, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Park Y, et al. (2012).
Leisure time physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity and mortality: A large pooled cohort analysis. PLoS Med 9(11): e1001335.
Further, within this essay I have explained key reasons for how and why women's mere building of healthy muscle through appropriate weight-lifting exercise will not in fact make women "bulk up" (and that in order to do so, women must in fact weight train in a particularly rigorous and deliberate way, one that average female weight-lifters simply do not). Instead, weight-lifting allows most women who exercise regularly and correctly in this way to become healthier, more physically fit, more physically attractive, and therefore to like themselves better and gain greater self-confidence. Women who have been holding back from weight-lifting due to the unrealistic fear of building too much muscle may now, therefore, relax about this faulty myth, pack their gym bags, and head fearlessly toward those barbells and/or Nautilus machines!
Bedeaux, J. (2006). Biggest benefits of strength training. Changing Shape.
etrieved November 8, 2006, at http://www.changingshape. http://72.14.
Bedeaux, J. (2006). Biggest benefits of strength training. Changing Shape.
Retrieved November 8, 2006, at http://www.changingshape. http://72.14.
104/search?q=cache:68yf2lMgweUJcom/resources/articles / strength-training-for-woman.asp+dispelling+women%27s+fear+of+weight+ lifting&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=2.html.
David, M. (2006). Women who lift weights turn into men? Retrieved November 7, 2006, from: http:www.healthguidance, org/article/36011/women-who-lift-weights turn-into-men.html.
Calculate Touring Enterprises' weighted average cost of capital (WACC).
Work as follows: first, compute the after-tax cost of debt, then compute the cost of equity.
WACC = E/V x Re + D/V x Rd x (1 - Tc)
Re = cost of equity
Rd = cost of debt
E = market value of the firm's equity
D = market value of the firm's debt
V = E + D = firm value
E/V = percentage of financing that is equity
D/V = percentage of financing that is debt
Tc = corporate tax rate
Cost of equity 5%
Cost of debt 10%
Total Equity- 7 million
Total debt- 18 million
Total 25 million
Determine the weightings of debt and equity in the capital structure.
Equity -28% (7 divided by 25)
Using your answers to the above questions, calculate the WACC
WACC = E/V x Re + D/V x Rd…
In year 1799 anesthetic properties of Nitric Oxide were discovered by Humphery Davy (1778-1829) he advised that the by using nitric oxide, pain and shock of the surgical procedure can be negated. Third person who continue with Morton and ells philosophy was Charles T. Jackson. The Fourth man who contributed to anesthetics was Thomas Mortan (Blatner, 2009). In the year 1848 James Simpson used chloroform in obstetric surgery, he used diethyl ether to anesthetize a women with a pelvic deformity for delivery (kodali, 2009) and in year 1853 John Snow did a successful induction of chloroform to her Majesty Queen Victoria at the time of Prince Leopold's Birth and also on Fenny Longfellow who wrote to her poet brother that this use of ether is certainly the greatest blessing of this era (Longfellow, 1956). In the year 1885-illiam Halsted introduced the nerve block. In 1891 Heinrich Quincke demonstrated the process…
Bergman, Norman. History of Anesthesia. chua2.fiu.edu. http://ahahq.org/Bulletin/AHA_GB_1991-10.pdf .Retrieved from 14th Jan 2013.
Conquering surgical pain: Four men stake their claims. (2012). Massachusetts General
Blatner, Adam. The discovery and invention of Anesthesia. Blatner.com. http://www.blatner.com/adam/consctransf/historyofmedicine/4-anesthesia/hxanesthes.html . Retrieved on 14th Jan 2013.
Fadden, John. Cultural, Environmental and Genetical influences on drug therapy. Jbpub.com. http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763786076/86076_CH03_FINAL.pdf . Retrieved on 14th Jan 2013.
For example, Mr. Aarons leaves his home early, every morning to drive to a construction job in ashington, D.C. The children and Mrs. Aarons milk the family's cow and grow and can fruits and vegetables to provide food for the Aaron family. In spite of all this effort, the family has little or no money for luxuries, such as art supplies for Jess. In contrast, the Burke family comes to the setting of rural Appalachia because they are dissatisfied with their comfortable life in a wealthy suburb of ashington, D.C. Despite their best intentions, they are viewed dismissively as hippies by many of their neighbors. However, much as the children seek a fantasy life in their imaginary kingdom in the book, the adult Burke family was similarly in search of an ideal existence outside of the large cities on the eastern seaboard, searching for a sense of peace and an…
Research and Documentation
Lambarski, Tim. (Jan/Feb 2005) "Forming Values Through Literature." Today's Catholic Teacher. Retrieved 2 June 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3924/is_200501/ai_n9467350
Nikolajeva, Marie. (2001) "The changing aesthetics of character in children's fiction." Style. Retrieved 2 June 2005 at Style. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2342/is_3_35/ai_97074157/pg_3
Paterson, Katherine. (1978) Bridge to Terabithia. New York: HarperCollins.
In most of the studies, low carb and low fat dieters have been compared. In one of these studies, two groups of people were chosen. One of these groups was given the low fat diet and the other group was given the low carb diet. Exercise routines were designed for these groups. In the end of the study that was carried out for a period of two years, it was found that the same amount of weight was lost by the two groups and, health parameters in the two groups were the same. Most of the studies have shown that there could be a greater degree of weight loss in the first 3 to 6 months of using low carb diets. Nevertheless, after some months, there are no differences in the weight. Calories are the most important factor in the case of these two kinds of diets.
D'Arrigo, T. (2007). "Low-fat vs. low-carb. What really works?" Diabetes Forecast 60(7):16.
Flynn, Mary. Low-Fat Lies: High Fat Frauds and the Healthiest Diet in the World. Regnery Publishing, 2000.
Kim, J.Y., Yang, Y.H., Kim, C.N., Lee, C.E., and Kim, K.I. (2008). "Effects of very-low-carbohydrate (horsemeat- or beef-based) diets and restricted feeding on weight gain, feed and energy efficiency, as well as serum levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin and ketone bodies in adult rats." Ann Nutr Metab.53 (3-4):260-7.
Lutz, Wolfgang., Allen, Christian., and Allan, B. Christian. Life Without Bread: How a Low Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life. McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000.
Drugs thought to enhance serotonin-mediated neurotransmission have been shown to diminish appetite for carbohydrates. In a study done by Heraief, Burckhardt, Wurtman and Wurtman, (1985), they examined the ability of tryptophan (TP), serotonin's amino acid precursor, or a placebo to influence weight loss among 62 obese Swiss outpatients who were on a reducing diet known as the Protein-Sparing Modified Fast (PSMF) Diet which is often associated with severe carbohydrate craving. This diet provided relatively large amounts of protein but little carbohydrates, thus stimulating ketone body production. Its consumption also reduced the ratio of plasma TP to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids, thereby probably diminishing brain TP and serotonin levels. It was found that among moderately obese patients the TP significantly enhanced weight loss, especially during the first treatment month but also during the total. The TP didn't modify the reported adherence to the PSMF diet.…
Gordon-Elliott, Janna S. And Margolese, Howard C. (2006). Weight loss during prolonged branched-chain amino acid treatment for tardive dyskinesia in a patient with schizophrenia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 40(2), p195-195.
Group, Edward F. (2009). Amino Acid Weight Loss. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from Weight
Loss & Obesity Web site: http://www.weightlossobesity.com/weight-loss/amino-acid-weight-loss.html
Heraief, Eric, Burckhardt, Peter, Wurtman, Judith J. And Wurtman, Richard J. (1985).
The main advantage is that the stories are well documented and written in an objective manner.
008, GSK Outlines Plans to Become More 'Biotech-like', Fierce Biotech, http://www.fiercebiotech.com/story/gsk-outlines-plans-become-more-biotech/008-06-10 last accessed on June 3, 009
009, GlaxoSmithKline Plc., Hoovers, last accessed on June 3, 009 -- Hoovers is a centralized database that reveals information on multiple organizations. The benefit is that the data offered is extensive and comprises features such as industry forecasts, competition nature and organizational financial highlight, alongside with description of the respective company. The downside of the source is however given by the reduced amount of free information and for more extensive data, the user has to create a paid account.
009, The Industry Handbook -- Biotechnology, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/features/industryhandbook/biotech.asp last accessed on June 3, 009 -- Investopedia.com has been developed as an initiative of the highly popular and leading business publication Forbes. It can be useful for novice as…
2009, Website of GSK, http://www.gsk.com last accessed on June 3, 2009 -- The official of the British pharmaceutical company is a highly useful research tool as it contains vast information on the organization, its strategies and its products. It is however insufficient as it does not contain any information on the overall industry and as the organizational information are presented from their angle, without mentions of organizational problems.
2009, myalli.com, http://www.myalli.com / last accessed on June 3, 2009 -- the website presents the features of the Alli weight loss program in a manner that makes it attractive to the prospective buyer. The main role of the website was that of promoting the product, familiarizing the population with its existence and boosting sales. Despite the offering of extensive data on the product, the website under the patronage of GSK reveals the disadvantage of only praising the product and not seeming objective.
GSK 2008 Annual Report, Retrieved from
A dieter must come to know when he or she is most 'weak' in terms of binging, whether that is after a stressful day at night, or when in close proximity to food at the employee break room. Weight loss is a permanent lifestyle change, not a transient event like the word 'diet' sometimes suggests. Whether the triggers are emotional or physical, the dieter must develop coping mechanisms to wean him or herself away from fattening comfort foods. Having other, healthy foods on hand or developing new habits like going for a walk to deal with unpleasant situations can reconfigure a dieter's obesegenic environment and routine. Switching to smaller plates at home, stocking the refrigerator with healthy food, making exercise part of daily life rather than a rare occurrence, are all effective ways to slowly tone down the cues to overeat in the individual's environment. The problem with set point…
Set point theory. (2009). The Center for Health Promotion and wellness at MIT Medical Center.
Retrieved October 20, 2009 at http://medweb.mit.edu/pdf/set_point_theory.pdf
Creatine treatment started at 6, 8, and 10 weeks of age, analogous to early, middle, and late stages of human HD, significantly extended survival at both the 6- and 8-week starting points. Significantly improved motor performance was present in both the 6- and 8-week treatment paradigms, while reduced body weight loss was only observed in creatine-supplemented R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks." (Dedeoglu, et al., 2003) Specifically it is stated that the "...Neuropathological sequelae of gross brain and neuronal atrophy and huntington aggregates were delayed in creatine-treated R6/2 mice started at 6 weeks. We show significantly reduced brain levels of both creatine and ATP in R6/2 mice, consistent with a bioenergetic defect. Oral creatine supplementation significantly increased brain concentrations of creatine and ATP to wild-type control levels, exerting a neuroprotective effect. These findings have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that creatine therapy initiated after diagnosis may provide significant clinical benefits to…
NINDS Huntington's Disease Information Page (2009) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Online available at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm
Hamilton, J.M., et al. (2004) Rate and Correlates of Weight Change in Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology Neuroscience and Psychiatry 2004; 75:209-212. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Online available at http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/75/2/209
Gaba, Ann M. et al. (2005) Energy Balance in Early-Stage Huntington Disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. 6. June 2005.
Djousse, L. (2002) Weight Loss in Early Stage of Huntington's Disease. Journal of Neurology 2002. Nov. 12:59(9): 1325-30.
Americans spend billions of dollars on weight-loss products and programs every year. Despite this, most people do not lose the amount they would like or, if they do, regain the weight after a short period of time. The problem lies with following specific fads that emphasize one type of eating pattern. The low-carbohydrate diet, which has been popular off-and-on-again since the mid-1800s, exemplifies such a diet program. Studies do show that the low-carbohydrate diet can offer some benefits, but over the long-term does not offer any more advantages than any other diet. Other factors, such as adherence to the diet and lifestyle are more important to the equation.
Americans spent approximately $60 billion in 2009 on weight loss products and programs, including so-called "special" diet foods, appetite suppressants, diet books, exercise memberships, workout videos, and stomach-clamping surgery (World Health Organization, 2010). Yet obesity, especially among children and youth,…
Dansinger, ML, Gleason, J., Griffith, J.L., Selker, H.P., & Schaefer, E.J. (2005) Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart Disease Risk Reduction. A Randomized Trial JAMA. 293:43-53.
Hellmich, N. Success of Atkins diet is in the calories. USA Today
Foster, G.D. et al. (2003) A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 348:2082-2090
Lecture material from course.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)
apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…
Brody, J.E. (2007, Feb 20). Out of control: A true story of binge eating. New York Times, pp. F.7-F.7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/433509755?accountid=13044
Marchesini, G., Natale, S., Chierici, S., Manini, R., Besteghi, L., Domizio, S.D., . . . . (2002). Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.International Journal of Obesity, 26(9), 1261-1261-1267. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802073
Mefferd, K., Nichols, J.F., Pakiz, B., & Rock, C.L. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 104(2), 145-145-52. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9410-x
Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 24(12), 1726-1726-1737. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801465
The ad also says that it is America's #1 weight loss patch. Says who? Just them. There does not appear to be any proof that backs up any of the claims that they make in regards to this product.
Advertising is an essential part of marketing. The intention of an ad campaign is to reach a lot in order to increase the demand for the products being endorsed. In this campaign the advertisers used Highlighting Features. The features of the product should be clearly stated. An advertisement campaign that talks on and on about a product without affirming its features will fail to do any good. A high-quality weight loss product campaign should start by discussing about that the weight loss product has been designed to help people lose weight fast, or lose weight safely or lose weight without regaining the lost weight. People who are troubled about losing weight…
Advertisement Techniques: Creative Advertising Techniques and Tricks. (2010). Retrieved May
1, 2010, from Buzzle Web site: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advertisement-techniques-creative-advertising-techniques-and-tricks.html
Baker, Sherry and. Martinson, David L. (2001). The TARES Test: Five Principles for Ethical
Persuasion. Journal of Mass Media Ethics.16 (2&3), p, 148 -- 175.
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…
This begins by asking a question. In that case, the question would be: Does Sensa cause weight loss without dieting? Background research would then need to be done. This would include any literature and other research information that could be found on Sensa from reputable sources. Information from InStyle and Good Housekeeping would not be considered for this type of research, because these are not reputable magazines from a scientific standpoint. A hypothesis would be constructed from the background research, which would be that Sensa causes weight loss without dieting. From that point, it would be necessary to conduct an experiment to prove or disprove that hypothesis.
An experiment to prove or disprove this hypothesis would need to include a control group, and that group would need to eat the same food and the same quantity of food as those using the Sensa. This is difficult, because everyone metabolizes food…
Braithwaite, J., & Jackson, J. (2006). What is pseudoscience?
Weight loss discovery making national headlines. (2012). How life works. Retrieved from http://www.howlifeworks.com/a/a/?cid=7425aa&AG_ID=520
Marketing Channels and Methods -- the New Svelte Shape of McDonald's
Objectives & Mission Statement
Although McDonald's latest advertising slogan, as proclaimed on its 2005 website, is "I'm lovin' it," (McDonald's Official ebsite, 2005), shareholders in the fast food company have not be equally enamored of its current stock performance and plummeting sales. (The Rogue Investor, 2005) Thus, the objectives of the new McDonald's marketing campaign must be to undo some of the economic and public relations damage done to the company by the negative press generated by the success of Morgan Spurlock's film 'Supersize Me.' Over the course of the year, McDonald's wishes to gain a greater percentage of the revenue of the current fast food market than its most prominent burger-oriented competitors endy's and Burger King. McDonald's also wishes to gain some of the type of positive media as generated by the sandwich chain Subway. The Subway Diet…
Bauman, Valerie. (11 Aug 2005) "People try to lose weight at McDonalds." AP Wire. Accessed on AOL on 22 Aug 2005 at http://aolsvc.news.aol.com/news/article.adp?id=20050811163009990002
Burger King. (2005) Official Website. Retrieved 11 Sept 2005 at http://www.haveityourway.com/
Collins, Luke. (2002) "Chips are down for Burger Giants" MCD: McDonald's Corporation News and Articles. Retrieved 27 Aug 2005 at http://www.licenseenews.com/news/news134.html
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study is to construct a health promotion program for Alzheimer's Patients. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is "a form of dementia that interferes with a person's intellectual and social functioning." (NCPAD, 2012) One of the primary concerns for the individual with Alzheimer's is weight loss "due to eating problems such as poor-fitting dentures, problems in swallowing, and loss of appetite. Weight loss or loss of appetite may be caused by noise, odor, and/or conversation distractions while eating." (NCPAD, 2012) Caregivers are faced with many challenges in providing care for the Alzheimer's Patient. Findings in this study state that the primary components required for the health promotion program for the individual with Alzheimer's disease are those of: (1) nutrition; (2) physical activity; (3) mental activity; and (4) social activity and participation.
Health Promotion Program for Alzheimer's Patients
The objective of this study…
Adopt a Brain-Healthy Diet (2012) Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/we_can_help_adopt_a_brain_healthy_diet.asp
Berkman, LF (1995) The Role of Social Relations in Health Promotion. Psychosomatic Medicine. Vo. 57, Issue 3. Retrieved from: http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/content/57/3/245.short
Gillett-Guyonnet, Sophie, et al. (2000) Weight Loss in Alzheimer Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 71 no. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.ajcn.org/content/71/2/637s.full
Growing Stronger -- Strength Training for Older Adults (2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/growingstronger/index.html
Nursing Case Study
Jane lives a very difficult life when it comes to the everyday implications that she has to deal with. Taking care of one child at a young age is difficult enough; taking care of six by the age of 26, seems to be nearly impossible. It is not surprising to hear that having six children that range from eight months old to nine years old, can become something that not only takes a toll on the soul, but also takes a toll on the physique and health. No matter how someone may seem to someone else, as is the case with Jane and her husband, if Jane does not feel comfortable with herself, and she does not see herself as being productive in society, or even in her own life, it can turn into a downfall situation in something that needs to be resolved at its source.…
Rowen, L. (2009) Overview and summary: Obesity on the rise: What can nurses do?. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14(1).
Jordan-Welch, M., & Harbaugh, B.L. (2008). End the epidemic of childhood obesity...One family at a time. American Nurse Today. 3(6).
Camden, S. (2009) Obesity: An emerging concern for patients and nurses. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 14(1).
Brown, I., Stride, C., Psarou, A., & Thompson, J. (2007). Management of obesity in primary care: nurses' practices, beliefs and attitudes. JAN Original Research: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
A depression-screening tool would of course be an effective tool for use in the obesity clinic and would be worthwhile to employ even without any external research project being undertaken, but to have no recruitment procedures at all seems to invite the potential for a host of problems in sampling and in other aspects of research. Otherwise, however, a study-based directly on the population you are gathering for is clearly going to be an effective sample.
This leads to another issue -- a question more than a problem -- with the proposed in-clinic sampling. In such a situation, are there appropriate controls necessary to ensure a representative sample? If there are essentially no exclusionary requirements, could less accurate or somehow flawed data get through and cause the results to become skewed, even in some small way? For example, one study shows that many clinics have a fairly high attrition rate,…
Honas, J., Early, J., Frederickson, D., & O'Brien, M. (2003). Predictors of Attrition in a Large Clinic-Based Weight-Loss Program. Obesity Research 11: 888-94.
Paeratakul, S., Lovejoy, J., Ryan, D. & Bray, G. (2002). The relation of gender, race and socioeconomic status to obesity and obesity comorbidities in a sample of U.S. adults. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 26(9): 1205-10.
Health Care Marketing
Developing a pricing strategy for a clinic weight loss program
Today there are very many people who are struggling with the issue of weight. So many people want a quick and easy solution of loosing weight. This has led to many companies coming up with several clinic weight loss programs. When introducing any new product or service into the market pricing can be quite a tricky issue. The prices charged can have a dramatic effect on ones sales and even the profits. There are several things that to be considered when developing a pricing strategy for a clinic weight loss program. The first thing is finding out what the market is saying. This is achieved through finding out what customers expect to pay for the program and if there are established market prices for the same service. The second thing to put into consideration are the competitors,…
Monopolies and Trusts:
Appropriate Areas for Government Intervention?
Capitalism is the economic system that has dominated the United States virtually since the day of its independence. A social and economic system based on the recognition of individual rights; capitalism demands that owners' rights to control, enjoy, and dispose of their own property must be respected. In a capitalist system, the purpose of government is to protect individual economic rights, and to make sure that no one individual, or group may employ physical or coercive force upon any other group or individual. The success of capitalism is well evident. The surpluses that this system produces have enabled individuals to experiment; to create new products, and market new ideas. These private surpluses are traded in a free market in direct competition with other buyers and sellers. Such competition is best represented by the efforts of two or more parties acting independently to…
Nutro Balance Project Management
The project as it is currently scheduled will take 138 working days to complete and its expected completion is April 25th, 2012. The critical tasks in this project are task IDs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, & 13. These are:
Identify Target Consumers
Recruit Test Subjects
Screen Test Results
Finalize Test Subjects
Test the Subject
Input Actual Data into Database
Analyze Actual Data
Prepare Findings Report
The NutroBalance company produces a line of weight loss supplements and nutritional snacks. Ultra, a weight loss supplement which is geared primarily towards men who lift weights and do cardiovascular exercises, have been a big success. Therefore the company wishes to replicate this success by formulating the Ultra pills to target other segments of the workout population. UltraMAX, a new product, is geared toward women who also lift weights and do cardiovascular exercises.…
Risk Factors for Mr. Jablonski
CHD: Mr. J is a classic case for a potential Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) patient. His history shows several risk factors, which can be divided into uncontrollable and controllable risk factors. The uncontrollable factors are his age (48 years old) -- older people are more susceptible to CHD, his sex (male) -- men are more likely to get CHD, and his family history. The controllable risk factors are his obesity, his smoking habit, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, and his high LDL cholesterol.
Hypertension: The risk factors for Mr. J are his age, gender, obesity, excessive salt intake, and his inactive lifestyle.
The risk factors described as 'controllable' can be mitigated by dietary control and medication. If his condition remains untreated Mr. J is a potential candidate for a severe heart disease and possible stroke.
In order to lower his high…
Specifically, deficient cae may esult in a child's being vulneable as a consequence of a low intinsic level of self-esteem and self-woth (Pake, Baett, and Hickie, 1992). It is clea that a numbe of factos ae likely to affect the teenaged individual esulting in depession and it is citically noted that this depession must necessaily be addessed, teated and esolved. The client in this instance has bodeline low blood pessue which should be monitoed seveal times each week and futhemoe the body mass index (BMI) of this individual is excessively low indicating that this patient needs to be counseled in egads to thei diet both in tems of quality and quantity of foods consumed.
Logsdon, Cynthia J.(nd) Depession in Adolescent Gils: Sceening and Teatment Stategies fo Pimay Cae Povides Jounal of the Ameican Medical Women's Association Volume 59, No 2.
Lemay, Edwad P. And Ashmoe, Richad D. (2005) the…
reference: Studies of occupational and recreational choice. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 11-18.
The Benefits and Risks of the High-Protein Diet
Finding a healthy diet, achieving nutritional balancing an attaining an ideal body weight may be lifelong challenges. Myriad competing theories and philosophies drive an almost infinite range of possibilities for comporting one's consumption of calories. Among them, one that has gained increasingly popularity and scientific evaluation is the high protein diet. This nutritional strategy is based on the premise that the body is best served by a diet that is lean, low on sugars and carbohydrates but high on proteins. This is a diet that is especially preferred for individuals seeking to lose fat, to gain muscle mass or to support the greater levels of energy consumption required by regular athletic or physical activity. However, some medical debate remains about how beneficial, healthy or balanced this dietary strategy is. The article here considers some dimensions of this debate.
One of the…
WebMD, 2011. High-Protein Diet for Weight Loss. WebMD.com.
Yeager, S., 2012. Protein: Your Secret Weight-Loss Weapon. Women's Health Magazine.
Zaretsky, K., 2012. Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Mayo Clinic.com.
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
The closed meetings would consist of 15 or fewer members, would be conducted on a weekly basis for approximately 2 hours in a private university classroom or meeting area, and informed consent, eligibility screening and other relevant issues would be addressed in a meeting to be conducted prior to the first formal group meeting.
Possible Social Change Impact
The possible impact of this initiative is difficult to gauge without a comprehensive longitudinal study of the participants involved; however, the importance of regaining lost self-esteem and a sense of self-worth to each person is immeasurable.
Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2006). Groups: Process and practice (Seventh Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Markey, C.N., & Markey, P.M. (2005). elations between body image and dieting behaviors: An examination of gender differences. Sex oles: A Journal of esearch, 53(7-8), 519.
Winter, M. (2005). Obesity shows…
Corey, G. & Corey, M.S. (2006). Groups: Process and practice (Seventh Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Markey, C.N., & Markey, P.M. (2005). Relations between body image and dieting behaviors: An examination of gender differences. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 53(7-8), 519.
Winter, M. (2005). Obesity shows socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities. Human Ecology, 33(3), 21.
statistical analyses used.
List the statistical procedures used to describe the sample.
Power analysis was used in order to discover power of effect. The power was set to 0.8 with a significant level of 0.05. Differences between the intervention and the control group were tested with Pearson's Chi. A t-test was used for the other perimeters. ANCOVA was used for testing changes between the two groups over time.
Was the level of significance or alpha identified? If so, indicate the level (.05, .01, or .001).
The level of significance was described. The power of the effect size was set to 0.8 with a significant level of 0.05. 0.05 was used throughout as perimeter of significance.
Complete the table below with the analysis techniques conducted in the study:
Identify the purpose (description, relationships, or differences) of each analysis technique.
Power analyses was used in order discover whether the test actually did…
In this project, two research study questions are outlined. This paper answers these questions in detail. The first part of the paper touches on quantitative approach in research and focuses on the first question. Here the paper highlights on the reasons for the approach selected highlighting on variables in the study. In the second part of the paper, qualitative approach is discussed as the appropriate choice as an answer to the second question. Here also, the approach is justified as a preferred choice.
Quantitative research is the best suited design and serves the purpose of this study. The study is aimed at determining the level of weight loss for patients in a primary care clinic who are using marketed natural supplements. The study involves a systematic empirical inquiry of the weight of these patients through a statistical method; their weight is assessed at 3, 6 and…
Tea as an Antioxidant
Tea is an aromatic drink that is usually prepared by soaking or pouring water over plant products, typically the tea plant, but also may be infused with other dried herbs, roots, or extracts. After plain water, tea is consumed more than any other drink globally, including soft drinks. It has a slightly bitter, astringent flavor, sometimes floral, sometimes metallic, that people find enjoyable and often relaxing or, in some cases, medicinal (Martin, 2007). The consumption of tea is said to have a number of beneficial health effects based on the properties it has including antioxidants, flavinols, flavonoids, polyphenols, and catechins. The catechins, particularly, are known for anti-inflammatory and cellular detoxicity. In addition, these catechins have proven neuroprotective activities that can bond with cannabinoid receptors and suppress pain and nausea and provide a relaxing effect (Korte, G., et.al., 2010). Medical studies have also shown that green tea…
AAICAD. (2010, July 12). Large-Scale, Long-Term Studies Support Roles of Physical Activity and Diet in Dementia and Cognitive Decline. Retrieved from Medical News Today: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/194407.php
Biotech Week. (2011, January 19). Protective Properties of Green Tea Uncovered. Retrieved from High Beam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-247694008.html
Feruzzi, M. (2010). The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea. Physiological Behavior, 100(1), 33-41.
Fontaine, K. (2010). Complementary & Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Prentice Hall.