Western Culture Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Western Civ the Concept of

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66266289

Asian, African and other non-white cultures were to be subjected to military, governmental, economic and missionary domination in order to help raise the world's positive reflection of the implied benefits of Western Civilization.

The absence of truly formal correlation between Western Culture and any one culture has become more apparent in the last century especially. During the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, the idea of West vs. East became inextricably linked to a new conception of nation-building. Here, imperialist models were adapted which saw the two forms of government and lifestyle (i.e. capitalism and communism) engage in an effort at global domination of ideology and economic framework. The premise which drove forward the United States and its allies was this adopted notion of Western Civilization as reflecting modernity, moral progressivism and an inherent dispensation of Enlightenment principles.

Naturally, as memory of such Cold War…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Western Religion

Words: 6937 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99571749

Western Religion

In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.

Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386

Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192

Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
View Full Essay

Culture Industry We Make and

Words: 1547 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91848607

ith the implementation of technology allowing these works to be mass produced mechanically, they are fully engrained within the popular culture of a society as well as the idea of high Culture, (51). Therefore, millions of people believe that these pieces, which they will never be able to obtain in real life, still represent a part of the larger culture which dominants their life.

This strange structure of the cultural hierarchy of estern Culture represents the idea that our society will never stray to far from its roots of class domination based on controlling the society through controlling the means of production. Rather than control the general population through sheer force, estern societies have instead chosen a route of hegemony, in which they control the mind of the individuals within the society. This control ensures the survival of the underlying class divisions and conflicts, while still presenting a united front…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks. Durham, Meenakshi Gigi & Kellner, Douglas (Eds.). Blackwell Publishers. Pp. 48-70. 2000.

Horkheimer, Max & Adorno, Theodor. "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass

Deception." Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks.. Durham, Meenakshi Gigi & Kellner, Douglas (Eds.). Blackwell Publishers. Pp. 71-101. 2000.

Marx, Karl & Engels, Friedrich. "The Ruling Class and the Ruling Ideas." Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks.. Durham, Meenakshi Gigi & Kellner, Douglas (Eds.). Blackwell Publishers. Pp. 39-42. 2000.
View Full Essay

Western Humanities

Words: 987 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58934661

Western Humanities

The Prevalence of Homosexuality in Ancient Greek Society and Mythology

In any study of Western Culture, there are certain elements which must be addressed to fully understand the development of said culture over time. Among the early cultures that have had a significant impact on this development is that of Ancient Greece. Western philosophy, science, and art are all infused with ideas and innovations which began in Greek culture. In the world of architecture, for example, the Greeks revolutionized the use of cement and arches, bringing about a new era in building design. Scientifically, the contributions of such great men as Archamedes and Pythagorus are used as the basis for much of our modern mathematics and technology. Great thinkers of the day such as Plato and Socrates are considered to be among the greatest philosophers of all time, and they are used as a reference point for many…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Cultures Different Cultures Are Very

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39923060

In rare cases, mothers taught their daughters reading and writing. At 15, girls were expected to marry men their fathers chose for them. Interestingly, this was only the fate of wealthier girls. Peasant girls chose their own husbands when working in the fields (Fisher and Harlan).

Japan

According to Tomoko Shimoda, the traditional Japanese family is regarded as very important, also with specific roles for women, men and children. Although Western influence has standardized education and emancipated women, they are still generally regarded as mostly active and highly important in the household. Women maintain the family finances and care for the children, while the role of men is to be engaged in work, which mostly constituted the family business. Both girls and boys are educated, although boys are steered towards taking over the family business while girls are taught housekeeping and accounting skills. In the past, marriages were generally arranged,…… [Read More]

References

Crystal, Ellie. Ancient Greek Education.  http://www.crystalinks.com/greekeducation.html 

Fisher, Grant and Harlan, Cheri Beth. The Roles of Men, Women and Children in Ancient Greece. http://chalk.richmond.edu/education/projects/webunits/greecerome/Greeceroles1.html

Shimoda, Tomoko. Representations of Parenting and Gender Roles in the Shoshika Era: Comparisons of Japanese and English-Language Parenting Magazines. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies. 14 Jan 2008.  http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/articles/2008/Shimoda.html
View Full Essay

Western Art and Christianity During the Past

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38414552

Western Art and Christianity

During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.

The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Culture Clashes With a Culture

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8513866

"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she gets it she is happy, and when it is absent from her kitchen for a long time, she sulks like a child. For Mrs. Sen fish becomes her home, her state, her neighborhood, her friend and her family. Fish gives her a sense of proximity to her people. The arrival of a tasty halibut gives her pleasure as nothing else does" (Choubey 2001). But when Mrs. Sen is rebuked for the smell of her prized fish, even this source of connection with home, however, tenuous, becomes perverted.

Some of the characters of the Interpreter of Maladies learn to negotiate their new identities and cultural terrains and bridge the cultural gaps that exist between themselves and their fellow Indians, as well as with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Choubey, Asha. "Food as Metaphor in Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies."

The Literature and Culture of the Indian Subcontinent on the Postcolonial Web. Last modified 2001. [8 Dec 2007.]

http://www.usp.nus.edu.sg/post/india/literature/lahiri/choubey1.html

Lahiri, Jhumpa Interpreter of Maladies and other stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
View Full Essay

Culture and Diversity Issues in

Words: 2845 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13936527

Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.

Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:

Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…… [Read More]

References

Choy, W. 1 Jul 2007, "Globalisation and workforce diversity: HRM implications for multinational corporations in Singapore," Singapore Management Review, http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/4509815-1.html.

Edewor, P. & Aluko, P. May 2007, "Diversity management, challenges and opportunities in multicultural organizations," International Journal of Diversity in Organisation, Communities & Nations vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 189-195.

Hofstede, G. Feb 1993, "Cultural constraints in management theories," Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94.

Ismail, R. & Shaw, B. Feb 2006, "Singapore's Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post 9/11 world," Asian Ethnicity vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-51.
View Full Essay

Western Beauty Ideals A Cultural

Words: 2610 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24853682

Christy Turlington explains to Elle magazine... "Advertising is so manipulative," she says. "There's not one picture in magazines today that's not airbrushed."… "It's funny," Turlington continues. "hen women see pictures of models in fashion magazines and say, 'I can never look like that,' what they don't realize is that no one can look that good without the help of a computer." (Hilary 13)

That's right, the beautiful Turlington, a woman that can be said as fitting the standard ideal of American beauty, admits that it is unachievable even for her. hy? Because even she admits that she has been touched up. In a similar exercise, we can only imagine the remarkable steadfastness this act must have taken, but it shows that there is a realization that this American image is unattainable (Domar 23).

The Trouble with Persisting Ideas

Even if the mechanism behind the spread and adoption of ideas is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso Publishing, 1991. Print.

Chernin, Karen. Hungry Self: Women, Eating, & Identity. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2008

Dixon, Violet. "Understanding the Implications of a Global Village." Reason and Respect 4.1 (2008). 1-5. Web. 15 May 2011.

Domar, Allan. (Prof) Harvard Medical School. Parade magazine, October 11, 2003.
View Full Essay

Western Civilization Has Long Held

Words: 1599 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62570781

The identity of a Geisha, and the origins of the profession has a great deal more to do with performance and skills in such than in any other aspect of the trade.

(1) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The

Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.

http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,

2010) p. 223.

(2) Ibid. p. 224.

(3) Ibid. p. 223.

(4) Ibid.

(5) Graham-Diaz, Naomi. Immortal Geisha History of the Geisha, Part One: 1100 AD

1750 AD. October 2001. http://www.immortalgeisha.com/history_01.php (accessed July

10, 2010).

(6) Ibid.

(7) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The

Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.

http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,

2010) p. 223.

(8) Ibid. p. 222.

(9) Ibid. p. 221.

(10) Chen, Li-Yu, and Lai On-Kwok. "Creativity and Hybridism of Cultures in a Globalizing

World The e-Production-cum-Consumption of…… [Read More]

References

Chen, Li-Yu, and Lai On-Kwok. "Creativity and Hybridism of Cultures in a Globalizing World The Re-Production-cum-Consumption of Asian Local Idiosyncrasies." Journal of Policy Studies 31 (March 2009): 141-154.

Graham-Diaz, Naomi. Immortal Geisha History of the Geisha, Part One: 1100 AD - 1750 AD. October 2001.  http://www.immortalgeisha.com/history_01.php  (accessed July 10, 2010).

Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The Gion School and Representation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.  http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf  (accessed July 10, 2010).

Prasso, Sheridan. The Asian Mystique: Dragon Ladies, Geisha Girls and Our Fantasies of the Exotic Orient. Perseus Book Group Cambridge MA. Cambridge MA: Perseus Book Group, 2006.
View Full Essay

Western Education in Ethiopia There

Words: 2820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56501202

" (itek, 1989, Ngugi wa Thiongo, 1986, Mazrui, 1986, 2001, Mamdani, 1990, 1993, Copans, 1990, Rwomire, 1992, and van Rinsum, 2001; as cited in: Nyamnjoh, 2004)

According to Nyamnjoh (2004) "...the elite have 'often in unabashed imitativeness' and with little attempt at domestication, sought to reproduce, even without finances to sustain, the Oxfords, Cambridges, Harvards, Stanfords and Sorbonnes of England, the U.S.A. And France." (Nyamnjoh, 2004) Education in Africa is stated to have been and "mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalized sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems." (Nyamnjoh, 2004)

It is related by Nyamnjoh (2004) that the process of cultural uprooting of Africans "has been achieved often through literally uprooting children of the well-off from their communities and nurturing them in boarding schools" and as stated in the work of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Haileselassie Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Ph.D. (nd) Ethiopia Center for Educational Information.  http://chora.virtualave.net/culturalfoundation.htm 

Tessema, Kedir Assefa (2007) Clinging to the Managerial Approach in Implementing Teacher Education 'Reform' Tasks in Ethiopia. International Journal of Progressive Education, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2007.

Mamdani, M. (1990) the Intelligentsia, the State and Social Movements: Some Reflections on Experiences in Africa. Kampala, Centre for Basic Research.

Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1997) Detailed: A Writer's Prison Diary in R.R. Grinker and C.B. Steiner eds., Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford Blackwell Publishers.
View Full Essay

Western Civilization Define Its Major

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8471789

What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wikipedia. (December 27, 2007) Western Culture. Retrieved on December 30, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_culture
View Full Essay

Western and Muslim Educational Philosophies the Foundations

Words: 13134 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5403306

estern and Muslim Educational Philosophies

The Foundations of Function: Educational Philosophy and Psychology

Meet the Social Realities of ESL Instruction

Education into English as a Second Language (ESL) has become very important in this country, as many people are coming in from non-English speaking countries because they feel that America has much more to offer them. These children are eager to learn, but they often struggle because they do not understand the English language well. Even those that can speak English reasonable well sometimes have difficulties because there are many subtleties in the English language that these ESL students do not understand or even realize. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ESL education that goes on in the estern world, as well as the ESL education that Muslims deal with.

The similarities and differences will be discussed, and Muslims who come to America will also be discussed.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bashir-Ali. K. (2003). Teaching Muslim girls in American schools. Social Education.

Cortes, C. (1986). The Education of Language Minority Students. In Beyond Language: Social & Cultural Factors in Schooling Language Minority Students. Los Angeles, California: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, CSU, Los Angeles.

Designing inset programmes for Muslim schools. (2003). INSET. Retrieved at http://www.iberr.org/inset.htm

O'Malley, M. & Valdez-Pierce, L. (1996). Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners. New York: Addison Wesley.
View Full Essay

Culture on Brand Building in

Words: 2082 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75271713

As a result, not only are foreign markets changing to adapt to the Chinese marketplace needs, the Chinese marketplace, and consumer, are likewise adapting and changing to meet the needs of the global market. For instance, the economic boom in China's urban areas is creating a new consumer culture where the consumer has more disposable income to work with. This itself has effected consumer preferences and patterns within the Chinese marketplace. The general result is that a more sophisticated Chinese consumer is emerging and foreign companies need to market to their sophisticated needs while at the same time marketing to the general population's needs.

Therefore, the most effective way for a company to build a strong brand name in the rapidly emerging Chinese market is to adapt itself to the rapidly changing Chinese culture. To do this, it is important that the foreign company create a local presence and thus…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apadu, K., and Sevgin, E. (1991): "Success and Failure of Japanese Companies' Export Ventures in High-Tech Industries," International Marketing Review. Vol. 8, No. 2, p.p. 66-76.

Armstrong, E. (2002): "Communication's Starring Role and Standard Chartered Bank," Strategic Communication Management. Vol. 6, No. 4, p.p. 10-13.

Ayala, J. And Lain, R. (1996): "China's Consumer Market: A Huge Opportunity to Fail?," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 3, p.p. 56-72.

Ayala, J., Lai, R. Mok, B. et. al. (1996): "Winning China's Consumer Market in the 21st Century," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 2, p.p. 178-181.
View Full Essay

Cultures Work That What Is

Words: 2258 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21038446

e. according to American norms and conventions. Part of this, incidentally, was due too to the fault of government itself that failed to provide them with the land, which the Hmong could have fertilized.

I realized that even thoguh America has gone a long way in attempting to appreciate other cultures and in refraining from foisting their own way of life on cultures other than they; they still do so to a certain extent.

I also wonder why people found it so hard to understand that others coming from lives so different than they would need time to acclimate and learn their 'language'.

Most of all I was impressed with the steadfastness, courage, and resilience of the Lees to resolutely cling to her traditions and way of life despite recrimination and hardship.

There are some things that are better in the Hmong culture than in the Western culture, such as…… [Read More]

Reference

Fadiman, A. The spirit catches you and you fall down. Farrar & co., 1997
View Full Essay

Culture on Communication Then Explain Two Ways

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54766796

culture on communication. Then explain two ways misunderstandings might occur among cultures with different communication styles. Finally, propose two solutions to enhance cross-cultural communication.

ommunication: The influence of culture on communication

Although the urge to communicate using a common language may seem to be a universal impulse, the ways in which communication takes place is highly dependent upon an individual's cultural context. For example, within an Asian cultural context, the level of hierarchy, social distance, and expectation of obedience is different between parents and children than in a Westernized cultural context. This can often cause conflict for Asian adolescents reared in the United States who are still 'acculturated' to Asian norms by first-generation parents at home (Rhee, hang & Rhee 2003: 750). While the relationship of a child to a parent exists in all cultures, the expectations attached to that relationship are far from universal in nature and scope. Acculturation…… [Read More]

Communication (both verbal and non-verbal) is key to understanding a culture. Language, gestures, expressions, and other symbols for interaction, help to explain the differences between cultures and help one understand the attitudes, values, and beliefs of a certain culture. Language, including each word, utterance, and distance between conversations, are all influenced by culture.

Language and culture are closely intertwined. Language affects culture while culture affects language. Cross-cultural research has examined miscommunication and why it happens. Two umbrella explanations for miscommunication are via the interpersonal underpinnings of politeness and indirectness (Fiske, Gilbert, & Lindzey, 2001). Scollon and Scollon (1981) found that Athabaskans (indigenous peoples of North America-Alaska), " tend to assume greater distance when interacting with unacquainted individuals than do English-speaking Americans" (Fiske, Gilbert, & Lindzey, p. 1402, 2001). Thus, Athabaskans prefer more distance and more negative politeness strategies while Americans refer more positive approach-based politeness strategies. This could result in a misunderstanding when group members interact. Another communication difference ties more specifically into language. Speakers of English tend to refer to themselves via pronouns when reporting their actions (i.e. "I went to the store") while speaks of other languages (namely Japanese) often do not do this at all (i.e. "Went to the store"). Using pronouns is a linguistic practice that tends to be used in more individualistic cultures like America, where the emphasis is on the person. Conversely, not using pronouns is related to more collectivistic cultures where the target of the sentence is decontextualized (Kashima & Kashima, 2003). Related to this is another cross-cultural difference of linguistic abstractness. South Korean speakers are more likely to use verbs when they speak whereas English speakers are more likely to use adjectives, to describe a variety of social objects (Kashima, Kashima, Kim, and Gelfand, 2006). There are many other cross-cultural differences in communication that may or may affect the way we understand others.

Enhancing cross-cultural communication requires understanding a culture's background, roots, traditions, and values, amongst other factors. Knowing whether a culture is individualistic or collectivistic is hugely significant, and would really explain the differences between at least the two examples seen here. Studying the social construction of meaning to a culture requires a lot of work, but allows us to understanding a culture's language and means of communicating, at least verbally. Knowledge of expressions and gestures and other kinesics of a culture can help to understand the nonverbal communication produced by a culture. There is no other ways to decreasing misunderstandings without knowledge of the origin of the misunderstanding itself. This requires complete comprehension of the culture in all its facets. Without that ability, one will struggle to understand and accept the verbal and nonverbal communication styles used by different groups of people. If you don't grow up with it, it is foreign to you and can often seem negative, or wrong. However if looked at from the other lens, the other group feels
View Full Essay

Culture Essay

Words: 3113 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

This essay examines the meaning of culture and provides several possible titles and topics that may be used as starting points for developing a paper on culture. It discusses the definition of culture, how culture is developed, and how cultures change. It shows how cultural identity and cultural differences are formed and how culture diversity is a fact of life. It also explains why in spite of diverse cultures commonly existing in one group there is usually a dominant culture that comes to the fore and is promoted by the leaders of the group. The essay closes with recommendations for other ways in which a paper on culture can be written.

Culture is the heart and soul of a society, group or organization: it is the manifestation of what a particular set of people thinks, feels, believes in, and holds as ideal. It is the communication of what a people…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Complexities of Culture and Counseling

Words: 2436 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57159570

Culture and Counseling

In her book The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, author Anne Fadiman recounts the life and death of a little Hmong girl living in Merced, California. Lia Lee had what Western doctors call epilepsy, and which the Hmong have a far more lyrical explanation that lends itself to the title of Fadiman's book. The most common neurological disease, epilepsy can be frightening and potentially debilitating. However, in cultures around the world and throughout time, from the Hmong to the ancient Greeks, epilepsy opens pathways to creativity and an increased understanding of the universe. Thus, as Fadiman points out, many epileptics become shamans. When Lia Lee first started having epileptic seizures, her mom Foua, speaking not a word of English, rushed her to the Merced Community Medical Center. There, doctors tended to the eight-month-old child as best they could under the circumstances. Because all she was…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos Personal

Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10414840

Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos

PESONAL SOCIAL STATUS: In researching this project, I found a study prepared by the Canadian Nurses Association (2005). It reviewed the social determinants of health and how one's social status impacts their or their family health outcomes. The focus of this piece was on issues such as poverty, economic inequality, social isolation and social support systems and their impact on the health of minorities, many of the same categories and characteristics mentioned in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (Andrews et al., 2010). While their study was more on a broad base of Canadian conditions, their findings seem to reflect the circumstances of many first and second generation Filipinos. First and later generations of Filipinos who move to new cultures do act differently, but for the most part there remain many family connections and networks that cannot be overlooked.

My social status is mostly a…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Andrews, M. et al. (2010). Theoretical Basis for Transcultural Care. Section II. Foundations of Transcultural Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. Vol. 21. DOI: 10.1177/1043659610374321.

Canadian Nursing Association (2005). Social Determinants of Health and Nursing: A summary of Issues. Canadian Nursing Association. Viewable at http://www.cna-aiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/BG8_Social_Determinants_e.pdf.

Castillo, M.V. (nd). Caring in the Diaspora: Filipino Immigrants, Health Care, Healing, and Religion. Religious Healing in Boston. Viewable at http://www.hds.harvard.edu/cswr/resources/print/rhb/reports/13.Castillo.pdf.

McBride, M. (nd). Health and Health Care of Filipino Elders. Stanford Geriatric Education Center. Viewable at http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/filipino.html.
View Full Essay

Western Sahara Conflict in the

Words: 8710 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67127972

hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:

At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."

For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107024755

Borowiec, Andrew. 2003. Taming the Sahara: Tunisia Shows a Way While Others Falter. Westport, CT: Praeger. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107024757.Internet. Accessed 14 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002077928

Dela Rosa, Darrell. 2003. The UN Role in Western Sahara. UN Chronicle, September-November, 22+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002077928.Internet. Accessed 14 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026946743

Dodds, Klaus. 2008. Western Sahara. Geographical, May, 12. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026946743.Internet. Accessed 14 August 2008.
View Full Essay

Western Ethical Theories

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10008808

Western Ethical Theories

The objective of this work is to examine Western Ethical theories including teleological, deontological, natural law, and interest view and virtue ethics.

The work of Bennett-Woods (2005) states that while the words 'ethics' and 'morality' are "often used interchangeably, morality is more precisely used to refer to the customs, principles of conduct and moral codes of an individual, group or society." Ethics, is also stated to be termed "moral philosophy of the science of morals" and is the branch of philosophy that examines "morality through the critical examination of right and wrong in human action." (Bennett-Woods, 2005)

The study of ethics is generally characterized into three specific domains of study include those of: (1) metaethics which is related to the nature of right and wrong insofar as the where and how of the original of ethical judgments and what these judgments mean regarding the human nature and…… [Read More]

References

Virtue Ethics (2010) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/ 

Eric Wingrove-Haugland (1999) The Foundations of the Core Values in Western Ethical Theories. Retrieved from:  http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE99/Wingrove99.html 

Lovin, R.W. (2004) Moral Theories. Blackwell Publishing Company. Retrieved from:  http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/0631216340/Schweiker_sample%20chapter_A%20companion%20to%20religious%20ehtics.pdf 

Bennett-Woods, D. (2005 ) Ethics at a Glance. 2005 Regis University. Retrieved from:  http://rhchp.regis.edu/HCE/EthicsAtAGlance/EthicsAtAGlance.pdf
View Full Essay

Culture and the Environment

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64946693

Culture

As ai (2012) points out, just a generation ago, women had far fewer options in India. Even when they attended college, their job prospects were low and they were more frequently diverted to family life and domestic servitude. Now, increasing numbers of Indian women are empowering themselves through the IT services industry. As much flack as outsourcing receives in the United States, the truth is that Indian women are largely the beneficiaries, while Americans are being increasingly challenged to discover creative ways of contributing to the economy. Social norms in India for women differ greatly from those in the United States, where it is much easier for a woman to start a business and avoid marriage and childbirth. In India, a woman is steered in the direction of motherhood at an earlier age and could be socially shunned if her path seems more career-focused than family focused. In many…… [Read More]

References

Lewis, M. (2013). Population bomb? So wrong. Retrieved online:  http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/conservation-and-development/population-bomb-so-wrong/ 

Mukherjee, S. (2013). South India lags behind national fertility rate, slows population boom. The Times of India. Retrieved online:  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/South-India-lags-behind-national-fertility-rate-slows-population-boom/articleshow/19249154.cms 

Rai, S. (2012). How outsourcing is boosting prospects for Indian women. CNET. Retrieved online: http://news.cnet.com/8301-10797_3-57428450-235/how-outsourcing-is-boosting-prospects-for-indian-women/

Yasmin, S. (2013). Outsourcing to India: How call centers improve local economies. Elan. Retrieved online:  http://www.elanthemag.com/outsourcing-to-india-how-call-centers-improve-local-economies/
View Full Essay

Western Perceptions of the Other

Words: 3638 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70291320

" Photography may not, as Susan Sontag has claimed, symbolically reduce its subjects to "corpses,"

(Guimond 18)

It should also be pointed out this is to often not a specifically intentional attempt at disguise, but rather forms part of the cultural views and milieu of the time. This becomes evident if we take an cursory look at some of the photographers of the period.

Francis Johnston

Frances enjamin Johnston's Hampton Album was possibly one of the first photographic attempts to document and 'explain' in images the concept and reality of the American dream. Her work particularly relates to the above problems: the question of the other or minorities in the nation. Johnson created her images at Virginia's Hampton Institute in November and December 1899. This was an institution which was concerned with the education and training of lack people.

Many of the aspects relating to nations building and the American…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bird, S. Elizabeth, ed. Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.

Blair, Sara. "Cultural Geography and the Place of the Literary." American Literary History 10.3 (1998): 544-567.

Clark, Walter. Photography by Infrared: Its Principles and Applications. 2nd ed. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, inc.;, 1946.

Conner, Jill. "Representation and Photography." Afterimage 29.2 (2001): 16. Questia. 15 May 2005 .
View Full Essay

Culture Dismantling Identity Politics The

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9652411

374). It has been assumed that despite these internal cultural differences, overarching political similarities, shared history, or an interest in national diversity would be enough to unite the Canadian people under a single identity.

However, Kymlicka's (2003) close examination of the national and international has illustrated that they are largely shared by most modern, Western nations. Any presumed Canadian uniqueness is largely mythical (p. 368). Of course, mythology can be exceedingly unifying, and there is certainly an interest in Canada of perpetuating the dominant national myths of identity: Canadians as good global citizens, as part of the Western tradition, as a young modern nations, and as distinctly non-American. These national characteristics are generally championed as core parts of a unified Canadian identity, despite their largely exaggerated characteristics and despite the fact that these values do not necessarily unify the myriad subcultural groups within the nation. Aboriginal groups will probably always…… [Read More]

References

Kymlicka, W. (2003). Being Canadian. Government and Opposition, 38(3), pp. 357-385.
View Full Essay

Western History One of the

Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8758167

In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This theory of evolution enforced the idea of competition and the concept of survival, concepts that became more relevant to societies as they became immersed in the industrialized economy and the eventual dominance of the capitalist economy, which is motivated also by the spirit of competition and 'survival of the fittest.'

The Victorian ethos was created and developed in the context of the emerging industrialization of economies in the 19th century. The Victorian ethos held that society is in progress, and that…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Western Religions Given the Remarkable

Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86307427

Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.

Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…… [Read More]

References

Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at  http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm 

Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html 

The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html

Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
View Full Essay

Western Civ Explain the Theory

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61809215

The Church also viewed exploration and territorial expansion as a means to spread the doctrine and power of the Church.

3.) Describe the difference between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot.

The differences between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot are largely superficial. Both legitimate their power through hereditary lineage and both rule without political opposition or a balance of powers. both are autocrats. No constitution or set of laws are in place to keep the powers of either ruler in check. Both rely on some external sources of support, and it is primarily in those external sources that the absolute monarch and the enlightened despot differ. The enlightened despot is less closely connected to the Church. His political philosophy is heavily influenced by Enlightenment values. Thus, the enlightened monarch supports basic tenets like scientific exploration and a greater degree of social and religious tolerance than the absolute…… [Read More]

References

Enlightened Despots." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook11.html

Gilbert, W. "Renaissance and Reformation." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at  http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/ 

Rempel, G. "Mercantilism." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/mercantilism.html

Steingrad, E. "Louis XIV." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.louis-xiv.de/index.php?t=start&a=start#2
View Full Essay

Culture of Germany Has a Very Unique

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32936549

Culture of Germany

Germany has a very unique culture that is shaped both by medieval realities, Cold War politics, and modern day success. Before becoming a country, Germany was made up of dozens of small fiefdoms or princeling states, territories that were German speaking but controlled by local municipal cities. Germany as a country did not exist formally until 1871 when the Prussian Kingdom defeated France, and became united with Bavaria and the West German states to form the German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm II were the leading forces behind the unification of Germany, and with the unification of Germany came great success and a rebalancing of power in Europe. The success of Germany at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century led to power struggles that split Europe into two, causing the start of World War I in 1914. (German…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Western Civilization and Deep Reality

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99055672

They must occupy themselves with inventing new ways to legally persecute people as they cannot be involved in any real pursuit of knowledge.

Things changed drastically with the Renaissance, though not with the speed that many men would have appreciated. Galileo Galilei butted heads with the Catholic Church many times in his life, eventually recanting much of what he had provocatively (and rightly) claimed to be true and ending his life under house arrest. He at times tried to couch his more controversial discoveries in language more pleasing to the Church, but apparently he was not proficient enough at disguising it. His "Letter to Castelli" is a prime example of the shift that Western thought was taking during the Renaissance: "the Holy Scriptures in many places not only admit but actually require a different explanation for what seems to be the literal one, it seems to me that they ought…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Culture on Health Disparities and Health Related Practices

Words: 2135 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50848154

Culture and Health Care |

A eview of Culture on Health Disparities, Health elated Practices and Healthcare Outcomes

Social Status

The social status of an individual refers to the rank one holds within a group or community; and requires conformance to such rights, lifestyle, and duties as understood by prestige and social hierarchy (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016). Status may be attained or ascribed in different ways. One, for instance may inherit such status at birth as it happens in monarchies and Kingships. This kind of status climb has nothing to do with one's innate abilities or skills. Ascribed status is based on such factors as age, family relations, lineage, birth, sex, and similar considerations while acquired status is earned. It may be based on such factors as the level of education, marital status, occupation and similar factors that come with accomplishment of certain feats that required some practical effort.

Status is…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Asu, O. T., Gever, I. D., & Joshua, N. P. (2013). African Cultural Practices and Health Implications for Nigeria. International Review of Management and Business Research, Vol 2, Issue 1, 176-183. Retrieved from  http://irmbrjournal.com/papers/1367572222.pdf 

Artiga, S. (2016, August 12). Disparities in Health and Health Care: Five Key Questions and Answers. Retrieved September 7, 2016, from Kaiser Family Foundation: http://kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/disparities-in-health-and-health-care-five-key-questions-and-answers/

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2016). Social Status. Retrieved September 7, 2016, from Encyclopedia Britannica:  https://www.britannica.com/topic/social-status 

Mhame, P. P., Busia, K., & Kasilo, O. M. J. (2010). Clinical practices of African traditional medicine. African Health Monitor, Vol 13. Retrieved from African Health Observatory: https://www.aho.afro.who.int/en/ahm/issue/13/reports/clinical-practices-african-traditional-medicine
View Full Essay

Western History Looking Into the

Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76697361

The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.

King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.

One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Western Civilization the Early Renaissance

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75030989

This was partly because there was wealth enough to patronize the arts, and partly because the Medicis made it fashionable to commission public and private works from local artists. For example, the architect Brunelleschi created buildings that were testaments to the ancient buildings of Rome and Greece, which he studied. He designed the dome of the cathedral in Florence with these classic buildings in mind, and changed architecture from the gaudy medieval cathedrals to a more stately and dignified portrayal of religious belief and utility. Michelangelo rose to prominence under patronage by the Medicis, and his classic statue "The Pieta" was commissioned by a French cardinal, who originally planned to use the piece as a memorial on his own tomb. This is quite common of art at the time; it was commissioned by the powerful and the wealthy for their own enjoyment, but began to be shared with everyone. Thus,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Japanese Spirit Western Things While

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81277918

S. Backs Japan," 2007).

Cine the 1960s and well into the 1980s the overall economic growth skyrocketed to what has been called the "Japanese Miracle." As of 2009, Japan has the second largest economy in the world. Its major industries are banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation, telecommunications and construction. Japan also serves the global economy with some of the most technologically advanced production of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, ships, chemicals and textiles, with a service economy of about ae of its GDP ("Japan -- CIA Factbook," 2010).

Partially this has been the result of the economic partnership with the United States, Australia, and the European Union. Japanese products have gone from the merely imitative "cheap knock-offs" of the late 1950s and early 1960s to cutting edge, sought-after materials that are some of the finest made in the world. The Japanese consumer, too, embraces Western goods and culture…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"Japan." (2010). CIA World Factbook. Cited in:

 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja.html#Econ 

"Japanese Spirit, Western Things." (2003). The Economist. 383 (8332):

20-22.
View Full Essay

Traditional Cultures Before Widespread Westernization

Words: 1886 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77541348

Nevertheless, the remnants of Anglo-Saxon gods can be still heard in the English days of the wee: Tiw, god of war, gave way to Tuesday, Woden, the god of storms, wisdom, and the dead, became Wednesday, and Frige, love-goddess, took berth of Friday. The language of the Saxons is known as Old English and was, before the Germans, based on the runic alphabet. Written literacy was introduced in full with the Christianity brought from the Mediterranean, and was fostered by the Norman ruling class, which oversaw the agricultural, sylvan lives of the early trading Saxons.

Prehistory should be first mentioned since it not only locates the starting point of the historical development of our continent in the Central European cradle or our people," agreed anthropologists in the early half the last century.

The early cultures that populated the nascent Western World were all unique; proximity, difficulty, and a mastery of…… [Read More]

Howie, Elizabeth. "Early Insular Illuminated Manuscripts: Merging of Oral and Literate Cultures." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. p. 34.

Mead, William R. "The Viking Achievement: A Survey fo the Society and Culutre of Early Medieval Scandinavia." Geographical Review. Vol. 61, No. 4. (Oct. 1971). P. 621.

New Rules for Historical Instruction in Germany." American Anthropologist. Vol. 36, No. 1. (Jan - Mar, 1934.) p. 139.
View Full Essay

Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50053993

Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups in the Later Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

While Westernization has created tremendous problems for a wide variety of indigenous cultural traditions, there is little question that the introduction of Westerners to the Americas resulted in some of the most massive destruction of an indigenous culture ever seen in history. The vast majority of this destruction occurred prior to the 19th century. When Europeans first came to the Americas, they decimated native populations with disease and violence. Later, Native Americans were forced off of their land. The infamous Trail of Tears in which many Native American groups were forced from their traditional lands and onto reservations occurred in the early 19th century. Therefore, by the end of the 19th century, it is fair to say that Native American culture had already been indelibly impacted by the Western expansion. However, it is important to…… [Read More]

References

Bear, C. (2008, May 12). American Indian boarding schools haunt many. Retrieved May 20,

2011 from NPR website: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865

Grant, U. (1871, December 4). State of the Union Address. Retrieved May 20, 2011 from Infoplease website:  http://www.infoplease.com/t/hist/state-of-the-union/83.html 

Johansen, B. (1998, September). Reprise / forced sterilizations: Sterilizations of Native
View Full Essay

Globalization the Culture of Western

Words: 1094 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62817705

Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany.

Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken to entail Toqueville's "associationism," a vibrant public sphere, formal outlets for political dissent, and informed political debate. Such inquiries have provided little insight into the nature of healthy democracies because they are based on a faulty assumption, that culture is a condition or even a determinant in the formation of a society's political structure.

As Berman observed, passionate civic engagement among a nation's citizens, without an adequate institutional foundation to channel such passion, can actually be averse to functional democracy.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

East Culture History Beijing Previously

Words: 1777 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66878653

One of those buildings was the International Foreign Trade Center -- Shenzhen's first skyscraper and the tallest building in China (36).

Hong Kong is commonly referred to as a place where "East meets West" because of its hybrid nature. That is, there is a culture mix occurring that is part traditional Chinese as well part ritish due to its colonization by the ritish. Hong Kong is quite a modern place, yet there is an infusion of traditional Chinese practices that makes the place unlike any other in the world. One example of how East may meet West in Hong Kong is how the art of feng shui may be utilized in constructing a modern piece of architecture. The old Chinese traditions are used to support newer ways of thinking and living. The architecture in Hong Kong is contemporary and reflects a more Western style as opposed to a Chinese traditional…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campanella, Thomas. The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution. Princeton Architectural Press; 1st edition. 2008. Print.

Chen, Ming-Jer. Inside Chinese Business: A Guide for Managers Worldwide. Harvard Business Review Press. 2003. Print.

China Tour Online. "Shenzhen History." Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from http://www.chinatouronline.com/china-travel/shenzhen/shenzhen-facts/shenzhen-history.html. Web.

Ching, Julia. Chinese Religions. Orbis Books. 1993. Print.
View Full Essay

National Culture Fanon and the

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79933240

"The reason being that the colonized intellectual has thrown himself headlong into Western culture. Like adopted children who only stop investigation their new family environment once their psyche has formed a minimum core of reassurance, the colonized intellectual will endeavor to make European culture his own. Not content with knowing Rabelais of Diderot, Shakespeare or Edgar Allen Poe, he will stretch his mind until he identifies with them completely" (Fanon 156). When this fails, the intellectual tends to fixate an idealized version of native culture, creating a romanticized, but ultimately false version of the past. "Seeking to cling close to the people, he clings merely to a visible veneer. This veneer, however, is merely a reflection of a dense, subterranean life in perpetual renewal" (Fanon 160). However, the colonial intellectual does not realize that even when he attempts to perceive the 'pure' past, he is still using the aesthetic standards…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Hofstede's National Culture Model the Term Organizational

Words: 903 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12847161

Hofstede's National Culture Model

The term organizational culture did not emerge in the literature until the late 1970s and represents a relatively new addition that has gained a lot of attention since its introduction. Hofstede (1990) poses a series of questions that are directed towards organizational culture:

First, can organizational cultures be "measured" quantitatively, on the basis of answers of organizational members to written questions, or can they only be described qualitatively?

Second, if organizational cultures can be measured in this way, which operationalizable and independent dimensions can be used to measure them, and how do these dimensions relate to what is known about organizations from existing theory and research?

Third, to what extent can measurable differences among the cultures of different organizations be attributed to unique features of the organization in question, such as its history or the personality of its founder?

The quantitative measures of the cultures of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study across Twenty Cases. Administrative Sciences Quarterly, 286-316.

McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstede's model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith - a failure of analysis. Human Relations, 89-118.

The Hofstede Centre. (N.d.). What about Brazil? Retrieved from The Hofstede Centre: http://geert-hofstede.com/brazil.html

The Hofstede Centre. (N.d.). What about Saudi Arabia? Retrieved from The Hofstede Centre.
View Full Essay

Japanese Culture Key Components of Japanese Culture

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13301442

Japanese Culture

Key Components of Japanese Culture

As with every culture, Japanese culture includes a number of elements which make the culture uniquely its own. Japan is a very homogeneous nation whose people place high value on the norms of acceptable behavior. The Japanese value harmony, conformity and predictability. Japanese cultural norms require people to go to great lengths to avoid actions that might disrupt the harmony of the group. Japanese people feel themselves to be accountable to the group, not the individual; in fact, individualistic behavior is frowned upon. The Japanese believe that conformity produces harmony, the supreme value (Denison, 2002).

While the Japanese people regard their culture as unique, they are actually very flexible and open to adapting to outside influences. Foreign sports and fashions as well as modern technology have gained wide acceptance and dissemination. Also, Japan's written language originated in China, while the Buddhist religion came…… [Read More]

Reference List

Bucknall, K. (2010, December 15). The most important elements in Japanese culture, especially for those doing business with Japan. Retrieved from http://www.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474977025266

Culture of Japan. (2012). Anicca, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.earthyfamily.com/J-Culture.htm

Denison, B. (2002). A basic overview of Japanese culture. Mizukan Dojo. Retrieved from  http://www.mizukan.org/articles/culture.htm 

Dimensions. (n.d.). Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved from http://geert-hofstede.com/dimensions.html
View Full Essay

East Chinese calligraphy and Western calligraphy

Words: 2562 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23175492

Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy

Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.

Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…… [Read More]

Avi-Yonah, Michael. 2004. Ancient Scrolls: Introduction to Archaeology. Books&Bagels

Beyerstein, Barry L. 1992. The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology -- the Study of Handwriting Analysis. Prometheus Books

http://www.westerncape.gov.za/text/2005/2/sep04theartspg44-46.pdf
View Full Essay

Enga the Culture Plays a Vital Role

Words: 2619 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13217125

Enga

The culture plays a vital role in the society. In this paper we have researched the different aspects of the society and the effect of culture on the society. The primary mode of subsistence is that of culture values and belief. Culture is usually taken for granted by many societies. However, it affects the way people act and belief in a particular society. Culture sets the norms and it is the primary mode of subsistence in a society. The behavior of the society is also according to the culture. The in depth analysis has been conducted on Enga society. This society is unique in its culture and beliefs. The tradition that is followed by the Enga has some pros and cons. The aspects studied in details of Enga are the kinship, values and belief, and gender relations. (Glazer, 2000)

The Enga primary mode of subsistence is that of agrarian…… [Read More]

References

Benedict Y. Imbun, (2002), Enga Social Life and Identity in a Papua New Guinea Mining Town. Oceania. 66.(1). 51+, Publication Year: 1995.

Jacka, J. (2002) Cults and Christianity among the Enga and Ipili. Journal Title: Oceania. Volume: 72. Issue: 3. Page Number: 196+.

Wallace, I. (1992). The Global Economic System. London, Routledge.

Glazer, N. (2000). Culture and Achievement. Public Interest, 49.
View Full Essay

Greek Culture Greek Art and

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35170500



Of course, the history of ancient Greek art is inseparable from the city of Athens, where our modern principles of democracy emerged around 400 B.C.E. And which has become the penultimate symbol of Greek culture, especially related to the Parthenon atop the Acropolis which still stands today as the quintessential icon of ancient Greek architecture. It was here in Athens that some of the finest products of Greek civilization were created by Athenians, such as Phidias, one of the greatest sculptors of all time and responsible for the creation and overall design of the Parthenon.

Also, modern-day Western society and the nation of Greece owe much to the writers who created the great Greek tragic plays, such as Aeschylus and Sophocles whose plays were "presented to eager citizens with personal obligations to the gods" (de la Croix, 2003, p. 125). In addition, we must remember to include Homer, the author…… [Read More]

References

Ancient Greek Art." (2008). Internet. Retrieved May 30, 2008 at  http://www.crystalinks.com/greekart.html .

De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey. (2003). Art Through the Ages. 10th ed.

New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc.

Martin, Thomas R. (2004). Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times.
View Full Essay

Women and Islam the Western

Words: 4510 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52859105

Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).

At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.

Binder, Leonard.

Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.

Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
View Full Essay

Impact of the European Culture in Africa

Words: 1183 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46467043

European culture in Africa

Published in 1958, the book Things Fall Apart is an influential piece of work by Achebe that portrays, in most conventional style, the life and culture in a very traditional village in Africa. This book is about restoration of traditional values and identification of identity of African people in the wake of European cultural dominance and acceptance. This report is about how the writer has projected upon the life and revived the African culture as against the treat of European cultural imperialism.

In this novel the writer tries to enlighten the foreign world as regards to the cultural traditions of Ibo and in doing so the writer is also reminding the African people of their own traditions and cultural values. The writer is of the notion that the African people must not forget their old values, customs and cultural norms in this changing verve of the…… [Read More]

Reference

Achebe, Chinua. (1958) Things Fall Apart, Heinemarm, 1994 ed.,

McKay, John P., Hill and Buckler (2003) A History of Western Society (Volume 2). 7th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Impact of the European culture in Africa
View Full Essay

Globalizing Cultures Globalization Is One

Words: 2453 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45777362



The sexually explicit imagery that they witnessed on TV led young Indians to express more need in sexuality. Eventually, whole regions in India had been reported of suffering as a result of young people watching TV and becoming sexually active at a much smaller age. The Kerala province in India is only one of the several areas that have had their people falling victims to the western culture depicted on satellite TV. (Lukose, Ritty 2005)

A characteristic that people fail from seeing when examining globalization is that it allows concepts to become known worldwide. Perhaps certain issues relating to globalization are actually good, and, perhaps people accept globalization because it presents new and helpful theories.

In spite of the fact that Indians generally communicate to the rest of the world through English, they communicate to their neighboring countries through Hindi. People in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal all need to know…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Fursich Elfriede, Shrikhande Seema. "Development Broadcasting in India and Beyond: Redefining an Old Mandate in an Age of Media Globalization." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 51, 2007.

2. Ganguly-Scrase, Ruchira. "Paradoxes of Globalization, Liberalization, and Gender Equality: The Worldviews of the Lower Middle Class in West Bengal, India." Gender and Society, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Aug., 2003).

3. Hopper, Paul. (2007). "Understanding cultural globalization." Polity.

4. Lukose, Ritty. "Consuming Globalization: Youth and Gender in Kerala, India." Journal of Social History, Vol. 38, 2005.
View Full Essay

Globalization Western Imperialism

Words: 4372 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49235186

Globalization=Western Imperialism

Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life. But when analyzing we can realize that the actual dissatisfaction of individuals arises forms the modern life that they need and in comparison to that the others around the world lead. The term globalization is used to describe the various changes that have taken place in the social, economical and political scenarios that has brought about change in the current situation.

To explain, globalization is the termed used to describe the technique in which the various far away parts…… [Read More]

References

Barlow, Maude and Clake, Tony. Global Showdown. Toronto: Stoddart, 2001.p.66-68

Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State, Univ of Toronto Pr; September 2002, p.21

Ellwood, Wayne. The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization. New Internationalist Publications Ltd., 2001, p. 14

Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development (Princeton 1995), Chapter 5, pp. 192-211.
View Full Essay

Egyptian Culture The Writer Explores

Words: 1813 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27761426



The children also rent decorated bikes to ride around town on for the holiday. It is a time for families to get together and celebrate with food and music and fellowship.

For a lot of families from working neighborhoods, Eid celebration also includes picnics in green areas including parks, zoos, botanical gardens and even green islands on major roads (Osama, 2004)."

Islam

Most of Egypt is Islam. Like Christians, the Islam followers trace their roots to Abraham and believe in one God who is universal. In Islam God is referred to as ALLAH which means One Universal God.

The Quran is the final revealed Word of God and provides the complete guide for human behavior. Its text was revealed directly to the prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 C.E. Muhammad is revered by Muslims as the last of God's prophets but is not worshipped (Ahmad, 2005)."

Men and women are…… [Read More]

References

Ahmad, Seemi (2005)Islam in a Nutshell

 http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/islam.htm 

Carta, Joyce (2004) Egyptian Food

 http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/food.htm
View Full Essay

Dimensions of Western Countries in

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86794319

Instead, countries like Russia are more spiritual and believe in an interpretive form of the Christian text (Cross 2012, 3.1). These populations have formed a new form of Christianity which accepts certain tenets and rejects others.

The period known as the Enlightenment had a much more profound on the western world than the east. Religious principles were given secondary consideration to individual accomplishment and the growing importance of scientific development and logical conclusions. This period led to the importance which was placed on the individual in western culture. Individualism is directly contradictory to the eastern emphasis on community and communal thinking, particularly during the time of Communism (Cross 2012, 3.1).

Nations of the west have embraced immigration, particularly in the United States, but still the majority of the population has a estern European heritage which has determined the majority culture. In the east, there is less immigration within to other…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cross Cultural Perspectives (2012). Ashford University.