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The Parthenon was built approximately 2500 years ago and dedicated as a temple to Athena, the Greek goddess. It was used by the Athenians first as a church, then as a mosque, before later becoming an archeological ruin (British Museum, n.d.). Its use as a gunpowder store during the 1687 Venetian reign in Athens caused its roof to be blown off, leaving the Parthenon a mere ruin, and destroying most of the sculptural decorations. Just as the nineteenth century was commencing, Lord Elgin, the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, which controlled Athens at the time, obtained permission from the Ottoman rulers to remove the surviving structures and transport them to Britain. They are, to this day, on the display in the British museum. The Greek government has, since the 1980s, fought to have the sculptures returned to Athens, a stand that has been supported by the EU,…
TED Case Studies. (n.d.). The Elgin Marbles. TED. Retrieved from http://www1.american.edu/ted/monument.htm
The British Museum. (n.d.). The Parthenon Sculptures. The British Museum. Retrieved from http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/news_and_press/statements/parthenon_sculptures.aspx
Western Culture -- Archeology and Perspective (2 paragraphs/250-300 wds)
Imagine that you were Howard Carter. Consider the following questions in a two-paragraph essay. How would you feel as you stood before the sealed door, ready to open King Tut's tomb? What would you most want to discover and understand about the past? As you entered the room that had been sealed for over 3000 years, what would you be looking for? How would you begin trying to make sense of what you found?
As I stand before a door that has been sealed for 3,000 years, preparing to enter the place that was intended to be undisturbed for all eternity, I wonder whether the people who created this monument would consider me any different from the many grave robbers who looted treasures from places like this for monetary enrichment. I know that my purpose is intellectual, historical, and anthropological, but…
Many have underlined the importance of the various techniques that he used, mixing painting with writing, collage and adding elements which apparently had nothing in common with the rest of the composition. I believe that the technique itself is extremely important for the construction of meaning. In asquiat's works, the meaning is to be found hiding behind various layers. Although the scenes are often realistic (familiar street imagery), the message is to be deciphered through an effort of the intellect. Everything has a why and the receiver of the message must decode it.
Andy Warhol, a representative of pop art is to be admired amongst other things for having managed to make people wonder what art really was. The Campbell's tomato soup painting showed what man had become. An industrial product orientated towards consumption. His is a rational and not emotional interpretation of humanity. One of his most famous works…
Grayling, A.C. "Meditations for the humanist: ethics for a secular age." Oxford University Press, 2005
Herrick, Jim. "Humanism, an introduction." Prometheus Books, 2005
Honour, Hugh. "Neo-classicism (style and civilization)." Penguin (neo-classics). 1991
"Rationalism vs. Empiricism," Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, retrieved April 24, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rationalism-empiricism/
Western Culture Clash Creates oadblocks
Western Companies Imposing Western Culture
Western Culture Clash Creates oadblocks for Disneyland Paris
Disneyland Paris failed to incorporate French cultural norms and values into the development of the European Disney theme park. By analyzing French tourism behavior, bringing French executives into the decision-making process, and respecting the value provided by French investors, Disneyland Paris would have experienced more stable growth and greater local acceptance. The French people, known for their tremendous pride in culture, heritage, and traditions, do not embrace changes to their habits. French ethnocentrism, combined with a distaste for the forcefulness used by American companies to spread Westernized culture, left Disneyland Paris, formerly Euro Disney, facing an uphill battle to gain acceptance.
Disneyland Paris Situation Analysis
Intent upon building a superior park environment that demonstrated the exquisite quality of the Disney brand, corporate leaders spent capital in ways that appeared excessive to the…
Schaefer, R.T. (2008). Sociology: A brief introduction (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Walker, A. (1995). Disneyland Paris nears stability. Hotel & Motel Management, 210(6), 4. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Wenhe, Y. (2009, November 1). The fretful Euro Disneyland. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 1(2), 87-92. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
The New Testament both influenced Western political philosophy and it influenced the geo-political landscape of the Western World. Greek political philosophy, which is related to New Testament political philosophy, has dominated the way that Americans perceive their governmental systems. The ways the Western justice systems work were in part based on New Testament thought in the same way that Christian morality influences public opinion of leaders and citizens. Christianity has also undoubtedly influenced the geo-political landscape in the Western world. For example, Christianity quickly became the adopted official religion of the European continent. The teachings of the New Testament became so important as to fuse matters of Church and state in the Holy Roman Empire. Similarly, disputes over New Testament theology and metaphysics led to two of the most decisive incidents in the history of the world: the schism between the eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, and the Protestant…
Due to religious prejudice, most of the non-stone Mayan materials were burned by the Spanish. The Mayan civilization did not leave a mathematical legacy to the est, it simply beat the process by hundreds of years. However, in the modern age, as scholars look more and more into the Mayan calculations, they are able to deduce astromical records prior to recorded estern observations, as well as some of the predictions for natural disasters, weather events, and even seasonal migrations. In a typical example of the misinterpretation of a non-estern culture's science, some have postulated that the Mayan caldendar actually predicts the end of the earth in 2012. Instead, what is more likely is that 2012 is the end of a 5,126-year cycle from the Mayan long-count calendar; there may well be atmospheric or celestial convergence, but for the Maya, it was equivalent to a spritual rebirth -- not literally the…
Adler and Pouwels. (2007). World Civilizations: to 1700. New York: Cenage.
Barclay, E. (January 15, 2009). "Mexico's Unconquered Maya Hold Tight to Their Old Ways." The National Geographic. Cited in:
Coe, M. (2005). The Maya. New York: Thames and Hudson.
When concerning the media present in India one might observe that the western world has deeply influenced it. The Indian movie making business is entitled Bollywood, in reference to the American Hollywood. Not only have the Indians named their movie industry Bollywood, but they have also incorporated several western cliches into their movies, so as for them to depict aspects from the western culture.
Not only do foreigners express their appreciation for Indian films, as they are also known to come to India to practice Buddhism or yoga. A great percentage of the Indians leaving their home country in favor of a better developed country are technological talents. The most feasible reason for their departure is that they cannot properly exploit their aptitudes in India. Apparently, globalization has made it possible for them to be properly rewarded for the abilities that they have.
Factors such as people wearing tight clothes…
The similarities between the two perspectives - the Vedic and the Transcendentalist ones - start with the stress over the virtues of intuition when it comes to both social and spiritual knowledge. Truth must agree to an individual intuitive notion of truth, seem to say the Transcendentalists, and part of this truth can be found within nature. Maintaining a Christian approach (which means that the doubts they were expressing were connected rather to the teachings of the church than to the words of the Gospel), they held that religious knowledge is also a matter of intuitive abilities, rather than of rituals and practices. Later on, they started to question some aspects of the Bible, meaning the miracles described there, as being uncertainly of divine nature, but possible signs of pious mythology.
The concept of original sin was contradicted by the transcendentalist authors, who believed in the innate goodness of man…
Reference List www.emersoncentral.comThe Transcendentalist, by Ralph Waldo Emerson, a Lecture read at the Masonic Temple, Boston, January, 1842, Retrieved March 10, 2007 at http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm
Transcendentalism. (n.d.). The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Retrieved March 15, 2007, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/transcendentalism
Hodder, Allan D - "Ex Oriente Lux": Thoreau's Ecstasies and the Hindu texts, Harvard Theological Review, 86 (4), 1992, pp. 403-438
Hutchinson, William R. - the Transcendentalists as Church Reformers: Conflict and Experimentation in American Unitarianism, 1836-1853, Yale University, 1956
Why did harmony develop almost exclusively in western culture and not in tribal or Asian cultures?
Harmony is a unique concept depending primarily on the geographic region of origination. The concept of harmony however predates to early biblical times with a particular emphasis on collaboration. The term harmony originates from the Greek work "harmonia," which refers to the concept of a joint agreement, collaboration of joining together. Modern, tonal harmony as society is familiar with, originated in western civilization in roughly 1600. It most common place began with music as a means to use simultaneous pitches (Nettles, 1997). The concept of harmony however, expands to societal norms and uses including the use of collaboration to solve complex problems.
The concept of harmony developed exclusively in western culture for numerous reasons. Harmony in societal terms is needed to help provide a quality and meaningful way of life. This has occurred…
1) Dahlhaus, Carl. Gjerdingen, Robert O. trans. (1990). Studies in the Origin of Harmonic Tonality, p. 141. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09135-8.
2) Erhardt III, Erwin. "History of Economic Development." University of Cincinnati. Lindner Center Auditorium, Cincinnati. 7 November 2008.
3) Friedman, Milton. "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." The New York Times Magazine 13 September 1970
4) Nettles, Barrie & Graf, Richard (1997). The Chord Scale Theory and Jazz Harmony. Advance Music, ISBN 3-89221-056-X
According to Confucianism, on the other hand, the desire to help others in need can and should arise naturally. The desire to help others therefore becomes a pleasurable activity, not a chore.
Part of the reason for the difference in approach to duty and goodness among these different societies is that Christian mythology is based on martyrdom. Jesus Christ died; he made the ultimate sacrifice of his life in order to help other people. Because Confucian society is based more on personal responsibility for moral action rather than on faith, it makes sense that for the Confucian, good deeds come from within, not from external motivation. Christians are often motivated by a fear of God or of retribution; they are taught that they will "go to Hell" if they do this or don't do that. Confucians, who are not taught this concept of morality, view goodness as something positive to…
Josiah Restores the Ancient Customs
The Bible contains two different accounts of King Josiah's reforms. These are found in 2 Kings 22-23, and 2 Chronicles 34-35. The two versions are on the whole similar, at least in the beginning, however, Chronicles adds an additional story that is only alluded to in the earlier account, and which is not described in detail. The basic intent of both tales is to hold up the actions of Josiah as worthy of praise. He is depicted as a great reformer, a king who restored the true traditions of Israel, and who faithfully followed the precepts of God ... once he had learned about them. It is clearly implied that, in some sense, Josiah will be punished for his having been brought up incorrectly, in a state of sin as it were, but at the same time, he will be rewarded for having rediscovered the…
Al-Braizat, Fares. "Muslims and Democracy: An Empirical Critique of Fukuyama's Culturalist Approach." International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2002): 269+.
Bendle, Mervyn E. "Trajectories of Anti-Globalism." Journal of Sociology 38.3 (2002): 213+.
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.
Fore, Matthew L. "Shall Weigh Your God and You: Assessing the Imperialistic Implications of the International Religious Freedom Act in Muslim Countries." Duke Law Journal 52.2 (2002): 423+.
Asian, African and other non-white cultures were to be subjected to military, governmental, economic and missionary domination in order to help raise the world's positive reflection of the implied benefits of Western Civilization.
The absence of truly formal correlation between Western Culture and any one culture has become more apparent in the last century especially. During the Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union, the idea of West vs. East became inextricably linked to a new conception of nation-building. Here, imperialist models were adapted which saw the two forms of government and lifestyle (i.e. capitalism and communism) engage in an effort at global domination of ideology and economic framework. The premise which drove forward the United States and its allies was this adopted notion of Western Civilization as reflecting modernity, moral progressivism and an inherent dispensation of Enlightenment principles.
Naturally, as memory of such Cold War…
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…
Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.
Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386
Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192
Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
The Prevalence of Homosexuality in Ancient Greek Society and Mythology
In any study of Western Culture, there are certain elements which must be addressed to fully understand the development of said culture over time. Among the early cultures that have had a significant impact on this development is that of Ancient Greece. Western philosophy, science, and art are all infused with ideas and innovations which began in Greek culture. In the world of architecture, for example, the Greeks revolutionized the use of cement and arches, bringing about a new era in building design. Scientifically, the contributions of such great men as Archamedes and Pythagorus are used as the basis for much of our modern mathematics and technology. Great thinkers of the day such as Plato and Socrates are considered to be among the greatest philosophers of all time, and they are used as a reference point for many…
In rare cases, mothers taught their daughters reading and writing. At 15, girls were expected to marry men their fathers chose for them. Interestingly, this was only the fate of wealthier girls. Peasant girls chose their own husbands when working in the fields (Fisher and Harlan).
According to Tomoko Shimoda, the traditional Japanese family is regarded as very important, also with specific roles for women, men and children. Although Western influence has standardized education and emancipated women, they are still generally regarded as mostly active and highly important in the household. Women maintain the family finances and care for the children, while the role of men is to be engaged in work, which mostly constituted the family business. Both girls and boys are educated, although boys are steered towards taking over the family business while girls are taught housekeeping and accounting skills. In the past, marriages were generally arranged,…
Crystal, Ellie. Ancient Greek Education. http://www.crystalinks.com/greekeducation.html
Fisher, Grant and Harlan, Cheri Beth. The Roles of Men, Women and Children in Ancient Greece. http://chalk.richmond.edu/education/projects/webunits/greecerome/Greeceroles1.html
Shimoda, Tomoko. Representations of Parenting and Gender Roles in the Shoshika Era: Comparisons of Japanese and English-Language Parenting Magazines. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies. 14 Jan 2008. http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/articles/2008/Shimoda.html
Western Art and Christianity
During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.
The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…
"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she gets it she is happy, and when it is absent from her kitchen for a long time, she sulks like a child. For Mrs. Sen fish becomes her home, her state, her neighborhood, her friend and her family. Fish gives her a sense of proximity to her people. The arrival of a tasty halibut gives her pleasure as nothing else does" (Choubey 2001). But when Mrs. Sen is rebuked for the smell of her prized fish, even this source of connection with home, however, tenuous, becomes perverted.
Some of the characters of the Interpreter of Maladies learn to negotiate their new identities and cultural terrains and bridge the cultural gaps that exist between themselves and their fellow Indians, as well as with…
Choubey, Asha. "Food as Metaphor in Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies."
The Literature and Culture of the Indian Subcontinent on the Postcolonial Web. Last modified 2001. [8 Dec 2007.]
Lahiri, Jhumpa Interpreter of Maladies and other stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.
Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:
Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…
Choy, W. 1 Jul 2007, "Globalisation and workforce diversity: HRM implications for multinational corporations in Singapore," Singapore Management Review, http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/4509815-1.html .
Edewor, P. & Aluko, P. May 2007, "Diversity management, challenges and opportunities in multicultural organizations," International Journal of Diversity in Organisation, Communities & Nations vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 189-195.
Hofstede, G. Feb 1993, "Cultural constraints in management theories," Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94.
Ismail, R. & Shaw, B. Feb 2006, "Singapore's Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post 9/11 world," Asian Ethnicity vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-51.
Christy Turlington explains to Elle magazine... "Advertising is so manipulative," she says. "There's not one picture in magazines today that's not airbrushed."… "It's funny," Turlington continues. "hen women see pictures of models in fashion magazines and say, 'I can never look like that,' what they don't realize is that no one can look that good without the help of a computer." (Hilary 13)
That's right, the beautiful Turlington, a woman that can be said as fitting the standard ideal of American beauty, admits that it is unachievable even for her. hy? Because even she admits that she has been touched up. In a similar exercise, we can only imagine the remarkable steadfastness this act must have taken, but it shows that there is a realization that this American image is unattainable (Domar 23).
The Trouble with Persisting Ideas
Even if the mechanism behind the spread and adoption of ideas is…
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso Publishing, 1991. Print.
Chernin, Karen. Hungry Self: Women, Eating, & Identity. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2008
Dixon, Violet. "Understanding the Implications of a Global Village." Reason and Respect 4.1 (2008). 1-5. Web. 15 May 2011.
Domar, Allan. (Prof) Harvard Medical School. Parade magazine, October 11, 2003.
The identity of a Geisha, and the origins of the profession has a great deal more to do with performance and skills in such than in any other aspect of the trade.
(1) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The
Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,
2010) p. 223.
(2) Ibid. p. 224.
(3) Ibid. p. 223.
(5) Graham-Diaz, Naomi. Immortal Geisha History of the Geisha, Part One: 1100 AD
1750 AD. October 2001. http://www.immortalgeisha.com/history_01.php (accessed July
(7) Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The
Gion School and epresentation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003.
http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10,
2010) p. 223.
(8) Ibid. p. 222.
(9) Ibid. p. 221.
(10) Chen, Li-Yu, and Lai On-Kwok. "Creativity and Hybridism of Cultures in a Globalizing
World The e-Production-cum-Consumption of…
Chen, Li-Yu, and Lai On-Kwok. "Creativity and Hybridism of Cultures in a Globalizing World The Re-Production-cum-Consumption of Asian Local Idiosyncrasies." Journal of Policy Studies 31 (March 2009): 141-154.
Graham-Diaz, Naomi. Immortal Geisha History of the Geisha, Part One: 1100 AD - 1750 AD. October 2001. http://www.immortalgeisha.com/history_01.php (accessed July 10, 2010).
Okada, Mariko. "Prolegomenon to Geisha as a Cultural Performer: Miyako Odori, The Gion School and Representation of a Traditional" Japan." 2003. http://dspace.wul.waseda.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2065/26765/1/034.pdf (accessed July 10, 2010).
Prasso, Sheridan. The Asian Mystique: Dragon Ladies, Geisha Girls and Our Fantasies of the Exotic Orient. Perseus Book Group Cambridge MA. Cambridge MA: Perseus Book Group, 2006.
" (itek, 1989, Ngugi wa Thiongo, 1986, Mazrui, 1986, 2001, Mamdani, 1990, 1993, Copans, 1990, Rwomire, 1992, and van Rinsum, 2001; as cited in: Nyamnjoh, 2004)
According to Nyamnjoh (2004) "...the elite have 'often in unabashed imitativeness' and with little attempt at domestication, sought to reproduce, even without finances to sustain, the Oxfords, Cambridges, Harvards, Stanfords and Sorbonnes of England, the U.S.A. And France." (Nyamnjoh, 2004) Education in Africa is stated to have been and "mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalized sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems." (Nyamnjoh, 2004)
It is related by Nyamnjoh (2004) that the process of cultural uprooting of Africans "has been achieved often through literally uprooting children of the well-off from their communities and nurturing them in boarding schools" and as stated in the work of…
Haileselassie Teklehaimanot Haileselassie, Ph.D. (nd) Ethiopia Center for Educational Information. http://chora.virtualave.net/culturalfoundation.htm
Tessema, Kedir Assefa (2007) Clinging to the Managerial Approach in Implementing Teacher Education 'Reform' Tasks in Ethiopia. International Journal of Progressive Education, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2007.
Mamdani, M. (1990) the Intelligentsia, the State and Social Movements: Some Reflections on Experiences in Africa. Kampala, Centre for Basic Research.
Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1997) Detailed: A Writer's Prison Diary in R.R. Grinker and C.B. Steiner eds., Perspectives on Africa: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Oxford Blackwell Publishers.
What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…
Wikipedia. (December 27, 2007) Western Culture. Retrieved on December 30, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_culture
estern and Muslim Educational Philosophies
The Foundations of Function: Educational Philosophy and Psychology
Meet the Social Realities of ESL Instruction
Education into English as a Second Language (ESL) has become very important in this country, as many people are coming in from non-English speaking countries because they feel that America has much more to offer them. These children are eager to learn, but they often struggle because they do not understand the English language well. Even those that can speak English reasonable well sometimes have difficulties because there are many subtleties in the English language that these ESL students do not understand or even realize. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ESL education that goes on in the estern world, as well as the ESL education that Muslims deal with.
The similarities and differences will be discussed, and Muslims who come to America will also be discussed.…
Bashir-Ali. K. (2003). Teaching Muslim girls in American schools. Social Education.
Cortes, C. (1986). The Education of Language Minority Students. In Beyond Language: Social & Cultural Factors in Schooling Language Minority Students. Los Angeles, California: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, CSU, Los Angeles.
Designing inset programmes for Muslim schools. (2003). INSET. Retrieved at http://www.iberr.org/inset.htm
O'Malley, M. & Valdez-Pierce, L. (1996). Authentic Assessment for English Language Learners. New York: Addison Wesley.
As a result, not only are foreign markets changing to adapt to the Chinese marketplace needs, the Chinese marketplace, and consumer, are likewise adapting and changing to meet the needs of the global market. For instance, the economic boom in China's urban areas is creating a new consumer culture where the consumer has more disposable income to work with. This itself has effected consumer preferences and patterns within the Chinese marketplace. The general result is that a more sophisticated Chinese consumer is emerging and foreign companies need to market to their sophisticated needs while at the same time marketing to the general population's needs.
Therefore, the most effective way for a company to build a strong brand name in the rapidly emerging Chinese market is to adapt itself to the rapidly changing Chinese culture. To do this, it is important that the foreign company create a local presence and thus…
Apadu, K., and Sevgin, E. (1991): "Success and Failure of Japanese Companies' Export Ventures in High-Tech Industries," International Marketing Review. Vol. 8, No. 2, p.p. 66-76.
Armstrong, E. (2002): "Communication's Starring Role and Standard Chartered Bank," Strategic Communication Management. Vol. 6, No. 4, p.p. 10-13.
Ayala, J. And Lain, R. (1996): "China's Consumer Market: A Huge Opportunity to Fail?," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 3, p.p. 56-72.
Ayala, J., Lai, R. Mok, B. et. al. (1996): "Winning China's Consumer Market in the 21st Century," McKinsey Quarterly, No. 2, p.p. 178-181.
e. according to American norms and conventions. Part of this, incidentally, was due too to the fault of government itself that failed to provide them with the land, which the Hmong could have fertilized.
I realized that even thoguh America has gone a long way in attempting to appreciate other cultures and in refraining from foisting their own way of life on cultures other than they; they still do so to a certain extent.
I also wonder why people found it so hard to understand that others coming from lives so different than they would need time to acclimate and learn their 'language'.
Most of all I was impressed with the steadfastness, courage, and resilience of the Lees to resolutely cling to her traditions and way of life despite recrimination and hardship.
There are some things that are better in the Hmong culture than in the Western culture, such as…
Fadiman, A. The spirit catches you and you fall down. Farrar & co., 1997
culture on communication. Then explain two ways misunderstandings might occur among cultures with different communication styles. Finally, propose two solutions to enhance cross-cultural communication.
ommunication: The influence of culture on communication
Although the urge to communicate using a common language may seem to be a universal impulse, the ways in which communication takes place is highly dependent upon an individual's cultural context. For example, within an Asian cultural context, the level of hierarchy, social distance, and expectation of obedience is different between parents and children than in a Westernized cultural context. This can often cause conflict for Asian adolescents reared in the United States who are still 'acculturated' to Asian norms by first-generation parents at home (Rhee, hang & Rhee 2003: 750). While the relationship of a child to a parent exists in all cultures, the expectations attached to that relationship are far from universal in nature and scope. Acculturation…
Communication (both verbal and non-verbal) is key to understanding a culture. Language, gestures, expressions, and other symbols for interaction, help to explain the differences between cultures and help one understand the attitudes, values, and beliefs of a certain culture. Language, including each word, utterance, and distance between conversations, are all influenced by culture.
Language and culture are closely intertwined. Language affects culture while culture affects language. Cross-cultural research has examined miscommunication and why it happens. Two umbrella explanations for miscommunication are via the interpersonal underpinnings of politeness and indirectness (Fiske, Gilbert, & Lindzey, 2001). Scollon and Scollon (1981) found that Athabaskans (indigenous peoples of North America-Alaska), " tend to assume greater distance when interacting with unacquainted individuals than do English-speaking Americans" (Fiske, Gilbert, & Lindzey, p. 1402, 2001). Thus, Athabaskans prefer more distance and more negative politeness strategies while Americans refer more positive approach-based politeness strategies. This could result in a misunderstanding when group members interact. Another communication difference ties more specifically into language. Speakers of English tend to refer to themselves via pronouns when reporting their actions (i.e. "I went to the store") while speaks of other languages (namely Japanese) often do not do this at all (i.e. "Went to the store"). Using pronouns is a linguistic practice that tends to be used in more individualistic cultures like America, where the emphasis is on the person. Conversely, not using pronouns is related to more collectivistic cultures where the target of the sentence is decontextualized (Kashima & Kashima, 2003). Related to this is another cross-cultural difference of linguistic abstractness. South Korean speakers are more likely to use verbs when they speak whereas English speakers are more likely to use adjectives, to describe a variety of social objects (Kashima, Kashima, Kim, and Gelfand, 2006). There are many other cross-cultural differences in communication that may or may affect the way we understand others.
Enhancing cross-cultural communication requires understanding a culture's background, roots, traditions, and values, amongst other factors. Knowing whether a culture is individualistic or collectivistic is hugely significant, and would really explain the differences between at least the two examples seen here. Studying the social construction of meaning to a culture requires a lot of work, but allows us to understanding a culture's language and means of communicating, at least verbally. Knowledge of expressions and gestures and other kinesics of a culture can help to understand the nonverbal communication produced by a culture. There is no other ways to decreasing misunderstandings without knowledge of the origin of the misunderstanding itself. This requires complete comprehension of the culture in all its facets. Without that ability, one will struggle to understand and accept the verbal and nonverbal communication styles used by different groups of people. If you don't grow up with it, it is foreign to you and can often seem negative, or wrong. However if looked at from the other lens, the other group feels
This essay examines the meaning of culture and provides several possible titles and topics that may be used as starting points for developing a paper on culture. It discusses the definition of culture, how culture is developed, and how cultures change. It shows how cultural identity and cultural differences are formed and how culture diversity is a fact of life. It also explains why in spite of diverse cultures commonly existing in one group there is usually a dominant culture that comes to the fore and is promoted by the leaders of the group. The essay closes with recommendations for other ways in which a paper on culture can be written.
Culture is the heart and soul of a society, group or organization: it is the manifestation of what a particular set of people thinks, feels, believes in, and holds as ideal. It is the communication of what a people…
As Ross (2004) notes, one should never “underestimate the importance of qualitative/subjective information in understanding a process and/or result” (p. 4). Grossmann, Karasawa, Kan and Kitayama (2014) essentially embrace this same idea when they conduct their examination of how adults experience emotions in unpleasant situations across cultures. The aim of Grossmann et al. (2014) was to assess the power of the situation on social psychology from a cultural perspective. This aim is important because, as Heine and Norenzayan (2006) point out, “cultural psychological research is as important in documenting robust similarities across cultures as it is in documenting variability” (p. 254). It is especially important because it enables psychologists in the field “to identify the extent to which psychological phenomena are culture-specific or are psychological universals” (Heine & Norenzayan, 2006, p. 254). This paper will critique the study by Grossman et al. (2014) and assess it by applying one lesson…
Culture and Counseling
In her book The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, author Anne Fadiman recounts the life and death of a little Hmong girl living in Merced, California. Lia Lee had what Western doctors call epilepsy, and which the Hmong have a far more lyrical explanation that lends itself to the title of Fadiman's book. The most common neurological disease, epilepsy can be frightening and potentially debilitating. However, in cultures around the world and throughout time, from the Hmong to the ancient Greeks, epilepsy opens pathways to creativity and an increased understanding of the universe. Thus, as Fadiman points out, many epileptics become shamans. When Lia Lee first started having epileptic seizures, her mom Foua, speaking not a word of English, rushed her to the Merced Community Medical Center. There, doctors tended to the eight-month-old child as best they could under the circumstances. Because all she was…
Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos
PESONAL SOCIAL STATUS: In researching this project, I found a study prepared by the Canadian Nurses Association (2005). It reviewed the social determinants of health and how one's social status impacts their or their family health outcomes. The focus of this piece was on issues such as poverty, economic inequality, social isolation and social support systems and their impact on the health of minorities, many of the same categories and characteristics mentioned in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (Andrews et al., 2010). While their study was more on a broad base of Canadian conditions, their findings seem to reflect the circumstances of many first and second generation Filipinos. First and later generations of Filipinos who move to new cultures do act differently, but for the most part there remain many family connections and networks that cannot be overlooked.
My social status is mostly a…
Andrews, M. et al. (2010). Theoretical Basis for Transcultural Care. Section II. Foundations of Transcultural Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. Vol. 21. DOI: 10.1177/1043659610374321.
Canadian Nursing Association (2005). Social Determinants of Health and Nursing: A summary of Issues. Canadian Nursing Association. Viewable at http://www.cna-aiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/BG8_Social_Determinants_e.pdf.
Castillo, M.V. (nd). Caring in the Diaspora: Filipino Immigrants, Health Care, Healing, and Religion. Religious Healing in Boston. Viewable at http://www.hds.harvard.edu/cswr/resources/print/rhb/reports/13.Castillo.pdf .
McBride, M. (nd). Health and Health Care of Filipino Elders. Stanford Geriatric Education Center. Viewable at http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/filipino.html .
hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:
At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."
For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=107024755' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Western Ethical Theories
The objective of this work is to examine Western Ethical theories including teleological, deontological, natural law, and interest view and virtue ethics.
The work of Bennett-Woods (2005) states that while the words 'ethics' and 'morality' are "often used interchangeably, morality is more precisely used to refer to the customs, principles of conduct and moral codes of an individual, group or society." Ethics, is also stated to be termed "moral philosophy of the science of morals" and is the branch of philosophy that examines "morality through the critical examination of right and wrong in human action." (Bennett-Woods, 2005)
The study of ethics is generally characterized into three specific domains of study include those of: (1) metaethics which is related to the nature of right and wrong insofar as the where and how of the original of ethical judgments and what these judgments mean regarding the human nature and…
Virtue Ethics (2010) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/
Eric Wingrove-Haugland (1999) The Foundations of the Core Values in Western Ethical Theories. Retrieved from: http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE99/Wingrove99.html
Lovin, R.W. (2004) Moral Theories. Blackwell Publishing Company. Retrieved from: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/0631216340/Schweiker_sample%20chapter_A%20companion%20to%20religious%20ehtics.pdf
Bennett-Woods, D. (2005 ) Ethics at a Glance. 2005 Regis University. Retrieved from: http://rhchp.regis.edu/HCE/EthicsAtAGlance/EthicsAtAGlance.pdf
As ai (2012) points out, just a generation ago, women had far fewer options in India. Even when they attended college, their job prospects were low and they were more frequently diverted to family life and domestic servitude. Now, increasing numbers of Indian women are empowering themselves through the IT services industry. As much flack as outsourcing receives in the United States, the truth is that Indian women are largely the beneficiaries, while Americans are being increasingly challenged to discover creative ways of contributing to the economy. Social norms in India for women differ greatly from those in the United States, where it is much easier for a woman to start a business and avoid marriage and childbirth. In India, a woman is steered in the direction of motherhood at an earlier age and could be socially shunned if her path seems more career-focused than family focused. In many…
Lewis, M. (2013). Population bomb? So wrong. Retrieved online: http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/conservation-and-development/population-bomb-so-wrong/
Mukherjee, S. (2013). South India lags behind national fertility rate, slows population boom. The Times of India. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/South-India-lags-behind-national-fertility-rate-slows-population-boom/articleshow/19249154.cms
Rai, S. (2012). How outsourcing is boosting prospects for Indian women. CNET. Retrieved online: http://news.cnet.com/8301-10797_3-57428450-235/how-outsourcing-is-boosting-prospects-for-indian-women/
Yasmin, S. (2013). Outsourcing to India: How call centers improve local economies. Elan. Retrieved online: http://www.elanthemag.com/outsourcing-to-india-how-call-centers-improve-local-economies/
" Photography may not, as Susan Sontag has claimed, symbolically reduce its subjects to "corpses,"
It should also be pointed out this is to often not a specifically intentional attempt at disguise, but rather forms part of the cultural views and milieu of the time. This becomes evident if we take an cursory look at some of the photographers of the period.
Frances enjamin Johnston's Hampton Album was possibly one of the first photographic attempts to document and 'explain' in images the concept and reality of the American dream. Her work particularly relates to the above problems: the question of the other or minorities in the nation. Johnson created her images at Virginia's Hampton Institute in November and December 1899. This was an institution which was concerned with the education and training of lack people.
Many of the aspects relating to nations building and the American…
Bird, S. Elizabeth, ed. Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Blair, Sara. "Cultural Geography and the Place of the Literary." American Literary History 10.3 (1998): 544-567.
Clark, Walter. Photography by Infrared: Its Principles and Applications. 2nd ed. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, inc.;, 1946.
Conner, Jill. "Representation and Photography." Afterimage 29.2 (2001): 16. Questia. 15 May 2005 .
In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This theory of evolution enforced the idea of competition and the concept of survival, concepts that became more relevant to societies as they became immersed in the industrialized economy and the eventual dominance of the capitalist economy, which is motivated also by the spirit of competition and 'survival of the fittest.'
The Victorian ethos was created and developed in the context of the emerging industrialization of economies in the 19th century. The Victorian ethos held that society is in progress, and that…
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…
Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm
Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html
The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
The Church also viewed exploration and territorial expansion as a means to spread the doctrine and power of the Church.
3.) Describe the difference between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot.
The differences between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot are largely superficial. Both legitimate their power through hereditary lineage and both rule without political opposition or a balance of powers. both are autocrats. No constitution or set of laws are in place to keep the powers of either ruler in check. Both rely on some external sources of support, and it is primarily in those external sources that the absolute monarch and the enlightened despot differ. The enlightened despot is less closely connected to the Church. His political philosophy is heavily influenced by Enlightenment values. Thus, the enlightened monarch supports basic tenets like scientific exploration and a greater degree of social and religious tolerance than the absolute…
Enlightened Despots." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook11.html
Gilbert, W. "Renaissance and Reformation." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/
Rempel, G. "Mercantilism." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/mercantilism.html
Steingrad, E. "Louis XIV." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.louis-xiv.de/index.php?t=start&a=start#2
Culture of Germany
Germany has a very unique culture that is shaped both by medieval realities, Cold War politics, and modern day success. Before becoming a country, Germany was made up of dozens of small fiefdoms or princeling states, territories that were German speaking but controlled by local municipal cities. Germany as a country did not exist formally until 1871 when the Prussian Kingdom defeated France, and became united with Bavaria and the West German states to form the German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm II were the leading forces behind the unification of Germany, and with the unification of Germany came great success and a rebalancing of power in Europe. The success of Germany at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century led to power struggles that split Europe into two, causing the start of World War I in 1914. (German…
They must occupy themselves with inventing new ways to legally persecute people as they cannot be involved in any real pursuit of knowledge.
Things changed drastically with the Renaissance, though not with the speed that many men would have appreciated. Galileo Galilei butted heads with the Catholic Church many times in his life, eventually recanting much of what he had provocatively (and rightly) claimed to be true and ending his life under house arrest. He at times tried to couch his more controversial discoveries in language more pleasing to the Church, but apparently he was not proficient enough at disguising it. His "Letter to Castelli" is a prime example of the shift that Western thought was taking during the Renaissance: "the Holy Scriptures in many places not only admit but actually require a different explanation for what seems to be the literal one, it seems to me that they ought…
Culture and Health Care |
A eview of Culture on Health Disparities, Health elated Practices and Healthcare Outcomes
The social status of an individual refers to the rank one holds within a group or community; and requires conformance to such rights, lifestyle, and duties as understood by prestige and social hierarchy (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016). Status may be attained or ascribed in different ways. One, for instance may inherit such status at birth as it happens in monarchies and Kingships. This kind of status climb has nothing to do with one's innate abilities or skills. Ascribed status is based on such factors as age, family relations, lineage, birth, sex, and similar considerations while acquired status is earned. It may be based on such factors as the level of education, marital status, occupation and similar factors that come with accomplishment of certain feats that required some practical effort.
Asu, O. T., Gever, I. D., & Joshua, N. P. (2013). African Cultural Practices and Health Implications for Nigeria. International Review of Management and Business Research, Vol 2, Issue 1, 176-183. Retrieved from http://irmbrjournal.com/papers/1367572222.pdf
Artiga, S. (2016, August 12). Disparities in Health and Health Care: Five Key Questions and Answers. Retrieved September 7, 2016, from Kaiser Family Foundation: http://kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/disparities-in-health-and-health-care-five-key-questions-and-answers/
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2016). Social Status. Retrieved September 7, 2016, from Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/topic/social-status
Mhame, P. P., Busia, K., & Kasilo, O. M. J. (2010). Clinical practices of African traditional medicine. African Health Monitor, Vol 13. Retrieved from African Health Observatory: https://www.aho.afro.who.int/en/ahm/issue/13/reports/clinical-practices-african-traditional-medicine
The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.
King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.
One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…
This was partly because there was wealth enough to patronize the arts, and partly because the Medicis made it fashionable to commission public and private works from local artists. For example, the architect Brunelleschi created buildings that were testaments to the ancient buildings of Rome and Greece, which he studied. He designed the dome of the cathedral in Florence with these classic buildings in mind, and changed architecture from the gaudy medieval cathedrals to a more stately and dignified portrayal of religious belief and utility. Michelangelo rose to prominence under patronage by the Medicis, and his classic statue "The Pieta" was commissioned by a French cardinal, who originally planned to use the piece as a memorial on his own tomb. This is quite common of art at the time; it was commissioned by the powerful and the wealthy for their own enjoyment, but began to be shared with everyone. Thus,…
Nevertheless, the remnants of Anglo-Saxon gods can be still heard in the English days of the wee: Tiw, god of war, gave way to Tuesday, Woden, the god of storms, wisdom, and the dead, became Wednesday, and Frige, love-goddess, took berth of Friday. The language of the Saxons is known as Old English and was, before the Germans, based on the runic alphabet. Written literacy was introduced in full with the Christianity brought from the Mediterranean, and was fostered by the Norman ruling class, which oversaw the agricultural, sylvan lives of the early trading Saxons.
Prehistory should be first mentioned since it not only locates the starting point of the historical development of our continent in the Central European cradle or our people," agreed anthropologists in the early half the last century.
The early cultures that populated the nascent Western World were all unique; proximity, difficulty, and a mastery of…
Howie, Elizabeth. "Early Insular Illuminated Manuscripts: Merging of Oral and Literate Cultures." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. p. 34.
Mead, William R. "The Viking Achievement: A Survey fo the Society and Culutre of Early Medieval Scandinavia." Geographical Review. Vol. 61, No. 4. (Oct. 1971). P. 621.
New Rules for Historical Instruction in Germany." American Anthropologist. Vol. 36, No. 1. (Jan - Mar, 1934.) p. 139.
S. Backs Japan," 2007).
Cine the 1960s and well into the 1980s the overall economic growth skyrocketed to what has been called the "Japanese Miracle." As of 2009, Japan has the second largest economy in the world. Its major industries are banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation, telecommunications and construction. Japan also serves the global economy with some of the most technologically advanced production of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, ships, chemicals and textiles, with a service economy of about ae of its GDP ("Japan -- CIA Factbook," 2010).
Partially this has been the result of the economic partnership with the United States, Australia, and the European Union. Japanese products have gone from the merely imitative "cheap knock-offs" of the late 1950s and early 1960s to cutting edge, sought-after materials that are some of the finest made in the world. The Japanese consumer, too, embraces Western goods and culture…
"Japan." (2010). CIA World Factbook. Cited in:
"Japanese Spirit, Western Things." (2003). The Economist. 383 (8332):
Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups in the Later Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
While Westernization has created tremendous problems for a wide variety of indigenous cultural traditions, there is little question that the introduction of Westerners to the Americas resulted in some of the most massive destruction of an indigenous culture ever seen in history. The vast majority of this destruction occurred prior to the 19th century. When Europeans first came to the Americas, they decimated native populations with disease and violence. Later, Native Americans were forced off of their land. The infamous Trail of Tears in which many Native American groups were forced from their traditional lands and onto reservations occurred in the early 19th century. Therefore, by the end of the 19th century, it is fair to say that Native American culture had already been indelibly impacted by the Western expansion. However, it is important to…
Bear, C. (2008, May 12). American Indian boarding schools haunt many. Retrieved May 20,
2011 from NPR website: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865
Grant, U. (1871, December 4). State of the Union Address. Retrieved May 20, 2011 from Infoplease website: http://www.infoplease.com/t/hist/state-of-the-union/83.html
Johansen, B. (1998, September). Reprise / forced sterilizations: Sterilizations of Native
Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany.
Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken to entail Toqueville's "associationism," a vibrant public sphere, formal outlets for political dissent, and informed political debate. Such inquiries have provided little insight into the nature of healthy democracies because they are based on a faulty assumption, that culture is a condition or even a determinant in the formation of a society's political structure.
As Berman observed, passionate civic engagement among a nation's citizens, without an adequate institutional foundation to channel such passion, can actually be averse to functional democracy.…
One of those buildings was the International Foreign Trade Center -- Shenzhen's first skyscraper and the tallest building in China (36).
Hong Kong is commonly referred to as a place where "East meets West" because of its hybrid nature. That is, there is a culture mix occurring that is part traditional Chinese as well part ritish due to its colonization by the ritish. Hong Kong is quite a modern place, yet there is an infusion of traditional Chinese practices that makes the place unlike any other in the world. One example of how East may meet West in Hong Kong is how the art of feng shui may be utilized in constructing a modern piece of architecture. The old Chinese traditions are used to support newer ways of thinking and living. The architecture in Hong Kong is contemporary and reflects a more Western style as opposed to a Chinese traditional…
Campanella, Thomas. The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution. Princeton Architectural Press; 1st edition. 2008. Print.
Chen, Ming-Jer. Inside Chinese Business: A Guide for Managers Worldwide. Harvard Business Review Press. 2003. Print.
China Tour Online. "Shenzhen History." Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from http://www.chinatouronline.com/china-travel/shenzhen/shenzhen-facts/shenzhen-history.html. Web.
Ching, Julia. Chinese Religions. Orbis Books. 1993. Print.
"The reason being that the colonized intellectual has thrown himself headlong into Western culture. Like adopted children who only stop investigation their new family environment once their psyche has formed a minimum core of reassurance, the colonized intellectual will endeavor to make European culture his own. Not content with knowing Rabelais of Diderot, Shakespeare or Edgar Allen Poe, he will stretch his mind until he identifies with them completely" (Fanon 156). When this fails, the intellectual tends to fixate an idealized version of native culture, creating a romanticized, but ultimately false version of the past. "Seeking to cling close to the people, he clings merely to a visible veneer. This veneer, however, is merely a reflection of a dense, subterranean life in perpetual renewal" (Fanon 160). However, the colonial intellectual does not realize that even when he attempts to perceive the 'pure' past, he is still using the aesthetic standards…
Hofstede's National Culture Model
The term organizational culture did not emerge in the literature until the late 1970s and represents a relatively new addition that has gained a lot of attention since its introduction. Hofstede (1990) poses a series of questions that are directed towards organizational culture:
First, can organizational cultures be "measured" quantitatively, on the basis of answers of organizational members to written questions, or can they only be described qualitatively?
Second, if organizational cultures can be measured in this way, which operationalizable and independent dimensions can be used to measure them, and how do these dimensions relate to what is known about organizations from existing theory and research?
Third, to what extent can measurable differences among the cultures of different organizations be attributed to unique features of the organization in question, such as its history or the personality of its founder?
The quantitative measures of the cultures of…
Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study across Twenty Cases. Administrative Sciences Quarterly, 286-316.
McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstede's model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith - a failure of analysis. Human Relations, 89-118.
The Hofstede Centre. (N.d.). What about Brazil? Retrieved from The Hofstede Centre: http://geert-hofstede.com/brazil.html
The Hofstede Centre. (N.d.). What about Saudi Arabia? Retrieved from The Hofstede Centre.
Key Components of Japanese Culture
As with every culture, Japanese culture includes a number of elements which make the culture uniquely its own. Japan is a very homogeneous nation whose people place high value on the norms of acceptable behavior. The Japanese value harmony, conformity and predictability. Japanese cultural norms require people to go to great lengths to avoid actions that might disrupt the harmony of the group. Japanese people feel themselves to be accountable to the group, not the individual; in fact, individualistic behavior is frowned upon. The Japanese believe that conformity produces harmony, the supreme value (Denison, 2002).
While the Japanese people regard their culture as unique, they are actually very flexible and open to adapting to outside influences. Foreign sports and fashions as well as modern technology have gained wide acceptance and dissemination. Also, Japan's written language originated in China, while the Buddhist religion came…
Bucknall, K. (2010, December 15). The most important elements in Japanese culture, especially for those doing business with Japan. Retrieved from http://www.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474977025266
Culture of Japan. (2012). Anicca, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.earthyfamily.com/J-Culture.htm
Denison, B. (2002). A basic overview of Japanese culture. Mizukan Dojo. Retrieved from http://www.mizukan.org/articles/culture.htm
Dimensions. (n.d.). Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved from http://geert-hofstede.com/dimensions.html
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…
Avi-Yonah, Michael. 2004. Ancient Scrolls: Introduction to Archaeology. Books&Bagels
Beyerstein, Barry L. 1992. The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology -- the Study of Handwriting Analysis. Prometheus Books
The culture plays a vital role in the society. In this paper we have researched the different aspects of the society and the effect of culture on the society. The primary mode of subsistence is that of culture values and belief. Culture is usually taken for granted by many societies. However, it affects the way people act and belief in a particular society. Culture sets the norms and it is the primary mode of subsistence in a society. The behavior of the society is also according to the culture. The in depth analysis has been conducted on Enga society. This society is unique in its culture and beliefs. The tradition that is followed by the Enga has some pros and cons. The aspects studied in details of Enga are the kinship, values and belief, and gender relations. (Glazer, 2000)
The Enga primary mode of subsistence is that of agrarian…
Benedict Y. Imbun, (2002), Enga Social Life and Identity in a Papua New Guinea Mining Town. Oceania. 66.(1). 51+, Publication Year: 1995.
Jacka, J. (2002) Cults and Christianity among the Enga and Ipili. Journal Title: Oceania. Volume: 72. Issue: 3. Page Number: 196+.
Wallace, I. (1992). The Global Economic System. London, Routledge.
Glazer, N. (2000). Culture and Achievement. Public Interest, 49.
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
European culture in Africa
Published in 1958, the book Things Fall Apart is an influential piece of work by Achebe that portrays, in most conventional style, the life and culture in a very traditional village in Africa. This book is about restoration of traditional values and identification of identity of African people in the wake of European cultural dominance and acceptance. This report is about how the writer has projected upon the life and revived the African culture as against the treat of European cultural imperialism.
In this novel the writer tries to enlighten the foreign world as regards to the cultural traditions of Ibo and in doing so the writer is also reminding the African people of their own traditions and cultural values. The writer is of the notion that the African people must not forget their old values, customs and cultural norms in this changing verve of the…
Achebe, Chinua. (1958) Things Fall Apart, Heinemarm, 1994 ed.,
McKay, John P., Hill and Buckler (2003) A History of Western Society (Volume 2). 7th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Impact of the European culture in Africa
The sexually explicit imagery that they witnessed on TV led young Indians to express more need in sexuality. Eventually, whole regions in India had been reported of suffering as a result of young people watching TV and becoming sexually active at a much smaller age. The Kerala province in India is only one of the several areas that have had their people falling victims to the western culture depicted on satellite TV. (Lukose, Ritty 2005)
A characteristic that people fail from seeing when examining globalization is that it allows concepts to become known worldwide. Perhaps certain issues relating to globalization are actually good, and, perhaps people accept globalization because it presents new and helpful theories.
In spite of the fact that Indians generally communicate to the rest of the world through English, they communicate to their neighboring countries through Hindi. People in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal all need to know…
1. Fursich Elfriede, Shrikhande Seema. "Development Broadcasting in India and Beyond: Redefining an Old Mandate in an Age of Media Globalization." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 51, 2007.
2. Ganguly-Scrase, Ruchira. "Paradoxes of Globalization, Liberalization, and Gender Equality: The Worldviews of the Lower Middle Class in West Bengal, India." Gender and Society, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Aug., 2003).
3. Hopper, Paul. (2007). "Understanding cultural globalization." Polity.
4. Lukose, Ritty. "Consuming Globalization: Youth and Gender in Kerala, India." Journal of Social History, Vol. 38, 2005.
Modern science and all the various process that are involved with the modernization process evolved because of the progress made by the western countries and the progress made in the field of science, medicine and the notions held in respect of human rights and liberty. There are several sections of individuals who state that dissatisfaction that people seem to have is that they are troubled with their daily life. But when analyzing we can realize that the actual dissatisfaction of individuals arises forms the modern life that they need and in comparison to that the others around the world lead. The term globalization is used to describe the various changes that have taken place in the social, economical and political scenarios that has brought about change in the current situation.
To explain, globalization is the termed used to describe the technique in which the various far away parts…
Barlow, Maude and Clake, Tony. Global Showdown. Toronto: Stoddart, 2001.p.66-68
Clarkson, Stephen. Uncle Sam and Us: Globalization, Neoconservatism, and the Canadian State, Univ of Toronto Pr; September 2002, p.21
Ellwood, Wayne. The No-Nonsense Guide to Globalization. New Internationalist Publications Ltd., 2001, p. 14
Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development (Princeton 1995), Chapter 5, pp. 192-211.
The children also rent decorated bikes to ride around town on for the holiday. It is a time for families to get together and celebrate with food and music and fellowship.
For a lot of families from working neighborhoods, Eid celebration also includes picnics in green areas including parks, zoos, botanical gardens and even green islands on major roads (Osama, 2004)."
Most of Egypt is Islam. Like Christians, the Islam followers trace their roots to Abraham and believe in one God who is universal. In Islam God is referred to as ALLAH which means One Universal God.
The Quran is the final revealed Word of God and provides the complete guide for human behavior. Its text was revealed directly to the prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 C.E. Muhammad is revered by Muslims as the last of God's prophets but is not worshipped (Ahmad, 2005)."
Men and women are…
Instead, countries like Russia are more spiritual and believe in an interpretive form of the Christian text (Cross 2012, 3.1). These populations have formed a new form of Christianity which accepts certain tenets and rejects others.
The period known as the Enlightenment had a much more profound on the western world than the east. Religious principles were given secondary consideration to individual accomplishment and the growing importance of scientific development and logical conclusions. This period led to the importance which was placed on the individual in western culture. Individualism is directly contradictory to the eastern emphasis on community and communal thinking, particularly during the time of Communism (Cross 2012, 3.1).
Nations of the west have embraced immigration, particularly in the United States, but still the majority of the population has a estern European heritage which has determined the majority culture. In the east, there is less immigration within to other…
Cross Cultural Perspectives (2012). Ashford University.
Since the valuation of a God had been essentially devaluated, what was to be the source of revaluation in the modern world? No answer could satisfy Ives, for his society saw no return to the societal standards and beliefs of the age of Bach, which gave explicit valuation to all things, especially music -- as seen in Bach's mastering of counterpoint. Schoenberg's inverted counterpoint is the antithesis of that old world Germanic culture -- and it is no surprise that Schoenberg settled in America -- all things being equal, and, in a sense, equally meaningless.
In conclusion, what was once considered light and understood, orthodox, hierarchical, and whole -- in terms of both estern culture and estern classical music in the time of Bach -- had, by the time of Ives and Schoenberg, drifted into a kind of relativistic self-importance/self-worthlessness that had no moorings whatsoever. Notes and attitudes shifted without…
Barker, Dan. "Brahms the Freethinker." Works Without Faith. 17 May 2007. Web. 25
Heiner, Stephen. Interview with Bp. Williamson. 1 October 2006. Web. 25 March
Triumph of estern Civilization
In the book Guns, Germs, and Steel, the historian and New Guinea anthropologist Jared Diamond argues that the geography and the environment of the est played the major role in determining the dominance of estern civilization of the modern world. According to Diamond, although geography and the environment do not automatically lead to dominance over other civilizations, these two factors do make major contributions to the four factors that are responsible for all historical developments. The first of these factors is the widespread availability of potential crops and domestic animals as a sustainable food source. This first factor's importance is followed by the need for a nation's location near the a continental axis in a way that facilitates the sustenance of year-round agriculture and yields the seasonal and climatic advantages for a variety of foodstuffs. Third in importance to holding sway over other nations is an…
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel W.W. Norton & Company.1999.
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.93.
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1999), pp.321-323.