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estern Europe Since the End of II in 1945
hat do you consider the biggest changes to have taken place in estern Europe after 1945? After orld ar II, Europe became divided into two blocs: the East and the est. This division was caused by the rapid spread of Communism in Eurasia or Eastern Europe propagated by the Soviet Union. hile the Eastern Europe was converted into becoming a Communist-Socialist society, estern Europe was given foreign aid by the United States through the European Recovery Program. The ERP is part of the U.S.-led Marshall Plan for the European and Asian regions, in its attempt to regain control over other countries and curb the growing influence of Communism in the said regions. Because the Eastern Europe was already influenced by Communism, Eastern Europe, although it remained susceptible to Communist influence, gained from the ERP and was able to economically recover and…
What were the origins of the Cold War? Could it have been avoided? How has the end of Cold War affected global politics? The origins of the Cold War dates back as early as the pre-WWII period, wherein Soviet Union and the U.S. are already showing an antagonistic relationship. It was only during the WWII that they were compelled to become allies, with the objective that they will seek dominant control and power over all nations of the world after the war. Thus, the Cold War was an inevitable event, since it was based on the conflict between two superpowers during the time. Although the end of the Cold War also marked the downfall and failure of the Communist experiment in the Soviet Union, the Cold War instilled in the minds of the people that the prevailing ideologies that are capitalism and democracy can be challenged and changed.
Why was the revolution of 1989 in Eastern Europe a relatively peaceful one? The Revolution of 1989 manifested the eventual fall-out of Eastern European countries with Soviet Union and Communism. This revolution was a relatively peaceful one because these countries adopted liberal democracy and the free market and trade model of the U.S. Thus, the revolution was not so much a "revolution" but a change from being a Communist-Socialist to a Capitalist-Democratic society.
What are the main problems facing the European Union in the next five years? The main problem that the EU will be facing in the next five years is the issue of widening its membership and ensuring the success of the euro, the region's single currency program that aims to promote and spur European economic growth and stability.
(allerstein 2002, p. 51).
Russia suffered many of the problems that were prevalent in other cultures where capitalism could have beenimagined to develop. Like Japan, Russia had a centralized government that controlled society and eliminated any chance of private enterprise and limited the ownership of land. It was not until the Revolution of 1905 that the serfs attained true freedom. (Figes 2002, p. 331). Afterwards, the nation was dominated by Marxist policies that purposely conflicted with capitalist ideology. Before all this, despite the efforts of Peter the Great, Russia remained beholden to its traditional mode of thinking. This was a type of thought that avoided competition and encouraged the growth of prominent families who most often had connections with the nation's elite.
In Latin America capitalism was stifled by many of the familiar reasons. hile the est was endowed with a capitalist spirit, one which could be connected to a…
Banaji, Jairus. (2007). Islam, The Mediterannean and the Rise of Capitalism. Historical Materialism. 15 (1), 51
De Soto, Hernando (2003). The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York: Basic Books. 208.
Figes, Orlando (2002). Natasha's Dance. New York: Metropolitan Books. 331.
Huntington, Samuel (2002). The Clash of Civilizations. London: Simon & Schusrer. 21.
United States & United Kingdom
Western Europe Politics
The United States & United Kingdom
The purpose of this paper is to examine the close relationship between the United States and United Kingdom and attempt to determine the roots of these strong bonds from a time when the U.S. was still a ritish Colony to present day. Further this work will explain why this bond in essence forces the ritish to go along with the U.S. On International issues and endeavors and to determine if this bond will break considering the aftermath of the war with Iraq and the criticism both nations have been in receipt of for basically going at it alone in the war against Iraq.
The United States and the United Kingdom have a long-running history between the two countries and in the present sense the United Kingdom is the largest customer that the United…
"U.S. -- U.K. Appear Split on Iraq Body Power" United Press International
Hore, Peter (2003) "U.S. -- U.K. Tie Will Endure but With a Chill. Newsday Report 11-30-2003
Lister, Richard (2001) U.S. And the U.K: Special Relationship? BBC News [Online] at: http://bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1185177.htm
'U.S. -- U.K. Alliance Shows Strain (2003) United Press International Analysis 3-31-2003
darkest periods in European history, the fourteenth century was marked by a number of catastrophes that contributed to extreme warring and economic hardship. The fourteenth century marked many of Europe's worst crises, among them were: the Hundred Years ar, the Black Death, and mass social crisis and revolt due to a plunging economy.
The Hundred Years war occurred between 1337 and the 1400s (Fourteenth Century). The conflict consumed many nations, but most notably England and France. Both European powers were vying for control over parts of the European mainland. The outbreak of the war was not sudden, but rather resulted from a number of smaller conflicts, and a rise in tensions between the two nations. English kings and nobles controlled large portions of land within French territory, and were vying for influence within the country. The French, however, were not willing to grant the English land owners the autonomy they…
Cantor, Norman. In the Wake of the Plague. New York: Free Press. 2001.
The Fourteenth Century." (Electronic Version). Accessed 6/1/2003. http://www.saradouglass.com/14th.html#TheHundred Years War1108
 The United States saw that this must be prevented at all
costs due to Greece's connection to the economies of estern European and
United States. Furthermore, with Greece's strategic position in the
Mediterranean region and proximity to the Middle East, it and Turkey could
be vital allies in the future of global politics.
Greece, Turkey, and Iran were part of the so-called Northern
Tier which was a buffer zone designed to stop the USSR from getting to the
Middle Eastern oil reserves and the Persian Gulf. Some have suggested that
these nations were used as pawns in a much larger political game. Since
those nations needed assistance, they were given it, but with certain
expectations about their future allegiances. This was certainly what
Truman with his famous doctrine was expected to have happen in this region
of the world.
The aid package that Truman proposed and that was approved…
Bernaris, Anthony. "Oral History Interview with Anthony Bernaris" By
Brooks. Truman Presidential Museum and Library. 30 April 1964. 19
Clogg, Richard. A Concise History of Greece. New York: Cambridge
World War II ended, significant efforts were made by the allies to implement democracy in West Germany and Japan. The transition from authoritarianism to democracy would not be an easy task to complete efficiently (Katz). In time both of these countries were transformed from militarist regimes with weak democratic cultures into models of democracy (nterline and Greig). In their foreign policy analysis, Andrew J. nterline and J. Michael Greig have stated that the following:
West Germany and Japan were critical to the functioning, and ultimate success, of the Western security system during the Cold War, and served as beacons of democracy, economic prosperity, and peaceful foreign relations in regions notable for authoritarian regimes, state controlled economics, domestic turmoil, and interstate conflict.
In 2003, after entering Baghdad, the senior U.S. staff officer found himself and his division in a similar situation of turmoil. There were given no instructions or orders regarding…
Enterline, Andrew J., and J. Michael Greig. "Against All Odds? The History of Imposed Democracy and the Future of Iraq and Afghanistan." Foreign Policy Analysis 4 (2008): 321-347. Wiley Online. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Michael, McFaul. "Democracy Promotion as a World Value." The Washington Quarterly 28.1 (2004): 147-163. Project Muse. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Katz, Stanley N. "Gun Barrel Democracy? Democratic Constitutionalism Following Military Occupation: Reflections on the U.S. Experience in Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan and Iraq." Princeton Law & Public Affairs Paper No. 04-010. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
The 1956 Suez Canal Crisis caused an indirect confrontation when America's allies France, Britain, and Israel made an unsuccessful military attempt to take over the Suez Canal from the Soviet Union's ally Egypt. After the U.S.S.. threatened to become militarily involved in the crisis, the U.S. forced its allies to concede defeat.
The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis occurred after the U.S. discovered that the U.S.S.. had secretly supplied Cuba with nuclear-armed missiles. This discovery was especially alarming because now the U.S.S.. could militarily subdue its rival by easily launching missiles against it. After a naval blockade around Cuba and intense negotiations the U.S.S.. was finally made to remove the missiles in exchange for the U.S. pledge not to overthrow Cuba's Communist regime.
The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
The Cold War." (N.D) in the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2005 CD.
What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…
Wikipedia. (December 27, 2007) Western Culture. Retrieved on December 30, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_culture
Imperialism also became a key source of power for European nations. Colonial landholdings by the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch strengthened those nations politically and economically. Power could be substantiated by nationalistic propaganda. After 1870, the balance of power in Europe changed to accommodate for the emergence of two newly unified nations: Germany and Italy. The strategic alliances forged between various nation-states in Europe and the corruption that ensued led to the First and Second World Wars. Those wars in turn altered the balance of power throughout the world, allowing the United States to emerge as a superpower. Thus, nation-states in power, which are headed by elite and powerful social groups, help determine the course of history. Power is influence over a specific geographic region and can possibly translate to power globally.
4. Known as the Iron Chancellor, Otto von Bismark helped unified Germany and effectively consolidated power in a…
Donohue, L. (nd) "Congress of Vienna." Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/congress/vienessy.html
Kishlansky, M., Geary, P., & O'Brien, P. (2007). Civilization in the West. 5th edition. Pearson-Longman. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://wps.ablongman.com/long_kishlansky_cw_5/0,6472,270050-,00.html
Kreis, S. (2000). "Origins of the French Revolution." The History Guide. Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture11a.html
Otto von Bismark: The Iron Chancellor of germany." Retrieved June 20, 2007 at http://www.germanculture.com.ua/library/weekly/aa092000a.htm
Western Art and Christianity
During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.
The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source
Documents, History 100.
Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.
Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
(Woyke, 2002, p. 27) From a Turkish perspective membership would allow Turkey fundamentally stronger trade rights and privileges and waiting much longer could allow her to slip into a non-competitive role in the region. The EU is so strong that the development of the region depends on support from ember states. Isolationist arguments on the part of the EU would seem illogical given the nature of the union as well as the diplomatic manner in which it has accepted members and formed cohesive networks. Turkey will likely be accepted into the union at some point, in the near future, and yet it may take a monumental fight for it to occur. The strategic advantages will have to be weighed against monumental opposition to creating an EU that is to vast and diverse to control.
Clarke, K. (2006). Crossing over? Turkey and the European Union. Harvard International eview, 27(4), 13.…
Clarke, K. (2006). Crossing over? Turkey and the European Union. Harvard International Review, 27(4), 13.
Bache I. And George S., (2006), Politics in the European Union (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press
Nugent N., (2003) (5th ed.), the Government and Politics of the European Union, Houndmils, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan
Peterson J., (1999), Decision-Making in the European Union, London: The MacMillan Press.
The Church also viewed exploration and territorial expansion as a means to spread the doctrine and power of the Church.
3.) Describe the difference between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot.
The differences between an absolute monarch and an enlightened despot are largely superficial. Both legitimate their power through hereditary lineage and both rule without political opposition or a balance of powers. both are autocrats. No constitution or set of laws are in place to keep the powers of either ruler in check. Both rely on some external sources of support, and it is primarily in those external sources that the absolute monarch and the enlightened despot differ. The enlightened despot is less closely connected to the Church. His political philosophy is heavily influenced by Enlightenment values. Thus, the enlightened monarch supports basic tenets like scientific exploration and a greater degree of social and religious tolerance than the absolute…
Enlightened Despots." Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook11.html
Gilbert, W. "Renaissance and Reformation." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/
Rempel, G. "Mercantilism." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/wc2/lectures/mercantilism.html
Steingrad, E. "Louis XIV." Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.louis-xiv.de/index.php?t=start&a=start#2
Jews worship in synagogues, which rarely share common architectural elements in common with one another. ather, the presence of the Arc within a synagogue remains one of the only features present in synagogues around the world. Some of the ultra-liberal synagogues from the eform tradition may not even have an Arc.
Christian churches vary widely, too. Catholic Churches constructed in Europe during the height of the Church's power from the late Middle Ages through the Enlightenment often share some elements in common including cross-shaped floor plan and altar. Mosques may differ widely but most have minarets topped with the symbol of the crescent moon. Unlike Christianity, neither Judaism nor Islam tolerates the presence of any anthropomorphic representations within their holy places. Thus, the interiors of synagogues and mosques contain only geometric and abstract designs in contrast to the prolific imagery of Christ, the apostles, and the saints in Catholic churches.…
Rich, T. (2002). "Halakhah: Jewish Law." Judaism 101. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewfaq.org/halakhah.htm
Hein, A. (2006) "A History of Women's Ordination as Rabbis." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/femalerabbi.html
The Islamic Calendar." Calendars through the Ages. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-islamic.html
Kennedy, D.J. (1912; 2003). Sacraments. New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Aug 7, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13295a.htm
People accepted science, and so they also accepted the idea that humans were not unique, but were descendents of animals, and products of the natural world. Thus, some people felt the theories of evolution actually eliminated meaning and purpose from the universe, and that man's contribution to the universe was slight at best. It was clear man enjoyed superior intellect to other life forms on Earth, but in the universe, that might not be true, and so humanity's place in the universe seemed to mean less than it did before, which was distressing to many people. People still had faith and beliefs, but scientific reasoning brought much of this into question, and many felt humanity was losing ground to science and scientific thought. It was a time of great change and innovation, and humanity became less important and yet vital at the same time.
Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization.…
Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company, 1997.
Change was happing all over Europe, and Luther's change just seemed to fit in at the right time.
Luther's revolt really affected many facets of life, because it freed people to make choices in their religion, and their lives, and showed them there was more than one way to believe and to live. It gave them the ability to question, to seek new answers, and to look to other answers besides religion. It also showed them the Catholic Church was not all-powerful. His revolt ultimately helped other dissidents revolt. His was only the first branch of many new Protestant religions, and other people found the courage to stand up and demand change because of Luther's eventual success. It was a politically charged time in Germany, and politicians learned they had to please the people, rather than simply the Pope and the Church.
Political Science in Western Europe
Lipset and Rokkam's freezing hypothesis, published in the 1967, approached the political spectrum from their experiential paradigm. The party system in Europe, and indeed most of the western world, had evolved through a homogeneous process which had experiences little in the way of social upheaval. The economies of the West were based on societal evolutions form agriculture to industry which had smoothly transitioned, and formed the basis for social prosperity and order.
However, in the late 60's and 70's, the cradle of prosperity gave birth to other forces by which citizens wanted to identify themselves. Social caused, and religious ethics, which had been somewhat ignored by secular social system became important to the individual. Lipset and Rokkan based their theory on the assumption that if men were given equal right to vote, then a level of social freezing would take place, limiting the emergence of…
Seymour M. Lipset and Stein Rokkan, "Cleavage Structures, Party Systems, and Voter Alignments: An Introduction," in Lipset and Rokkan, 50.
Bartolini and Peter Mair, especially chapter 2. See also Peter Mair, "Continuity, Change and the Vulnerability of Party," in Peter Mair and Gordon Smith, eds., Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe (London: Frank Cass, 1990), 169-87
ROSE, Richard, and URWIN, Derek W.: -- Persistence and Change in Western Party Systems Since 1945 --, Political Studies 18/1970, p. 287-319.
DALTON, Russell J., FLANAGAN, Scott P. And ALLEN BECK, Paul (eds.): Electoral Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies: Realignment or Dealignment? Princenton, Princenton University Press, 1984.
European pharmaceutical dispensing customs and laws are significantly different than in the U.S. In Germany, for example, one cannot buy vitamins (above a certain small dosage) or aspirin anywhere but a pharmacy. Most drugs we consider OTC are still limited to the pharmacy in many European countries.
In considering whether to push for DTC advertising in Europe, American pharmaceutical companies will have to tread carefully, and be mindful of the special political clout carried by pharmacies and physicians.
Culture' and the limits of innovation in marketing: Ernest Dichter, motivation studies and psychoanalytic consumer research in Great ritain, 1950s -- 1970s (Schwarzkopf, 2007)
This study from the University of London talks about the attempt of American companies and advertising agencies to bring the results of psychoanalysis to Great ritain in the 1950's to the 1970's, and the difficulties encountered. America pioneered in consumer motivational research, which was popularized by Vance Packard…
Economist. (2007, April 26). Counter-attacking the Kremlin. Economist, p. n.p.
Guthrie, P. (2007). Direct-to-consumer advertising debated. CMAJ, n.p.
Pfanner, E. (2007, March 22). Marketers Have Eyes on the 'Third Screen'. New York Times, p. n.p.
Schwarzkopf, S. (2007). 'Culture' and the limits of innovation in marketing: Ernest Dichter, motivation studies and psychoanalytic consumer research in Great Britain, 1950s -- 1970s. Management and Organisational History, 219-236.
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…
Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar
Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.
"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.
22 Mar 2012.
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…
Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.
Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.
Leisure May Be the Death of Europe
Time to Kill
In his article, Time to Kill - Europe and the Politics of Leisure, Steven Muller examines the efforts of Europe to reconstitute itself in the aftermath of the Cold War. By analyzing such factors as economics, politics, social functions, labor and unemployment, the author concludes that, in contrast to the prevailing sense of optimism, Western Europe is in fact facing a period of, "acute economic stagnation, the undermining rather than the expansion of democracy, and serious social upheaval" (Muller, 26). The primary cause of this crisis, according to Muller, is Europe's inability to rapidly or effectively deal with revolutionary changes in the human condition, which will result in a decreasing number of individuals enjoying the privilege of employment, and an increasing amount of leisure and idleness. I agree with the author that, unlike the other technologically advanced nations such…
Muller, S. (1997, Summer). Time to Kill - Europe and the Politics of Leisure. National Interest, 26-37.
History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C
This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.
Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…
Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners
Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.
Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
lack Death and Religion in Western Europe
The lack Death is perhaps considered as the most devastating pandemic that has happened to humanity in the previous to the present century. The disease was transmitted from Asia into and through Europe. The disease set feet in Europe by the sea in October of 1347 when trading ships belonging to Genoese set their dock at the Silician Port of Messina when it had covered a long journey through the sea. It was not business as usual because the people who had gathered to receive the ship were met with drilling surprise. The sailors, almost all of them, who were on the ship, were dead. Those who were not yet dead were suffering in ill pain. They have a somewhat strong fever that had overcome them and could not do anything because of the pain. What was notable is that the bodies of…
Bulliet, Richard W. 2014. The Earth And Its Peoples: A Global History. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Byrne, Joseph Patrick. 2012. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
Cantor, Norman F. In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World it Made. Simon and Schuster, 2001. Print
Hecht, Richard D., and Vincent F. Biondo. 2010. Religion and Everyday Life and Culture. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Economic Depression of Europe
An economic depression is more severe than a recession due to the fact that a depression involves drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and high levels of unemployment.
There were economic depressions in Europe that were experienced before and after the 1870 but with a remarkable difference, being that those that were experienced before the 1870s were less costly in terms of life and resources and took relatively lesser period. Indeed it was a commonplace that every part of Europe experienced one sort of economic depression or the other.
One such economic situation before 1870 was the "little ice age" which began in the late 16th century till around 1950s as indicated by Big Site of History (2011). This was a time when a severe cold that could not be withstood by most crops set in most…
Big Site of History (2011). Social Trends in 17th Century Europe: The Problem of Divine-Right
Monarchy. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://bigsiteofhistory.com/social-trends-in-17th-century-europe-the-problem-of-divine-right-monarchy
Historic UK, (2011). The Great Plague 1665. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.historic-
The economic pragmatism that the Marshall Plan demonstrates for the United States is not necessarily as clearly observable form a basic look at history as is the containment of communism. The decades following World War II and the implementation of the Marshall Plan were definitely economically successful fro Europe and for the United States, but how this relates directly to the Marshall Plan and not simply to the end of the war can be difficult to discern. Looking at how the economic growth and development that occurred following the Marshall Plan actually came to be makes its effects and intentions quite clear, however.
American industry had grown hugely during the war, as factories and raw materials in the United States supplied much of what was needed to engage in warfare for the Allied forces, including everything from artillery to textiles (WiseGeek 2010; InfoPlease 2010). Following the war, it was still…
InfoPlease. (2010). Marshall Plan. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0831964.html
LOC. (2010). Marshall announces his plan. Library of Congress. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/marshall/mars1.html
NARA. (2010). The Marshall Plan. National Archives and Records Adminsitration. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/marshall_plan/
Spartacus. (2010). Marshall Plan. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmarshallP.htm
Moreover, ending the cold war enabled the formation of international alliances that help and support members, and also fight together against common enemies.
Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007
Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & rothers, 1947
Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Proxy War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 21, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991, History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999, https://www.cia.gov/csi/books/19335/art-1.html#rtoc7,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17-18
Christopher Reeves, Western Europe during the Cold War and eyond, Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Center for European Studies
Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007
Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & Brothers, 1947
Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
European and American imperialism from 1900-1918
Empire is the term from which the word imperialism is carved. Government implies the act of mastery of one nation by another one, with the sole intention of expanding region, power and impact. It conveys with it the thought of social prevalence from the radical, judging the lifestyle, cultures and convictions of those colonized as sub-par and in need of changeover (Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com).
Nonetheless, Imperialism normally posits as a political control and making monetary subservience. In Europe, the time of dominion coincided with patriotism and unification when prior political units were assembled under governance that asserted the privilege to keep rule over them. "I rehash that the elite races [European] have a privilege in light of the fact that they have an obligation. They have the obligation to socialize the downtrodden races [non Europeans] (South Africa History, n.d.)"
Ashley Smith the journalist isolated hypotheses…
Encyclopedia. "Imperialism." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 1 Jan. 1968. Web. 25 Jan. 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/imperialism.aspx
Grafs History. Word War 1: Consequences of the Great War. (2014). Retrieved from: https://grafshistory.wordpress.com
Humbold. Goal. The American Quest for Empire. Retrieved from:
Best Western has a prominent international presence with hotels in over 90 countries worldwide. The largest percentage of these hotels (2194) is in North America followed by Europe with 1,424 hotels then, Asia with over 300 then South America with slightly over 116 (Best Western International, 2012).
The top Best Western competitors are Holiday Inn and Comfort Inn. Holiday Inn has a 90.9% total Brand Awareness followed by Best Western at 89% then followed by Comfort Inn at 88.7% in addition, Best Western's total advertising awareness in 2010 was 18% followed by Holiday Inn Express at 16.8% and then Holiday Inn at 16.7% (Best Western International, 2012)
The Disadvantages of Franchising
The preparation of legal documents such as agreements, Uniform Franchise Offering Circulars (UFOCs) and related documents, and filing them is costly.
The state laws regulate the situations in which a franchisor may wish to terminate…
Best Western International . (2012). North American Development. Retrieved from www.bestwesterndevelopers.com: http://www.bestwesterndevelopers.com/membership/pdfs/NAD-2011-Sales-Presentation-FINAL.pdf
Hotel New Resource. (2012, August 12). Best Western Hotel Industry News . Retrieved from www.hotelnewsresource.com: http://www.hotelnewsresource.com/HNR-companyid-coid-10057-Best_Western.html
estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.
Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.
The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…
Fort C. How To Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci; Liberating Creativity And Igniting
Innovation In The Workplace. PR Newswire. 8 Feb. 2001.
Joseph E. Reading Montaigne. Commentary. 1 Mar. 1993.
Leonardo Da Vinci. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 1 Jul. 2003.
Ideology in France 1848-1849: eflections on Nationalism and Liberalism
The ideology adopted in France between 1848-1849 has been described in many different ways by historians and theorists. The predominant body of research available however suggests that a liberal and nationalistic ideology reigned supreme during this time, where the middle class became much more influential. The idealisms of the romantic era are also evident in France during this period of time, and may have influenced the nationalistic state of affairs in France at the time.
The liberal and nationalistic idealisms adopted by the middle class led many people to experience struggles and hardships, but a majority of these were in the process of discovering their own form of leadership and sense of pride. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.
Ideology in France
Karl Marx describes the France of 1848-1849 as filled with Class struggles. From primary accounts of the…
Dunham, A.L. "The industrial revolution in France, 1815-1848." New York: Exposition
Evans, D.O. "Social romanticism in France, 1830-1848." Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1951.
Hemmings, F.W.J."Culture and society in France, 1815-1848." New York: Peter Lang,
Interpretive Analysis: A Day in the Life of a Great Leader
Baron Claude-Francois De Meneval in his work on Napoleon remembers the French leaders as seemingly "immortal," someone who was vigorous and struck down "by a terrible storm" and someone that was worthy of remembrance in many ways (p. Ix). De Meneval describes a day in the life of Napoleon shortly after a return from a trip to Egypt, where Bonaparte had been interested in spreading his influence. The author describes Napoleon as "gentlemanly" and suggest that he was an individual set on task and of clear mind, explaining to his colleagues among other things the plausible motives he might use to satisfy "the desire of the population" (De Meneval, 1894:9).
Further Napoleon is described as someone whose presence that particular day inspired warm enthusiasm from the population at large in part a testament to his "zeal and…
Claude-Francois De Meneval, B."Memoirs Illustrating the History of Napoleon I from
1802 to 1815 vol. 1" New York: D. Appleton & Co: 1894
Geyl, P.M. & Renier, O.M. "Napoleon: For and against." New Haven: Yale University
Islam in the 14th-16th Centuries
With the rapid rise of the Ottoman Empire in the fourteenth and fifteenth century, European attitudes toward Islam would change vastly. We can see this illustrated in the differing attitudes toward Islam which are expressed by William of Adam, in his strange early-fourteenth century strategy pamphlet emphasizing the total European defeat of the Saracens, and Martin Luther, in his sixteenth century publications offering policy recommendations toward the Islamic power to the southeast. William of Adam wrote at the time when the Ottoman Empire was barely yet a phenomenon -- with his tract How To Defeat The Saracens dating to approximately 1317, this was a point in time when the Ottomans had barely yet made inroads against the Byzantine Empire that was still standing. By the time of Luther's central pamphlet on Muslim policy, the 1529 publication On the War Against the Turk, the Ottoman Empire…
Roots of Religious Conflicts
The three major religions in the world, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as well as their adherents (Jews, Christians, and Muslims) have for long periods in history been involved in violent conflicts against each other. This may seem surprising to some due to their common Abrahamic origins (all 3 faiths trace their origins to the Biblical Abraham) and several other similarities such as Monotheism (the belief in one God). However, distrust and conflict among the three religions continues even in the 21st century. In this essay we shall briefly examine the historical roots of the conflict, hatred, and war between Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
The oldest religion among the three is Judaism, dating back to more than three thousand years. Christianity grew out of the Jewish religion, initially as a Jewish Sect, about two thousand years ago. Islam too incorporates several practices of Judaism and recognizes most…
Harris, Jay M. "Jews." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD ROM Version, 2003
Huntington, Samuel P. "The Clash of Civilizations: Remaking of World Order." New York:
Lewis, Bernard. "The Historical Roots of Racism." 1995. May 31, 2003. http://www.geocities.com/ninure/racism_roots.html
Touchstone Edition, Simon & Schuster Inc., 1997
Silvio A. edini's book "The Pope's Elephant," Hanno, the elephant in question manifests the corrupt, cultural and oftentimes ridiculous papacy of the early 1500s under the reign of Pope Leo X (1513-1531). Through the travails of Hanno, edini provides a remarkable insight into the traditions and pageantry of the Vatican in the early 16th century. edini also manages to show the human face of God's appointed representative on earth as well as the cruelty that existed in that period. As Hanno becomes the vehicle to convey the massive accumulation and application of wealth, privilege and power thoroughly enjoyed by Pope Leo and his supporters to the reader, the pachyderm also began to symbolize this excess, becoming part of the concluding chapter of what they termed the Golden Age.
efore tackling this issue, a summary of "The Pope's Elephant" needs to be proffered. edini provides a captivating and insightful study into…
Bedini, Silvio A. (2000) The Pope's Elephant. Penguin USA, Manhattan.
Rowland, Ingrid D. (1999) "Book Reviews: Early Modern Europe" Catholic Historical Review, April 1999. http://www.britannica.com/magazine/print-content_id=237957
Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Conflict in the Middle East small piece of land, at points only 2-3 miles wide in a barely habitable part of the world has been theater on which the pivotal events of all world history have been played. The nation of Israel clutches it's historical rights to desert real estate in opposition to the overwhelming arabs and Muslims which surround them. While there is periodic talk of peace, the culturally is that Israel has no intention of giving up what it sees as its divine inheritance, and the Muslim and Palestinian peoples have no intention of allowing Israel to become a prosperous nation. Each countries' perspective is shaped by what it sees as it's divine heritage. Each country has descended from a single ancestor, and therefore perceives it's inherited rights to the land as legal, social, familial, and a matter of divine right.
Entering into this…
Marty, Martin E. Spreading Conflict: Fissures between Christians over Israel and Palestine are Growing. 2002. The New Republic Online. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.tnr.com
American Jewish, Christian and Muslim Leaders Unite.
American Arab Institute. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.aaiusa.org/news/must_read12_18_02.htm.
history western civilization a book called THE MAKING OF THE WEST.
Joan of Arc
Prior to becoming made into a saint in the early part of the 20th century, Joan of Arc was one of the primary causes of France's many victories in the Hundred Years War. The woman, who only lived to be 19 before she was eventually burned to death after being captured by the British, helped liberate many parts of France from British occupation during a relatively brief period of time, all of which took place during the 1420's prior to her death. Joan told several members of the French population that she was divinely inspired by visions from God to help her defeat the British and reclaim France's territory. With some dissent from France's military leaders, she was able to play an influential role in the Siege at Orleans, which was largely proceeded by several months'…
Asia and Africa in estern European Art
Globalization is generally associated as a modern phenomenon, however, it is a global movement that began with the Greeks and did not accelerate until the renaissance era. The est, going back to Alexander the Great, has a long history of interactions with Asia and Africa. Ideas and goods were consistently traded. This trend of globalization accelerated with the age of exploration in the 16th century when Europeans came into further contact with Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Driven by the quest for gold and natural resources estern European traders navigated the world. This had a profound effect back home, as Europeans developed an interest in the exotic. The interest blossomed during the 18th and 19th century, during the height of estern power and colonialism. Curiosity into the foreign permeated all levels of society. Artists incorporated Asian and African artistic styles into their…
Soltes, Ori. "They All Came to Paris." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Soltes, Ori. "Asia and Africa in the Western Mind." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Industrialization in Europe increased the development of machines, production of goods and new energy resources of other societies. However, it had many positive and negative effects to the society. The building of new empires enabled Europe to gain access to their armies, exports, finances and strategic locations. The paper will analyze how Industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies and what made the European Armies so effective against native resistance.
There are various reasons why industrialization in Europe led to imperialist conquest of other societies. The first reason was the availability of larger consumer markets. Industrialization in Europe allowed other countries in spreading their influence to weaker countries. Because of the spread, the industrialized countries managed to create markets for the manufactured products along with producing some specific products to be sold in these markets. The second reason was the availability of raw materials that was used…
European Imperialism and Reactions. (1914) China, Ottoman Empire, and Japan; effects of European imperialism
The British Empire. (2003). The British Empire. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://www.britishempire.co.uk/
The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism. (2001). Wake Forest Student, Faculty and Staff Web Pages. Retrieved March 28, 2013, from http://users.wfu.edu/watts/w04_industr.html
Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany.
Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken to entail Toqueville's "associationism," a vibrant public sphere, formal outlets for political dissent, and informed political debate. Such inquiries have provided little insight into the nature of healthy democracies because they are based on a faulty assumption, that culture is a condition or even a determinant in the formation of a society's political structure.
As Berman observed, passionate civic engagement among a nation's citizens, without an adequate institutional foundation to channel such passion, can actually be averse to functional democracy.…
Instead, countries like Russia are more spiritual and believe in an interpretive form of the Christian text (Cross 2012, 3.1). These populations have formed a new form of Christianity which accepts certain tenets and rejects others.
The period known as the Enlightenment had a much more profound on the western world than the east. Religious principles were given secondary consideration to individual accomplishment and the growing importance of scientific development and logical conclusions. This period led to the importance which was placed on the individual in western culture. Individualism is directly contradictory to the eastern emphasis on community and communal thinking, particularly during the time of Communism (Cross 2012, 3.1).
Nations of the west have embraced immigration, particularly in the United States, but still the majority of the population has a estern European heritage which has determined the majority culture. In the east, there is less immigration within to other…
Cross Cultural Perspectives (2012). Ashford University.
Executive-Legislative relations in Post-Communist Europe
There are two main methods for appointing the executive, the one used in parliamentary systems, the other one in presidential systems. According to the parliamentary method the people first elects the legislature, which, in turn, appoints the executive. In a pure parliamentary system the executive, furthermore, can remain in office only as long as it enjoys the support, or confidence, of a majority in the legislature. This requirement is often referred to as the parliamentary principle. According to the presidential method separate popular elections are held for appointing a president and, thereby, the rest of the executive. In a presidential country, there are thus two main types of popular elections, those for electing the executive and those for electing the legislature.
As for methods for appointing the members of the legislature there are, again, essentially two types of methods. First there are the majoritarian methods…
1) McCauley, M., Directory of Russian MPs (1992)
2) Jamestown Foundation Monitor www.jamestown.org
3) www.moscowtimes.ru ( Moscow Times)
4) www.insideworld.com ( Reuters)
Crazy Horse and the Western Hero
Crazy Horse, believed born sometime in 1838, was a respected member of the Oglala Sioux Native American tribe and is noted for his courage in battle. He was recognized among his own people as a visionary leader committed to preserving the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life and leading his people into a war against the take-over of their lands by the White Man. The location of Crazy Horses birth is not conclusively known. Some sources report his birthplace as the South Cheyenne River. Other sources point to either Rapid Creek, near present day Rapid City, South Dakota, or near ear utte outside Sturgis, South Dakota.
Crazy Horse earned his reputation among the Lakota not only by his skill and daring in battle, but also by his fierce determination to preserve his people's traditional way of life. Celebrated for his ferocity…
Marshall, Joseph M. "Crazy Horse (Tasunke Witko) 1840-77."
Pautler, N.P. "We all play the hand we're dealt, honored historian says." University Week. June 22, 1995, p. 3.
Robert Warshow. The Immediate Experience: Movies, Comics, Theatre and Other Aspects of Popular Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
White, Richard. It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
S. Backs Japan," 2007).
Cine the 1960s and well into the 1980s the overall economic growth skyrocketed to what has been called the "Japanese Miracle." As of 2009, Japan has the second largest economy in the world. Its major industries are banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation, telecommunications and construction. Japan also serves the global economy with some of the most technologically advanced production of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, ships, chemicals and textiles, with a service economy of about ae of its GDP ("Japan -- CIA Factbook," 2010).
Partially this has been the result of the economic partnership with the United States, Australia, and the European Union. Japanese products have gone from the merely imitative "cheap knock-offs" of the late 1950s and early 1960s to cutting edge, sought-after materials that are some of the finest made in the world. The Japanese consumer, too, embraces Western goods and culture…
"Japan." (2010). CIA World Factbook. Cited in:
"Japanese Spirit, Western Things." (2003). The Economist. 383 (8332):
Ryanair: Europe's Largest Low Fares Airline
Ryanair is a European bases low fare airline that connects 160 destinations in its global operations. The airline has 44 bases covering 1100 route over 27 nations. Tony Ryan established the airline in 1985. He introduced low fare operations following successful models used by southwest airlines in 1995 under the supervision of a new management team. Some of the policies implemented by the airline include the adaptation of a single aircraft, low fares, direct booking and no frills. These policies allowed the company to benefit from an increase in its customer base since 1991. The company plans to replace the current aircraft used with a ooing Dreamliner to cater for the targeted customer growth to 80 million passengers. The airline also plans to invest in technology to enjoy the benefits associated with e-business. The use of technology such as the internet enables the organization…
Brassington, F., & Pettitt, S. (2006). Principles of marketing. Harlow [u.a.], Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
Capon, N., & Hulbert, J.M. (2007). Managing marketing in the 21st century: developing and implementing the market strategy. Bronxville, N.Y., Wessex Inc.
Doole, I., & Lowe, R. (2008). International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation. [London etc.], South Western Cengage Learning.
Doyle, P. (2008). Value-based marketing strategies for corporate growth and shareholder value. Chichester, England, John Wiley & Sons.
Nevertheless, at the same time when Churchill took his place as leader of the ritish armed forces, the Germans had dealt an impressive blow by invading and eventually conquering elgium, France, and the Netherlands. Standing as one of the greatest powers in the world at the time, France had only managed to hold off its oppressors for a month and a half before signing an armistice with the Axis forces and allowing the German and Italian troops to occupy its territory.
eing excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade ritain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the ritish had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to ritain, they backed the ritish by agreeing to a trade…
Being excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade Britain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the British had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to Britain, they backed the British by agreeing to a trade of destroyers meant to strengthen the British naval forces.
Japan, Italy, and Germany had signed a Tripartite Act in September 1940, stating that any country that would attack the Axis powers would be required to go at war against the three. Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary joined the Tripartite Act in November, influencing the Germans in wanting to attack the Soviet Union. The Germans advanced into Greece consequent to Bulgaria signing the Tripartite Act. The Germans did not hesitate to unleash a surprise attack on the Soviets with operation Barbarossa on 22 June, 1941, once again proving that the German armed forces could easily brake through defense lines, regardless of their strength (the Soviets had been preparing defensive campaigns even before the start of the war).
The Axis advance in the east had come to a halt near Moscow, thus marking the moment when the German could no longer continue the Blitzkrieg and had to engage in traditional warfare.
Huns, nomadic people and barbarians (from the Roman point-of-view) coming from the East, may have given the final blow to an empire that was already crumbling. They conquered semi-nomadic nomadic peoples they found on their way moving westwards, settling in territories north and south of Danube, and incorporated them in a new empire.
Attila, the Hun leader, had the merit to unite his people who used to be scattered in different clans and tribes, giving them to opportunity to unite under the same flag and fight like a nation. He was born at the dawn of the fifth century AD, at a ripe time, suitable to question and greatly endanger the Roman supremacy in the Mediterranean world and beyond.
Like other barbarians, the Huns were parasitic people, living off the possessions of those they pillaged and of the tributes the latter agreed to pay in exchange for peace. What the…
Kelly, Christopher. The End of Empire. Attila the Hun & The Fall of Rome. 2009, 2008. W.W. Norton & Company New York London.
Bury, J.B. The Cambridge Medieval History,
452 -- a year after his defeat in Gaul, Attila's army penetrated the Italian Peninsula: "a great many of the inhabitants of the terribly devastated country sought refuge on the unassailable islands of the lagoons along the Adriatic coast. Yet the real foundation of Venice which tradition has connected with the Hunnic invasion can only be traced back to the invasion of the Lombards"(568)(the Cambridge Medieval History, J.B. Bury).
China and Europe have taken divergent views of religion, commercial exchange, and politics. However, there have emerged various points of commonality and intersection. Chinese and European society have both evolved through periods of feudalism and "warring states," and both have generally preferred centralized systems of power. China and Europe have both participated robustly in global trade, and have each developed profitable and enduring routes of trade that facilitate the movement of people, goods, and services.
Imperialism has remained a core strategy for both Chinese and European political and economic leaders. While China has refrained from actively colonizing the regions it has traded with, European societies have prided themselves on their imperial prowess. China's tendency towards imperialism has been selective, strategic, and regional in focus, whereas European colonization has been extensive and geographically expansive. Moreover, the goal of European imperialism merges with the colonial strategy of controlling the local population extensively.…
Gainty, D. & Ward, W.D. (2012). Sources of World Societies. Volume 1. Bedford/St. Martin's.
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…
Avi-Yonah, Michael. 2004. Ancient Scrolls: Introduction to Archaeology. Books&Bagels
Beyerstein, Barry L. 1992. The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology -- the Study of Handwriting Analysis. Prometheus Books
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-
3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…
Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)
Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)
Buddhism requires intense study and meditation times, which is a very individual choice.
However, there were some aspects that parallel Christianity as a religion... The bhikkus, or very dedicated individual followers of this spiritual path, are analogous to Christianity's monks and nuns, studying spirituality on a very advanced level; the lay Buddhists are perhaps more like average religious followers, supporting and learning from the Bhikkus, living by a simple moral code (similar to the ten commandments) taught by the Bhikkus, but not taking the spirituality to the same level. In this sense, the Bhikkus are spiritualists, while the lay Buddhists are members of a Buddhist religion, if one were to try to apply Western terminology. Approaching Western concepts to Buddhism in this way may help to clarify some of the difficulty that students have in understanding the basic functionality of Buddhism and Buddhist practice.
In the eighteenth century, the concept of pleasure gardens flourished in Britain, a trend that could be traced partly to the relatively stable democratic government coupled with the international trade that thrived at that time in London. Vauxhall Gardens was perhaps the most famous pleasure garden according to the lectures. Founded in 1661, it reached the peak of popularity during the early years of the nineteenth century. It became a model for several other pleasure gardens in Europe, like the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. Historians believed it was arguably the first modern amusement park. Some of the most popular entertainments offered in Vauxhall were firework displays, theatre shows, theatrical entertainments as well as dancing floors and drinking booths. Both Vauxhall and Tivoli Gardens were so popular that they became generic names for all pleasure gardens in both Europe and the United States (UoS 2015). According to the course,…
Aelarsen. A Royal Affair: Enlightenment and Adultery in 18th Century Denmark. June 2014. https://aelarsen.wordpress.com/2014/06/30/a-royal-affair-enlightenment-and-adultery-in-18th-century-denmark / (accessed December 13, 2015).
"Age of Enlightenment." Pedia Press, 2011.
Curtius, Quintus. Speaking Out Against Injustice: The Case Of Jean Calas. October 12, 2015. http://www.returnofkings.com/72129/speaking-out-against-injustice-the-case-of-jean-calas (accessed December 12, 2015).
Halsall, Paul. Medieval Sourcebook: Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527): Republics and Monarchies, Excerpt from Discourses I, 55. October 1998. (accessed December 14, 2015).
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
For example, rather than directly disputing the belief that ancient Egyptians were black, the author prefers to emphasize the underlying fallacy of racial categorizations in the first place. Anthropologists have long rejected the traditional racial classifications familiar to us all, and continually remind us that all Homo Sapiens are identical, from an evolutionary perspective, as they are all members one species.
The author cautions that disputing the belief directly without addressing the underlying fallacy of racial categorization by anatomical features within a given species invites accusations of racism and "Eurocentrism." Instead, she reminds us of the importance of recognizing that racial categorization is not capable of scientific meaning, and represents nothing more than social conventions and cultural beliefs about various physical features contained within the genetic material of all of us.
Likewise, oth points to the exaggerated claims about the extent of Egyptian scientific and mathematical knowledge and, in general,…
Building Bridges to Afrocentrism: A Letter to My Egyptological Colleagues. Ann Macy Roth, (1995) Encyclopedia Britannica Online, Accessed September 9, 2007, at http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/afrocent_roth.html
To illustrate these different views, he creates Starry Night over the Rhone. This shows the sense of anticipation that is occurring before the evening begins. As he is depicting, a quit outdoor cafe that is waiting for: the customers to begin arriving and the festivities to commence. To illustrate this sense of anticipation he uses different colors and lighter brush strokes. As there is: yellow, black, blue, tan and gray; to highlight the overall emotions that Van Gogh is feeling (when he reflects on his life in Paris). At the same time, the lighter brush strokes are used to show the changes of time that are taking place, by making the background somewhat blurry. This is important, because it is illustrating how the artist is trying to create that sense of realism and the passage of time, by showing their positive emotions about their past lives. ("Vincent Van Gough," 2011)…
Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette. (2011). Web Museum Paris. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/renoir/moulin-galette/
Frans Hals. (2011). ABC Gallery. Retrieved from: http://www.abcgallery.com/H/hals/hals.html
Hudson River School. (2011). Visual Arts. Retrieved from: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/hudson-river-school-landscape-painting.htm
Jean -- Antione Houdon. (2011). Scholar Resource. Retrieved from: http://www.scholarsresource.com/browse/artist/637
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
This will reveal the bias of the West and how it has come to embrace the stereotypical imagery and ideas of the Oriental.
In conclusion, the essay will briefly recount the points made throughout the essay overall, but will also offer analytical ideas as to how, understanding Orientalism as a product of the colonial and post colonial West, how the East and the West might move forward and achieve the cultural equality necessary to build a safe and productive global community and environment of co-existence through mutual respect, understanding, and equality.
It is only in conjunction with other works which specifically address the subject of Orientalism that one begins to identify markers of Orientalism in Captain Sir Richard Burton's interpretation of the Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (Burton, ). Works by authors like Edward W. Said, who spent much of his life studying and…
Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.
The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…
Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.). (1998). Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
An-Na'im, Abdullahi Ahmed (ed.). (1992). Human Rights in Cross-Cultural Perspectives: A
Quest for Consensus. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Similarly, while the arrangements made by the British lasted a relatively short timeframe, the dividing up of land necessary to mark off territory for such constitutional authorities had a more permanent effect. In Iraq, for example, the grouping of ethnic Kurds with Sunni and Shi'a Arabs within the same monarchy territory proved disastrous, as continuing ethnic strife led to the eventual dissolution of the state and the rise of events leading to the wars of the last decades of the 1900s and the first decade of 2000. The establishment of Palestine, and the subsequent favoring of Jewish immigration to the region, leading to the establishment of a Jewish state following WWII and the Holocaust, placed people of distinctly different belief systems and ethnic grudges in close proximity together (Grenville, 428-429, 431-437). This pattern of drawing up of territorial arrangements that suited the British interests rather than accounted for Arab differences…
Grenville, J.A.S. (2005). History of the World from the 20th to the 21st Century (First Edition). London: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…
9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)
10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)
11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)
12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…
"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .
"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .
Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.