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Ironically, the topic begins with the statement, "Given the way white supremacy structures our lives…" This comment in and of itself is incorrect in my opinion. It is indicative of how others view the white race and implies that whites are indeed superior. It is my belief that whites have no supremacy whatsoever within our nation or abroad. However, we only allow them to have supremacy through our own actions, beliefs and lack of desire. The white race is no more superior to the Asian race than the African-American race is to the Hispanic race. The only factors that contribute to this disparity are education, leadership and mindset. When all three are utilized properly, the word "White Supremacy" only becomes an after thought in the minds of those who actively pursue the above mentioned strategies. Throughout the course of this document, I intend to reveal that supremacy is…
1) Jenkins, John P. "White Supremacy -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 10 May 2011. .
2) Internet Users - Top 20 Countries - Internet Usage." Internet World Stats - Usage and Population Statistics. Web. 10 May 2011. .
3) Lilley, Sandra. "Grim Graduation Rates for Black Males Highlight Racial Gap." TheGrio | African-American Breaking News and Opinion. Web. 10 May 2011. .
4) "Prison Population Exceeds Two Million -- Infoplease.com." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free Online Reference, Research & Homework Help. -- Infoplease.com. Web. 10 May 2011. .
Discimination: White Supemacy
White people tend to take fo ganted daily advantages and pivileges that thei skin colo povides them esulting in an attitude of acism. Consequently, black people constantly suffe fom the esulting attitudes of white people. Theefoe, thee is need to safeguad backs fom the attitude of acism by whites because of the ignoance of the available pivileges and advantages. One of the majo ways that have been suggested as the best possible means of dealing with this acism poblem and white supemacy is affimative action. Vaious aguments have been developed egading the ability and inability of affimative action to deal with the exteme discimination fom whites.
The use of affimative action policies can be taced back to 1960s when they wee adopted fo the pupose of ensuing that thee ae equal oppotunities fo minoities and disadvantaged people in the wokplace. These policies ae deemed as necessay in…
references for some people at the expense of others instead of the same opportunities for everyone. Notably, affirmative action policies have failed to accomplish their main objective but rather resulted in more rifts and dilemmas especially in areas where they are coercive. Recently, these policies have shifted from being peaceful to coercive suppressing the freedom of businesses and many workplaces.
In my opinion, policies of affirmative action are ineffective in fighting extreme discrimination and white supremacy because they are unnecessary and divisive. This is because they have failed to achieve their original goals and resulted in extra rifts and dilemmas. Moreover, the policies are ineffective because they suppress the development of free competition among business, which would eliminate discrimination.
In conclusion, since the inception of affirmative action policies, several arguments have been raised regarding their ability and effectiveness to deal with extreme discrimination. Due to the various issues that these policies have brought and their inability to accomplish initial objectives, they are not the most suitable means of dealing with discrimination.
Indeed, Billingsley asserts, the black church has been "and is" for blacks in America "the mother of our culture, the champion of our freedom," and the "hallmark" of blacks' "civilization" (Billingsley, 1992, p. 223).
Resistance to racism and segregation also came in many small acts through bold and courageous moves by individuals. In Farmville, Virginia, for example, in 1935, Barbara Johns organized students in Robert Russa Moton High School to go on strike to protest terrible school facilities for black students (ormser, p. 178). She was a tobacco worker in the fields, a minister's niece, a good speaker and she was seemingly very influenced by her uncle Vernon Johns' preaching. This is how enthusiasm for change is passed from one person to the next - Reverend Johns was known for "exhorting and chastising" his congregation for their "complacency and docility" (ormser, 178). Barbara Johns was moved by her uncle's rousing…
Billingsley, Andrew. (1992). Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-
American Families. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Book, Robert. (2004). Race, Water, and Foreign Policy: The Tennessee Valley
Authority's Global Agenda Meets "Jim Crow." Diplomatic History, 28(1), 55-81.
hile " resurgence of support for the Klan was manifest in the surprising popularity in the early 1990s of David Duke in Louisiana, actual membership in Klan organizations is estimated to be in the low thousands (Unknown)." The "Ku Klux Klan still exists and holds power today. They are responsible for many attacks and killings of blacks, immigrants, Jews and Catholics (www.learntoquestion.com/vclass/seevak/groups/2001/sites/dees/back)."
hen the Ku Klux Klan was originally organized, and in the 1920s, it had a major influence on politics in the United States. However, over the years the political climate in the United States has changed and membership in the Klan has declined, diminishing the KKK's political power today.
Background: Ku Klux Klan. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.learntoquestion.com/vclass/seevak/groups/2001/sites/dees/back...).
Klein, Anne. "Unmasking the Oregon Klansman: The Ku Klux Klan in Astoria 1921-1925." (accessed 03 May, 2005). ).
Lynching. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlynching.htm).
Unknown. "Ku Klux…
Background: Ku Klux Klan. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.learntoquestion.com/vclass/seevak/groups/2001/sites/dees/back...).
Klein, Anne. "Unmasking the Oregon Klansman: The Ku Klux Klan in Astoria 1921-1925." (accessed 03 May, 2005). ).
Lynching. (accessed 03 May, 2005). www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlynching.htm).
Unknown. "Ku Klux Klan." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2005): 24 February.
.....white fragility, which is considered as a state in which the least amount of racial stress becomes intolerable and provokes a series of defensive actions (DiAngelo, 2011). White fragility is based on the fact that white people in North America are protected and insulated from race-based stress by the social environment they live in. Some of the common defensive actions associated with any amount of racial stress include fear, guilt, silence, avoidance of the stressful situation, anger, and arguments. These defensive actions and behaviors are in turn utilized to reinforce and strengthen white racial equilibrium.
Based on these claims, white fragility is seemingly fueled by white supremacy, which has continued to dominate the North American society in the recent past albeit in a subtle way. While there have been numerous to fight racial prejudice and discrimination in North America, white people seemingly believe that their skin color (Whiteness) gives them…
difficulty, wealthy white American settlers created and dominated a stable plantation society in which slaves, Indians, and poorer whites accepted the justice of their subordination.
There is sound evidence that slavery had spread through America long before 1776. Like a vile cancer, slavery spread throughout with the early settlers. As they arrived from Europe, white settlers began to push inward. As they moved into vast uncharted territories, they brought along their concept and belief in slavery.
When the American Revolution initiated with the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, slavery was well rooted. Many leaders of the Revolution regarded the elimination of slavery as impossible. The American slaveholders had effectively protected their beloved institution.
Laws were enacted that reinforced slavery as an institution. Legal language included, "That all servants imported and brought in this country, by sea or land, who where not Christians in their native county...shall be…
Storni, Alfonsina. "You ant Me hite." The Norton Anthology of orld
Vol. F. Ed. Sarah Lawall and Mayard Mac. New York: Norton, 2002. 2124-2125
The poem titled "You ant Me hite" written by Alfonsina Storni explores the issue of women mistreatment by men. The women complain how men expect them to be virgins when they (men ) are not.
Atwood, Margaret and Martin, Valerie.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
In this book the author portrays how women are only valued for their fertility and they are allowed access to education in the patriarch society. This work is important to the research since it shows how women were mistreated by being regarded as sex symbols as well as not being allowed access to education.
Staves, Susan. Married omen's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
This work is a recollection of the actual case studies and examples of various…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Oxford: Heinemann, 1996.
Atwood, Margaret.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
Staves, Susan. Married Women's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
Stewart, Maaja A. Domestic Realities and Imperial Fictions: Jane Austen's Novels in Eighteenth-Century Contexts. Athens: U. Of Georgia P, 1993.
The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.
Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…
references to the Cold War. However, the main gist is related to the theme of global apartheid.
The strengths of this article in relation to the theme is that it is about global apartheid, linked thematically to other analyses thereof. Moreover, this article has a strong sense of time and place, which is important for a reliable and valid historiography. The weakness of the article is that it is not inclusive of gender issues.
Analyze strengths and weaknesses for essay themes, see above each book.
gender and sexuality how is related to citizenship (violence, abuse, immigration)
2. meaning of citizenship in the U.S. Empire (immigration laws change culture)
One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?
Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…
Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.
Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
Gender and Jim Crow - Political Activism by Middle Class, African-American omen
Conventional wisdom paints the period between the late 19th century to the 1950s as a time of racial discrimination and violence for African-Americans in the southern states. However, in Gender and Jim Crow, Glenda Gilmore presents an account of how white supremacist politics were also mediated by gender, and how this period of racial discrimination was also marked by political activism on the part of middle class African-American women.
In the early parts of the book, Gilmore illustrates how gender was used as a tool in Jim Crow segregation. hite men in North Carolina, for example, justified white supremacy and disenfranchised black men by raising the specter of the black rapist and appealing for the safety of white women in their homes. This pushed black men into what Gilmore termed a "vortex of silence" (134).
Black women, on…
Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Cooper, S. (2006). "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30.
Garland, D. (2010). Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Harvard University Press.
Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' he designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' he exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. he exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
he impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified…
The 1904 Worlds Fair in St. Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' The designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' The exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. The exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
The impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified races as possessing certain intrinsic natures or characteristics that were intrinsic to their inborn or genetically inherited temperaments. Darwinism was used to justify racism, as some populations were classified as more primitive than others, based upon arbitrary measures of their skulls, or their skin tone -- certain races were said to be less 'evolved' than other races in terms of their practices and physical development. Defeat at the hands of whites was seen as justified because it exemplified a particular race's inferiority, like the Mexican 'race' at the hands of white Americans. Temperaments were assigned to certain races as well, much like some species of animals supposedly have certain innate temperaments. The overall result was to animalize certain races, and to create divides between entire classes of people.
Namely, the institutions of
slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement
of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to
the fortunes and opportunities of blacks in America. This is both
unrealistic and unethical, with the denial of its lasting impact casting
American racism in an historical light rather than one which is still
present and problematic. It is thus that the social contract today serves
the interests of dominance even as it feigns to have disavowed these
aspects of itself.
A true resolution to the failures of the social contract may only
really occur when the discourse on America's racialist past and the lasting
effects of this on the current fortunes of African Americans is resolved.
In that regard, Mills regards it as largely a fiction that racial
discrimination ended in any meaningful way after the Emancipation
Proclamation; rather, racial prejudice…
Mills, C.W. (2000). Race and the Social Contract Tradition. Social
Oshinsky, "orse Than Slavery"
David Oshinsky's history of "convict labor" in the Reconstruction-era American South bears the title orse Than Slavery. The title itself raises questions about the role played by moralistic discourse in historiography, and what purpose it serves. Oshinsky certainly paints a grim picture of the systematic use of African-American prisoners at Parchman Farm -- the focus of his study -- and throughout the South after the Civil ar. I would like to examine the system that Oshinsky describes, while incidentally paying attention to the rhetoric he employs in doing so. But ultimately I wish to call attention to, and question, the validity of Oshinsky's title. The title is provocative, and therefore can only be termed responsible historiography if indeed his purpose is to provoke further questions. Chief among these must be the question of what it actually means to declare that what he describes in the book…
Oshinsky, David. Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice. New York: Free Press, 1997. Print.
Education: Social Foundation
Brown v. The Board of Education (1954) was a landmark ruling that not only marked the beginning of the era of desegregation in the school environment, but also served as a frontal attack on the practice and doctrine of white supremacy in the overall society. Many viewed it as a reprieve for the Black-American community, but as Justice William Douglas revealed in 1971, the de jure segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was more than just a mere reprieve for blacks; it was a direct effort towards integrating the philosophies, policies, and cultures of different communities to make public education accessible to American Indians, Latinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans just as it was to whites. As it turns out, however, desegregation of public schools did not even come close to being the one-fits-all solution that many thought would address all the inequality concerns of minorities --…
Benton, M.A. (2001). Challenges African-Americans Face at Predominantly White Institutions. Colorado State University. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/SAHE/JOURNAL2/2001/Challenges.htm
Boland, P. (2013). Catholic Education in the 21st Century. Journal of Catholic Education, 3(4), 508-520.
India Country Today Media Network. (2011). Foundation Helps Native American Students Overcome Education Challenges. India Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/11/30/foundation-helps-native-american-students-overcome-education-challenges-65093
Krogstad, J.M. (2012). One in four Native Americans and Alaska Natives are Living in Poverty. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/13/1-in-4-native-americans-and-alaska-natives-are-living-in-poverty/
The only thing that is missing is the freedom to make that choice, the freedom to do it without pain or sacrifice. But freedom always comes with a price, especially for women. In the process of gaining her choice, Ada loses a finger, loses her piano, and almost loses her life.
We have to also look at history in the film. The Piano seems historically correct because women didn't have the right to choose their mates during this time. Love almost always came at some price. Ada chose to express her love the only way she knew how -- through her piano. But she is not making the right choice, because in the process she is sacrificing herself. She is unable to stand up for what is right because the pain is too great and too lonely to bear.
While I think Hook's view of male supremacy seems somewhat harsh,…
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…
References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
Mis-Education of the Negro
Carter G. oodson was a historian and educator with a prominent role in the Black community and a great interest in issues facing the Black community. Especially in terms of the role of education in the first half of the twentieth century, aspects of the Black experience that impacted the education of Black people, and what they themselves might want to achieve through an education. His book The Mis-Education of the Negro addresses such issues in terms of a number of specific dimensions, such as the impact of slavery on the African-American psyche, the degree to which African-Americans had been mis-educated, the need for greater self-reliance among members of the Black population, that Blacks needed to develop their own social order and not imitate the white order, and the meaning of political education in the African-American community.
The Mis-Education of the Negro
oodson wrote his book…
Blauner, Bob. Black Lives, White Lives. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
Davidson, Basil. The African Slave Trade. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1961.
Haley, Alex, The Autobiography of Malcolm X New York: Ballantine Books, 1965.
Kunjufu, Jawanza. "Introduction." In The Mis-Education of the Negro, Carter G. woodson. Chicago, Illinois: African-American Images, 2000.
This "education" convinces the white person to give up their sons for wars that oppress the dark peoples, votes money for the wars, makes him believe he should make up the lynch mobs and to oppress blacks with Jim Crow. The fact that his philosophy was realistic was because it was the activism of his NAACP exposing the reality of lynching in the South in the 1920s It was very realistic, because the in their face activism was what was reversing the trends in the South. Other African-Americans such as ashington saw him as a radical, but he know how to get what he wanted from the white through activism in the NAACP (DuBois, 2010).
Booker T. ashington had a very strange view of education for blacks. He had to apologize to the hites of the South in the Atlanta speech for blacks sought out political careers and teaching assignments…
DuBois, W.E.B. (2010). The negro mind reaches. Retrieved from http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1114.htm .
The meaning of freedom: the failure of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
The meaning of freedom: the promise of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
U.s. public health service syphilis study at tuskegee. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
3. What was "white backlash"? Give an example of an event that demonstrates "white backlash" and why.
“White backlash” refers to the antagonistic, often violent response of white supremacists to civil rights and social justice. Although the term might apply especially well to the 1960s, the era in which President Johnson passed the landmark Civil Rights Act, white backlash can easily be traced back to the Reconstruction Era and the rise of the KKK. Rather than welcome the potential for an egalitarian and harmonious society, white supremacists clung to racist beliefs and used whatever means possible to retain political and social hegemony. Any resistance to positive social change related to racial parity, social justice, and civil rights can be considered “white backlash.”
In the 1960s, white backlash took on new forms. As legislation at the federal level turned the tide against white supremacy throughout the nation, groups like…
The effort to create an educational system by blacks and for blacks reflected the determined pride that characterized the newly freed black community. Moreover, the emphasis on black education also pointed to the segregated social conditions of the south.
Fairclough's second main point is that white supremacy reigned in the south until the Civil Rights movement. In fact, black political, social, and economic welfare actually worsened at key moments in history. White southerners relished the notion that blacks would run their own schools without the interference of socially liberal white Yankees. Black educators in the south found that schools did little to promote the practical advancement of black communities. African-Americans continued to earn less than their white counterparts even after they achieved the same level of educational attainment. Continued white supremacy led to a gradual mistrust of black educators and of black education in general. Cynicism poisoned the potential of…
ace and eunion
Briefly describe each of the three visions
Vision one: The reconciliationist vision -- this vision had its roots in the "process of dealing with the dead from so many battlefields, prisons, and hospitals," the author writes on page 2; and it also developed in ways prior to the process of econstruction; people were weary of war, and many Americans longed for a time of forgiving, in the Christian sense; vision two: The white supremacist vision -- this vision was manifest through terror, violence, and its legacy promotes a memory of the Civil War aftermath as one of segregation on southern terms; those of white supremacist / racist leanings would never consider giving in to a Constitutional mandate to allow all blacks freedom, the vote, and other equal rights; vision three: The emancipationist vision -- this includes much of what African-Americans remember about gaining their freedom, it also…
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.
Wilson, Clyde. "War, reconstruction, and the end of the old republic." Society 33.6
Bloodlines and Race
How does Firmin attempt to reconstruct races as existing along a level playing field rather than being arrayed hierarchically?
Joseph Antenor Firmin was nineteenth century's politician and anthropologist from Haiti. He was of the view of equality of races and was strongly opposed of categorizing humanity and the supremacy of a particular race. Although he was a Black himself, he did not promoted black Supremacy rather produced a book in 1885, named De l'Egalite des Races Humaines (On the Equality of Human Races) which was written against the Aryan's supremacy view of French writer Gobineau and his hierarchical ranking of races from white to yellow to Negro. He described in his book that the humans are artificially ranked by some scholars and by giving the examples of Greeks, Romans and Egyptians, he tried to confess the reader that there is no concept of races, rather humans consider…
Firmin, Joseph-Ante-nor. 2000. The equality of the human races: (positivist anthropology). New York: Garland Pub.
Gardell, Mattias. 1996. In the name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
Locke, Alain, and Jeffrey C. Stewart. 1992. Race contacts and interracial relations: lectures on the theory and practice of race. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press.
SEP: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 23, 2012. Alain LeRoy Locke http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/alain-locke/#Rac
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).
The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Center of the American West. "About Patty Limerick." Retrieved online: http://centerwest.org/about/patty
Duke University Libraries (n.d). Biography of John Hope Franklin. Retrieved online: http://library.duke.edu/rubenstein/franklin/bio.html
Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. 2000. From slavery to freedom: a history of African-Americans. New York: A.A Knopf
Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights
Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred from one generation to the other. In the United States and outside the United States, films have become a powerful tool to transmit cultures. In 2009, there were more than 6.8 billion films released compared to the world population that was roughly the same number. Moreover, films have produced revenue of more than $30 billion annually, and its impact on films on people's behaviors is staggering. For example, many people across the world are imitating American culture by watching their movies. Moreover, films have become a powerful tool for propelling civil and social rights.[footnoteRef:1] The social civil rights are the class of rights and freedoms people demand from the government, private individuals or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from…
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
Black Writers on What it Means to Be White
In his introduction to Black Writers on What it Means to be White, David R. Roediger critiques traditional white historiographies and pays credence to the work of prominent Black scholars the likes of W.E.B. Du Bois and James Baldwin. Roediger shows that whites frequently write about what it means to be Black, but that Black historians, philosophers, and writers are summarily ignored. Most white scholars, according to Roediger, don't feel that Blacks have much insight into the features or characteristics of "whiteness." On the other hand, so-called liberal academics claims to know a lot about the needs, wants, histories, and passions of African-Americans. As the author sets out to prove, Blacks actually have more insight into white culture than vice-versa. Blacks have in fact been uniquely able to perceive whites culture objectively and to understand and criticize their means of oppression.…
By nationalism they meant not only the cultivation of love for their land and nation but also the development of an identity -- A sense of who Africans were and what they stood for which would be based on nothing that white people had been teaching but on something that would be exclusive to Africa and African consciousness.
The new sense of self would then reflect in all the actions of African people including their writings. It was believed that oppressors so dominate the minds and souls of the conquered people, that the latter start believing in their inferiority and try to please their oppressor by producing work that would be more universal in its subject. However that had to change if Africans wanted to believe in themselves. They would need to address their own people, their own problems and their own cultures and write for their own audiences which…
An authoritarian leader gathers members in a cult and isolates them from the mainstream. Bodrero says this does not constitute a problem, unless the group becomes violent. When a leader uses rhetoric and violence to silence internal opposition, Bodrero believes the group may be on the path to violent extrem- ist behavior. Doomsday cults emerge from such dynamics and believe they must take offensive action to bring about the end of the world.
Black Hebrew Israelism is a form of black supremacy. Its origins trace back to the Civil War and were relatively peaceful. Recently, Ben Ami
Ben Israel, also known as Ben Carter, had a vision in Chicago telling him that African- Americans were the true Jews of old and the people who call themselves Jews are impostures. Whites are evil incarnate, descended from the devil. Bodrero (1999) says the most violent aspect of this movement formed in the…
Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.
It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.
The 1990s: The First Gulf War
The decade opened with a literal bang when…
About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://brownvboard.org/summary/
Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html
acism Among Teenagers
Towel-head, Spic, Polack, Chink, Terrorist, Nigger. These are words heard constantly amidst high school halls; the perfect environment, it seems, to harbor age-old ideas about cultures that do not match the majority's collective perspective. Throughout the nation, there is a current of racism within high schools, spread with the use of entertainment media humor (largely the Internet) and underground movements that are taking the concept of cultural supremacy one step further into a more violent direction. With such a rapid abuse of cultural jokes, bullying, and quasi-revolutionary movements, how do the authorities even begin to curb the hateful currents that underlie in the schools?
In 1987, a Hispanic boy in a Northern California high school almost ends his own life after his friends get into an ugly bout of ridiculing Hispanics in general (Kohl). This Californian is an athlete at his school and a popular student amongst…
Childress, Sarah, and Dirk Johnson. "The Hot Sound of Hate." Newsweek 144.22 (2004): 32. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.
Kohl, Herbert. "What Teen Suicide Means." Nation 244.18 (1987): 603-606. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.
Patel, Eboo. "Religious prejudice simmers: My Muslim nephew is taunted as a 'towel head' and 'terrorist' at school." USA TODAY 8 Mar. 2010. ProQuest National Newspapers Expanded, ProQuest. Web. 14 Feb. 2011.
One of the best examples of the mentality behind the development of the pedagogy of the oppressed, with regard to education is the evolution of the official restriction of curriculum to that which the African would need to survive in the economy of labor.
A the solutions to the "poor Whites" problem, as was indicated in the Carnegie Commission of Inquiry into Poor Whites in South Africa in 1932, were not bearing the expected fruits of "innate superiority." Thus, Verwoerd emphasized that the African "school must equip him [the African] to meet the demands which the economic life of South Africa will impose on him" (Mbere 1979, 106).The relationship between production and what is learned in schools reproduces unskilled and semiskilled labor power that allows domination and exploitation to occur. According to the CNE policy, Whites were perpetual parents who had to guide their "children," the Africans. This relationship of…
Chokshi, M. Carter, C. Gupta, D. Martin, T. & Allen, R. (1995) "Computers and Apartheid"
Computer Science: 201 Final Project: Stanford University Computer Science Department at: http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/index.html .
Hlatshwayo, S.A. (2000). Education and Independence: Education in South Africa, 1658-1988. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Seidman, G. (1999). IS SOUTH AFRICA DIFFERENT? Sociological Comparisons and Theoretical Contributions from the Land of Apartheid. 419.
An objective glance at history tells us that the social contract was a real and actual covenant. The first people who banded into communities formed some overt and covert covenant with their neighbors, replete with trappings, that later became known as 'legal', in order to ensure their survival within this band of fellow strangers. The racial contract, though real, did not displace the social contract. Although the social contract, as per the French revolutionists terms of liberty, equality and fraternity never existed - even amongst Whites, it was always a myth and more symptomatic of Utopia - practical forms of the social contract, albeit with variations amongst gender and race, persisted. Integrated with the social contract, however, was a racial form of contract where male supremacism characterized by Christians of the white race gained sufficient power to dominate others who did not belong to their gender or race. acial category,…
Mills, C. (1997). The Racial Contract, Cornell University Press, Ithaca & London
American history [...] changes that have occurred in African-American history over time between 1865 to the present. African-Americans initially came to this country against their will. They were imported to work as slaves primarily in the Southern United States, and they have evolved to become a force of change and growth in this country. African-Americans have faced numerous challenges throughout their history in this country, and they still face challenges today.
After the Civil War ended in 1865, African-Americans were freed from slavery. However, that did not end their struggle for freedom. In fact, in many ways, it only made their situation worse. Many slaves who were in fairly decent situations were thrust out to fend for themselves, or they became sharecroppers for their former masters, barely making enough money to stay alive. This was the time of "reconstruction" in the South, and it was recovering both politically and economically…
Adeboyejo, B. (2005, May/June). Q & A: Curating African-American history for the nation. The Crisis, 112, 7.
Dagbovie, P.G. (2006). Strategies for teaching African-American history: Musings from the past, ruminations for the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 635+.
Editors. (2010). African-American history timeline. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Peterson Education Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtimeline.html .
Editors (2008). African-American odyssey. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart7.html .
Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.
Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…
Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
However, modern audiences know better, and they have to see through the stereotyping of white supremacy in this film. In an age when there is so much diversity in Hollywood, it seems the writers and directors could have done much more to work diversity into the picture. A character here or there is simply not effective. Many other films have managed to create diverse characters while still portraying comic book type situations. "Men in Black" is an excellent example. Therefore, this film did not help diversity, if anything, it added to the problem of diversity and stereotypical characters that behave in certain ways and do not mix with people of other colors or races.
No, this film did not foster a better understanding of diversity and multiculturalism. In fact, it fostered just the opposite. The film, if anything, is a celebration of white supremacy in the media. It is odd,…
Oring, S., & Danko, P. (1995, June). Kissing the newsroom goodbye. American journalism review, 17, 30+.
Still, Victoria. (2001, March). Snapshots. Columbia journalism review, 39, 44.
ace: Power of an Illusion
This second episode of the PBS series, "The Story we Tell" discusses how race and racism developed in this country. Surprisingly, the series experts believe race has a history, and develops over time, and "that it is constructed by society to further certain political and economic goals" ("ace"). The episode begins with narration that leads into the controversial words of Thomas Jefferson, who wrote that he found blacks inferior to whites in "body and mind." The episode suggests that Thomas Jefferson was then the first American to theorize race in the country. The episode then goes on to discuss the juxtaposition of Jefferson's theory that "all men are created equal" with his own slaveholding and clear approval of slaveholding in the United States. Does this mean that the founding fathers felt those of color were "less than" men?
The episode then discusses early history in…
The Story we Tell." Race: The Power of an Illusion. Prd. Larry Adelman. California Newsreel, 2003.
On the surface, as a basic definition, racism is the belief that some racial / ethnic groups are superior to other groups. Racism and discrimination have historically been used as "powerful weapons encouraging fear or hatred of others in times of conflict and war," according to Anup Shah. The American Anthropological Association (AAA) explains that race is "a powerful idea and an enduring concept, invented by society" (Shah, 2010). The AAA says racism has promoted "inequality and discrimination for centuries," and racism has had a strong influence as to how members of a society relate to other humans (Shah). This paper discusses the issue in sociological terms as to how it applies to the global perspective.
Body of Reflective Essay
A peer-reviewed article by Alexander uses a racial discrimination lawsuit by an African-American full professor -- against a Caucasian university -- as an example of what one might call…
Alexander, R. (2012). Critical Race Theory and Racialized Law: an Application of an African-American Full Professor's Federal Case Involving Race Discrimination at a Predominately White University. Journal of African-American Studies, volume 16,
Obama, B. (2015). Remarks by the President in Eulogy for the Honorable Reverend
Clementa Pinckney. The White House. Retrieved July 2, 2015, from https://www.whitehouse.gov .
Faulkner masterfully weaves lives in and out of this fabric, demonstrating the importance of self-identity as well as social acceptance. Light in August, however, draws more attention to how the conflicts and differences between race, gender, and social constraints are destructive forces.
The birth of Lena's child "holds out the promise of a new age that transcends the social contradictions that Joe's violent tale bears witness to" (Lutz), according to Lutz. Furthermore, Faulkner looks toward the future with the birth of this child to this meek woman. Lena is comfortable with herself and she copes well hen others choose to judge her by her unwed status. This is a striking contrast to how Joe chooses to deal with how others perceive him. Lena may not be able to see the future but she is confident she can unearth some hope in it somewhere. Mrs. Hines response to the child suggests…
Faulkner, William. Light in August. New York: The Modern Library. Print. 1950.
LUTZ, JOHN. "Faulkner's Parable of the Cave: Ideology and Social Criticism in Light in August." The Mississippi Quarterly 52.3.1999.459. Gale Literature Resource Center.
Web. 1 Sept. 2010. http://go.galegroup.com
Perkins, Wendy. "Critical Essay on 'Light in August.'" Novels for Students. Ed. 2007. Gale
Cornel est. It book "The Conscious Reader" By Caroline
Affirmative Action has been a highly controversial topic in the United States ever since it initially emerged out of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960's. This issue is explored in depth in Cornell est's essay, "On Affirmative Action," which was initially published in George Currey's The Affirmative Action Debate in 1996. The principle reason why affirmative action has been so widely debated within the U.S. is that there are many within this country who believe that ultimately, this piece of legislation helped to remove qualified candidates for critical jobs and enrollment positions in institutions of higher learning in favor of under qualified minorities. est's article analyzes the various pros and cons of this issue from both sides -- those who are in favor of it and those who have traditionally opposed it. A thorough analysis of this piece…
Bowen, Deirdre. "Meeting Across the River: Why Affirmative Actions Needs Race & Class Diversity." Denver University Law Review. 2011. Web. http://www.law.du.edu/documents/denver-university-law-review/v88-4/Bowen_ToPrinter_92611.pdf
Greenburg, Jan. "New Haven, Ct. Firefighters Claim Reverse Discrimination." ABC News. 2009. Web. http://abcnews.go.com/TheLaw/SCOTUS/story?id=7393908&page=1#.UXV8STWykyc
Jensen, Richard. "No Irish Need Apply." Journal of Social History. 2002. Web. http://tigger.uic.edu/~rjensen/no-irish.htm
West, Cornell. "On Affirmative Action." The Conscious Reader. New York: Longman. 2011. Print.
Aryan Nation -- Racism
The Aryan Nations (AN, aka Church of Jesus Christ Christian) is a Christian Identity-based hate group that was prominent in the 1980's with roots dating back to the 1940's and includes neo-Nazi, skinhead, Ku Klux Klan (KKK), white supremacist, and militia groups, many of which congregated and networked at the AN compound in Hayden Lake, Idaho (Lambert, 2011). The group worked to unite different groups that had a common denominator of believing in white supremacy relative to other races. The group had some success in organizing and one splinter group had actually stole four million dollars with the hopes of overthrowing the United States government. This analysis will look at the origins of the group, it's activities that the groups engaged in a the peak of their momentum, and the reasons and factors that represent the groups steady decline from this peak.
The roots of…
Balch, R. (2006). The Rise and Fall of Aryan Nations: A Resource Mobilization Perspective. Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 81-113.
Berlet, C. (2004). Christian Identity: The Apocalyptic Style, Political Religion, Palingenesis and Neo-Fascism. Totaliarnian Movements and Political Religions, 469-506.
Durham, M. (2008). Christian Identity adn the Politics of Religion. Totaliarnian Movements and Political Religions, 79-91.
Lambert, L. (2011). Aryan Nations. Retrieved from The SAGE encyclopedia of terrorism: http://thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http%3A%2F%2Fliterati.credoreference.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu%2Fcontent%2Fentry%2Fsageterror%2Faryan_nations%2F0
Hector Perez Garcia has been described as "a man who in the space of one week delivers 20 babies, 20 speeches, and 20 thousand votes. He understands delivery systems in this country," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). Trained as a physician, Hector P. Garcia became the "medical doctor to the barrios," ("Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story"). He also served in the United States Army, stationed in North Africa and Italy during the Second World War. For his service as infantry officer, combat engineer officer, Medical Corps officer, and Medical Corps surgeon, Garcia received six battle stars and a Bronze Star. As a highly decorated veteran of a war that should have united the country against its common enemies, Garcia might have expected that Hispanic-Americans like him would enjoy equal rights and social justice. He was wrong. Fed up with discrimination…
Del Valle, Aracelis. "Garcia, Dr. Hector Perez." Learning to Give. Retrieved online: http://learningtogive.org/papers/paper99.html
Holley, Joe. "Hector Perez Garcia, 82, Dies; Led Hispanic Rights Group." The New York Times. 29 July 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/07/29/us/hector-perez-garcia-82-dies-led-hispanic-rights-group.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
"Justice for My People: The Dr. Hector P. Garcia Story." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/justiceformypeople/
Kells, Michelle Hall. Hector P. Garcia: Everyday Rhetoric and Mexican-American Civil Rights. SIU Press, 2006.
Southern culture was reconfigured by blues, jazz, gospel, and country music, the stirring of modern literature, the spread of popular sports and amusements, and the birth of new religious dominations....Things were seldom as simple as they appeared to later generations, for Southerners of every rank confronted the dilemmas brought by new opportunities and constraints. Many kinds of power operated in the South, some built on coercion and others built on persuasion, some consented to and some challenged, some private and some public.
In many ways the resolution of the conflict sin southern society, which had been entrenched by fear, based legal actions began their resolution at the beginning of I, when the need for soldiers, of all colors began to make both black and white question foundational issues of character and ability. I also began a trend of employing blacks in jobs they had not previously done, by…
Ayers, Edward L. Southern Crossing: A History of the American South, 1877-1906 / . New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Duignan, Peter, and Clarence Clendenen. The United States and the African Slave Trade, 1619-1862. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1963.
Rawley, James a. Turning Points of the Civil War. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Slavery." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007. Questia. 15 Mar. 2008
Hightower dubs Byron Bunch as "the guardian of public weal and morality. The gainer, the inheritor of rewards
...(ibid. 147)." He is religious and keeps a low profile in his Christian humility.
Byron Bunch is portrayed in stark contrast to Mr. And Mrs. Hines, our old racists, This is in contrast to religious hypocrites like Mr. Hines that use religion to demean and downgrade from humanity another group of people so that the religious fanatic can feel superior. These airs of superiority are seen again as Hines couple is shown to be prejudiced not just against Blacks, but also against Mexicans as well (ibid., 151-152). Truly, he is an equal opportunity hater that does not discriminate in his distribution of racist zealotry and vitriol.
Joe Christmas as a Jesus Christ Type of Figure
In the book, Faulkner portrays Joe Christmas in the mode of Jesus Christ type of figure (ibid.,…
Faulkner, William. Light in August. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1972.
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…
Launtenberg, F. (2011). Homeland Security and Fighting Terrorism. Retrieved 19th October 2013, from http://lautenberg.senate.gov/issues_update/homesec_terror.cfm
McCarthy, Timothy, P., & McMillian, J. (2008). The Radical Reader: A Documentary History of the American Radical Tradition. (Vol. New Press): New York.
Morag, N. (2004). The Economic and Social Effects of Intensive Terrorism: Israel 2000 -- 2004. Retrieved 19th October, 2013, from http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2006/issue3/jv10no3a9.html
Ridgeway, J. (1990). Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York: Thunder's Mouth,.
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
The threats that derive from terrorism may come from any group or organization that feels that they are being slighted. One such group that does not receive much mainstream attention for its terrorist activities is the Jewish Defense League (JDL). The purpose of this essay is to describe this terrorist outfit and explain its evolution and its permeation into American society. To help understand this organization, this essay will also address some of the unique factors dealing with the Jewish race that makes the JDL that much more dangerous than the average terrorist group.
Genesis of The Jewish Defense League
According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the Jewish Defense League is "a radical organization that preaches a violent form of anti-Arab, Jewish nationalism. Its late founder, abbi Meir Kahane, claimed that Jews face fierce anti-Semitism domestically and abroad and must protect themselves by any means necessary." The JDL's…
Jewish Defense League Homepage. Viewed 25 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.jdl-uk.org/p/faqs.html
Jewish Virtual Library (nd). Meir Kahane. Viewed on 25 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/kahane.html
Southern Poverty Law Center (nd). Jewish Defense League. Viewed 26 Mar 2014. Retrieved from http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/groups/jewish-defense-league
Neff, D. (1999). Jewish Defense League Unleashes Campaign of Violence in America. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, July/Aug 1999. Retrieved from http://www.ifamericansknew.org/us_ints/pg-jdl.html
gay couple walks hand-in-hand across campus. A man driving by in a car sees them and shouts, "Fags!" A black student is working late at a local coffee shop. A professor from one of her classes comes in and tries to order a meal. She explains that the coffee shop is closing. He insists, becomes more and more upset until he calls her a "*****" and a "nigger" and stalks away.
Both the gay couple and the young woman have been subjected to extreme verbal abuse. But should the people who said these hateful things be punished? According to Thomas Grey's article, "Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties: The Case of Discriminatory Verbal Harassment," whether or not the speakers should pay a price for their words depends on whether one adopts a civil liberties point-of-view or a civil rights point-of-view.
The civil liberties point-of-view holds that the speakers, though undeniably obnoxious,…
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…
Adrian, J. (1999). Mere or More?: Classical Rhetoric and Today's Classroom.
University of North Carolina SITES, 131: 11-21.
Aquinas, T. (1942). Summa Theologica. [Fathers of the English Dominican Province
Trans.]. Retrieved from http://www.ccel.org/a/aquinas/summa/FP/FP068.html
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…
Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6
Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,
2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6
I couldn't have imagined their lives even if I had tried. (Broyard, p.42).
hen she reveals this, Broyard demonstrates an attitude that is probably shared by many white people; a desire to talk about race, but the concern that even broaching the topic is impolite. Therefore, the gulf between the races gets wider and wider.
Broyard also acknowledges the problem with claiming her own African-American identify. Talking about her first post-funeral meeting with her father's family, Broyard discusses her thoughts about claiming to be black, when she had no real life experiences as a black woman. She asked herself:
Had I ever had trouble getting a cab or service in a store or the respect of my colleagues because of the color of my skin? as I ever judged not as an individual but as a credit or an embarrassment to my race? Had anyone ever assumed I was stupid,…
Broyard, Bliss. One Drop: My Father's Hidden Life - a Story of Race and Family Secrets.
New York: Little, Brown, and Company, 2007.
Their main arguments are based on historical assumptions and on facts which have represented turning points for the evolution of the African-American society throughout the decades, and especially during the evolutionary War and the Civil War. In this regard, the Old Negro, and the one considered to be the traditional presence in the Harlem, is the result of history, and not of recent or contemporary events.
From the point-of-view of historical preconceptions and stereotypes, it would unwise to consider Harlem as being indeed a cancer in the heart of a city, taking into account the fact that there is no objective comparison being made. Locke points out the fact that the Negro of today be seen through other than the dusty spectacles of past controversy. The day of "aunties," "uncles" and "mammies" is equally gone. Uncle Tom and Sambo have passed on, and even the "Colonel" and "George" play barnstorm…
Anderson, Karen Tucker. "Last Hired, First Fired: Black Women Workers during World War II" in the Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (Jun., 1982), pp. 82-97.
Barnes, Albert C. Negro Art and America. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/BarNegrF.html
Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Touchstone, 1999.
Charles S. Johnson. Black Workers and the City. (accessed 2 December 2007) http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/JohWorkF.html
"The 'White' race was obeying the 'divine command, to subdue and replenish the earth,' as it searched for new and distant lands."
They were proud of their progress.
They believed they were bringing civilization to races and people who would otherwise be primitive heathens. If they couldn't convert them, they killed them. They were destroying "savagery." Houses replaced wigwams. White women replaced Indian squaws. And all of it was done in the name of God. They were really doing it for money, but rationalized the evil of it by calling it progress. This attitude, that whites were a civilizing influence, extended toward the yellow races also.
A chose this section because it is another example of how capitalism lacks a social conscience. The Chinese were brought here for cheap labor and were exploited for profits.
To paraphrase: Annexing California led to bringing Asian workers here to build a transcontinental railroad.…
persuade classmates film effective social critique. Using Toulmin system, make a claim film's effectiveness ineffectiveness, provide reasons support claim, supply grounds film support reasons.
The cinematography industry generates numerous motion pictures directed at dealing with contemporary problems and while most of them are Hollywodian and thus commercial in character, they nonetheless manage to put across a thorough account of the topic that they discuss. Paul Haggis' 2004 film Crash is obviously meant to deal with racism and with the fact that it poses a threat to society's well-being. Although the script is filled with marketable elements and most events in it are unlikely to happen in real life (at least not in successive order), the movie express racism exactly as it is, emphasizing that society should indeed be alarmed because of the discriminating character people display on a daily basis.
Considering that Los Angeles is a city overwhelmed with…
1. Avila, Eric. Popular Culture in the Age of White Flight: Fear and Fantasy in Suburban Los Angeles (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004).
2. Fibbs, Brandon. "Crash." Retrieved November 2, 2010, from the Brandon Fibbs Website: http://brandonfibbs.com/2005/05/06/crash/
3. Greydanus, Steven D. "Crash." Retrieved November 2, 2010, from the Decent Films Website: http://www.decentfilms.com/reviews/crash2005.html
4. Gormley, Paul. Retrieved November 2, 2010, from the Darkmatter Website: http://www.darkmatter101.org/site/2007/05/07/crash-and-the-city/
Born in Jackson, Mississippi in 9143, Mildred Taylor was no stranger to racism. Discrimination pervaded everyday life in the segregated south. Almost as soon as Mildred was born, her parents ilbert Lee and Deletha Marie Taylor moved to Ohio: part of the great migration of Africa-Americans.
Yet in spite of moving, the family returned to visit friends and family. Staying in contact with her roots led Mildred Taylor to a career in storytelling. "The telling of family stories was a regular feature of Taylor family gatherings. Family storytellers told about the struggles relatives and friends faced in a racist culture, stories that revealed triumph, pride, and tragedy," (Crowe). hile visiting her family, Taylor learned about her ancestral roots and how slavery played a major part in forming the personal and collective identities of African-Americans like herself.
Back in Toledo, Taylor attended the integrated Scott High School and graduated…
Crowe, Chris. "Mildred D. Taylor." The Mississippe Writers Page. Retrieved: http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/dir/taylor_mildred/
Taylor, Mildred. Quoted in the Penguin Putnam Books for Young Readers. Retrieved online: http://us.penguingroup.com/nf/Author/AuthorPage/0,,0_1000031974,00.html
2 Taylor, Mildred. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. New York: Puffin/Penguin, 1976.
In this respect, that the former were stereotyped is evidenced by the fact that common perceptions excluded them as equal in societies. Moreover, because they were expected to be subordinated to the white society, it is understood that African-Americans were continued to be perceived as subservient. Since many had been slaves even before being sold to Americans, we can assume that white people misjudged African-Americans as second race, obedient to the surrounding environment and whose role was limited to serving others. It is possible that the society found it impossible to even consider that the people of color could participate socially and actively in society, that they lacked the abilities to become successful. However, we tend to disagree to some extend with Eagly and Diekman when applying their assumption to our case. And this is because the American society, even after abolishing segregation, showed little interest to support intellectual black…
Bramel, D. (2004). The strange career of the contact hypothesis. In Lee, Y.T., McCauley, C., Moghaddam, F., & Worchel, S. (Eds.), the Psychology of Ethnic and Cultural Conflict: Psychological Dimension to War and Peace (pp. 48-67). Westport, CT, U.S.: Praeger Publishers / Greenwood Publishing Group.
Dovidio, J.F., Glick, P., & Rudman, L.A. (Eds.). (2005). On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport. Malden, MA, Oxford, UK, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.
Fisher, L. (n.d.). American Constitutional Law (Vol. 1). London, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Forbes, H.D. (2004). Ethnic conflict and the contact hypothesis. In Lee, Y.T., McCauley, C., Moghaddam, F., & Worchel, S. (Eds.), the Psychology of Ethnic and Cultural Conflict: Psychological Dimension to War and Peace (pp. 70-88). Westport, CT, U.S.: Praeger Publishers / Greenwood Publishing Group.
Man's Ability To Treat Humans Like Animals
It is a vivid fact that the feelings of cruelty, discrimination and racial distribution are embedded well in to human nature since its very inception. This world depicts several cases where humans treat other humans like animals and ignore their right of living peacefully and according to their own will. This article highlights the work of several writers who have depicted the different ways in which humans have been treated brutally by other humans. Majority of the cases deal with racial discrimination and poverty-based cruelty issues encountered by humans. The article presents an in depth analysis of the works of seven different writers and how their works represent the ill treatment encountered by the human race.
Charles Chestnutt's "Po Sandy" and its Linkage to Human Cruelty
"Po' Sandy" written by Charles Chestnutt is basically the story of Sandy, who is made the slave…
Chestnutt, Charles. Charles W. Chesnutt: Stories, Novels, and Essays, USA: Library of America,
Esposito, Scott, "The Changeling by Kenzaburo Oe," Los Angeles Times,468, 7 March 2010.
Mackay, Marina. The Cambridge Companion to The Literature Of World War II, New York,
Dracula is a far more traditional Gothic novel in the classic sense than the four books of the Twilight series, in which Bella Swan and her vampire lover Edward Cullen never even fully consummate their relationship until they are married in the third book Eclipse, and Bella does not finally get her wish to become a vampire until the fourth and final book Breaking Dawn. Far from being Edward's victim, or used as a pawn and discarded, she is eager to leave her dull, empty middle class life behind and become part of the Cullen vampire family. When she nearly dies giving birth to their half-vampire daughter, Edward finally does 'turn' her to save her life, and to paraphrase the title of the old song, we can only hope that she is satisfied. Bella in fact is a very traditional and conservative character, including her religion and even…
Branch, L. 2010. "Carlisle's Cross: Locating the Past in Secular Gothic" in A.M. Clarke and M. Osburn (eds). The Twilight Mystique: Critical Essays on the Novels and Films. McFarland & Company Publishers: 60-79.
Byron, G. 2008. "As One Dead': Romeo and Juliet in the Twilight" in J. Drakakis and D. Townshend (eds) Gothic Shakespeares. Routledge: 167-86.
Meyer, S. 2005. Twilight. Little, Brown and Company.
Meyer, S. 2006. New Moon. Little, Brown and Company.
S. Supreme Court. As to religion, slaves were allowed to worship in segregated sections of white churches, but with the advent of Reconstruction around 1867, freed slaves left the white churches and formed their own aptist and Methodist congregations.
The governments which were set up by the North during the Reconstruction period often mandated that segregation remain in place which affected the ability of freed slaves to attend and seek assistance in many local and state-level social institutions, such as colleges, hospitals and welfare facilities. For example, in the state of Georgia, there was no existing system for the care of disenfranchised former slaves and those who suffered from diseases and many physical ailments until the early 1880's. Also during this time, former slaves were forced to live in very inadequate housing, especially in southern cities like Atlanta, Richmond and Charleston. efore the Civil War, black American slaves had it…
Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. Intro. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Bantam Classics, 1989.
Hawkeye again reminds us that "there is no cross" in his veins, that he is a pureblooded white man.
The book does not segregate itself to the discussion of only Native Americans and the feelings thereof, but also has occasion to discuss the prevailing sentiment in regards to African-Americans as well. As General Monro reveals in Chapter Sixteen, we find that Cora has a "cross" in her blood:
There it was my lot to form a connection with one who in time became my wife and the Mother of Cora. She was the daughter of a gentleman of those isles, by a lady whose misfortune it was, if you will" said the old man proudly, "to be descended, remotely, from that unfortunate class who are so basely enslaved to administer to the wants of a luxurious people." (Cooper 201)
It is perhaps a little difficult to discern but the General…
Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Cleveland, OH: World
Smith, Lindsey Claire. "Cross-Cultural Hybridity in James Fenimore Cooper's the Last of the Mohicans." ATQ (the American Transcendental Quarterly) 20.3 (2006)