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Currently the world's population uses three main energy sources: fossil, renewable, and fissile. The fossil energy sources are petroleum, coal, natural gas, bitumen, oil shale, and tar sands; the renewable energy sources include biomass, solar, wind, geothermal, and hydropower; and the fissile energy sources are uranium and thorium (Demirbas 212). Demirbas also estimates that at the present rate of production, known petroleum reserves will be depleted in less than 50 years (212). Additionally, energy production from fossil fuels results in high greenhouse gas emissions creating critical environmental problems throughout the world. According to Demirbas energy consumption will be double the 1998 level by 2035 and triple by 2055 if the global growth rate of about 2% a year of primary energy use continues (213). The combination of climate change, escalating oil prices and concerns about long-term energy security has put energy at the top of political and policy…… [Read More]
1349). In that last case, the lesson learned should be clear -- don't build wind turbines too close to residences, or don't build homes too close to a wind turbine.
When it comes to nuisance suits based on aesthetic issues, Butler explains that "the courts have been extremely hesitant to label ugly, unattractive, or otherwise visually unappealing structures as nuisances" (p. 1350). The author argues in his Conclusion that a "balance must be struck" so when a wind energy development is proposed it doesn't have to go through a jury trial to get a building permit. In that regard, Butler argues, courts should not hesitate to "dismiss nuisance claims based on noise from wind developments when the pleadings show that the turbines have been reasonably sited" (p. 1373).
There is no simple answer to "d" -- but when it comes to offshore wind power there are regulatory issues and aesthetic…… [Read More]
Offshore Wind Energy
(Facts and Features, Usage, Future Prospects, Strengths and Weaknesses, ecommendations)
It is an undeniable fact that human activity needs energy as a basic requirement. Energy input is a fundamental need for transportation, water and food provision and mobility services. In the contemporary energy system, non-renewable fossil fuels are the principal resources that satisfy the global energy needs. They are preferred due to their dependability and low-cost. On the contrary, wind energy, hydroelectric power and biomass are also used as energy resources all over the world, especially in developing countries (Edinger & Kaul, 2003, p. 43).
The exchange of goods and energy has become an imperative process as globalization has been pursued trendily. This trade guarantees efficient production and advantageous exploitation of proportional costs. On the other hand, the need for energy in the developing countries is increased continuously as they put efforts to strengthen their…… [Read More]
Offshore Wind Energy
Creating the Offshore Wind Energy Industry as a center of attention for more investment in the Persian Gulf countries and providing a study and recommendations to the governments and companies to be more comfortable investing in this field.
Opportunities in Offshore Wind Energy
It is generally acknowledged that changes in wind energy prices affect economic welfare in ways that are not entirely reflected in transactions in the wind energy market. The pervasive importance of wind energy as a factor of production and in final consumption means that higher wind energy prices can potentially influence real income and its growth and distribution. Thus, to the extent that rising import demand pushes up the price of wind energy and indirectly produces adverse side effects on income, these economic costs are candidates for inclusion in the wind energy import premium. This chapter explores the connections between import demand, the price…… [Read More]
Subsidies in Wind Energy in Holland
As it appears, Holland is not the only nation to give an economic boost by supporting a promising new source of energy. In the Holland history, energy subsidies have been crucial for the overall economic development. This essay looks at the positive aspects of these intermittent subsidies. It also details how the same subsidies are weakening the renewable energy industry by focusing on how the Production Tax Credit (PTC) is affecting the industry. Nevertheless, the essay will establish that despite the precise information about the subsidies in wind energy, the provision of long-term and predictable subsidies is important in ensuring a sustainable shift to a renewable energy source.
Holland's subsidies in wind energy, in the form of PTC, are a government incentive that serves financial support for the development of renewable energy facilities. Firms that produce electricity from geothermal, wind and "closed-loop"…… [Read More]
Even with the fact that Ancient Greeks obviously had a limited understanding of winds, it is nonetheless intriguing to look at how they perceived conditions in which winds are more likely to occur.
ind speed is faster above the ground because it encounters less friction and winds move very fast when there is nothing to slow them down. This is why wind turbines are mounted on top of towers. Anemometers connected to control boxes are mounted on top of turbines with the purpose of providing data to the turbine. This makes it possible for turbines to start when wind speeds are useful and to stop when winds are slow.
Ahrens, Donald C., Jackson, Peter L., Jackson, Christine, E.O., "Meteorology Today: An Introduction to eather, Climate, and the Environment," (Cengage Learning, 01.07.2011)
Emeis, Stefan, "ind Energy Meteorology," (Springer, 2013)
"Geostrophic ind," retrieved February 20, 2013, from the University of…… [Read More]
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…… [Read More]
alternatives to traditional fossil fuels, and evaluate them based on their relative availability, renewability, and known environmental impacts. We begin with a baseline characterization of fossil fuels, and outline some of the factors contributing to their current market and industry dominance. We then examine three of the current most prominent and viable renewable alternatives to fossil fuels, including the controversial nuclear energy technology and two emerging technology areas, wind power and algae-based bio-fuels.
Subterranean petroleum-based resources which are currently extracted via drilling and other methods also originated as living algae albeit hundreds of millions of years ago, which accounts for their categorization as "fossil" fuels along with other hydrocarbon-based deposits including coal and natural gas. The combined fossil and renewable biofuels worldwide market was estimated at $5.8 trillion dollars in 2010, of which approximately $1.5 trillion was based in the United States. The cost per unit weight of fossil-based fuel…… [Read More]
Budget Detail & Narrative
Florida, the United tates and the broader world in particular is facing an energy crisis. Indeed, it is a battle and one with many fronts. There are a number of good reasons out there to find alternative energy. They include the increasing world population, the pervasive use of fossil fuels, concerns about those fossil fuels running out, pollution associated with those fossil fuels and access to energy for everyone. Indeed, there is an increased need for energy that departs from the dirty energy sources like coal and petroleum. Beyond that, these new sources need to be sustainable. This grant proposal covers precisely such an energy source and it is a source that can greatly improve the quality of life and energy costs of people in the southwestern part of Florida much like it is already doing for people around the rest of the…… [Read More]
Energy use is expanding and includes several different ways to harness power. From hydropower, to solar energy, to wind energy, the world is using the elements to create electricity for homes and businesses. While some favor solar power for use as the new kind of energy; businesses and those aiming to power many homes, opt for wind energy. Regardless of what is used, there is still a long way to go before people move away from traditional forms of energy like hydropower to more cost-effective ways like solar. I myself use hydropower or batteries to get through my days and understand the need to save energy and increase my power source options.
Most of the sources of energy I use are non-renewable except my re-chargeable solar batteries. These can be charged with sunlight and thus recharged from a renewable source. A second way I use energy each day is cooking.…… [Read More]
Ecological Preservation at the Hart of Dynamic Boca de Iguanas Development (2008) St. Michael Strategies (SMS) Press Release. PR.com online available at http://www.pr.com/press-release/35513
Jeffrey Chow, Raymond J. Kopp, Paul R. Portney. (2003). Energy resources and global development. Science, 302(5650), 1528-31. Retrieved September 5, 2008, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 490116241).
Mattson, K.M., and Angermeier, P.L. (2007) Integrating Human Impacts and Ecological Integrity into a Risk-Based Protocol for Conservation Planning Journal of Environmental Management Vol. 39, No. 1 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/t13674l78j31jq05/
Maximizing building performance: through environmental strategies (2003) Buildings 1 July 2003. Online available at http://www.allbusiness.com/operations/facilities/601308-1.html
Negative Secondary Impacts from Oil and Gas Development (nd) the Energy & Biodiversity Initiative. Online available at http://www.theebi.org/pdfs/impacts.pdf
Santopietro, George D. (2005) Raising Environmental Consciousness vs. Creating Economic Incentives as Alternative Policies for Environmental Protection Journal; Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 29, 1995. Excerpt online available at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000322449
APPENDIX 'A'…… [Read More]
("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)
The impact of wind farms on the natural landscape is troubling. This is because some communities think that the sight of large fields is destroying the scenery. Evidence of this can be seen in Martha's Vineyard. What happened is many residents began to oppose these kinds of projects out of concerns about how this will impact their views. This led to animosity about where to place wind farms. As a result, proponents argue that establishing these fields in different locations will be challenging. This is when the project will face increased delays and higher costs. ("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)
Advantages of Wind Power
Despite the claims of opponents, the reality is that the use of wind power is a viable resource. A good example of this can be seen with Denmark (who produces 20% of their total energy…… [Read More]
Nuclear Energy: isks vs. eward
Every source of energy has its own drawbacks. This is more so the case taking into consideration the recent energy source related accidents including but not limited to coal-mining mishaps, the nuclear crisis in Japan, the B.P. oil spill, etc. In this text, I will amongst other things concern myself with nuclear power and the consequences associated with the development of the same.
As I have already pointed out in the introductory section, every source of energy has a set of drawbacks. For instance, while there are a number of benefits associated with wind energy, the same also has several disadvantages. In the words of Eccleston, March and Cohen (2011), "wind farms can interfere with radar, creating a hole in radar coverage affecting aviation and national security." The author further points out that wind energy is largely unpredictable. Similarly, although hydroelectric power in the opinion…… [Read More]
San Gorgonio ind Farm is one of three major wind farms that provide 95% of California's wind generating capacity (and 30% of the world's wind generating capacity). This amounts of 4258 million kilowatt hours of electricity, or 1.5% of the state's total electricity production (California Energy Commission, 2011). ind energy is considered to be one of the 'clean' energy sources, as opposed to fossil fuel production and nuclear energy production in particular. However, wind farms have their own drawbacks as well from an environmental perspective. ind farms can be devastating to the local environment as they have a massive footprint. This is especially troublesome in desert environments such as that occupied by San Gorgonio. There are also visual impacts, noise produced by rotor blades and potentially high degrees of avian/bat mortality (INDEIS, n.d.). This paper will analyze the benefits and impacts of the San Gorgonio ind Farm, in particular with…… [Read More]
The primary sources of energy in the UK comes in the form of oil and gas reserves from the North Sea and coal. These sources are expected to continue to be dominant until at least 2020, although it should be noted that the annual output from the North Sea is now on the decline (UK Parliament, 2010). As a result, the government has embarked on a strategy to reshape the energy dynamic of the nation. The objective of the program is to establish renewables as the largest source of energy in the UK by 2020.
Nuclear power has been downplayed in the UK energy landscape. A lull in new capacity existed until 2007, so no new capacity is expected to replace decommissioned nuclear power plants until at least 2017, meaning that renewables development is critical to reshaping the UK energy landscape (Ibid). Wind is the crucial form of…… [Read More]
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…… [Read More]
Global energy and climate objectives have contributed to the increased development and use of renewable sources of energy that focus on lessening the environment impact of generating energy. The conventional sources of energy have contributed to significant environmental impacts, especially climate change. The environmental impacts that are brought by emission of greenhouse gases from conventional energy sources are endangering the world's ecosystems and human life. As a result, renewable energy sources are considered as suitable alternatives to help lessen environmental impacts while meeting energy needs. There are various renewable energy sources that are regarded as suitable alternatives to conventional sources including solar, wind, and electric energy. Even though these sources have minimal environmental impacts compared to conventional sources of energy, they are not cost-effective yet.
Solar, Electric and Wind Energy
Wind energy has been considered as one of the cheaper energy generation methods unlike conventional sources of energy…… [Read More]
Geopolitical Energy Competition
One hundred years ago, oil supplies were a non-issue. There was limited demand for oil, and hence limited supply. Today, oil is the most important factor shaping the geopolitical landscape. Global demand for oil is estimated to be 84.6 million barrels per day (OPEC, 2009). OPEC produces 24.845 million barrels per day, and non-OPEC nations produce a further 50.7 million barrels per day for a total production of 75.545 bpd (OPEC, 2008). Many observers believe that the world has already passed "peak oil," that is to say the point at which the majority of the world's oil reserves have been discovered and production maximized (Deffeyes, 2003). Demand in the United States is presently estimated to be 20.7 million barrels per day, some 68% of that going to meet transportation needs (Energy Information Administration, 2007). However, demand from emerging economies such as those in India and China are…… [Read More]
Who is Leading the International Clean Energy Race?
The race for clean energy is already underway, but some countries are in vanguard while others remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Unfortunately, even the winners of the clean energy race fail to realize the full range of benefits that can accrue to renewable energy sources as long as other countries continue to rely on fossil fuels for their energy needs. To determine the facts about what is happening today and likely outcomes for the future, this paper reviews the relevant literature to describe how developing countries can reach 100% renewable energy as well as some of the more severe challenges that are involved in providing clean energy in developing regions of the world. In addition, a discussion concerning whether the goal of achieving clean energy access for all humanity by 2030 is achievable or not is followed by an analysis of…… [Read More]
eduction of Energy Consumption Among Corporations
The following are suitable ways to lower energy consumption
Encouraging reuse and recycling of waste materials.
Installing solar systems to provide alternative source of energy.
Having in place efficient manufacturing systems and machines that demand lesser energy than outdated models.
Harnessing of wind energy.
Change from the traditional bulbs to the light emitting diode (LED) bulbs that consume far much less.
The corporations need to instill in their employees the value of unplugging or switching off all appliances that are not being used especially when closing office for the night or for long holidays.
All energy consuming appliances need to be serviced regularly to make them more efficient, for instance the aid conditioners in the offices.
Corporations need to make their buildings as insulated as possible to help cut down on the heating costs (Pace University, 2000).
Having shade trees and painting of houses…… [Read More]
Waste and Energy Presentation
The first waste product is organic food waste. This ends up in landfills, and there are a number of negative outcomes. Food waste releases methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Landfills are 20% of all methane emissions in the United States. Further, organic food waste is material that could be composted, but usually is not, representing a lost opportunity to create valuable compost for growing food. In addition, prior to making its way to the landfill, food waste is often stored in back alleys and in garbage cans, where it attracts rodents and other vermin (EPA, 2015).
Nuclear waste is a by-product of nuclear energy production. Nuclear waste comes in a number of categories, but it generally must be treated before it is deposited, and usually it must be turned to glass, stored in ceramics and then buried deep in the earth. Nuclear wastes have a long…… [Read More]
Through research on the risks that come with uranium and coal for energy plants, there can be determination of which among the two is better for human sustainability.
Green house gases
Electricity plants that use coal for electricity production release large amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants that are harmful to the environment, bearing that coal is packed with high levels of hydrocarbons. Among these gases is sulfur dioxide that results in acid rain formation and consequent depletion of environment and even property that is reactive to sulfuric acid. Nitrogen oxides are also produced and together with VOCS result to smog formation. Mercury is also produced alongside Carbon dioxide which are direct contributors to negative climate change (Matthews, 2012).
On the other hand, in the nuclear power plants there is no production of gases such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide, mercury or such other toxic gases. If…… [Read More]
The urban village is being constructed on brownfield land that was formerly being used by an oil refinery that was called the Llandarcy Oil efinery that was owned by BP. This oil refinery was constructed between the years 1918 and 1922 and it has been labeled as the first crude oil refinery in the country. Since there were some economic changes, the site was closed in the year 1997 (Brownfield renewal in Wales and South West egion, 2007).
Planned Outputs of the Urban Village
According to the plan that has been prepared for Coed Darcy, the community will comprise of 4,000 homes along with employment space, community facilities as well as open space that covered an area of 1,300 acres. The estimate of the development of this community is about 1.2 billion pounds. Moreover, four new schools have also been planned for this community. These schools include 2…… [Read More]
Future Energy: Guiding Decisions Evidence in order reduce negative environmental impacts growing human population increasing demands energy technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities households opportunity shift energy sources renewable
Most consumers are unaware of the extreme negativeness surrounding their consumption of goods and that it inevitably leads to environmental degradation. However, there seems to be a more conscious effort to go around the negative impact of consumption of energy by choosing renewable sources. In this essay, we will assess a particular region in America and that is the state of Florida with specific references to certain areas in order to observe what sources of energy are currently used and what renewable sources may be best suitable and least suitable in the area, considering climate and the environment.
With climate changes accelerating at a fast pace, Miami, which is already subject of the increase of Earth's temperatures and rise of…… [Read More]
Ultra Long-Term Perspectives World Energy
Energy is a very important part of our lives and the world that we live in today. It has always been important since the time that the humans used to do all their work by themselves to the times when they started using animals and even today when we make use of the energy sources around us to produce energy such as electricity.
Today our main source of energy are the fossils fuels that won't last forever as, they take millions of years to form and very little time to get used as a source of energy. One of the very important concerns of today's time is the speed with which we are consuming these fossil fuels and how it will be very difficult for us to keep up with the increased demand which is expected to double by 2050 as the population is expected…… [Read More]
Establishment Energy Cooperation
Establishment of Energy Cooperation System East Asia
The economic growth and its sustainability of any developing and developed country are dependent on the basis of its energy requirements (Lincoln, 2004). The countries in East Asian region are also no exception. The energy requirements of the region are swelling with the increased focus on its development. The regional focus has also established grounds for the political and industry leaders to focus on the requirements and prepare their countries for future energy needs. The region is also dependent on the energy imports especially the fuel for energy including oil and gas. The increasing energy production requirements are also creating an issue for the local governments to manage the energy prices within the affordable range of its consumers.
The local cooperation among various countries in the region is affected by the political and territorial issues. However the regional cooperation organizations…… [Read More]
Community's Source of Energy
An Examination of Energy Sources in the Willows Community of Gilbert, Arizona
The community of Willows is located in the city of Gilbert, Arizona. It is an HOA community of single family homes, with a number of amenities included. As with any community, it has power usage needs that have to be considered. Before the community was built, the issue of how to get power to the area and how much power might be used by the residents there was considered. Then, the community was built and the houses were sold. That raised the amount of power that was needed in Gilbert, which is a growing city with a strong population base and many things for residents to enjoy. The power needs of any community are important, because residents want to be assured that they have enough of what they need to power their homes (Aitken,…… [Read More]
Cape Wind Project proposed for Cape Cod, and the political, economic, and social impacts to Cape Cod and Nantucket. The Cape Wind Project is a proposed wind-turbine project off the shoreline of Cape Cod in Massachusetts. Supporters of the project believe it is the right clean-air, renewable energy project for the area, and it will negate the need for an old, outdated fossil fuel electrical generating plant. Opponents believe it is the wrong project for the area, and it will reduce their quality of life, as well as block local fishermen from their livelihoods. Controversial and very public, the project has been debated since 2001, and it still has not begun construction.
I am David McCullough, author and historian, and I live full time on Cape Cod. I am adamantly opposed to the Cape Wind project for a number of compelling reasons. First and foremost, in my mind, is that…… [Read More]
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…… [Read More]
For one thing, while the deregulation of panish retail markets has driven interest among the nation's utilities to differentiate themselves and so win overall share, Iberdrola is already competing quite effectively on its renewable power proposition -- it is likely that most paniards who want to go green have already done so. hould Endesa require additional renewable capacity to meet demand, it also has the relatively captive resources of its recently announced corporate affiliate Enel Green Power to fall back on, allowing it to keep any value-added green power buying "in the family."
If cottish & outhern Energy finds it necessary to enter the fast-growing panish market, it may be easier to simply buy a small local utility and compete on the ground. This would give the company direct access to the wind-friendly panish subsidy regime; so far tightening budgets have not led Madrid to take a less active role…… [Read More]
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…… [Read More]
My energy use varied depending on the day. In general, heating oil is used, so this will increase on days that are cooler or wetter. Electrical reflects appliance usage for the most part. There is a baseline of electrical usage for things like lights, coffee maker and other daily essentials. Electricity usage spikes on laundry day in particular. There is a small solar component to the heating, providing heat for a couple of rooms. Auto gas reflects car usage, which fluctuates. There is a commuting baseline for five out of seven days, and so non-commuting days can see lower gasoline usage.
The local energy company uses primarily coal as its power source, but also makes use of a small percentage of nuclear power as well. The utility posts this information on its website. The different power sources are all outlined, so consumers can effectively understand the source of the…… [Read More]
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…… [Read More]
However, they are worth considering on the long haul. Since the oil and gas reserves are suffering from a chronic shortage, a major company such as Exxon should think strategically and expand into this area. The discussion is more complex, in the sense that intensive research and development efforts are needed to both improve the above mentioned alternatives and to discover new sources of energy.
Exxon Financial esults
Due to the high crude-oil and natural gas prices, in the context of a busy hurricane seasons in the Gulf of Mexico, Exxon has reported record figures for 2005, mounting up to $36 billion in net income and 31% return on average capital.
Source: Exxon Mobil 2005 Company eport
The results Exxon reported for the 2005 fiscal year are impressive:
record earnings of $36 billion, up 46%;
net income per common share of $5.76;
net income to average shareholder's equity of 339%…… [Read More]
Energy is the basis of industrial civilization and modern society. There is little doubt that without energy, modern life would cease to exist. Over the last two hundred years, human beings have relied heavily on fossil fuels for their energy needs. Fossil fuels, however, are non-renewable and in limited supply and if we continue to use the earth's fossil fuel resources at the present rate, we would soon run out of the earth's fuel reserves. Moreover, burning of fossil fuels contributes to air pollution, acid rain, and global warming that could ultimately make life unsustainable on our planet. ith several promising alternate energy sources such as 'geothermal,' 'nuclear,' 'wind' and 'solar' power having proved either too expensive, too dangerous or impractical, the need for a new invention that provides an alternate fuel was never more urgent as it is today. The invention that I have in mind is the…… [Read More]
The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.
The Case for Nuclear Energy
In the past few…… [Read More]
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…… [Read More]
Light Energy illustrates the techniques employed by various scientists in determining the accurate value of the speed of light. This paper outlines all the methods employed by them and the grave difficulties they faced in acquiring a more accurate value. This paper also emphasizes on the importance of the value of the speed of light.
One of the fundamental concepts that is put forward for the students, who are studying about light is that it is a form of energy. Even though light shows properties like reflection and refraction, Huygens suggestion that light consists of waves in1680 was rejected by many scientists. This was because scientists then were not able to demonstrate the wave properties of light such as interference and diffraction. Even Newton considered light to constitute of small particles which he referred to as corpuscles. It was only later, in 1801, when Thomas Young observed the…… [Read More]
There have not been specific funding promises from the candidates for specific aspects of the Pickens Plan, either.
The final verdict on the Pickens Plan campaign will not be known for months, if not years. The new president will not take office until January, and will require time to formulate a cohesive strategy. In terms of the action plan, the strategy to mobilize the grassroots in order to put pressure on the government has not succeeded thus far. The grassroots will give the new president his mandate, and the supporters of the Pickens Plan will ultimately take a back seat to that.
In terms of action, the most effective part of this public relations campaign has been the direct contact between Pickens and the candidates. This may or may not have occurred without the grassroots, but it is reasonable to expect that it would have occurred due to Mr. Pickens'…… [Read More]
Tree Wind Power Generator
Currently, there is a growing demand for sustainable energy sources given the rising fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy security. In apt response to this critical issue, a renewable alternative energy innovation is receiving wide spread interest and attention. This innovation entails the manufacture of energy harvesting trees to capture both wind and solar energy (Alternative Energy, 2009). The technology behind this; bio-mimicry is an emerging science using nature to alleviate human suffering. Using bio-mimicry techniques, scientists have come up with an artificial tree functioning as a passive solar-wind harvester. The harvested energy is stored and later converted into high value energy form.
Energy is harvested from a wide range of sources including water, wind, and solar among other sources. These methods have been efficient as far as energy harvesting is concerned but, scientists are still looking for methods of harvesting energy using fewer…… [Read More]
These technologies are can be separated into three main categories (Alternative Energy):
Wave Energy Converters: These systems extract the power of ocean waves and convert it into electricity. Typically, these systems use either a water column or some type of surface or just-below-surface buoy to capture the wave power. In addition to oceans, some lakes may offer sufficient wave activity to support wave energy converter technology. (Alternative Energy).
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): OTEC generates electricity through the temperature differential in warmer surface water and colder deep water. Of ocean technologies, OTEC has the most limited applicability in the United States because it requires a 40-degree temperature differential that is typically available in locations like Hawaii and other more tropical climates (Alternative Energy).
Offshore Wind: Offshore wind projects take advantage of the vast wind resources available across oceans and large water bodies. Out at sea, winds blow freely, unobstructed by…… [Read More]
Cost and CO2 reduction analysis were performed using local data available from both commercial and professional bodies. A majority of current thermal rating programs require the equipment to be tested in accordance to a standard test under specified testing conditions. This approach provides reliable data because it is possible to replicate such tests within an accepted uncertainty band. There are, however, some rating programs which combine a standard test and a calculation procedure to produce a performance rating. Such is the case for the energy guide label for electric and gas hot water heaters. A similar method has been developed to provide a practical rating system with the goal of presenting an easily understood comparison between SDHW systems and conventional hot water systems. Note that the performance any individual commercial enterprise will experience may differ due to location and hot water usage.
The thermal performance rating is based on the…… [Read More]
CEFC and the Future of Environmental Finance
The Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) represents the most aggressive environmental finance initiative sponsored by the Australian Government to date. The CEFC is an independent entity established as part of the Clean Energy Future Policy by the Australian government. As of March 2012, funding for the program totaled AUS $10 billion in government backed investments for the commercialization and deployment of clean energy technologies. This research will explore the CEFC and its role in the development and deployment of environmentally friendly energy sources and alternatives.
Governments around the world recognize the need for developing clean and renewable energy sources that reduce their environmental impact. The topic of global warning and climate change has increased the need for the development of less energy intensive and environmentally damaging energy sources. Although the role of human beings in these changes is a topic of debate, it…… [Read More]
In this regard, some exceptions have been given to the insurance companies while the other companies should follow these principles.
In the year 2005, the commercial sector of the United Kingdom spent $16,500 million for fossil fuels of 350,000 GWh. On the other hand, researchers have reported that a decline of energy consumption has been observed in the tertiary sector of the United Kingdom (Probst & oecker, 2011, pg 109-124).
Hot water consumption
Probst (2011) stated that hot water is consumed around three percent in industries and fifteen percent I the fossil energy. This shows that a total of 22,000GWh of hot water is consumed each year.
The high and low temperature hot water from the hot water boilers is used in a number of things such as apace heating, washing and in some industrial processes. The direct and straight use of hot water is in washing. Modern hot water…… [Read More]
Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport
The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…… [Read More]
However, not every element of renewable energy will prove advantageous for us to implement. All of the forms of renewable energy have not been mass implemented on a large scale in the past. This means that we would have o completely redesign our energy plans in order to accommodate these new technologies. This will prove labor intensive and costly in the initial implementation stages (Hick 2009).
Yet, despite disadvantages, these new renewable energy sources are crucial to a better life tomorrow. Some prove much too costly to implement with any sort of immediate returns, such as massive wind energy plants. However, solar energy is much less costly, easier to access from an individual standpoint, and completely unlimited. Solar energy proves one of the most desirable and cost effective renewable energy sources for today, and can be implemented while we develop more strategies for the future.
Hick, Matthew. (2009). Advantages…… [Read More]
Wind energy itself is a completely renewable source. In fact, it actually relies on solar power as its own source; "The sun's energy in interaction with the Earth's surfaces creates the winds and as long as the sun is up there, wind is a renewable energy source," (Sustainable Table 2010). Modern implication and practice have proven that generating power through wind energy can be a reliable and clean source of providing practical uses of power. esidential and commercials cities have been provided with much power coming from the windy plains of America's greatest desserts. It is a growing strategy for alternative energy solutions, and "Today, wind energy is captured by wind turbines and used to generate electricity," (West 2010). More and more facilities of seemingly endless white wind turbines are being built across the country. Such facilities will provide great sources for energy within the future development of the nation.…… [Read More]
When finished, it will produce enough energy to power 8,000 Oahu homes and reduce carbon dramatically. The Kaheawa Wind Power farm expansion now has 14 more turbines which will make it a 50 megawatt production center with some capability for overnight battery storage. Even with the advances in technology, the idea of using wind -- a free resource that simply needs funding for equipment and maintenance, is increasingly important ("enewable Energy Sources," 2010).
Other companies are exploring the combination of solar and wind to produce energy for smaller projects. For example, alternative power generators could drive down the need for energy if just 20% of corporations used renewable energy. One case in point is the Parker ang, using a combination grid and tracking system that literally turns cells toward the sun and aims the wind turbines. This system was built in just 5 months, and will completely pay for itself…… [Read More]
Photovoltaic power system is a type of renewable energy that converts solar energy into solar photovoltaic electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) technology converts energy from the sunlight into the electricity. One of the advantages of the PV technology is that it is pollution free, and it is applicable with little maintenance.
(EPIA 2008). Since sunlight is available free of charge, there has been an increase in the research and development (&D) to make the Photovoltaic energy available to all households and industry in the future. With the advantages derived from the PV energy systems, varieties of research have been launched at national and international laboratories focusing on the mass production of solar power at possible lower costs. (Dahl, 2005). In German, there are varieties of efforts in the development of PV technology. There has been an increase in the collaboration of government, university and the industry consortia in the development of Photovoltaic…… [Read More]
All of these steps are easy to take and can help protect the Earth. Developing renewable energy sources is also an important step Christians should take regarding preserving the environment.
The commercial energy consumption, in the United States alone, in 2006, was 1,994,876 kilotons of oil equivalent. The most disturbing part of that figure is that only 8.41% of that energy came from renewable electricity production ("Energy"). Investment in research and development for technology to efficiently harness renewable energy sources is critical. In addition to investment in new technology, large energy consuming countries, such as the United States, need to take advantage of current technology to utilize renewable energy sources -- like wind.
In 2004, the United States generated 6,740 M of power with wind turbines. However, other, smaller countries have taken greater advantage of this inexpensive, clean, renewable source of power. Germany produced 16,629 M of power with wind…… [Read More]
Against Nuclear Power
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of international relations and business today, all nations and their respective economies must be able to effectively globalize their energy operations in order to reach a greater potential resource base and sustain fiscal durability in the long-term. In accomplishing the aforementioned tasks, many nations have placed environmental considerations at the bottom of the ladder of priority. However, with countless new environmental initiatives cropping up each day, it behooves any and all government and big business personnel to gain a greater respect for the fragile environment in which we live. Terms like "emissions," "energy consumption," "fossil fuel depletion" and "carbon footprint" are increasingly becoming a part of the average global citizen's vocabulary. The future of all nations lies in the hands of those who seriously embrace the importance of such rhetoric. Accordingly, several energy-producing options have been considered and…… [Read More]
She also mentions the huge energy giant British Petroleum (BP) came up with some honest and effective marketing in its green promotions. And while it is laudable for an oil company to invest in green technologies, BP did it with "appropriate humility that admits its own guilt while setting the stage for conversion to alternative energy sources" (Ottman, 2002). Meantime she says to Exxon, "ake Up!" because Exxon was at that time running "green-themed" ads that spoke to the need to "find more oil."
In still another green marketing-themed article from Ottman, she writes in the publication in Business that while the George . Bush Administration "abdicates responsibility for a strong response to slowing down" global climate change, Bush's lack of leadership on the issue opened a "unique window of opportunity for America's advertisers and marketers" (Ottman, 2002). That advice to advertisers and marketers is this: using the same effective…… [Read More]
Japan abolishes current nuclear plant Fukushima Crisis. What effects immediately long-term Japan world a case stop operation of nuclear power plants.
As a brief description, Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant was an operating energy facility in Japan particularly in the Fukushima prefecture or province. The plant was established in 1971, which occupied a total of 3.5-kilometer site that makes it as one of the largest nuclear power plants in the world by land area. This nuclear power plant was very useful in the Japanese energy regulation system because it has an economical generation costs that is more reliable than using hydroelectric power sources from dams and streams. It is operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company that is the largest operating agency around Japan as claimed by Arnold (2010).
On March 11, 2011, a powerful earthquake hit the northeastern portion of Japan with an epicenter just off the coast of Fukushima…… [Read More]
Technologies which allow the integration of power stations underground and as such reduce the damaging effects of surface coal mining (Allied Publishers)
Technologies which reduce the environmental damage associated with coal burning such as fluidized bed combustor or coal gasification (National Energy Education Development Program)
Efforts in the creation of additional sources of renewable energy, such as hydro energy, wind energy or solar energy
On the downside, it has to be noted that the development of technology could not have been possible without the existence of coal. In other words, the simple advent of technology has generated higher levels of coal consumption and has accelerated the process of coal consumption and environmental instability (Laskowski, 2001).
Today, the needs and limitations of energy generation with coal burning have yet to be fully addressed and resolved. This specifically means that the bilateral relationship between technology and coal would continue to unfold --…… [Read More]
Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines
Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…… [Read More]
Nu Star Energy L.P. is a limited partnership that is publicly traded and headquartered in San Antonio. It has 9,063 miles of pipeline, eighty-six terminal facilities, four storage facilities for crude oil and two refineries for asphalt. It is the second in size among independent liquid terminal operators in the United States. It operates in the U.S., Netherlands, Canada, United Kingdom, Antilles and Mexico. The entire system of the partnership can hold up to 86 million barrels in its storage infrastructure. It has refineries for asphalt, crude oil and has pipelines for refined products. Also present are terminals for refined products, a storage facility for petroleum, a terminal operation as well as storage facilities for crude oil. NuStar strives to protect the environment and continually works to improve its programs and processes so as to meet even the most stringent of environmental practices. This has resulted in better environmental performance.…… [Read More]
Cindy is making a consideration to investing in a new business consists of the installation of solar panels. In the current periods, this has been perceived as a profit making venture. This is for the reason that the world continues to shift more and more into renewable sources of energy of which solar power energy is one of the leading ones. Another reason is that the government has made incentives to the industry by giving out subsidies to the suppliers in this market so as to increase the number of solar panels being produced. Bearing this in mind, Cindy is necessitated to take two decisions. First of all, there is a need to review the probable or likely profit or loss that can come about in this business in the forthcoming by making an allowance for the impending prospects for this line of business. Cindy needs to take…… [Read More]
There would be no nectarines and tomatoes in the dead of winter, although when these foods were eaten in season, they would be healthier, tastier, and leave less of an ecological footprint. This would require a shift in approach to buying food, and perhaps require more canning, freezing, and preserving of foods than people might have done in the past. More cooking would also be necessary, given the smaller supply of foodstuffs. Produce might also be more expensive, given the more labor-intensive practices involved in pesticide-free farming.
ith the use of solar power for energy, people would no longer be able to live in a 24/7 society. Sunrise to sunset would define the day as it did so long in the past. This might make people happier, given the beneficial effects of sunlight -- it raises the mood, is full of Vitamin D, and is naturally energizing. But again, this…… [Read More]
What autos a society depends on says a lot about that society too, and the gas-guzzling SUVs and pickups that have made up the backbone of American transportation indicate our indifference to global problems, including the problems the country is creating itself.
What is so disturbing about America's role in the five-gas-stations theory is the message it sends quite openly to the rest of the world. Friedman notes in his essay that this message breeds resentment because the United States is not content to spread technology and industrialization. In addition, it is spreading democratization, capitalism, fast food, and even Hollywood values to the rest of the world, and many of them strongly resent America for its presumption that everyone would be better off following her example, whether they want to or not (Friedman 134). The country feels the need to drag everyone down the same "righteous" path, and that is…… [Read More]
In this author's opinion, a greater than ninety percent probability that humans are involved in global climate change, with the additional concern that irreversible detrimental consequences may result, is sufficient to warrant immediate action in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. ithin the scientific field an absolute certainty that humans have fueled global warming will never be obtained, no matter how much time is provided for study. It is paramount that action, such as the Cap and Trade Policy, is taken immediately to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and slow global warming. Failure to take these steps will only exacerbate the deleterious effects of global warming as time progresses.
Many opponents to implementation of emissions restrictions, such as that of the Cap and Trade Policy, have also suggested that alternative energy sources are not sufficiently advanced or effective to meet the energy demands currently provided by fossil fuels. Presently, alternative energies…… [Read More]