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wireless communication networks and all the mechanisms involved in making them effective. Our investigation explored the history and development vision of mobile networks. We found that there are two ways of providing communications services; through a system of wires, that allow the transmission and reception of information at the fixed points, and through wireless connections, that use electromagnetism to carry information from one place to another.
We also discussed the main characteristics, design issues and provided a description of wireless communication networks. Our investigation discovered that third generation wireless technology is extremely efficient. We found that this technology can reach speeds of 144 kbps, and user speeds between 50 kbps to 70 kbps. Lastly, the research focused on advantages, disadvantages, implementation, and current and future applications/developments. The research suggests that the advantages associated with wireless networks include mobility, ease of use and increased productivity. The disadvantages include widening of the…
Banks, Christopher J. "The Third Generation of Wireless Communications: The Intersection of Policy, Technology, and Popular Culture." Law and Policy in International Business 32.3 (2001): 585.
Bowman, Phil. Wireless for the mobile workforce: the range of applications, higher speeds and better security make a solid business case - Voice Networks
Communications News. July, 2003. May 2004 http://articles.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CMN/is_7_40/ai_105516153
Chamberlain, Don and Stambaugh, Clyde T. "Ready to Pull the Plug?." Journal of Accountancy 192.2 (2001): 53. http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000093233' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Chapter 1: Introduction
Wireless communications are, to any extent, the most rapidly growing section of the communications sector. For this reason, it has seized the consideration and responsiveness of the media and the imaginings of the general public (Ijemaru et al., 2018). In the past decade, cellular communications systems have faced exponential growth and development and there exist billions of users all over the globe. Statistics indicate that by the culmination of 2018, there were approximately 5.1 billion individuals across the globe that subscribed to mobile services, and this signified approximately 67 percent of the world’s populace. Furthermore, the statistics indicate that more than 60 percent of the population in the world has accessibility to internet (GSMA, 2019).
In delineation, wireless communication takes into account the transmission of message signals through minimal energy radio frequency waves by utilizing open air, with the media aspect including both a transmitter and a…
5G Wireless: Is it the future?
Ever since the early part of the 70s decade, the mobile wireless sector has been creating technology, in addition to engaging in technological development and reform. During the last many years, mobile wireless technology has undergone four to five generations of change and progress. Further, the past few years have witnessed a giant leap in telecommunication services across the globe, with roughly six billion cellphone owners worldwide. This paper will delve into the many cellular system generations, namely: 1G – 1st generation, 2G – 2nd generation, 3G – 3rd generation, 4G – 4th generation, and 5G – 5th generation (Kachhavay & Thakare, 2014). Taking into account the swift transformation and acceptance of web connectivity systems, the paper will also attempt at ascertaining whether or not 5G Wireless proves inevitable in our future.
The swift advancement of smartphones and mobile internet has caused exponential…
Aggarwal, R. (2018). Wireless communication: Evolution and advance wireless communication. CSI Transactions on IT, 4(2), 25-30.
Kachhavay, M. G., & Thakare, A. P. (2014). 5G technology-evolution and revolution. International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing, 3(3), 1080-1087.
Khan, M. H., & Barman, P. C. (2015). 5G-Future Generation Technologies Of Wireless Communication Revolution 2020. American Journal of Engineering Research, 4(5), 206-215.
Patel, S., Purohit, H., & Shah, S. (2018). Review On 5G Wireless Technology. International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology 3(3): 1618-1621.
Patzold, M. (2019). 5G Is Coming Around the Corner [Mobile Radio]. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 14(1), 4-10.
Shah, S. A. A., Ahmed, E., Imran, M., & Zeadally, S. (2018). 5G for vehicular communications. IEEE Communications Magazine, 56(1), 111-117.
Singh, R. K., Bisht, D., & Prasad, R. C. (2017). Development of 5G Mobile Network Technology and Its Architecture. International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering & Research (IJRTER) 03(10); 196-201
Zhang, H., Jiang, C., Feng, Z., Zhang, Z. & Leung, V. (2018). Editorial: 5G Technologies for Future Wireless Networks. Mobile Networks and Applications, 23(6), 1572-8153
A typical in-building wireless telephone system, such as systems provided by SpectraLink Corporation, seamlessly integrates to the hospital's existing telephone system." (TechRepublic, 2005)
The work of Alpay, Toussaint, and Schonk (2004) entitled: "Supporting Healthcare Communication Enabled by Information and Communication Technology: can HCI and Related Cognitive Aspects Help? states that communication in healthcare "...makes up an important part of the healthcare professionals' daily practices. Communication encompasses different forms of interaction and dissemination of health-related information, and takes place in contexts such as patient/healthcare professional relationships, and collaborative care. While Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers a useful means to support the accessibility, the exchange and the sharing of information, the cognitive complexity of these communication processes often remains undermined. Much can be learned from research in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) with its focus on cognitive aspects." (Alpay, Toussaint, and Schonk, 2004)
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
Information and communication technology in healthcare…
Wi-Fi, Health Care, and HIPAA: WLAN Management in the Modern Hospital (2006) Healthcare Services BNET. April 2006. Online available at http://jobfunctions.bnet.com/abstract.aspx?docid=255604&promo=100511
Hospital Goes Wireless to Improve Patient Services (2009) TechRepublic. Online available at http://whitepapers.techrepublic.com.com/abstract.aspx?docid=161362&promo=100511
On the Use of Wireless Network Technologies in Healthcare Environments (2005) TechRepublic. July 2005. Online available at http://whitepapers.techrepublic.com.com/abstract.aspx?docid=156316&promo=100511
Wireless Communication in Healthcare (2009) TechRepublic. Online available at http://whitepapers.techrepublic.com.com/abstract.aspx?docid=161320&promo=100511
Fans of science fiction are fond of recalling a remark by novelist Arthur C. Clarke, to the effect that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. I am currently typing these sentences onto a laptop, where I am also currently watching a grainy YouTube video of the legendary magician Harry Houdini, performing one of his legendary escapes -- from a straitjacket, in this case. Houdini is probably the most famous stage magician of the twentieth century, as witnessed by the fact that his name is familiar to my generation although he died almost a century ago. If Houdini were to suddenly reappear in front of me right now -- in the flesh, I mean, and not merely on YouTube -- how would I explain to him that the way in which all of this is taking place? To someone who has been dead for a century, the…
Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Boston: MIT Press, 1999. Print.
Babbage, Charles. Table of the Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 1 to 108000 by Charles Babbage, Esq., M.A. London: Clowes and Sons, 1841. Print.
Babbage, Charles. "On a method of expressing by signs the action of machinery." Address to the Royal Society, 1826. Web.
Bryant, John H. "Heinrich Hertz's Experiments and Experimental Apparatus: His Discovery of Radio Waves and His Delineation of Their Properties." In Baird, Davis; Hughes, R.I.G.; and Nordman, Alfred. Heinrich Hertz: Classical Physicist, Modern Philosopher. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. Print.
Wireless Local Area Networks
The establishment of home and business networks desirous of upgrading to Wireless Local Area Network- WLAN confront with the problems of choosing from available alternatives. The vendors offer several products for sale that hovers around different wireless standards like 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and Bluetooth. During the year 1997, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers -- IEEE developed the first WLAN standard. They termed it 802.11 in line with the name given to the group appointed for supervising its development. However, to our misfortune the 802.11 could support only a maximum bandwidth of 2 Mbps -- too slow for most applications. Due to these ordinary 802.11 wireless products could not be manufactured further. (802.11 Standards - 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g: Which one is right for You?)
The IEEE standard is an extension of the original 802.11 standard devised during July, 1999 generating 802.11b specification. While 802.11b was…
Configuring Windows XP IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks for the Home and Small Business. August 4, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/maintain/wifisoho.mspx Accessed on 18 April, 2005
Griffith, Eric. 802.11g Approved by IEEE Working Group. Retrieved from http://www.wi-fiplanet.com/news/article.php/1584761 Accessed on 18 April, 2005
802.11 Standards - 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g: Which one is right for You? Retrieved from http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/wireless80211/a/aa80211standard.htm Accessed on 18 April, 2005
The 802.11g standard -- IEEE. 01 Mar 2003. Retrieved from http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/wireless/library/wi-ieee.html
Communication is key in all aspects of business. It provides potential clients and customers with contact information, business information and much more.
Businesses receive information daily through a variety of sources. We listen to the radio, watch television, and read magazines for both information and entertainment. Businesses use communication technologies when they advertise to sell us products and services.
Specific tools that can be used for communication include telephones, pagers and facsimile machines. The telephone is perhaps the most important vehicle of communication as it is used for both incoming and outgoing contact.
Most businesses start with at least one line that is unique to the business. This line usually has the capability to take messages in case it is not answered personally.
In addition, the wireless telephone is getting to the point of being a requirement. With a wireless telephone, a person can always be reached.
There are many…
Often, in fact, there can be an overabundance of communication without any effective organization or leveraging of the information thus obtained, which can lead to serious detriments to any organization or endeavor (Lager 2006). It is bad enough when one arm of an organization doesn't seem to know what the other is doing, but the problem seems somehow conceptually worse when the various arms have information regarding the rest of the organization, but don't utilize it. This is, unfortunately, partly occurring in my organization, and is also an issue I need to deal with personally as I incorporate the organization's goals and actions into my own thinking and methods.
This concept of the correct processing and utilization of information goes further than simply making the organization run more efficiently on an internal level. Especially as new regions of the world are becoming increasingly important for business, the use of communication…
Fitzgerald, Neil. (2006). "Mind the gap." Information week 28 August, pp. 8.
Friedrich, N. (2008). "Disparate solutions work to fill communications gap." Microwaves & RF 47(6), pp. 44.
Lager, M. (2006). "Overcoming a bear of a communications gap." Customer relations management 10(7), pp. 51.
Great sums of
money are being invested to further enhance product differentiation. The
presence of highly enforced industry standards provides assurance that the
future will continue to be consumer-friendly. It is the end user community
that truly drives advancement. They provide the vast sums of revenue that
the manufacturers seek. In the final analysis, though, innovations such as
PANs must be viewed as interim technology that represents a stepping-stone
on the way to ubiquitous computing where computers simply disappear and
become integrated into all aspects of daily life.
Gerwig, Kate. (2007, December 3). "IP router/switch sales may reach all-
time high in 2007." SearchTelecom 03 Dec 2007. [Online]. Available:
McMillan, Robert. (2008, January 4). "A i-Fi virus Outbreak? Researchers
say it's possible." Network orld IDG News Service. [Online]. Available:
Mitchell, Bradley. (2007). "The MAC Address; An Introduction to MAC
Gerwig, Kate. (2007, December 3). "IP router/switch sales may reach all-
time high in 2007." SearchTelecom 03 Dec 2007. [Online]. Available:
McMillan, Robert. (2008, January 4). "A Wi-Fi virus Outbreak? Researchers
say it's possible." Network World IDG News Service. [Online]. Available:
The high competition rate in the industry necessitates fast and numerous new developments. Nextel Communications Inc. can much more valuable spend its time and money by investing in new ideas. Court cases take time and energy, while also being highly detrimental to the creative process. In this way, losses are incurred not only in terms of legal fees and work hours, but also in terms of creativity and new products within the company.
In addition, law suits could have a detrimental effect on a company's reputation. If Nextel were for example to lose the case, Verizon receives the right to continue with their product. Potentially, Nextel's reputation could be harmed by its involvement in an apparently petty attempt to corner the market on their product. Even if the company wins, the result could be equally damaging in terms of lost hours as well as creativity and reputation damages.
Wireless technology has developed a large way from its infancy and is fast becoming the latest trend in communication. Wireless LANs have added an entirely new dimension to the communication sector. The advent of cellular technology, infrared and spread spectrum radio services have bought about a huge change to our world of communication and wireless technology has materialized our dream of a mobile workforce. Today there is no single standard in the industry and there are different wireless technologies available. Let us have a brief outlook of the 'IEEE 802.11' and 'luetooth', two of the important wireless LAN technologies.
IEEE 802.11 Protocol
The IEEE 802.11 (First adapted in 1997) is primarily a standard developed to provide time bound and asynchronous wireless services. The MAC layer is meant to handle different physical layers with distinct medium and transmission characteristics. The standard uses 2.4 GHz ISM band and a minimum data…
Daniel L. Lough, T. Keith Blankenship and Kevin J. Krizman, "A Short tutorial on Wireless LANS and IEEE 802.11," Accessed on September 4th, 2003, http://www.computer.org/students/looking/summer97/ieee802.htm
2) Bluetooth Solutions, "What is Bluetooth," Accessed on September 4th, 2003, http://www.siliconwave.com/what_is_bluetooth.html
Jeff Strip, "Bluetooth: Value ADDS and Opportunities," Accessed on September 4th 2003, http://www.palowireless.com/bluearticles/docs/bluetooth_value_adds.pdf
Jochen Schiller, "Mobile Communications," Published by Pearson Education, 2000.
Yet the aspect of collaborative applications is more than just social networks, it also encompasses the development of entire networks within companies for specific long-range projects, including new product development (O'eilly, 2006). Wireless providers then are being forced to create more of a portal-based approach to their wireless applications and mobility solutions, as Nokia has continually attempted unsuccessfully to do over the last decade, and as others including Ericcson also are trying. Wireless providers are overdue for an industry shakeout where consolidation forces the structure of entirely new platforms of collaboration over time. There is also the need to underwrite these platforms through the sales of products and services. The Apple iTunes store is held up as the model of what wireless and mobility providers need to strive for in terms of their efforts to create more meaningful online experiences for their customers, yet the challenge is one of emulating…
Anastasi,, Ancillotti,, Conti,, & Passarella, . (2009). Design and Performance Evaluation of a Transport Protocol for Ad hoc Networks. The Computer Journal, 52(2), 186-209.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Sasha Dekleva, JP Shim, Upkar Varshney, & Geoffrey Knoerzer. (2007). Evolution and Emerging Issues in Mobile Wireless Networks. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 50(6), 38-43.
Fantacci, R., Vannuccini, G., & Vestri, G.. (2008). Performance analysis of a multiple access protocol for voice and data support in multiuser broadband wireless LANs. Wireless Networks, 14(1)
One solution to this problem of incompatibility between different law enforcement agencies is the Dynamic Open Architecture Radio System (DOARS), a wireless communications device that can provide wireless communications interoperability and connect incompatible radio systems. DOARS connects different systems by imitating each radio's functionality in software and hardware modules. It then passes either the voice or data between the different radios and frequencies. DOARS can provide greater frequency band coverage at lower cost and most importantly enhances public safety. (Dynamic Open Architecture Radio System (DOARS), 2006, Justice Technology Information Network)
Dynamic Open Architecture Radio System. (DOARS). (2006). Justice Technology
Information Network. Retrieved 7 Jan 2007 at http://www.nlectc.org/virlib/InfoDetail.asp?intInfoID=656
hen They Can't Talk, Lives are Lost." (2006). Brochure published by the National
Task Force on Interoperability (NTFI). Retrieved 7 Jan 2007 at http://www.safecomprogram.gov/NR/rdonlyres/4B5F0FC8-4339-407E-8AD8-08AEBA931068/0/hen_They_Cant_Talk_Lives_are_Lost_NTFI_Brochure.pdf
Dynamic Open Architecture Radio System. (DOARS). (2006). Justice Technology
Information Network. Retrieved 7 Jan 2007 at http://www.nlectc.org/virlib/InfoDetail.asp?intInfoID=656
When They Can't Talk, Lives are Lost." (2006). Brochure published by the National
Task Force on Interoperability (NTFI). Retrieved 7 Jan 2007 at http://www.safecomprogram.gov/NR/rdonlyres/4B5F0FC8-4339-407E-8AD8-08AEBA931068/0/When_They_Cant_Talk_Lives_are_Lost_NTFI_Brochure.pdf
Wireless LANs eplace Wired LANs?
The convenience of wireless communication is so overwhelmingly obvious that given a choice, and provided there are no price constraints, almost everyone would prefer wireless instead of wired communication. This is reflected in the widespread use of devices such as remote control for TV, cellular telephones, pagers, and remote garage openers. The flexibility, mobility, and convenience that such 'wire-less' devices bring to our lives are simply magical. Who wouldn't like to extend such convenience to their working lives by, e.g., being able to access the Internet from almost anywhere? Or to be able to access their company's data from, say the cab downstairs? Such convenience is possible through the technology known as Wireless Local Are Networks (WLANs), which is an on-premise data communication system that reduces the need for wired connections besides making new applications possible. The technology has made its presence felt in 'vertical'…
Drucker, D., (2001, Aug. 27). "Security Flaw Isn't Death Knell For WLANs."
Internet Week.com. Retrieved December 7, 2002, at http://www.internetweek.com/story/INW20010827S0009 .
Hayden, M. (1998). Sams Teach Yourself Networking. Indiana: Sams.
Roundtable Wrap-Up: The State Of Wireless LANs." CommWeb Roundtable
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Communications have always been critical to humankind's existence and the absence of which means there would have never been the development and evolution of groups, organizations, societies and even nations. The reason being is there be no ways and means of passing messages, information, and knowledge amongst each other. Thus, humankind would have still been living in the Stone Ages without headways made in the development of communications. ut communications though did not remain stagnant and confined to oral and written ones. Throughout the centuries various improvements have made communications faster and more sophisticated especially with the contributions provided by scientific and technological discoveries and innovations. Fast forward to the 19th and 20th centuries and modern communications have been enabled via radio, telephone, and television. A further boom in communications innovations came with the advent of computers and the Internet where humankind is now living in…
Cannon, Robert. "The Legacy of the Federal Communications Commission's Computer Inquiries." Federal Communications Law Journal 55: 167-206. 05 Mar. 2003. 2000. 18 Jul. 2011. .
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC. 2011. 18 Jul. 2011. .
Messere, Fritz. Analysis of the Federal Communications Commission. 2002. 18 Jul. 2011. .
Net Industries. Communications Act of 1934 -- Evolution of the Act, Design of the Act, Major Amendments to the Act. 2011. 18 Jul. 2011. .
This age is often referred to as the information era: the last two decades have given birth to some of the most staggering advancements that the human race has ever been capable of -- advancements which have changed the way that we live, do business, stay healthy, fight disease and defend our nation. It's vital to have a comprehensive and concrete understanding of some of the more basic concepts which help to shape this technology, particularly because this data is only going to continue to evolve. This data will explore, compare and contrast some of those more basic terms.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
A metropolitan area network (MAN) refers to a massive computer network that generally encompasses a city or a large campus, usually interconnecting a range of number local area networks, while engaging in high-capacity infrastructure technology, including fiber-optical links, and offering up-link services to wider area networks…
Accuhash.com. (2014). What is CRC32? Retrieved from accuhash.com: http://www.accuhash.com/what-is-crc32.html
Charles, S. (2011, June). Importance of Technology. Retrieved from buzzle.com: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/importance-of-technology.html
Janssen, C. (2013). Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). Retrieved from techopedia.com: http://www.techopedia.com/definition/8238/metropolitan-area-network-man
Mitchell, B. (2014). NIC. Retrieved from about.com: http://compnetworking.about.com/od/networkadapters/g/bldef_nic.htm
The corporation or seller could benefit by developing marketing strategies prior to consumer reviews being available online.
Seller Response to Novice and Expert Consumers
efore allowing consumers to post product reviews on a corporations or sellers website, the seller should consider the size of the segments of expert consumers and novice consumers. For example, the seller may benefit from selling certain products if a significant number of expert consumers exist, especially for technology driven products. On the other hand, the seller may damage sales if the expert consumers' segment overshadows that of the novice consumers.
Unknown or Less Popular Stores Online Seller Response
Relatively unknown corporations should be overly cautious when allowing consumers to post comments on their websites. If brand marketers fail to attract enough consumers to post reviews, the corporation may damage its reputation. these corporations might consider hiring a well-known, popular third-party source to handle consumer reviews.…
About the Motley Fool. 2010. Viewed 28 June 2010, .
Ajay, K & Soberman, D 2010. 'The forgotten side of marketing.' Journal of Brand Management. 17, 301 -- 314. Viewed 28 June 2010,
Baran, J, Galka, RJ & Strunk, DP 2007. Principles of customer relationship management. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Guided media includes Twisted Pair, Coaxial, and Fiber Optic. Unguided media includes terrestrial microwave, satellite microwave, radio and infrared technologies (Warner, 2008). The security strategies for each class of media must taken into account how each codes, decodes and manages the stream of data across these media types.
For guided media there are several levels of security including access, protocol stability and security, locking data elements and packets, and the use of Cyclic edundancy Checking (CC) for accuracy and authentication of specific access points,. These media also require the use of protocols that can be used for protecting down to the packet level data being transmitted. The reliance on advanced TCP/IP protocols and options is a case in point.
For unguided media the challenges are more significant as these are by nature broadcast technologies. The protocols that these networks transmit must be protected down to the packet and frame level,…
Heegaard, P.E., & Wittner, O.J. (2010). Overhead reduction in a distributed path management system. Computer Networks, 54(6), 1019.
Kritzinger, P.S., Krzesinski, a.E., & Teunissen, P. (1980). Incorporating system overhead in queuing network models. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 6(4), 381-390.
Viennot, L., Jacquet, P., & Thomas, H.C. (2004). Analyzing control traffic overhead vs. mobility and data traffic activity in mobile ad-hoc network protocols. Wireless Networks, 10(4), 447-455.
Warner, M. (2008). IP-based centralcasting. Broadcast Engineering, 50(6), 62-n/a.
communication during a disaster is essential to controlling and mitigating the damage of the disaster and reaching victims in a timely manner. hether the disaster is a brush fire, mudslide, or earthquake, disaster authorities must have the ability to communicate at a moment's notice without any interruptions or difficulties. This module will further discuss the need to implement proper communications and offer suggestions as to communication setup.
At the onset of a disaster, there must an alternative communications program set up. hile the program may not actually be utilized until a disaster, it should remain available and be tested regularly as part of emergency drills. There are two key components to a proper emergency alternative communication network. The first is information transfer. Often during an emergency, concerned citizens tie up the internet attempting to contact family. For this reason, a separate governmental internet server should be established to ensure the…
Davidson, Denise. San Diego County's Major Fires. U~T. October 23, 2005. Online at http://www.utsandiego.com/uniontrib/20051023/news_1m23worst.html
Fujiwara T, Iida N, Watanabe T. A hybrid wireless network enhanced with multihopping for emergency communications. Communications, 7:4177-4181.
Geographic Information Systems. USGS. Online at http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/
LAN Technologies -- Question One
The author of this exam is asked to answer to the purpose and value of LAN technologies. Of course, LAN is short for local area networks. They do indeed serve a good purpose and this will be explained in the following section. While LAN's are not all there is to networking, it is surely a big piece of the puzzle (Webopedia, 2015).
As noted before, a LAN is short for Local Area Network and it is basically the most localized and smallest form of network. Technically, two computers and a printer on a hub is a network. Local Area Networks are usually at least somewhat bigger than that but they are almost always fairly localized in nature. They will almost always be enclosed in a single room, area of a floor, floor of a building or a wider building. Even very small networks can be…
Ewalt, D. (2015). The Pros And Cons Of Wireless Connectivity - InformationWeek.
InformationWeek. Retrieved 2 June 2015, from http://www.informationweek.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-wireless-connectivity/d/d -
Webopedia. (2015). What is Local-Area Network (LAN)? Webopedia. Webopedia.com.
email in the business setting and its use for the purpose of communication. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey through the uses of email in the business world for communication and presents an overview of the positive and negative aspects of its use. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
The technological explosion of the last few decades has taken mankind to heights never before dreamed possible.
Today, with the click of a mouse one can manage their own stocks, plan and purchase vacations, chat with others around the world and make purchases of anything they want or need. Another positive advent stemming from the technological boom is the invention of email. Electronic mail is the process by which one can send message to another or many others with the click of a mouse. With the invention of email many problems that were an everyday…
Author not available, USA.NET Plans to Deliver Email Service for Wireless Phone Users., Business Wire, 07-15-1999.
Author not available, Critical Path Selected by Intranets.com for Business-to-Business Internet Messaging Solutions., Canadian Corporate News, 04-17-2000.
Author not available, KVS: KVS outlines five steps for enforcement of email management policies and calls for legal clarification on retention and deletion of emails; Enron fiasco highlights need for enforcement technology., M2 PressWIRE, 01-31-2002.
Author not available, The Evils of Email -- Lansoft's New Service MailWatch Helps Exorcise Evil Emails., Business Wire, 07-19-1999.
he increased affordability of cellular devices and service plans has lead to dramatic growth in the use of mobile phones over the past decade. Over time, as devices have become more sophisticated, new uses have become popular. Initially, text messaging became a very popular form of communication, with individuals quickly sending short text-based messages to each other through their phones (Smith, 2011). he cellular service providers charge for text-messages, which are instantaneously delivered to another user's device. he charges associated with text-messaging have become cumbersome for some users, with individuals not subscribing to text-messaging plans often finding hundreds of dollars in text-message charges on their monthly statements (Smith, 2011). One solution to this problem has become the use of applications that attempt to mimic the behavior of text messages (Smith, 2011). One such app is the WhatsApp application, available on multiple cellular platforms, including iOS, Android and…
The WhatsApp application mimics the experience of sending and receiving text messages, but does so through using the cellular device's data plan or wireless connection (WhatsApp, 2013). When a phone is connected to a wireless source of Internet connection, users avoid any charges associated with sending and receiving messages. When the phone is using a data plan, users may still encounter charges if they go over their data plan limitations, but they still avoid paying specific text-messaging fees. As such, the WhatsApp application has become quite popular as a method of communication that avoids additional charges and does not place financial limitations on the number of messages that can be exchanged.
Despite the growing popularity of the WhatsApp application, there are potential consequences for how we communicate with one another as a function of using WhatsApp. Because WhatsApp functions as an external application installed on a mobile device, the relaying of messages is dependent upon WhatsApp's servers. Traditional text-messages are sent directly through the cellular network, which can often make them more reliable than messages sent through programs such as WhatsApp. One serious consequence of this integral difference between WhatsApp and traditional text messaging is the opportunity for messages to be lost or delayed (CNet Staff, 2012). Successful communication often relies upon a flow of conversation in which responses are received in order and in a timely manner. If the technology that supports the WhatsApp application crashes or experiences temporary problems, communication can be delayed or relayed out of order. A common experience for WhatsApp users is that their messages arrive quite a while after they were originally sent and sometimes arrive out of order, consequently making it difficult for the recipient to understand what exactly the sender is trying to communicate. Such experiences can lead to frustration, miscommunication, misunderstandings, and even conflict.
In addition to the potential consequences of miscommunication caused by delayed or out of order messages, the use of WhatsApp may also change our expectations concerning communication. With no limits on the number of messages that can be sent and the ability to use the application on either a data plan or while connected to a wireless network, users may come to expect the ability to constantly communicate. While constant contact and communication can be helpful in some situations, it can also be a deterrent in others. For example, it can become difficult to ignore a message while in the midst of working on something important because one feels the need to be in constant contact and to respond immediately. Individuals often forget that if it
Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC) and Corporate Communication (CC)
The established limitations are severely customized by globalization: the size of the company (where there is not a major link with the area of the performance, delocalization and outsourcing and being dependent on the network), design of the product and sales (where the relation with the competitors may be competitive cooperative) somewhat similar to the frequency of motor industry), competitive relations of space-time, the consumer models (which is focused with a turn down in the analogical media. The increasing significance of digital media and internet is also included. The most important of them is the advertising of television and the television itself); the importance of communication in the competitive environment, less protectionist measures of the economic systems, open spaces of competition, complex differentiation (Walther, 2007).
The incorporation of the global markets struggle to remove the inert environment and change them with the…
Argenti, P. And Forman, J. (2002) The Power of Corporate Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Argenti, P.A. (2009) Corporate Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Argenti, P.A. (2009). Corporate communication. Singapore: McGraw-Hill
Argenti, P.A., Barnes, C.M. (2009). Digital strategies for powerful corporate communications. New York: McGraw-Hill
the ceo of verizon communications recently had the great opportunity to attend the Progress and Freedom Foundation Forum in Houston with the keynote speaker being Mr. Ivan Seidenberg, Chief Executive Officer for Verizon Communications. Mr. Seidenberg's presentation before an audience made up of company executives and other interested parties was to say the least the most professional speech I have ever heard. His opening comments provided much inspiration and showed how important my position with Verizon is to the overall success of the company: "As one of America's premier telecom network operators, Verizon is a key player in the technology sector, and therefore in the economy as a whole. We invest more capital, deploy more technology, and serve more customers than virtually anyone else in the country. We've established a record of real investment, real competition, and real innovation. And we've worked hard to put ourselves in a…
E-Mail in Business Communication
E-mail: History, elation, and Impact on effective Business Communication
Email in Business Communication
Impact of Email to Business Communication
Implications of Emails as Business Communication Tools
Email is an important form of communication in today's organization that is increasingly seeing a geographical dispersal of the workforce. To communication tool has replaced traditional business letters and memos in preference for email memos. The research carried out a review of literature on email and business communication and found the tool is used in 100% of businesses today. However, despite the wide acceptance, the tool lacks in social and visual cues which lender the messages toneless. The lack of tone and physical gestures leads to misinterpretation, ill will, disconnectedness, loss of intellectual capital and integrity for the business. The research finds that the informal history of emails, heterogeneity among users, technological limitations in social-emotions, and lack of…
Agnew, D.S., & Hill, K. (2009). Email etiquette recommendation for today's business student. Allied Academies International Conference. Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications, and Conflict. Proceedings, 14(2), 1-5.
Barrett, M. & Davidson, M.J. (2006). Gender and Communication at Work. Burlington, USA: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
David, D. & Mullen, J. (2009). Email Marketing: An Hour a Day. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Dufrene, D.D. & Lehman, C.M. (2010). Business Communication. 16th ed., Mason, OH: South-Wester, Cengage Learning.
Of these three approaches ad-hoc is considered the most adaptable to roaming users and therefore shows the greatest opportunity to support contextual-based use of wireless networks. The concept of the cellular network on the other hand is much more stationary and focused on a set of base stations that require base controllers and network infrastructure to effectively function. This fixed platform nature of the cellular network approach is juxtaposed with the approach increasingly being relied of using ad hoc networks for enable peer-to-peer communications throughout wireless networks. This aspect of ad hoc wireless network architectures is gaining high levels of interest due to wireless due to WiFi-enabled devices being able to access Facebook, MySpace and other social networking applications. As the ad-hoc architecture inherently supports peer-based communications and is rapidly becoming the foundation of social networking, this type of network architecture is considered highly distributed in nature. Often wireless network…
Cisco Tutorial. Basics of the OSI Model and associated documents. Accessed from the Internet on February 12, 2009 from location:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/introint.htm (Chek, Kwok, 2007)
Michael Cho-Hoi Chek, Yu-Kwong Kwok. (2007). Design and evaluation of practical coexistence management schemes for Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11b systems*. Computer Networks, 51(8), 2086. Retrieved February 17, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1244657901). (Diegel, Bright, Potgieter, 2004)
Olaf Diegel, Glen Bright, Johan Potgieter. (2004). Bluetooth ubiquitous networks: seamlessly integrating humans and machines. Assembly Automation, 24(2), 168-176. Retrieved February 4, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 636242101). (Fantacci, Vannuccini, Vestri, 2008)
Communication -- transmission through wireless and SLIP forms
I've got no strings to hold me down." The Disney version of Pinocchio's enthusiasm for his own wireless status as a 'real boy' is paralleled in the recent enthusiasm of many individual users of the Internet's enthusiasm for 'going wireless.' The delight of personal cable modem and broadband devotee's own 'got no strings' status at their home office spaces has encouraged many corporations to also eschew SLIP modem technology in exchange for the use of wireless technology on a wider scale. Still, fully implementing wireless instrumentation on network scale, no pun intended, has been "an elusive goal for some time," for many industries because of cost and logistical problems. (Drake, 2003) Also, as electronics and data processing technology using SLIP ring data transmissions systems move forward, and industrial instrumentation developers build finer tuned processes, better management information, and greater productivity and performance,…
CCSI. (2003) "Survival kit: SLIP vs. PPP." Retrieved on September 3, 2004 at http://www.ccsi.com/survival-kit/slip-vs.-ppp.html
Drake, Bill. (May 1, 2003) "Blue tooth gets a filling." ISA. Retrieved on September 3, 2004 at http://www.isa.org/InTechTemplate.cfm?Section=Article_Index&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=25894
Large Slip Ring Assemblies." (2004) Poly-Scientific Website. Retrieved on September 3, 2004 at Polysci. SLIP. Retrieved on September 3, 2004 at http://www.polysci.com/docs/srldsr.pdf
Rockwell Animation. (2003) "Wireless fact v. Fiction." Retrieved on September 3, 2004 at
Cox Communications Telecommunications Innovation
Status of the Sustainability Movement
The telecommunications industry, supported by the United Nations and the International Telecommunications Union, launched a formal cooperative effort to promote sustainable business practices and technology in June 2001. The Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) was officially launched on World Environment Day with the vision "to help improve the global environment and to enhance human and economic development, and thereby make a key contribution to a global sustainable future" (Thomsen, 2001).
This industry-wide initiative was significant in that its founders included some of the biggest global players: AT&T, British Telecommunications, Cable and Wireless, Deutsche Telekom, Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Marconi, Telcordia Technologies, Telenor as, and the European Telecommunications Network Operators Association. Members implemented various programs to achieve environment-friendly business practices. For example, British Telecommunications calculated that employee use of audio and video conferencing contributed to saving over one million tons of CO2 emissions the…
AT&T investments in sustainability yield results in 2010. (2011) Fierce Telecom. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.fiercetelecom.com/press_releases/att-investments-sustainability-yield-results-2010
Adelman, T. (2010). For telecom industry, energy efficiency is only half the equation. . Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.environmentalleader.com/2010/11/08/for-telecom-industry-energy-efficiency-is-only-half-of-the-equation/
Bakrie Telecom is the pioneer of green business. 2011. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://bataviase.co.id/node/648347
Bardelline, J. (2011). ULE creates sustainability standard for cell phones. Greenbiz.com Web site. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.greenbiz.com/news/2011/01/06/ule-creates-sustainability-standard-mobile-phones
"They are adding 1 million new users a day."
Impact on cultures
One of the Chinese cultures that are affected by the wireless technology is the Cash Culture. Paying in cash has been a practice to most Chinese. Credit and debit cards are not in the trend of the Chinese culture. However, with the revolution of the wireless technology, cash would seem to be a little out of the way of how the technology will be utilized. This is because part of a type of a mobile service uses prepaid methods. Tom York, in his article China's Exploding Wireless Industry, mentions the following.
Payments for small purchases can be billed along with the monthly wireless bill, the method now used to bill for third-party purchases and services.
ut that system probably won't work on a large scale need to support a mobile economy," says Chen. He also notes that more…
Intel Working to Advance Use of Wireless Technology in China.
Retrieved on February 11, 2005 from Intel Online. Web site: http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/20040609corp.htm
York, T. China's Exploding Wireless Industry.
Retrieved on February 11, 2005 from Hpbazaar Online.
This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…
Abelha, Antonio, Jose Machado, Victor Alves, and Jose Neves. (2004). "Health Data Management in the Medical Arena." Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal. [Online]. Available: https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/886/1/473-245.pdf.
Adelhard, K., S. Nissen-Meyer, C. Pistitsch, U. Fink and M. Reiser. (1999). "Functional requirements for a HIS-RIS-PACS-interface design, including integration of 'old' modalities." Method. Inf. Med. 38(1):1-8.
Albensi, B.C., E.V. Ilkanich, G. Dini and D. Janigro. (2004, December). "Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research. Bioscience, 54(12): 1127-38.
Arenson, R.L., K.P. Andriole, D.E. Avrin and R.G. Gould. (2000). "Computers in imaging and health care: now and in the future." Journal of Digital Imaging 13(4):145-56.
Marketing Plan of Cingular Wireless
Cingular Wireless is a U.S.-based company that is focused on providing cellular mobile services through its wireless data services, which includes GSM and TDMA technologies. GSM (Global Systems for Mobile Communication) technology is the most basic form of wireless service that allows users to receive data service by connecting their mobile phones to cell site towers of Cingular. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology, meanwhile, allows users to use the same communication medium over different time slots. With the help of these technologies, Cingular Wireless is able to offer services ranging from text messaging, voice calls, and even multi-media messaging (MMS) that allows users to capture images and use video streaming/messaging with the use of their mobile phones.
Cingular Wireless' Promotions strategy is geared toward the mass communication media, such as broadcast (television) and print media. Through these very powerful media forms, Cingular was able…
Cingular Wireless Official Web site. Available at http://www.cingular.com.
Leotta, J. "A Singular Stance: Cingular's Commitment to Creative Expression." 17 June 2002. iCan! Incorporated Web site. Available at http://www.ican.com/news/fullpage.cfm/articleid/73-85BA77B465798635/cx/employment.for_employers/article.cfm .
Mucha, T. "Cingular Sensation?" 19 March 2003. Business 2.0 Newsletter Online Web site. Available at http://www.business2.com/articles/web/0,48145,00.html.
Cambium PTP (Wireless Setup)
The purpose of this project is to install Cambium PTP (Point-to-Point) 800 series. The project will also build 6 tents as well as installing 2 generators to enhance smooth operation of the Cambium PTP. Cambium PTP is an excellent microwave solutions and wireless devices for service providers as well network operators. The Cambium PTP is also an innovative technology that delivers a reliable, secure and cost effective connectivity.
The project chooses the Cambium PTP 800 series for the installation process. The PTP 800 is the wireless broadband solutions with F (radio frequency). The Cambium PTP 800 series are designed with Ethernet bridging on the point-to-point microwaves links with licensed bands between 6 GHz and 38 GHz.
The key features of the PTP (Point-to-Point) 800 Series are as follows:
Link capacity between 10 Mbps and 368 Mbps in each direction.
Configurable channel bandwidths between…
Cambium Networks (2013). PTP 800 - Cambium Networks. Chicago. USA.
Appendix 1: Project Implementation Plan
Databases and Data Communications
Understanding whether or not the need for a database exist occurs within several types of businesses at all levels. Several professionals have taken time to determine this need in order to improve operations within their operations. These professionals include educational institutions and doctors, as well as insurance companies. Databases are becoming a part of everyday living. There are several things a database can bring to a company which includes, efficiency and the ability to manipulate, input and use information. These benefits provide organizations with powerful decision making tools that aid in onscreen delivery and printed reports. Possessing a database management system is an essential tool in the ability of an organization to retrieve and store mass amounts of data at command. Although the possibility of a database being nothing greater than a time consuming expense, when used properly, a database can be an asset to any…
Business Dictionary, (2012), Decision Support System (DSS), Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/decision-support-system-DSS.html
Kroenke, D.M. (2012). MIS Essentials (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice
These costs can difficult to calculate, as they depend upon the ability of the employees. But one must remember the breadth of experience of new workers in the workplace with wireless. It was concluded that these worker could act as continual helpers in the on-site transition without substantial additional costs to the company.
A second important consideration was the ubiquity of the new wireless technology, and its lack of likelihood of being replaced in the near future by an even superior form of connectivity technology. It is not enough that a technology seem better than preexisting forms, but that the technology has compatibility with preexisting systems, such as dialups, and is also unlikely to be replaced in the near future, and thus requires yet another jarring workplace transition. As research pointed out that wireless was both compatible with other businesses still using dialups, unlikely to be replaced by better forms…
Mobile and Wireless Portal
eWeek.com is a one of the top portals that is dedicated to providing technology-related news to readers all over the world. It is the digital version of the eWEEK magazine that discusses technology trends, latest apps, evaluations and business decisions that are made with technology as the underlying element. It provides comprehensive information about the world of technology and this has helped it to create a niche market for the magazine and its parent company.
Description of the portal's structure
The portal has a simple design that is appealing to readers. The core emphasis in this website is content and so the entire design revolves around the content that is published here. The site has been divided into numerous categories to make it easy for people to look up what they want quickly and effortlessly. The broad categories in the site include news, reviews, storage, security,…
Mobile and Wireless Technology -- News and Reviews. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.eweek.com/c/s/Mobile-and-Wireless/
Cox Communications Strategic Management
based multiservice broad-band communications organization named Cox Communications is headquartered in New York with approximately 20000 employees and more than 6m consumers. It's a subsidiary of Cox Enterprises. The company has a very capable, reliable and high quality network of broadband delivery due to which the customer service of Cox is unmatchable in the whole industry. To maintain this reputation in cable industry, the administrative system of workforce was upgraded and automated while keeping in view the increased levels of productivity of sales team and decreasing trends of costs. This is the reason why Cox Communications was successful in maintaining the service delivery. (Wallack 2008)
Automation was the key function which helped Cox Communications to prevail in the U.S. market. In order to increase the competitive advantage and sales team productivity, the fortune 500 company decided to automate various systems and processes. Cox Communications…
Atkin C, Wallack L (Eds.), 2008. Mass Communication and Public Health: Complexities and Conflicts. Newbury Park, Cal.: Sage Publications.
Bandura A., 2006. Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Green LW, Kreuter MW, 2009. Health Promotion Planning: An Educational and Environmental Approach (Second Ed.). Mountain View, Cal.: Mayfield.
Kotler P, Andreasen A., 2007. Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations (Fourth Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Selecting the type of cable to be used when developing a LAN from the ground up can be a complex process with many considerations, including issues of functionality and of cost. Twisted pair cables provide a cheaper alternative to other cable types and are also the most flexible type of cable, but they are less secure and are more prone to losses in data integrity than are other standard cable types (Hsieh, 2012). Fiber optic cables provide the best protection against interference and are the most secure cable for use in a network, but the cost can be prohibitive and the heightened performance aspects are not necessary in all applications (Hsieh, 2012). Coaxial cables come in two varieties, thinnet and thicknet, with thinnet being both cheaper and more flexible than twisted pair cables (though still more expensive and less flexible) and also provide a decent amount of security…
Bonsor, K. (2012). How satellite radio works. Accessed 9 October 2012. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/satellite-radio1.htm
Hsieh, C. (2012). Network cabling. Accessed 9 October 2012. http://pluto.ksi.edu/~cyh/cis370/ebook/ch02b.htm
Major, M. (2009). Making connections. Accessed 9 October 2012. http://majormike.us/?p=197
Rodgers, J. (2008). Wired vs. Wireless: Sometimes There's No Substitute for a Cable. Accessed 9 October 212. http://www.osnews.com/story/19748/Wired_vs_Wireless:_Sometimes_Theres_No_Substitute_for_a_Cable
Career Application and Communications Software
Mobile-based Customer elationship Management (CM) Applications
Of the many software applications that sales professionals rely on daily, their Customer elationship Management (CM) systems are the most essential for informing existing customers of new products and sales, and tracking new ones. Of the many selling and service strategies that CM systems enable, the most valuable is in gaining a 360-degree view of customers and ensuring every department in an organization stays focused on their needs and wants (Beasty, 2007). CM systems provide sales teams with the ability to coordinate their selling efforts across the company, getting needed support and collaboration with the diverse departments and divisions that they rely on to sell products and services. An example of how a typical CM is organized is shown in Figure 1, Microsoft CM System Design. The design of CM systems is predicated on creating a system of record…
Beasty, C. (2007, Mobile CRM. Customer Relationship Management, 11, 38-41.
Croteau, A., & Li, P. (2003). Critical success factors of CRM technological initiatives. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 20(1), 21-34.
Read, B.B. (2008). Mobile CRM: "are we there yet?." Customer [email protected] Solutions, 27(5), 22-25.
Yang, S., & Rhee, J. (2009). Study of the wireless/wire integration CRM gateway for the effective application of event CRM for small and medium sized enterprises. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 57(2), 571.
Since its advent in the 20th century, Internet technology has become a platform for social, political, and economic interactions and transactions. Currently, cultures and societies are exploring new ways of optimizing Internet technology, from making social interactions easier, more expansive, and more frequent to minute concerns such as transferring money from one person to another via wireless Internet technology. Indeed, from its current uses and applications to human society, computer-mediated communication has become a way of life, and is no longer a new phenomenon. In fact, apprehension about the usage of the above-mentioned applications of computer-mediated communication has disappeared as the benefits outweighed its perceived risks and challenges. Only those who absolutely have no experience with computer and Internet technologies cannot see the usefulness / benefits of computer-mediated communication.
Indeed, the thesis posited demonstrates how, over time, literature and research studies about computer-mediated communication (CMC) have been conducted…
Baumer, M. And H. Van Resburg. (2011). "Cross-cultural pragmatic failure in computer-mediated communication." Coolabah, No. 5.
Ess, C. And F. Sudweeks. (2005). "Culture and computer-mediated communication: toward new understandings." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 11, No. 1.
Romiszowski, A. And R. Mason. (2010). Computer Mediated Communication. NY: Prentice Hall.
Wrench, J. And N. Carter. (2007). "The relationship between computer-mediated communication competence, apprehension, self-efficacy, perceived confidence, and social presence." Southern Communication Journal, Vol. 72, No. 4.
Communications and Technology in Disaster Management
The Importance of Communication and Technology in Disaster Management
With the ever increasing chances of disasters occurring in different levels of our societies, the need for institution appropriate disaster management procedures go without saying. The strategic application of processes within organizations and regions, mainly with the aim of protecting the most critical of its assets is a prerequisite (Haddow & Bullock, 2003). With the increasing complexities, in terms of challenges to disaster management, the need for equally complex measures for managing these disasters has been echoed and this has been practically applied in the contemporary world. Generally, the use of communication and technology in facilitating functions like coordination, commanding and control and providing warnings in disaster management has become widespread. A case in point is Australia, a country which since history have implemented and continually developed its disaster management strategies (Healey, 2006).…
Fennel, Z, (2012) what are the Benefits of Communication Technology, Retrieved July 30, 2012, http://www.ehow.com/list_5772270_benefits-communication-technology_.html
GSM Association (2005) the Role of Mobiles in Disasters and Emergencies, Retrieved July 30, 2012, https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:4iJ5YMea5RsJ:www.enlightenmenteconomics.com/about-diane/assets/disasterreport
Haddow, G.D & Bullock, J.A (2003) Introduction to Emergency Management, Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Healey, J (2006) Natural Disasters, Sydney: The Spinney Press
Indeed, according to later reports, this is indeed what the company has done. Whether this will have the desired effect or will simply drive Blockbuster further away from their competitive edge, remains to be seen. Indeed, Netflix has the advantage of diversity in terms of its rental titles. The Johnson piece reports that Blockbuster was planning to gain customers by offering better Internet deals than Netflix. In retrospect, the problem is however that the deals are so excellent that they badly affect Blockbuster's revenues (Cruise, 2007). Indeed, the company's current strength - its in-store customers - is being undermined by its efforts to increase its online customers to compete with Netflix.
B) Blockbuster believes that it can gain competitive advantage over Netflix by offering better deals to their in store customers, which could also entice online customers away from Netflix (Cruise, 2007). uch deals include in store coupons and free…
Archer, Brent (2007, Nov. 21). Ford (F) tumbles on economic worries. BloggingStocks. http://f.bloggingstocks.com/
Cruise, Patrick (2007, April 17). Blockbuster's online focus is killing its competitive advantage. Seeking Alpha. http://seekingalpha.com/article/32374-blockbuster-s-online-focus-is-killing-its-competitive-advantage
McIntyre, Douglas (2007, Nov 14). Ford ready to shelve some autos if sales fall further. BloggingStocks.
solution for a client of Wireless Technology Company. They are a company that assists organizations and businesses when it comes to issues that involve networking, bandwidth, productivity and connectivity. The client in need of a solution right now is The Athlete's Shack. They are a chain of sporting goods stores with about ten stores in the area. While the company has a technology framework in place, they are lacking a wireless element and they wish to add one. Beyond that, they wish to make use of iPads that can thus link to the wireless infrastructure in the stores. The Athlete's Shack is unsure on how to initiate and start the process and that is why they are turning to the Wireless Technology Company.
The Athlete's Shack is in need of a solution that allows for wireless connectivity along with the use of iPads as a mean to make…
Amazon. (2015). NETGEAR Nighthawk X6 AC3200 Tri-Band Wi-Fi Router (R8000). Amazon.com.
Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.amazon.com/NETGEAR-Nighthawk-AC3200-Tri-Band -
Apple. (2015). Apple. Apple. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://apple.com
The first is by demographically-based segmentation attributes, and the second is through services offered. Neither of these is optimal for understanding and responding to unmet needs in the users bases, a point discussed in the following section of this paper.
Demographic segments include the following:
General Consumer/Residential: The largest segment of users, this is the segment that also generates the highest level of price competition and pressure in the market as well. Churn is highest in this segment.
Small and Medium businesses:
The primary segment where bundling is used for generating high loyalty due to the ability of members of this segment to overcome price pressure due to the need to have services in place to support their business models.
The most profitable of segments and also the more difficult to penetrate and sustain customers, AT&T Wireless has successfully served this segment with Wide Area Networks (WLAN) and hotspot…
Ahn, Jae-Hyeon Sang-Pil Han, Yung-Seop Lee. (2006). Customer churn analysis: Churn determinants and mediation effects of partial defection in the Korean mobile telecommunications service industry. Telecommunications Policy, 30(10/11), 552. Retrieved March 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1166810491).
Allison, Kevin (2007, November). at&T spills beans on faster 3G iPhone launch. FT.com,1. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1391331811).
Randolph Beard, George S. Ford, Richard P. Saba. (2006). An Econometric-Driven Merger Simulation: Considerations and Application. International Journal of the Economics of Business, 13(2), 217. Retrieved March 12, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1149224251).
Robin Bienenstock, Paola Bonomo, Richard Hunter. (2004). Keeping mobile customers. The McKinsey Quarterly,(1), 9. Retrieved March 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 542491091).
"Setting New Standards: Changes Are Coming to the orld of iFi, here Safer and Speedier ins the Race." The Journal (Technological Horizons in Education) 35.3 (2008): 26.
Cisco Systems hite Paper "i-Fi-Based Real-Time Location Tracking: Solutions and Technology" 2006, http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./prod/collateral/wireless/ps5755/ps6301/ps6386/prod_white_paper0900aecd80477957.pdf
Daly, Una. "The Hidden Costs of ireless Computer Labs: Mobile Labs May Bring Us a Step Closer to One-to-One Computing, but with the Proliferation of Security Problems and Tech Support Issues, Are They Really Ready to Replace Dedicated Computer Labs?." The Journal (Technological Horizons in Education) 33.1 (2005): 13.
Liu, Xing, Sen, Abhijit, Bauer, Johannes & Zitzmann, Christian, "A Software Client for i-Fi-Based Real-Time Location Tracking of Patients" Medical Imaging and Informatics 2008, 141. http://www.springerlink.com/content/f4373283n3026h20/
Katyal, Neal Kumar. "Digital Architecture as Crime Control." Yale Law Journal 112.8 (2003): 2261.
Mcchesney, Robert ., and John Podesta. "Let There Be i-Fi: Broadband Is the Electricity of the 21st Century -- and Much…
Chretien, Wendy. "Setting New Standards: Changes Are Coming to the World of WiFi, Where Safer and Speedier Wins the Race." The Journal (Technological Horizons in Education) 35.3 (2008): 26.
Cisco Systems White Paper "Wi-Fi-Based Real-Time Location Tracking: Solutions and Technology" 2006, http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./prod/collateral/wireless/ps5755/ps6301/ps6386/prod_white_paper0900aecd80477957.pdf
Daly, Una. "The Hidden Costs of Wireless Computer Labs: Mobile Labs May Bring Us a Step Closer to One-to-One Computing, but with the Proliferation of Security Problems and Tech Support Issues, Are They Really Ready to Replace Dedicated Computer Labs?." The Journal (Technological Horizons in Education) 33.1 (2005): 13.
Liu, Xing, Sen, Abhijit, Bauer, Johannes & Zitzmann, Christian, "A Software Client for Wi-Fi-Based Real-Time Location Tracking of Patients" Medical Imaging and Informatics 2008, 141. http://www.springerlink.com/content/f4373283n3026h20/
Therefore, while pricing strategies are different, most firms are seeking to differentiate themselves with features they believe will attract their target market, and the pricing reflecting the target market.
If a firm such as Samsung wishes to reduce costs there are a number of approaches which may be utilized. Most manufacturers are already using outsourcing for manufacturing either the handsets or some of the components. Costs are often saved by going to firms in countries where there is the ability to makes gains of comparative advantages, especially in areas where wages and overheads are lower. China is particularly well-known as a manufacturing base, but to save costs it would be possible to move to even lower cost countries, such as the African states where there is a lower level of economic development. However, this may also have costs, as the staff may not be as skills and quality…
Gartner, (2012, February), Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales Declined 1.7% in 2012, Garner, [online] retrieved 21st Feb 2012 from http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2335616
Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2011), Marketing Management, Prentice Hall
Nellis JG, Parker D, (2006), Principles of the Business Economics, London, Prentice Hall
After the completion of the design and development of satellites, the systems are normally subjected to waiting periods that span for several years before the identification of an appropriate launch opportunity.
Design and Implementation Cost:
The third major problem in the development and implementation of satellite communication is the software development costs. This includes money spent on all bus systems, ground support equipment, systems engineering, communication payloads, program management, and integration and test. In most cases, the development and implementation costs are difficult to estimate since there are recurring and non-recurring cost drivers in the process. The non-recurring cost drivers include heritage, number of prototypes and engineering models, and technology readiness while the recurring cost-drivers are complexity, project scope, and quantity of production.
The production quantity refers to the number of flight units developed, combined, and tested on similar contract to the development initiatives. hile the development and production initiatives…
Burgess, Erik, and Nathan Menton. "Satellite-Subsystem Development Costs." The Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Cost Analysis Improvement Group, Feb. 2008. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Dawoud, M.M. "Communications Satellite Sub-systems." KFUPM Open Courseware. KFUPM. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Lappas, V., G. Prassinos, a. Baker, and R. Magnuss. "Wireless Sensor Motes for Small Satellite Applications." IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 48.5 (2006): 175-79. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Marz, Justin D. "The Design and Implementation of Various Subsystems for Pico-Satellites." University of Kansas. University of Kansas, 12 Dec. 2004. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
law comm. tech
Innovations in Database Communication Technologies for Law Enforcement
The proliferation of computer, digital and web technology have all had a significant impact on how civil and public administration functions are performed. The ability to engage in real-time communication through an array of media, the opportunity to access enormous databases of information from the field and the capacity to capture sound, video, photo and other data all have enhanced productivity, efficiency and sophistication in many fields of great sociological importance. Certainly, few functions of public administration are more important than law enforcement and the administration of justice. Here, we consider some of the technological innovations in computer databasing that have had a direct impact on the way that police officers perform their job responsibilities with a specific focus on the enhanced communication opportunities emerging in the field.
Mobile Data Terminals and Facial Recognition:
Both Mobile Data Terminals and…
Cedres, D. (1997). Mobile data terminals and random license plate checks: the need for uniform guidelines and a reasonable suspicion requirement. All Business.
Hess, E. (2010). Facial Recognition: A Valuable Tool for Law Enforcement. Forensic Magazine.
Monopoli, D.M. (1996). Mobile Data Terminals: Past, Present and Future. National Criminal Justice Reference System.
Wallace, H., & Roberson, C. (2009). Written and interpersonal communication: Methods for law enforcement (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
As the pace of communication affects the pace of business and the degree to which a society can "keep up" with the rest of the world, public funding for private telecommunications growth has been justified; in addition, several landmark court rulings have required telecommunications infrastructure to be usable in ways that are not harmful to the public by entities that do not own them, through licensing requirements and other arrangements (von Alven 1998). Growth has thus been spurred by both public and private interests.
epair and Maintenance Procedures
The repair of the actual wire portions of wired telecommunications systems is relatively straightforward. Downed lines -- a common occurrence in storms due to high winds, fallen trees, etc. -- must be replaced by new segments of wire connecting existing (or replaced) nodes along the wire route. Wires can often be reused following being downed after inspection and refurbishing, though long-term maintenance…
Hoovers. (2011).Fixed-line voice service providers. Accessed 11 April 2011. http://www.hoovers.com/industry/fixed-line-voice-services-providers/1590-1-0-1njg0x.html
IBIS. (2011). Wired telecommunications carriers. Accessed 11 April 2011. http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/default.aspx?indid=1268
Von Alven, W. (1998). Bill's 200-Year Condensed History of Telecommunications. Accessed 11 April 2011. http://www.cclab.com/billhist.htm
This is because there is some kind of give and take between company and customer (Relationship Marketing Program).
From further research, it has become apparent that Global Communications has become a world leader in the telecommunications industry by making use of a multi-cultural workforce, which allows the company to go every corner of the world. Therefore, stock prices and profitability are greater than before, which secures the future of the company and allows Global Communications to give employees a stable workplace.
By working as a worldwide team, the company has the ability to conquer a lot of obstructions to have an impact on the industry (Global Communication).
n this paper, it has been discussed that Global Communications had to face rising struggle with the progress of the company. The company has come to realization that the employees are what make the company in order to overcome the struggle. However, the…
In effort to grow new business, Global Communications will develop a corporate branding and internet marketing scheme. For increased profitability, the company will outsource their call centers to India and Ireland, ultimately resulting in lower operations costs. Top contributors will be enticed to remain employed at Global Communications with a new employee development program and engagement in important company decisions. Corporate branding and internet marketing are good choices for growing the business. Risks are minimal since latest online technology provides multiple security options for protecting internet users from predators. Companies such as TriCipher offer advanced security protection with voice recognition, among other products. (Wolfe, 2005). The corporate branding strategy will enable Global Communications to become a common name used in the telecommunications market worldwide" (Global Communication).
By giving the company a new market, Global Communications will need to find the small business, consumer, and international markets to produce what is needed to push it to the next level. "When a customer walks into a telecommunications business office or places a call to her telecommunications provider, it is a rare opportunity -- an opportunity not only to meet the service needs of that customer, but also to make sure that customer understands the full value of her local telecommunications network. That's why a telecommunication company has developed a relationship marketing/communication program that empowers employees to extend these rare opportunities into network success strategy sessions for the customer" (Peoples Rural Telephone develops relationship marketing program. (Communications Corner).(Peoples Rural Telephone Cooperative, McKee KY)(Column). This main change will be the turning point for the employees of the company; and better customer support by a well Relationship Marketing Program within the telecommunication company.
Abstract - With regard to security, the major issue is that most mobile devices are targets that are in line to face attacks. Mobile devices face a range of threats that capitalize on several susceptibilities usually obtained in such devices. Lack of encryptions is a major threat to security of mobile device networks. Information such as text messages and electronic messages that are sent using a mobile device are more often than not unencrypted. Furthermore, numerous mobile device applications lack such encryptions over the networks for transmission and reception and therefore simplify the process of data interception. Malware is an additional problem regarding mobile device networks. It is simple for mobile device users to download malware through games and security patches and also through online advertisements. Consequently, this makes it significantly easy for data interception owing to spyware and Trojans. The lack of security software is also a major issue.…
Vocera communication system
Vocera is a contemporary marvel introduced in the healthcare industry to transform communication strategies between staffs and patients. In simpler terms, one should think of Vocera as a hands-free phone, a pager, a Bluetooth or even as walkie-talkie that provides instant communication through a wearable communication devices and speech recognition technology. It can also symbolize a central computer that controls the wireless communication via the personal Vocera communication devices referred as badges. After trying various ways and strategies to use in transforming communication between the healthcare providers and patients in case of emergencies, the last resort was to implement a Vocera communication system. Vocera healthcare communication system resembles a viable way of using existing Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) that supports voice communications. The diagram below shows a diagrammatic view of Vocera (Surhone, Timpledon, Marseken, 2010).
Nurses were already using the Electronic sunrise system but it was…
Surhone, L., Timpledon, M., Marseken, S. (2010). Vocera Communications, Chicago: VDM
A matching device needs to be chosen taking the frequency range into consideration.
There are a few ways in which the low noise amplifier performance designed can be improved. Since GaAs Field effect transistors are used in these amplifiers, biasing point selection needs to be done carefully. The positive voltage should only be applied while the negative voltage is already on. While switching it off, the positive should always precede the negative. The arrangement should always additional inches added to allow for lumped components. They should not be intruding upon the main length. The design should be encased properly in aluminum such that no air holes creep in. Measurement of gain, VSW and noise factor using components such as network analyzers, preamplifiers and spectrum analyzers should only be done once the LNA has reached a stable point. It is said to be stable when application of the DC voltage supply…
Sahoolizadeh, Hossein., Kordalivand, Alishir M,, and Heidari, Zargham. "Design and Simulation of Low Noise Amplifier Circuit for 5 GHz to 6 GHz" World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (2009): 99-102 Web. 17 April. 2010.
Nguyen, Trung-Kien., Kim, Chung-Hwan., Ihm, Gook-Ju., Yang, Moon-Su., and Lee, Sang-Gug. " CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier Design Optimization Techniques" IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 52.5(May 2004): 1433-1442 Web. 17 April. 2010.
Thai, Trang., "Low Noise Amplifier Design for Operating frequency of 4.2 GHz" Web. 18 April. 2010.
"LNA Design Using SpectreRF" cadence.com September 2004 Web. 17 April. 2010
Three years later, the company improved its picture clarity and introduced the "emotional intonation" feature, considered important components of visual language. ut at present, only 10% of the deaf and hard-of-hearing know about VRS. The Internal Revenue Service refuses to accept VRS calls. And VRS can be performed only with high-speed internet access. ut companies, like Sorenson, provide videophones for free. Those who have no high-speed internet access or a videophone may use IPP relay. It is similar to the outdated TTY but performs faster and more smoothly. The deaf user types his message on a computer.
For the working deaf who need to use the telephone, Able Planet launched the wireless device. This is a telephone and a hands-free set for a cell phone to address these difficulties in the use of a telephone. The technology enables wireless communication with a telecoil in hearing aids. At the same time,…
Associated Press. Hearing Impaired Get Help with Wireless Device. Deseret News:
Deseret News Publishing, 2003. Retrieved on October11, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20030623/ai_n11400486/?tag=content;col1
Bergstein, Brian. IBM Develops Virtual Deaf Interpreter. Oakland Tribune: ANG
Newspapers, 2007. Retrieved on October 11, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4178/is_20070917/ai_n20504469/?tag=content;col1
As cellular phone usage has increased the emergency response systems in rural areas has found itself being jammed with over use while the traditional wired trunk lines go unused. Unfortunately, balancing the cost of adding new wireless trunks line in order to meet the new demand has to be balanced against the cost of maintaining the old wired trunk lines. Due to the fact that cell phone coverage is not universally available in rural areas, traditional wired phone access is still needed so rural areas must still adequately meet the needs of both technologies, the old and the new. (Kurtis)
The new E-911 system is an enhanced version of the old 911 system. The advance of wireless technology has allowed the transmission of more information in a much more efficient manner. Under the E-911 system, the 911 operator can easily identify the telephone number of the person calling and any…
Chapman, S. a. (1998). Emergency Use of Cellular (mobile) telephones.
Federal Communications Commission. (2010). Wireless 911 Services. Washington D.C.: FCC.
Habib, I.M. (20007). Wireless technologies advances for emergency and rural communications. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing .
Kurtis, M. (2004). Deploying E-911 Phase II in Rural America. Business Source Complete .
One authority describes the transition in telephony thusly: eally smart engineers advanced technology to evolve phones from wall hanging boxes with an operator making phone connections to little, fold-up cellular devices. Now the world of everything integrated - computer chips, display screens and communicating - has spawned the age of smartphones" (Oppenheim, 2011, p. 17).
Written messages were passed through a variety of media, including circulars, memoranda, policy letters, notices, forms, and reports.
All of the 1991 methods as well as e-mail, facsimile machines, and SMS together with the above-mentioned wireless "look-at" devices that are internet enabled.
Manually prepared bar graphs; tape-based video recordings
PowerPoint presentation, digital video recordings, clip art, stock graphics and pictures; user-friendly touch-screen devices (Gentry, 2011).
Audio and/or sound methods
Tape recordings (20mm et al.), vinyl disks, CB
VoIP, stock sounds, computer-based recordings and editing
As can be readily discerned from the…
Ahmed, Z., Shields, F., White, R. & Wilbert, R. (2010). Managerial communication: the link between frontline leadership and organizational performance. Journal of Organizational
Culture, Communication and Conflict, 14(1), 107-109.
Araneta, V.A. (2007, March 13). Business options; Relationships in the global financial markets. Manila Bulletin, 37.
Brown, K., Anderson, A.H., Bauer, L., Berns, M., Hirst, G. & Miller, J. (2006). Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Boston: Elsevier.
Culture and media cannot be separated and hence advertising has a strong impact on culture and vice versa. It is interesting to see how media influence behavior and at the same times, accepts cultural changes and reflects the impact through advertising. One major example of this is the use of wireless communication. With increase in use of all wireless devices like ipods, iPhones and cell phones, the advertising has also taken on a new meaning ad method. Mobile advertising is now a common phenomenon where people get offers and deals even simple advertising messages through their wireless devices.
This shows how cultural changes impact advertising and how advertising in turn affects cultural trends. Advertising serves a very important purpose whether we admit it or not. It allows us to choose from a wide variety of alternatives. But what happens when advertising becomes a little too invasive. There is a good…
1. Marguerite Reardon. "Advertising seeps into the cell phone" CNET News.com Published: September 14, 2006. Retrieved online http://news.com.com/Advertising+seeps+into+the+cell+phone/2100-1039_3-6115617.html
2. Matt Richtel, Marketers Interested in Small Screen, January 16, 2006. New York Times.
3. Sarah Lacy. Cell Phones Ring for Marketers. December 23, 2004. Retrieved online http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/dec2004/tc20041223_4480_tc119.htm
4. "Cell Phone Advertising has Promise" Sept 15, 2005. Retrieved online http://www.mobiledia.com/news/36373.html
Southland Distribution and Electronic Shipment Tracking
Introduction to Supply Chain and Tracking Concerns at Southland Distribution
The cost reductions relative to wireless communication networks and increased efficiency in logistics and tracking within a shipping company are potentially enormous. Not only does tracking shipments make sense from a customer service standpoint, but the company actually saves money when shipments are tracked and sent to the proper destinations. Even within the current logistics system of a company, tracking shipments makes sense in order to solve delivery problems and issues. Many shipping companies use tracking programs and systems to help them stand out above other companies and services in a world where the economic recession has decreased the demand for shipping worldwide.
Southland Distribution is a company that does business through shipment of goods. The services it provides include multi-modal forms of transport as well as time-sensitive delivery of goods. Within a system…
Heaver, T.D. (2002). "The Evolving Roles of Shipping Lines in International Logistics."
International Journal of Maritime Economics, Vol.4, No. 3. pp. 210-230.
Holmstrom, Jan; Kajosaari, Risto; Framling, Kary and Erik Langius. (2009). "Roadmap to tracking-based business and intelligent products." Computers in Industry, Vol. 60, No. 3. pp. 229-233.
Karkkainen, Mikko; Ala-Risku, Timo and Kary Framling, (2004) "Efficient tracking for short-term multi-company networks," International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. Vol. 34, No. 7. pp.545-564.
Globalization, Fractionalization and Convergence
The objective of this work is to first, define the concept of fractionalization, to describe how it relates to the television, magazine, and radio industries and provide examples and then to give an opinion regarding the effect of fractionalization both on the media on society.
Secondly, this work will define the concept of globalization, describe how it relates to the television, recording and film industries and provide examples. The questions will be answered of "hat is the effect of globalization on the cultures of the world? hat is the political effect of globalization? ho does it benefit? ho does it harm?" And answers will be backed up with opinions on the subjects. Lastly, this work will define the concept of convergence, describe how it relates to the television, Internet and recording industries and then answer the questions of, "How would convergence affect our daily…
Lind, Thori Jo (2005) Fractionalization and Inter-Group Differences 2005 February 28 Online available at: http://www.dur.ac.uk/john.ashworth/EPCS/Papers/Lind.pdf
Bollier, David (2003 )The Rise of NetPolitik: How the Internet is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy Report of the Eleventh Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology Communication and Society Program
Jainschigg, John (2001) A Casualty of Convergence: Convergence eliminates redundancy. Sometimes, that hurts.
08/03/2001, 9:37 AM ET Online available at: https://www.cmpevents.com/CC5/a.asp?option=B& V=2& SC=CCM
American Corporations and the Media, 1890-1940
American corporations have never been reticent to use available media to reach their goals, and in the years between 1890 and 1940, there are impressive examples of how U.S. corporate interests have utilized various media to realize additional profit and power -- sometimes employing unorthodox and unethical methods. This paper delves into instances of corporate use of media, and points to the dynamics that allowed those associations to flourish.
"Today's critics of media conglomerates fail to grasp the reality that corporate power, in league with the state, [has] made a mockery of prospects for a democratic global media system… [and it's vital to recognize that] the U.S. radio industry subsequently followed a similar pattern of monopolization in the 1920s…" (Peterson, 2004, p. 86).
Author James Schwoch points to the fact that the American radio industry had a profound impact on Latin American activities between…
Belrose, John S. (1994). Fessenden and the Early History of Radio Science. The Radioscientist,
Forrest, Wilbur. (1925). Political Notes: Ford Speaks. Time Magazine. Retrieved June 17,
2011, from http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,720534,00.html .
An examination of the four basic steps of policymaking reveals this quite clearly.
The first step in the policymaking process is the agenda setting that must come before policies are even considered. Bringing problems to the attention of policy makers and thus setting the policy agenda is accomplished by many different players with different aims, from citizen groups to businesses to media organizations and many others. All of these groups r individual representatives (and sometimes simple individuals) can use a variety of methods for setting the agenda, form private meetings with policy makers to speaking at town hall meetings or city councils to engaging in media or public awareness campaigns. In larger governments, lobbying is a major source of agenda-setting activity, as the interests of groups that engage lobbying services are brought to the direct and immediate attention of government representatives in what amounts to a pay-for-play system. The political…
Gerston, L. (2010). Public Policymaking: Process and Principles. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Texas Constitution and Statutes. (2011). Government Code Chapter 573. Accessed 14
October 2011. http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/