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Women in the United States made the fight for suffrage their most fundamental demand because they saw it as the defining feature of full citizenship. The philosophy underlying women's suffrage was the belief in "natural rights" to govern themselves and choose their own representatives. Woman's suffrage asserted that women should enjoy individual rights of self-government, rather than relying on indirect civic participation as the mothers, sisters, or daughters of male voters. However, most men and even some women believed that women were not suited by circumstance or temperament for the vote. ecause women by nature were believed to be dependent on men and subordinate to them, many thought women could not be trusted to exercise the independence of thought necessary for choosing political leaders responsibly. Others feared that entry of women into political life challenged the assignment of women to the home and might lead to disruption of…
Carrie Chapman Catt." American Memory. 08 May 2003. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/naw/cattbio.html .
Imbornoni, Ann-Marie, "Timeline of Key Events in the American Woment's Rights
Movement." Infoplease 07 May 2003. http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline1.html .
Lewis, Jone Johnson. "August, 26, 1920." Women's History. 08 May 2003. http://womenshistory.about.com /library/weekly/aa081700a.htm.
In 1869, Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, another prominent 19th century suffragist, formed the National oman Suffrage Association (NSA) to collectively lobby for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote. The NSA also focused their attention on universal suffrage for African-Americans. Their efforts toward abolition succeeded first, as the 15th Amendment passed in 1871.
Also in 1869 Lucy Stone, Julia ard Howe, and other suffragists formed a separate suffragist organization due to political and ideological differences with the NSA. The American oman Suffrage Association (ASA) favored a states-rights approach to suffrage and rather than petition the federal government for an amendment to the American constitution granting women the right to vote the ASA appealed to state legislatures. Their efforts were "tied...closely to the Republican Party," ("Teaching with Documents").
The women's suffrage movement progressed slowly. Several estern territories such as yoming and Utah guaranteed women the right to vote…
19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote (1920)." Historical Documents. 2005. Retrieved July 31, 2006 at http://www.historicaldocuments.com/19thAmendment.htm
Petition to U.S. Senate Women Voters Anti-Suffrage Party of New York World War I." United States Senate: Records Group 46. 1917. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2006 at http://www.archives.gov/global-pages/larger-image.html?i=/education/lessons/woman-suffrage/images/ny-petition-l.gif&c=/education/lessons/woman-suffrage/images/ny-petition.caption.html
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. "Woman's Rights Petition to the New York Legislature." Transcribed by Carolyn Sims and reverse-order proofed by Lloyd Benson, Department of History, Furman University, from Elizabeth Cady Stanton, et al., History of Woman Suffrage, (New York, Fowler & Wells, Publishers, 1881), I, 593-595. Retrieved July 31, 2006 at http://chnm.gmu.edu/exploring/19thcentury/womenandequality/pop_petition.html
Teaching With Documents: Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment." The National Archives. Retrieved July 31, 2006 at http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/woman-suffrage/
Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Amelia Bloomer were all instrumental in shifting the status of women in American society. Their writings reveal the personalities, assumptions, and values of the authors. Each of these women took incredible personal risks by challenging the underlying assumptions in the society that women were not valid, valuable members of society. The place of women in American society prior to suffrage was no better than domestic servitude. Anthony forever aligns herself with the likes of Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., by using the technique civil disobedience to achieve social justice. Each of these women recognized the connection between slavery of African-Americans and slavery of women. They each fought for abolition as well as suffrage, and therefore understood that women's rights were human rights.
When Anthony, Stanton, and Bloomer fought for equality, they did so in a time when more than fifty percent…
Anthony, S. (1872). On women's right to vote. Retrieved online: http://womenshistory.about.com /gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=womenshistory&cdn=education&tm=443&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.historyplace.com/speeches/anthony.htm
Bloomer, A. (1895). Women's right to the ballot. Retrieved online: http://www.apstudent.com/ushistory/docs1851/suffrge1.htm
Stanton, E.C. (1898). Eighty Years And More: Reminiscences 1815-1897. New York: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898. Retrieved online: http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/stanton/years/years.html#XV
Balu, . (Fall 1995). History comes alive: How women won the right to vote. Human ights, 22(4). etrieved March 23, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database.
Colorado: Popularism, panic and persistence. (No date). etrieved March 23, 2005, at http://www.autry-museum.org/explore/exhibits/suffrage/suffrage_co.html.
Marilley, S.M. (1996). Woman suffrage and the origins of liberal feminism in the United States, 1820-1920. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Suffrage appeals to lawless and hysterical women. (30 May 1913). New York Times. etrieved March 23, 2005, from Proquest Historical database.
Woman suffrage. (2005). The World…
Balu, R. (Fall 1995). History comes alive: How women won the right to vote. Human Rights, 22(4). Retrieved March 23, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database.
Colorado: Popularism, panic and persistence. (No date). Retrieved March 23, 2005, at http://www.autry-museum.org/explore/exhibits/suffrage/suffrage_co.html .
Marilley, S.M. (1996). Woman suffrage and the origins of liberal feminism in the United States, 1820-1920. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Suffrage appeals to lawless and hysterical women. (30 May 1913). New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2005, from Proquest Historical database.
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…
Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.
Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…
A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." History.com. N.p. 2012.
Web. 16 May 2012.
The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights
Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.
Support like this was not uncommon. omen were demonstrating how useful they could become and by asserting their knowledge along with their feminine nature, they were showing men they could be a positive influence on society. As the effort grew, it became more organized and it gained momentum. In 1869, Lucy Stone helped establish the American oman Suffrage Association (ASA), which worked for women's right to vote. The association became a powerful force behind the women's movement. Its main goal was to force individual states to grant women the right to vote to women. In 1890, the ASA joined with the National oman Suffrage Association, which Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton formed in 1869. The new organization was called the National American oman Suffrage Association, and it held conventions, waged voting campaigns and distributed literature in support of women's voting rights.
The Equal Rights amendment was passed in 1972.…
Anthony, Susan B. "Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States 4 July 1876."
Rutgers University Online Database. 06 May, 2010. Web.
Binder, Frederick. The Way We Lived D.C. Heath and Company. 1994. Print.
omen in American History
The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.
omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth
One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…
Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.
Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .
Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
This public visibility had an extremely positive effect on the movement, reaching people their more passive campaign would never have touched.
Needless to say, the strategy of marching in the streets was not one typically associated with normal female behavior. Yet, through this brazen tactic, suffragists were able to elevate their public image to a position where they were seen as legitimate participants in the public political arena. Onlookers began to see suffragists as serious and dignified, and as individuals who had courage to make public appearances, presenting themselves to onlookers (McCammon). Much of the effectiveness of these parades was due to the manner in which they were held.
As McCammon notes, woman suffrage parades were neither festive nor frivolous. The women typically marched in formation. They wore white dresses and carried signs and banners stating reasons why women should have the right to vote. In eastern parades, primarily, a…
Beck, E., Dorsey, E., & Stutters, a. "The Women's Suffrage Movement: Lessons for Social Action." Journal of Community Practice 11(3) 2003: p. 13-33. Academic Search Premier database. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 9, 2008 http://web.ebscohost.com .
Borda, J. "The Woman Suffrage Parades of 1910-1913." Western Journal of Communication 66(1) Winter 2002: p. 25-52. Academic Search Premier database. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. March 9, 2008
432). In fact, northwest Indiana became home to several literary and cultural groups for women over the second half of the nineteenth century (Croly). Among these were The Helen Hunt Club of Cambridge City, which originally began as The Two O'clock Club, who stated that "ith an earnest desire to obtain a higher degree of literary culture, a greater fund of knowledge, and a better appreciation of the dignity of womanhood, we associate ourselves together as a club" (Croly, 436). This club did not even restrict itself to esoteric pursuits, but actively engaged in a political and historical study and analysis of the United States, which necessarily colored their perspectives and enlightened them on current political issues such as the suffrage movement (Croly, 436).
No human issue exists in a vacuum. Intermingled with the issue of women's suffrage we find issues of women's education, rights to property, and a host…
J.C. Croly. The History of the Women's Club Movement n America. New York, NY: H.G. Allen & Company, 1898. Accessed online 24 February 2009. http://asp6new.alexanderstreet.com+wam2.object.details.aspx?dorpid=1000672402
Elizabeth Cody Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gage, eds. History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 1: 1848-1861. New York, NY: Fowler and Wells, Publishers, 1881. Accessed online 24 February 2009. http://asp6new.alexanderstreet.com+wam2.object.details.aspx?dorpid=1000685759
M.G. Stapler, ed. Women's Suffrage Yearbook. New York: National Woman Suffrage Pub. Co., 1917. Accessed online 24 February 2009. www.everydaylife.amdigital.co.uk+Document.aspx?docref=TheWomanSuffrageYearBook1917
Women Called to Witness by Nancy a. Hardesty, Second Edition
The biblical feminists of today reinterpret the original scriptures with reference to women while trying to find religious reasons for their actions. An example of this is Women Called to Witness: Evangelical Feminism in the Nineteenth Century by Nancy Hardesty, as also other writers like Lucretia Mott, the Grimke sisters and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. It is suggested by the book that the motivation of women leading the fights for temperance, female ordination, abolition and women suffrage in the beginning of the nineteenth century was from their evangelical Christian faith. 1 The Second Great awakening revivals touched the lives of each of these great warriors. The author proves that the traditional, evangelical activist was as intelligent as the Christian feminist. The differences between public and private, male and female, and politics and religion that were defined through the Industrial evolution were…
Hardesty, Nancy A. 1984. Women Called to Witness: Evangelical Feminism in the Nineteenth Century. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
She is the daughter of Alice Walker, who wrote the Color Purple. She took her mother's maiden name at the age of 18. Rebecca graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1993, and moved on to co-found the Third Wave Foundation. She is considered to be one of the founding leaders of third-wave feminism. In addition to her contributing editorship for Ms. Magazine, Walker's work has also been published by Harper's, Essence, Glamour, Interview, Buddhadharma, Vibe, Child, and Mademoiselle magazines. Her relationship with her mother has been strained because of various public indictments the younger Walker made against her. Nevertheless, some believe that Rebecca might not have been as famous or powerful today without her ties to the illustrious Alice Walker.
Jennifer Baumgardner is a prominent voice for women and girls. She works as a writer, speaker and activist. During 1993-1997, she worked as the youngest editor at Ms. Magazine,…
women in the American est during the estward movement. Specifically, it will discuss historic evidence to support the position that the westward movement did indeed transform the traditional roles of American women, just as it transformed the American est. omen traveling west during the estward movement created opportunities for themselves, became active in business and politics, and created new and exciting lives for themselves. These women transformed how America looked at women, and how women looked at themselves, which was probably the most important transformation of all.
The estward movement began in the early 1800s, after the explorers Lewis and Clark opened up the first trail from St. Louis Missouri to Oregon, and proved overland travel was possible, if not difficult. Migrants began heading for Oregon and other areas of the est as early as the 1830s - in fact, the first women to cross the Continental Divide were Eliza…
Armitage, Susan, and Elizabeth Jameson. The Women's West. Norman, OK: The University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.
Butler, Anne M., and Ona Siporin. Uncommon Common Women: Ordinary Lives of the West. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1996.
Morris, Esther, and Carrie Chapman Catt. "Winning the Vote in the West." Women of the West. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. 75-86.
Myres, Sandra L. Westering Women and the Frontier Experience, 1800-1915. Eds. Ray Allen Billington, et al. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1982.
omen to History
omen have contributed to the history of the world from the beginning of time. Their stories are found in legends, myths, and history books. Queens, martyrs, saints, and female warriors, usually referred to as Amazon omen, writers, artists, and political and social heroes dot our human history. By 1865, women moved into the public arena, as moral reform became the business of women, as they fought for immigrant settlement housing, fought and struggled for the right to earn living wages, and stood up to the threats of the lynch mobs. The years beginning in 1865 is known as the Civil ar era and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. It was a time of great changes, especially for African-American women such as Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. omen of all races had to fight for equal rights, even the right to vote (http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html).omenhave indeed 'come a long…
Women in American History. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads05.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads12.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica06.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica02.html.
A accessed 07-04-2002).
Bryson, Donna. "MOTHER TERESA LED LIFE OF HARD WORK AND LOVE DIMINUTIVE NUN NEVER WAVERED FROM HER SELF-IMPOSED MISSION TO BRING COMFORT TO THE WORLD." Denver Rocky Mountain News. September 14, 1997, pp 3A. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Denver_Rocky_Mountain_News&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~InsideDenver.com~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Donna+Bryson&title=MOTHER+TERESA+LED+LIFE+OF+HARD+WORK+AND+LOVE+DIMINUTIVE+NUN+NEVER+WAVERED+FROM+HER+SELF%2DIMPOSED+MISSION+TO+BRING+COMFORT+TO+THE+WORLD++&date=09%2D14%2D1997&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=7.(accessed07-04-2002).
Lloyd, Marion. "Nun's Sainthood effort moves fast; Callers report miracles of Mother Teresa." The Washington Times. August 28, 1999, pp A6. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=The_Washington_Times&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.washtimes.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Marion+Lloyd&title=Nun%27s+sainthood+effort+moves+fast%3B+Callers+report+miracles+of+Mother+Teresa++&date=08%2D28%2D1999&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=6 accessed 07-04-2002).
Primary Source Material Analysis: Harriet Tubman
Mrs. Sarah H. Bradford wrote a small book in 1868 for the purpose of raising funds to benefit Harriet Tubman's efforts to buy a house and support herself and her aging parents (Introduction). This book was composed immediately before Bradford set sail for Europe in 1868 and its publication costs were covered by several benefactors. The book is remarkable because it is written by a hite abolitionist and suffragist who had become acquainted with Harriet's work on the Underground Railroad through friends and associates.
The stories that Bradford included in the book were corroborated through independent sources and therefore represent a collection of accounts detailing Harriet's struggle to move her family and other slaves north to freedom in Canada along the Underground Railroad. To substantiate the veracity of these accounts Bradford includes in the preface several letters attesting to Harriet's contributions, including one from…
Bradford, Sarah H. Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman. 1869. Salem, NH: Ayer Company, 1992. Print.
Miller, Anne Fitzhugh and Miller, Elizabeth Smith. Miller NAWSA Suffrage Scrapbooks, 1897-1911. Scrapbook 1905-1906. Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Washington, D.C. Web. 9 Sep. 2013. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D-rbcmillerbib:3:./temp/~ammem_fED1 ::
Tubman, Harriet. "General Affidavit" [Claim of Harriet Tubman: General affidavit of Harriet Tubman Davis regarding payment for services rendered during the Civil War]. The Center for Legislative Archives, National Archives, c. 1898. Web. 9 Sep. 2013. http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/claim-of-harriet-tubman/ .
Women Activists Dilemma to support or Oppose the 15th Amendment as evidenced by the split in the Women’s suffrage Movement
After the Civil war, three amendments were passed which massively transformed the women’s rights movement. These were the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. The thirteenth amendment approved in the year 1865 declared slavery illegal (Parker, 1849). Thus, all the women who were previously enslaved became free and acquired protection by human rights. The fourteenth amendment declared that everyone born in the U.S was a legal U.S citizen and should not be deprived off their rights including all slaves. Moreover, the law added that all male American citizens had the right to vote (Anderson, 590).
Finally, there was the controversial Fifteenth Amendment, passed in 1870. The amendment granted black American men the right to vote by stating that the rights of U.S citizens to participate in elections must not be…
Despite representing half of the human population, until very recently women were not afforded the same rights and freedoms as men. Furthermore, in much of the world today women remain marginalized, disenfranchised, and disempowered, and even women in the United States continue to face undue discrimination, whether in the workplace, at home, or in popular culture. However, this should not be taken as a disregarding of the hard-fought accomplishments of women since 1865, because over the course of intervening years, women have managed to gain a number of important rights and advantages. In particular, after spending the nineteenth century largely isolated within the domestic sphere, over the course of the twentieth century women won the right to vote, the right to equal pay and housing, and freedom over their own bodies in the form of birth control. By examining the history of these important developments, one is able…
Adams, C. (2003). Women's suffrage: A primary source history of the women's rights movement in america. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.
Chen, L.Y., & Kleiner, B.H. (1998). New developments concerning the equal pay act.
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 17(1), 13-20.
Gordon, L. (2002). The moral property of women: A history of birth control politics in america.
They argued that women would not have any reforming effect on the country because they would vote with their husbands (opposite of what they argued earlier). In states where they already had the vote, they had made no difference. Finally, they argued that women didn't really want the vote, anyway. This last charge had some truth to it. Susan . Anthony observed that the apathy of most women about the vote was the biggest obstacle for the movement. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 said that women would get the vote when "women as a whole show any special interest in the matter" (Woloch 242).
Terborg-Penn (113) points out that between 1910 and 1920 middle-class black women became active in the cause. She states that black feminists could never overlook the issue of racism; for them, it wasn't just a matter of being women; their color was a major cause of…
S. Constitution, and Susan B. Anthony was very upset at that.
For one thing, the women's suffrage movement had vigorously supported the abolition of slavery well prior to (and, of course, during the Civil War); and now that blacks were free, and were given the right to vote (although many blacks in America didn't really get to vote until the Voting ights Act of 1965 guaranteed their right to cast votes) prior to the women in American having the right to vote.
For another thing, many women were already stretched to the maximum in terms of the patience over their lack of voting rights.
According to an article in www.About.com (Women's History: Susan B. Anthony), "Some of Susan B. Anthony's writings were...quite racist by today's standards." She made the point that "educated white women would be better voters than 'ignorant' black men or immigrant men." In the late 1860s, she…
About.com. "Women's History: Susan B. Anthony; Seneca Falls Convention;
Declaration of Sentiments." 2004. Available
History of the American Suffragist Movement (2004). "Timeline: 1861-1867,"
It is possible that early American history would be taught very differently today if based on history books such as this. To play devil's advocate, there perhaps would have been women historians who agreed with the men's decisions, women historians who did not believe in the actions of their fellow females. Those histories, too, would have had an impact on today's perspective of that period.
Similarly, what would have happened if the topic of women's equality had been covered by a famous female historian who did not support the suffragist cause? The early 1900s saw some women, called the anti-suffragists, who were strongly opposed to giving the vote to their gender. These women were afraid of change and believed the family would fall apart if women could vote. They also feared suffrage would overload women already burdened by their own many responsibilities. They called the suffragists communists, among other things,…
Des Jardins, Julie. Women and the Historical Enterprise in America: Gender, Race, and the Politics of Memory, 1880 -- 1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
Sherr, Lynn. Failure is Impossible. New York: Random House, 1995.
Weatherford, Doris. A History of the American Suffragist Movement. Santa Barbara, CA:
Others, however, saw things differently.
Perhaps the clearest way to come to an understanding of the status of the WKK as either an independent or an auxiliary organization is to examine the central philosophies of the two groups. While the leadership of the WKKK by and large supported the racial and religious policies of the larger Ku Klux Klan -- i.e. A mistrust or outright hatred of blacks, Catholics, and Jews -- there were fears that even "Protestant men…were likely to be 'unyielding' in opposition to gender equality since they benefited directly from the current situation" (Blee 1991, pp. 76). Given this level of mistrust and irreconcilable difference, it seems unlikely that the most vocal, staunch, and long-standing members of the WKKK considered themselves a part of the same organization as the man they viewed as their oppressors. Though working in tandem with the Ku Klux Klan and using many…
Blee, K. (1991). Women of the Klan. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
For instance, Sylvy could have decided to go with the man and leave her rural life. She could have left the life of poverty and gone back to the city. Had she made this choice she knew that she would never have to worry about money again. However, having come from the city originally, she also knew the personal freedom that she would be giving up. She felt that if she went away with the guest, she could learn to serve, follow, and love him, "as a dog loves" (Jewett, a White Heron, Harper Series, p. 1646). This line summarizes the oppression of the urban woman in the late 1880s.
Jewett tells her readers much about her feelings about social class and the political position of women during her time. She portrays women as "followers" of men. She alludes to the position of women as "servants" of man. She compares…
McQuade, D., Atwan, R., Banta, M., Kaplan, J., Minter, D., Stepto, R., Tichi, C., & Vendler, H. (Eds.). (1999). The Harper single volume of American literature (3rd ed.).Sarah Orney Jewett, a White Heron, (pp. 1639-1646. New York: Longman.
Susan Anthony is a key figure in women's rights movement of this time. She called for increased women's admission in the teaching profession. She also campaigned for equal pay for male and female slaves as well as better protection for female laborers trough trade unions that she became a part of (Susan B. Anthony House, n.d.).
These radical changes in the sphere of womanhood are reflected in the artistic accomplishments of women. Fredrika Bremer, for example, a Swedish Finland native who traveled to the United States to learn about culture and women's position, wrote a lot about slavery. Hertha, one of Bremer's key works, is a novel depicting the story of a woman who went beyond traditional female role expectations. This is believed to have influenced the parliament in legal reforms concerning women's rights (Lewis, 2009).
Women's fight for equal rights which defined the 19th century did not escape the…
Conner Prairie (2009). Women in the 1800s. Retrieved from http://www.connerprairie.org/historyonline/1880wom.html on April 25, 2009.
Lewis, J.J. (2009). Fredrika Bremer. Retrieved from http://womenshistory.about.com /od/writers19th/p/fredrika_bremer.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
omen's Rights Movement In The 1970s
In A People's History of the United States, Zinn begins his narrative of the liberation of women with the women's suffrage movement of the early twentieth century. However, according to Zinn, even after women were granted their vote, their identity was still largely measured by their success in living up to the idealized role models of wife and mother till the overt feminist movement of the late 1960s. Till then, the only time that women were allowed to break the traditional stereotype mold of femininity and domesticity was during periods such as war, civil strife or extreme economic conditions (Zinn, 503-6).
Zinn, in his account, gives a detailed description of the events that occurred in the 1960s. omen of all ages took active part in the civil rights movement of the sixties, which in a sense laid the ground for women collectively voicing their…
Friedan, Betty. "The Feminine Mystique." New York: Dell, 1974.
Rossi, Alice. "The Feminist Papers." New York: Columbia University Press,
Zinn, Howard. "Surprises." A People's History of the United States.
The disparity in income of male vs. female heads of household is striking. Analysis of census data revealed that, in 1949, approximately thirty percent of households headed by white males were living in poverty, compared to just under thirteen percent a decade later. For women, more than half lived in poverty in 1949; by 1959, that figure declined to thirty-eight percent. The prosperity of the 1950s was not universally enjoyed. Female heads of household at the end of the decade were not better off than their male counterparts had been ten years earlier.
Financing for decent, inexpensive homes was readily available to servicemen returning from World War II. Coontz (1992) argued that this boom in home ownership led to "increasingly pervasive and sophisticated marketing [that] contributed to socially constructed perceptions of "need" and to unprecedented levels of consumer debt (Edwards, 2001). It was new consumer values that helped propel mothers…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap. [Amazon
Kindle editions version.
Delmont, S. (1996). A woman's place in education. Great Britain: Avebury.
Edwards, M.E. (2001). Home ownership, affordability, and mothers' changing work and family roles. Social Science Quarterly, 82 (2), 369-383.
In 1963, the Equal Pay Act equalized pay between men and women by law, but did not apply to many types of employment such as administrators, professionals, and executives. The following year, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination based on gender (and race), in conjunction with the creation of the Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce employment rights and redress violations of law in that regard.
Homophobia, Limitations of Equality, and Room for Future Improvement:
Today, American women enjoy most of the same rights and privileges and men, although certain inequalities still persist. In a practical sense, female wages still lag substantially behind many of their male counterparts in wages in non-regulated employment areas. One of the areas in which civil rights and privileges still reflect considerable inequality is in the realm of same-sex unions. While some states recognize the equality of same-sex couples…
The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…
al., 2002). ut since employees perceived that women had financial help from either fathers or husbands, wages remained low. This created difficult situations for women who were the only support for themselves and any children they had.
In addition, while these events opened employment opportunities for women, those jobs represented a revolving door as they typically quit their jobs either when they got married or when their first child was born (Craig et. al., 2002). This encouraged employers to keep women in low-paying jobs with little responsibility. ut in addition to perceptions that women were temporary and expendable workers, women were frequently denied the one thing that, more than anything else, could have elevated their employment options: education. For well into the 19th century, few women received a secondary, or high school, education. This meant that even if a university was willing to accept female students, few if any would…
Craig, Graham, Kagan, Ozment and Turner. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Pearson Hall, 2002.
Tilly, Louise a. 1994. "Women, women's history, and the Industrial Revolution." Social Research, March.
Women Voting Rights
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief essay that centers on a few particular topics as it relates to women and their place and function within the suffrage movement as well as other pushes for equal rights including in the military, the workforce and so forth. The particular events and topics that will be touched upon will include women and work, women's new deal, working for victory: women and war, women in the military and working women in war time. While women are still facing equality-related struggles now, it was much worse for them in the 1800's and beyond and even into some of the 1900's.
When it comes to women and work, the reasons for their slow progress over the duration of the existence of the United States as well as beyond that is not hard to figure out. Indeed, women…
The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.
The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's
Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…
Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,
2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
" The problem seen with such systems is that they are characterized by competitive elections that install governments dedicated to maintaining political stability and labor discipline but not to expanding democratic freedoms or instituting needed changes. The Mexican state shows clearly the way the prevailing political culture can shape and give direction to political institutions. The political institutions of Mexico are similar to those of the United States, but as Cornelius and Craig note, what seems the same on paper is not the same in operation because the prevailing political culture is one-party rule at all levels: "Until recently, selection as the candidate of the official party has been tantamount to election, except in some municipalities and a handful of congressional districts where opposition parties are so strong that they cannot be ignored" (Cornelius and Craig 25).
The prevailing features of the system are found in the following elements common…
Burnaby, Barbara and Thomas Ricento. Language and Politics in the United States and Canada: Myths and Realities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.
Camp, Roderic Ai. Politics in Mexico: The Decline of Authoritarianism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Carroll, Michael P. "Who Owns Democracy? Explaining the Long-Running Debate over Canadian/American Value Differences."
The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 42, Issue 3 (2005). March 26, 2007. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5012185252' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
One of the reasons for the formation of the National Organization for Women was the fact that, despite legislation like the Equal Pay Act of 1963, there were still many disparities in the way women were treated both in the halls of government and the offices and boardrooms of the corporate world. his Act was passed by Congress in order to ensure the equality of wages based on gender, but many women activists were angered by the fact that the legislation was not really enforced, and companies often got away with disparities in pay and even in hiring practices. itle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was even more sweeping in its condemnation of discriminatory practices based on gender in many matters of business, including employment, wages, banking decisions, etc. yet despite such hard-won legislation, the issue of gender equality in this country is still far from over.…
The National Woman Suffrage Association was formed in 1869, with a focus on achieving a constitutional amendment granting women in the United States the right to vote. The American Woman Suffrage Association was formed alter in that same year, and its efforts were directed at achieving individual state amendments or laws allowing women to vote -- a tactic that would prove more successful for several decades. In 1913, however, here still had not been a significant amount of progress made, and a more radical group was formed. The Congressional Union for Women's Suffrage was more vocal in their fight, but also slighted women of color as a means of retaining popularity in the South. The struggle continues with such organizations as the National Organization for Women, which was founded in the 1960s in an effort to establish true equality and freedom from discrimination for women.
One of the reasons for the formation of the National Organization for Women was the fact that, despite legislation like the Equal Pay Act of 1963, there were still many disparities in the way women were treated both in the halls of government and the offices and boardrooms of the corporate world. This Act was passed by Congress in order to ensure the equality of wages based on gender, but many women activists were angered by the fact that the legislation was not really enforced, and companies often got away with disparities in pay and even in hiring practices. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was even more sweeping in its condemnation of discriminatory practices based on gender in many matters of business, including employment, wages, banking decisions, etc. yet despite such hard-won legislation, the issue of gender equality in this country is still far from over.
The first woman was elected to Congress in 1917, and the struggle for equality within the government itself has been in full force ever since. Currently, there are seventeen female U.S. Senators and seventy-four women sated in the House of Representatives, making for the highest number of women ever serving in the U.S. Congress in the nation's history. Nancy Pelosi is also the first female Speaker of the House, a very powerful political position (and second to the Vice President in terms of ascension to the Presidency). Still, given that these numbers represent far less than half of the available Congressional seats, it is clear that equality is not really a state that has been reached in terms of gender. The struggle for women's rights and equality continues with more political force today, however, thanks to the work of those in the past.
woman's rights were little recognized. As a creative source of human life, she was confined to the home as a wife and mother. Moreover, she was considered intellectually, emotionally and spiritually inferior to man (Compton's 1995), even wicked, as in the case of mythical Pandora, who let loose plagues and misery in a box. This was the early concept of woman in the West as an adjunct to man, although the woman in the East was not without property and individual rights and freedoms. Just the same, a woman was subject to man and could not own property, could not remarry and boys were preferred to girls. ut when allowed some rights, such as during the Middle Ages, a woman proved what she could achieve. A woman from an aristocratic family or line, for example, possessed power and prestige like a man in her class. England's Queen Elizabeth in the…
Barry, Ursula. Gender Issues and the Irish National Employment Action Plan. Final Report. Women's Education Research and Resource Centre. Dublin:University College, 2000. (accessed 15:05:03). http://www2.umist.ac.uk/management/ewerc/egge/egge_publications/lrl_Napev.pdf
Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia. Women's History in America. News Media, Inc., 1995. (accessed 15:05:03)
Evans, Karen. Overcome Barriers to Women's Technical Education. The Commonwealth of Learning, 1995. (accessed 15:05:03). http://www.col.org/barriers.htm
It was followed by more record-breaking flights. Her story, on the other hand, was cut short with her 1937 flight which ended in her mysterious disappearance (Amelia Earhart Website n.d.).
Earhart's story indeed reflects that a lot of women during this period of American history were engaged in activities that were first labeled as masculine in nature. Earhart's achievement reflected the sense of equality between men and women that have long been fought for by women of the earlier period of history.
Towards more active political participation
We have seen how particular socio-historical features of the 19th century -- these being the strengthening of women's educational facilities as well as the job opportunities that went with the industrial changes of this period, gave way to women's demand for equal participation in the political sphere.
During the early 20th century, women were influential in welfare advocacy, particularly in the formulation and…
Academy of Achievement. 10 March 2009. 6 April 2009.
< http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/win0bio-1 >.
Amelia Earhart Website. n.d. 6 April 2009. .
America.Gov. Betka, Mark. 8 March 2006. 6 April 2009.
status of women in the pre and post revolutionary days. The paper also touches upon the current status of women to show how the changes that took place in the 19th century finally affected the life of American women in the 20th century.
THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN AMEICA IN THE 17TH AND 19TH CENTUIES
Women in the United States have worked hard to achieve some sort of equality to their male counterparts in every field of activity. Social economic and political conditions have undergone a massive change since the country attained freedom in 1776. Women were a significantly oppressed section of the society in the 17th and 18th centuries, there were no voting rights for them and they were kept out of armed forces and other businesses. This resulted in lack of economic resources for women, which further lowered their position in the country, as they had to depend…
VIRGINIA ROHAN, Staff Writer, AMERICAN HISTORY'S GLASS CEILING., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 11-07-1999, pp y01
Turshen, Meredith, Missing the miracle. Vol. 14, Women's Review of Books, 01-01-1997, pp 19-20
BEST AND WORST STATES FOR WOMEN EMPHASIZE ECONOMIC & POLITICAL DISPARITIES AMONG STATES., U.S. Newswire, 11-19-2002
Status of women in America, http://www.iwpr.org
During the early 19th century, advocacy for equal suffrage was conducted by few people. Frances Wright first publicly advocated womens suffrage in an extensive series of lectures. In 1836, Ernestine ose carried out a similar lecture series, which eventually resulted in a personal hearing before the New York Legislature. However, the petition contained only five signatures and was subsequently denied. The first true women's movement marks July 13, 1848 as its beginning. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and four female friends had a discussion regarding the limitations imposed upon them by society because of their gender. Several days later, this group picked a date to hold a convention to discuss the "social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman." The gathering took place at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 and 20, 1848 (Stodart, 1993).
Elizabeth Cady Stanton constructed a document entitled "Declaration of…
Hektor, L.M. (1994). Florence Nightingale and the women's movement: friend or foe? Nurs Inq, 1(1), 38-45.
Morgan, T.M. (2003). The education and medical practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), first black American to hold a medical degree. J Natl Med Assoc, 95(7), 603-614.
Ramirez, F.O., & McEneaney, E.H. (1997). From women's suffrage to reproduction rights? Cross-national considerations. Int J. Comp Sociol, 38(1-2), 6-24.
Stodart, K. (1993). Suffrage. A pioneer for nursing. Nurs NZ, 1(6), 28-29.
history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.
The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…
A biography of America: The sixties. learner. February 13, 2005.. http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog24/feature/
Eisenberg B. And Ruthsdotter M. Living the Legacy:
The Women's Rights Movement 1848 -- 1998. February 12, 2005. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS. Houghton Mifflin. February 13, 2005.
Nancy Woloch's Chapter 14 "Feminism and Suffrage" (1994, 2nd ed, pp. 326-363) from the general to the specific and back again. Remarkable to me was how three generations (357) of women reacted to a complex and evolving institutional and social environment to adapt and specialize toward the primary goal of woman suffrage. hey achieved this core objective by targeting the strongest leverage, from the woman on the street to their male 'representatives' in the state house, "deliberately and collectively" (Woloch 359), and I add 'persistently,' over five decades (355) through changing leadership and constituent characteristics and preferences. Woloch asks what this achievement contributed toward "the overhaul of attitudes demanded in 1848" (359). he result was a model for accomplishing massive structural social change that led directly from Seneca Falls through the labor movement, the Great Society era Civil Rights Movement, to Stonewall and Section 503 of the Civil Rights Act…
This all being said, the sacrifices were difficult for some, maybe not for others; the painful decisions seem to have been tactical rather than rejections in principle, and in easier circumstances may have been different. Achieving the vote took partnership and pragmatism, building on the contribution of the English suffrage movement (351) and the struggle for equality going back to the Underground Railroad. Those women hung out a quilt pointing the way to a freedom and equality which, while still persistently elusive today, is far closer for our generation than it was for theirs. What is important now is for feminists of all genders and heritage, not to succumb to illusions "[t]here is nothing for women to rally around" (Anna Shaw, qtd. In Woloch 358). Knowing this story makes our work seem less of a burden than an obligation, if we can finally rise above "the indifference, the inertia, the apathy of women" (Susan B. Anthony, qtd. In Woloch 328) that may be our only remaining obstacle today.
Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Success: Susan B. Anthony's Speech
The 1870s went down in history as the decade when women's movements stood strongly against oppression, demanding that women be given the same rights as men. In 1873, Susan Anthony was arrested and later released on a $100 dollar fine, all because she had voted in the presidential election the previous year. This, in her mind, amounted to oppression, and was an injustice not only to her, but to all American women. She took her stand, stating that if African-Americans, who prior to 1865 were not considered U.S. citizens, could vote, then women who were citizens by every technical definition, had every right to vote. Antony's speech, 'omen's Right to Vote' successfully combines pathos, logos, and ethos, using both facts and personal testimony to create emotional resonance in her audience. Although this speech alone was not sufficient to grant women the right to vote, it…
Halsall, Paul. "Modern History Sourcebook: Susan B. Anthony: Women's Right to Vote." Fordham University, 1997. Web. 31 May 2014 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1873anthony.asp
Miraglia, Ann. "Susan B. Anthony: the Rhetorical Strategy of Her Constitutional Argument (1872)." The College at Brockport Library. State University of New York, 1989. Web. 31 May 2014 http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=cmc_theses
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
"Their activities emphasized the sensual, pleasure-seeking dimensions of the new century's culture and brought sexuality out from behind the euphemisms of the nineteenth century (1997). This was seen in the dances of the era (e.g., the slow rag, the bunny hug, etc.) as well as the dress styles of American women. Women's appearance changed. They no longer were buried under petticoats and big skirts, restricted by their corsets. The silhouette was now slender and smaller, allowing a greater freedom of movement as well as more exposure of arms and legs. Women who worked were now considered "bachelor girls" as opposed to "homeless women" or "spinsters" (1997). By 1920, the image of the flapper girl was everywhere; this can be viewed as an example of just how far women had come.
Unit III: 1921 -- 1945:
Zelda Fitzgerald, wife of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, said in 1924: "I like the jazz…
Collins, G. (2009). When everything changed: the amazing journey of American women
from 1960 to the present. Little, Brown & Company; 1st edition.
Evans, S. (1997). Born for liberty: a history of women in America. Free Press.
"y the end of the 1980s many departments had set up detailed procedures to ensure equality and had employed full-time and specialist staff to promote and pursue such policies." (Heidensohn, 1995, p. 60)
The number of females in law enforcement was to increase rapidly and in 1986 about 9 per cent of U.S. officers were female. (Adler 1990) One of the key issues that had to be overcome was the concern about women policemen on patrol. In 1968 "Indianapolis sent two women out on patrol... ut the decision of Washington, DC to deploy eighty-six women on patrol in 1972, and to evaluate their performance, is perhaps the best-known example." LOCH P, and ANDERSON D., et al. 1973)
With these advances of women's rights and the continual evidence of female ability and accomplishment in the field of law enforcement, women were able to apply for all specialist posts in the Unites…
ADLER Z. (1990), a Fairer Cop, U.S. Police Record on Equal Opportunities, Wainwright Trust Study Tour Report No. 1 (Wainwright Trust: London).
BLOCH P., and ANDERSON D., et al. (1973), Policewomen on Patrol: Major Findings: First Report, (Police Foundation: Washington, DC)
Baksys G. Montrose names first woman as police chief. Retrieved 16 December from Daily Gate City. http://www.dailygate.com/articles/2004/11/17/news/news2.txt
FEINMAN C. (1986), Women in the Criminal Justice system (2nd edn., Praeger: New York).
U.S. AFTER 1865
DYNAMICS OF GENDER POLITICS IN THE 1910S AND 1920S
In the period during World War 1, the place of the women was in chemical plants, steel foundries, and munitions factories as a way of serving their country. After the creation of the Army Corps of Nurses, many women went abroad as nurses, and this gave them strong moral arguments for their voting rights. Women tactics and immoral way of treatment forced the Congress to act on the issue, and it was on August 26, 1920, that President Wilson declares his favor on women suffrage. From this day on, the style of women changed and between 1910 and 1920, many women were present in the labor force. Moreover, a notable difference was also evident in the kind of works the women engaged in, and this led to the decrease in the number of female household servants, dressmakers, farmhands,…
Spheres and Suffrage
During the period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there were two spheres which separated men and women in society. This seems incongruous in our modern time where men and women interact freely and females have achieved positions of power in every branch of business, politics, and research. But, for women living in the 1800s and 1900s, they were limited in their potential by their gender. The men were allowed to reside in the external sphere, engaging with other men in business and going to the club in the evening. Only men were given the privilege of power in the outside world. omen were only allowed control in their homes, the domestic sphere. The woman's life was centered on her home and her family. It would be the charge of some very brave women who refused to live their lives separated from the outside and…
Dubois, Ellen. "The Next Generation of Suffragists: Harriot Stanton Blatch and Grassroots
Politics." Creating the State in an Industrialized Nation, 1900-1945. 2002. Print.
McCurry, Stephanie. "Women's Work: The Gender Division of Labor in Yeoman
Households of South Carolina before the Civil War." Creating the State in an Industrialized Nation, 1900-1945. 2002. Print.
The intended audience is the general reader, scholars and historians. Overall, this work is highly-valuale as a source for all those wishing to understand the complexities of the women's movement in the 20th century.
Google Book Search: (http://ooks.google.com/ooks?vid=ISBN0838632238&id=w9TzuCg-XYC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=women%27s+rights+movement&sig=7y7B0ojdo7sgtl_agde_B1PdVnE#PPP10,M1).
Law, Cheryl. Suffrage and Power: The Women's Movement, 1918-1928. New York:
I.B. Tauris & Company (Palgrave Macmillan), 1997. 260 pages ISBN
This ook y acclaimed scholar Cheryl Law of New York University examines how the women's movement, through its network of organization and its powerful and widespread campaigning, was transformed and developed into a formidale fighting force which aided in its continuing assault on entrenched positions to secure women's full and equal participation in society -- in politics, commerce, industry and the professions, education, welfare, politics and for franchise extension. It also examines the myths associated with the decline in the women's movement following World War I. It contains eleven major sections…
bibliography and an index. Due to its scholarly nature, this work is not intended for general audiences and would make an excellent addition to a class focusing on the women's movement in early 20th century America.
Google Book Search: ( http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN1860642012&id=C17PslUo1DYC&dq=women%27s+rights+movement ).
Under eno's direction, on April 22, 2000, under the scrutiny of national and international media and news cameras:
"Armed INS officers entered the home (where the child had been living with close relatives) before dawn and within three minutes carried Elian out to a waiting government van. Hours later, the boy was reunited with his father at Andrews Air Force Base near Washington, D.C., and eventually they returned to Cuba (Emert 2005 p. 144)."
eno's role in handling the case of Gonzalez was highly controversial and politically provocative. eno withstood with the assault of the Hispanic and Cuban communities around the country, but held firm in her position on handling the matter. It was not, however the first time that eno came under attack for handling a controversial matter. She likewise was responsible for the attack on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, where David Koresh was the spiritual…
Blumenthal, K., 2005. Let Me Play: The Story of Title IX: The Law that Changed the Future of Women, Simon and Schuster, New York, New York.
Emert, P.R., 2005. Attorney General: Enforcing the Law, The Oliver Press, Inc.,
Estrich, S., 2005. The Case for Hillary Clinton, HarperCollins Publishing, New York,
gender roles in the workplace pre-exist much of what we think defines what work really is; not only do they pre-exist the modern working world of offices and factories, but they also seems older than more basic things, like writing and currency. From the world of the Tasaday tribe in the Philippines to that of such fields as genetic engineering and astrophysics, men and women are compelled to function within the workforce in different ways. In the United States, women dominate fields such as nursing, teaching, and clerical positions, while fields like engineering, programming and accounting are thought to be the domain of men. Some positions, such as those of flight attendants and nurses, are considered so intrinsically "female" that many men refuse to enter these fields for fear that others will question their sexual preference. Other more coveted positions, such as that of the CEO of a large company,…
Last chapter to include a section for reflection-comments on the research process and, explanation of what I have learned while doing research. Research project must have practical impact on an organization. Purely academic studies are not acceptable. Need to establish measurable objectives.
This action research project is the final component in my degree program.
Women at Work: What causes lack respect towards women in the workplace. http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/friedan.htm
" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)
However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.
3.2. Different perspectives
The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…
Albury, R.M. (1999). Beyond the Slogans. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Almond, B., & Ulanowsky, C. (1990). HIV and Pregnancy. The Hastings Center Report, 20(2), 16+. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Amaro, H., & Raj, a. (2000). On the Margin: Power and Women's HIV Risk Reduction Strategies. 723. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database,
War has always affected women, even though combat itself was normally not a part of the female experience. After the Industrial Revolution, the lives of women were increasingly altered in the presence of war. The Industrial Revolution changed the ways women worked and also changed the gender roles in the home. Post-Industrial Revolution wars involved women's voices and women's work far more than pre-Industrial Revolution wars. Early female experiences with wars showed that women served as helpers rather than as front-line fighters. Thus, women's roles within the military were overshadowed by their male counterparts. Women also continued to play into overall gender stereotypes and social norms. For example, the Spanish Civil War in 1898 saw the presence of hundreds of female military nurses. While this showed that women were becoming increasingly viable citizens in pre-suffrage United States, it also illustrates the slow social progress of women. Women's non-military work…
This meant that men held positions of power and authority in all the public spheres including economics/business, politics/the law, and the bearing of arms. Men also possessed social status that women did not have, enabling the perpetuation of a patriarchal society.
y applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra ergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra ergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the…
By applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra Bergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra Bergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the leadership is a male-specific quality. Cather creates an overtly political novel with O Pioneer! As her protagonist single-handedly proves that women can be completely self-determined and self-reliant. This would have been a revolutionary view when Cather first published her novel.
The 1913 novel O Pioneer! By Willa Cather, one of the greatest American women writers, is a good illustration for the frontier literature in general, regardless of its political views on gender. However, Cather differentiates herself from her contemporaries and other writers in the Wild West genre, by stressing the other half of the human race: the half that is typically excluded from histories and literature alike. Cather accomplishes what Robinson comments on in "Treason Our Text," a feminist challenge to the accepted and established literary canon. The established canon of literature propagated by mainstream academia is a decidedly and unapologetically patriarchal one; that is, until the second wave of feminism (Robinson). It is therefore important to appreciate Cather's novel within her own historical context, which makes O Pioneer! truly revolutionary. Cather, although certainly not the first or only female American novelist, expands the canon of American literature by addressing the social, political, and economic worldviews from a more global and inclusive perspective, one that takes into account the lives of half of humanity. Patriarchal literature limits itself to constructing women out of stereotypes and projections of feminine ideals and mystiques; Cather simply tells it like it is (Duby, Perrot and Pantel).
The novels heroine embodies all feminine characters who disregard the complex American West during the time the novel was written. The narratives reveals out the difficulties experienced by women
personal recitation of faith and the struggles that come with it. The latter of those two starts on page nine of the book. One thing that jumps out is when the narrator presents to her father that she is a Christian. His reaction is so visceral and borderline violent so as to be appalling. He simply tries to scare his daughter but his reaction is jarring nonetheless. Her feelings about the matter are quite notable as well given that she conflates both his influence on her as it pertains to counteracting the Christian faith and that of Satan doing the same. There is then a shift back to the historical support or persecution (usually the latter) of Christians. Indeed, Christians (and Jews for that matter) have been persecuted a great deal over the years. There were other times where one might say that Christians were doing the persecuting (e.g. the…
Madigan, S. (1998). Mystics, visionaries, and prophets. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
omen's Suffrage in the UK
Harold Smith emphasizes that the origins of the women's suffrage campaign in Victorian England stemmed from a larger campaign for reform concerning the franchise in general. Smith is, in fact, careful to note at the very beginning of his study that there has been a recent historiographical shift, which emphasizes the "specifically women's protest against a gender system" by adding some distance between women's suffrage and the different (but related) campaigns for electoral reform in the U.K. In the earlier nineteenth century (Smith 7). In the first three decades of the nineteenth century, for example, British qualifications to vote were determined not only by gender (males only) but also by property ownership and monetary worth, meaning that effectively speaking only 3% of the adult male population could vote. (There were also additional difficulties in this period related to religious qualifications for electoral office: until 1829,…
Smith, Harold. The British Women's Suffrage Campaign, 1866-1928. Second edition. New York: Pearson, 2007. Print.
omen's Roles in Early America (1700-1780)
hat were the roles of women in the early American period from roughly 1700-1780? Although a great portion of the history of families and people in early America during this period is about men and their roles, there are valid reports of women's activities in the literature, and this paper points out several roles that women played in that era.
The Roles of omen in Early America -- 1700 -- 1780
In the "Turns of the Centuries Exhibit" (TCE) relative to family life in the period 1680 to 1720, the author notes that colonial societies were organized around "…patriarchal, Biblically-ordained lines of authority." Males basically asserted the authority over their wives, their children, their servants and any other dependents that may have been in the household. One reason for the male dominance in this era was do to the fact that "…law did not…
Breneman, Judy Anne. (2002). The Not So Good Lives of New England's Goodwives. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.historyofquilts.com/earlylife.html.
Cody, Cheryll Ann. (2003). In the Affairs of the World: Women, Patriarchy, and Power in Colonial South Carolina. Journal of Southern History, 69(4), p. 873.
Letters of Abigail Adams. (2002). Letters Between Abigail Adams and her Husband, John
Adams. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.thelizlibrary.org/suffrage/abigail.htm .
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
They were not content to merely 'talk the talk', but were bound and determined to 'walk the walk' as well. They ended their declaration of independence by stating they would "circulate tracts, petition the State and national legislatures, and endeavor to enlist the pulpit and press on our behalf. We hope this Convention will be followed by a series of Conventions embracing every part of the country" (Sochen, 1974, p. 127).
Not surprisingly, some people took these women seriously and others did not. Men were especially prone to making snide remarks about how only barren, lonely and 'misfit' women attended this convention. They essentially implied that if these women were able to land a husband and have some kids, they would stop this 'nonsense' (Sochen, 1974). But it was not nonsense. In fact, most of it made perfect sense. And as much as anti-feminists wanted the women's movement to just…
DuBois, E.C. & Dumenil, L. (2005) Through women's eyes: An American history with documents, Boston/New York: Beford/St. Martins.
Hurner, S. (2006, July) Discursive identity formation of suffrage women: reframing the "cult of true womanhood" through song, Western Journal of Communication, 70, 234-261
Kramarae, C. & Spender, D. (2000) Routledge international encyclopedia of women: Global women's issues and knowledge Vol. 1, New York: Routledge.
Leach, W. (1980) True love and perfect union: The feminist reform of sex and society
hen conducting an ideological critique, the researcher must be concerned with the way ideology is evidenced (or repressed) in the artifact, and a useful concept for identifying these "traces of ideology" is the notion of the ideograph, or the "political language which manifests ideology," which, according to Michael McGee, is "characterized by slogans" (Foss 248, McGee 5). McGee argues "that ideology in practice is a political language, preserved in rhetorical documents," and as such, can be identified in rhetorical artifacts via the "vocabulary of ideographs" frequently deployed in speech. Here it is important to note the importance of context, because in general McGee identifies ideographs as particular words, but one need not view these specific words as eternally and always ideographs; that is to say, these specific words may be identified as ideographs "by the usage of such terms in specifically rhetorical discourse, for such usage constitute excuses for specific…
Condit, Celeste Michelle. "In Praise of Eloquent Diversity: Gender and Rhetoric as Public
Persuasion." Womens Studies in Communication 20.2 (1997): 91-116.
Fernald, Anne E. "A Feminist Public Sphere? Virginia Woolfs Revisions of the Eighteenth
Century." Feminist Studies 31.1 (2005): 158-82.
Such was the case by the mid 19th century as women advocated the rights of all people to be free, as it followed logically that they would then seek the same rights for women as a group. On July 19, 1848,.".. The Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls opened with James Mott, Coffin Mott's husband presiding over 300 people in attendance (Brammer, 2000, p. 22)." Three hundred people in attendance for a woman's rights rally was a remarkable indication of the interest and support as it existed early in the campaign for women's rights. " argue that two distinct founding schools of suffrage history, both feminist in perspective, were evident by 1914. Two main inheritors of these schools are distinguished, and termed "new feminist' and 'masculinist' schools... (Holton, S., 2000, p. 13)." Marching in parades, demonstrating for woman's rights and no end to manipulating their husbands, women were by 1914…
It was inevitable that women would, by early 20th century, achieve emancipation. The road towards emancipation began in the late 19th century through the agency of other social movements, especially the Anti-Slavery Society (Brammer, L., 2000, p. 21). "In 1840, the U.S. women delegates sent to the Anti-Slavery Convention in London were refused entry to the convention and forced to sit in the gallery (p. 21)."
The action taken against them at the Convention in London was enough to begin talk about the gender related disparities that were causing women to "sit in the gallery (p. 21). At that time, women did not have a right to vote, or the right to participate in socially or politically significant events, except to the extent that they demonstrated a presence in show support of their husbands. Women's significant roles were that of supporting their husbands, and functions related to the family, home, and church (Ulrich, L., 1990). However, women's rights were inevitable as was the end of slavery, because when human rights, certain basic freedoms, are denied a people, then those people will respond by rebellion and revolution against that which holds them bound.
Such was the case by the mid 19th century as women advocated the rights of all people to be free, as it followed logically that they would then seek the same rights for women as a group. On July 19, 1848,.".. The Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls opened with James Mott, Coffin Mott's husband presiding over 300 people in attendance (Brammer, 2000, p. 22)." Three hundred people in attendance for a woman's rights rally was a remarkable indication of the interest and support as it existed early in the campaign for women's rights. "I argue that two distinct founding schools of suffrage history, both feminist in perspective, were evident by 1914. Two main inheritors of these schools are distinguished, and termed "new feminist' and 'masculinist' schools... (Holton, S., 2000, p. 13)." Marching in parades, demonstrating for woman's rights and no end to manipulating their husbands, women were by 1914 well within the pursuit of their rights, but had not gained the right to vote in England or America (p.13-14) on the other hand, the women of the American south seemed very much behind the times as regards the feminist movement by 1914 (Brown, a., 2000).
Changing Role of Women in the Late 1800s
In "A azard of New Fortunes," William Dean owells explores a number of themes through the interaction of the major characters in the novel. Much of his focus revolves around the women in the book and the interaction of these women with each other and with men. owells writes about issues contemporary to the time of the book's publication in 1890. Not coincidentally the 1880s marked the beginning of a significant upsurge in the women's movement. "A azard of New Fortunes" presents women who abide by the old values in contrast to women who have begun to adopt the values that eventually lead to full suffrage for women, more education opportunities for women, and more career choices for women. Women would become increasingly vocal about their opinions and begin to organize themselves for a direct assault on the institutions that were so…
Howells illustrates the crosscurrents of the late 1800s in the United States by conceiving two conflicting characters, Mrs. March and Alma Leighton. Mrs. March represents the traditional good wife who is her husband's confidant and who supports him in every way. Alma represents the petulant "new woman" who has no sense of compromise and no sense of responsibility except to her. Howells portrayal of Mrs. March is much kinder than his portrayal of Alma. With the wave of social change yet to crest, Howells is more inclined to the traditional than to the radical. Ultimately though the ideal situation would be a balance between the traditional and the radical.
Howells, William Dean. A Hazard of New Fortunes. Aug 2002. Produced by David Widger for The Project Gutenberg Etext. 23 Feb 2002.
Revolutionary Women for Liberty and Freedom
Although they lived in an era defined by the pursuit of personal freedom, as their male counterparts courageously waged a successful revolution against the tyranny of the British monarchy, there were several patriotic women who made their presence felt during the tumultuous time of America's birth. From the poignant letters written by Abagail Adams to her husband John, the diplomat and statesman who worked tirelessly as a Founding Father to help form the foundation of a new union, to the steady hand of companionship provided by Martha Washington to her husband George as he led an undermanned and outgunned army against the most powerful armed forces in the world, women exerted their influence largely from behind the scenes. With the concept of liberty emerging as an ideal worth fighting for, as thousands of Americans bravely laid down their lives to secure liberty for their…
This is a small step towards the improvement of opportunities for women in the Middle East. However, Turkey is considered a "soft" power in the Middle East (Altunisik, 2005), so this small step alone is unlikely to result in immediate sweeping change. However, this does represent a small step and demonstrates that the women's movement is gaining strength.
Middle Eastern culture centers on the village and the local conditions Societies within the Middle East developed in geographically isolated pockets. Historically, these pockets had little contact with each other and developed their own ideologies and traditions that made them unique. Among those traditions is how they define women's roles and treat them in regard to education and career opportunities.
One such example of this distinction due to locality is the case of India. Southern India follows a matrilineal family system, while a patrilineal system is followed in the North (Ghandi, 2003).…
References Bureau. Retrieved June 22, 2009 from http://www.prb.org/Publications/PolicyBriefs/EmpoweringWomenDevelopingSocietyFe
Zambelis, C. (2005). The Strategic Implications of Political Liberalization and Democratization
in the Middle East. Parameters. 35 (3): 87.