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Woodrow Wilson and WWI
When people think of the First World War, they think of Woodrow Wilson and his decision to enter the war. However, some scholars argue that it was not Wilson's decision but his cabinet's decision to actually enter WWI.
Examined here will be both primary and secondary sources addressing Wilson and the war, which will provide information as to the decision he made and what was really behind it (i.e. was he going by the advice of his cabinet, or did he, personally, decide that entering WWI was the best option for the United States at that time in history. Wilson was in office from 1913 to 1921. He was a historian as well as dabbling in political science, and his thoughts on ruling the country and doing it correctly were very serious. He also created a lot of legislation during his first presidential term, including the…
Baker, R.S. (ed.) Woodrow Wilson, Life & letters (1927-1939).
Coffman, E.M. (1998) The war to end all wars: The American military experience in World War I. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.
Kennedy, D.M. (1982) Over here: The First World War and American society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Link, A.S. The papers of Woodrow Wilson.
" Those who violated the law were imprisoned or fined, and "...even mainstream publications were censored or banned," if they had the audacity to challenge the government on the war effort.
hy was ilson, in the end, defeated by democracy? ilson tried very hard to get his League of Nations proposal passed, and toured the country from coast to coast in a train when he was desperately ill to drum up support. And ilson worked so hard in Paris at the 1919 peace conference that a reporter covering his movements, Ray Stannard Baker (whose article is quoted in www.woodrowwilson.org, the presidential library), wrote: "Once, as is well-known, he broke down entirely and was ill in bed for several days at a very critical moment in the peace conference. Yet such was his power of self-discipline...that he recuperated swiftly, and each morning seemed as full of energy and as eager to…
Encyclopedia Britannica Online. "Woodrow Wilson and the Mexican Revolution." Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-77851/United-States .
Miller Center of Public Affairs / University of Virginia. "American President: An Online
Reference Resource: Woodrow Wilson (1865-1924)." Retrieved Nov. 25, 2007, at http://millercenter.virginia.edu/academic/americanpresident/wilson.
Public Broadcast Service. "The American Experienced: Woodrow Wilson, a Portrait."
oodrow ilson and the Great ar
Before ar broke out in Europe in 1914, The United States practiced a foreign policy of non-involvement and isolationism. The decision by President ilson to enter into the war was therefore a difficult one. In a speech he made to Congress upon formally entering the war in 1917, the President stated, "I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because there are serious, very serious, choices of policy to be made, and made immediately, which it was neither right nor constitutionally permissible that I should assume the responsibility of making." ilson's decision to enter into war came about directly as a result of the German's unrestrained submarine warfare tactics; in spite of agreements to the contrary, Germany continued to attack British merchant submarine ships. ith the growing support of the American people, ilson declared war on Germany in April of 1917 and on Austria-Hungary…
'Neutrality in the Great War: 1914 -- 1917." Woodrow Wilson Study Guide. Spark Notes. Retrieved 21 July 2005 online from Neutrality in the Great War: 1914 -- 1917
Wilson, Woodrow. War message to Congress. Woodrow Wilson, War Messages, 65th Cong., 1st Sess. Senate Doc. No. 5, Serial No. 7264. Retrieved 21 July 2005. Reproduced online at http://www.lib.byu.edu/~rdh/wwi/1917/wilswarm.html
"Woodrow Wilson." 19 July 2005. Wikipedia.com. Retrieved 21 July 2005 online from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson
ilson's idealism was the progenitor of the modern human rights movement
President ilson delivered a speech to the Pan American Union in December, 1913
the Monroe Doctrine was "unfolding into a new doctrine -- the ilson Doctrine of Pan Americanism" (Brooks, et al., 2007).
ilson said his proposal was based "…upon the principles of absolute political equality among states, equality of right, not equality of indulgence" (Brooks)
But to ward off the expansion of Soviet communism the U.S. supported dictators
was willing to "support violent dictators with a record of human rights abuses as long as they declared themselves anticommunist" (Galvan, 2012)
THREE: The U.S. trained forces for military dictators
As a way to preserve "U.S. hegemony" in the 20th century the U.S. trained and provided funding for "friendly dictators" in the 1930s and military dictatorships in the 1970s, all in the name of destabilizing "every left-leaning regime…
Brooks, Eugene Clyde, and Wilson, Woodrow. 1916 / Digitized in 2007. Woodrow Wilson
as President. Bel Air, CA: Row, Peterson and Company.
Hosenball, Mark. 2012. Exclusive: Obama authorizes secret U.S. support for Syrian Rebels.
Reuters. Retrieved March 21, 2013, from http://www.reuters.com .
This assumed the rest of his presidency, as managing the war was one of the largest undertakings of the American Presidency. Wilson found the country ill-prepared for war, and he spent a lot of time and effort mobilizing the forces quickly in order to assist allies. Since it was an allied effort, Wilson worked closely with Great Britain and France to work out attack plans and especially naval movements (Marshall, 1982).
He continued to rally for peace even while the United States was immersed in the war. In 1918 he went to Paris as the head of the American commission for negotiating a peace in Europe. He was well-received but the allies did not feel they could pull out of the war. Near the end of his term, Wilson suffered a stroke and discontinued any foreign travel, curtailing much of his presidential duties as well (Lorant, 1968).
Lorant, S. (1968). The glorious burden: The American presidency, a concise political history of the United States in terms of our presidents and presidential elections. New York: Harper & Row.
Marshall, S.L.A. (1982). The American heritage history of World War I. New York: American Heritage Publishing Company / Bonanza Books.
Woodrow Wilson and Human Rights
The issue of human rights is to this day one of the most important aspects of international law and often seen as the cornerstone of international cooperation and the basis of legal adjustments on a constant basis However, despite the fact that this issue is on the front pages of most newspapers almost on a daily basis nowadays, the human rights movement traces its roots to the beginning of the 20th century, in Woodrow Wilson's idealism and its promotion of equality among states as a matter of right and an issue of international law To this day, elements of the Monroe Doctrine are present in the foreign policy approach of the United States, from the Cold War approaches to the Obama reactions to the Arab Spring
The Monroe Doctrine was not a very effective or pivotal document in the history of the American continents The…
. Britain was infuriated and demanded that the United Nations and the International Court of Justice take action against Mossadegh. When they overruled Britain's claim, Churchill supported both a military invasion of Persia and a covert operation to take out Mossadegh, both of which were discouraged by Truman, who was opposed to imperialism and supported nationalist leaders. However, the Eisenhower administration supported the overthrow of Mossadegh when Montague Woodhouse, a MI6 agent working in the British embassy in Tehran, told the high ranking CIA officials that Iran could turn communist and chose to "emphasize the communist threat to Iran rather than the need to recover control of the oil industry," even though the threat of Iranian communism was very low. The United States soon abided to the wishes of the British and Operation Ajax, a CIA operation, was initiated shortly after Eisenhower's election. A series of orchestrated anti-Mossadegh protests, bribing of Iranian clergy and parliament members, and economic problems caused by British blockades, mainly on oil exports caused a referendum which ousted prime minister Mohammed Mossadegh and made Shah Reza Pehlavi the highest ranking official of Iran. Not only did this action set a precedent for the United States, which began a witch hunt on pro-communist and anti-American leaders, but also had major blowbacks as Iran fell into chaos in the more well-known 1979 Iranian Revolution, removing Pehlavi and instituting a fundamentalist Islamic government and creating huge anti-American sentiment, which strains Iranian-American relations to this day.
As Truman predicted, the deposing of Mossadegh would be the first of many American orchestrated interventions, namely by the CIA
. But success of the Iranian operation was only the catalyst for the United States' next maneuver. The United States had announced in the Monroe Doctrine that the Americas were not open to European colonialism or exploitation, and by the 20th Century, European influence over the Americas had all
speech in history, oodrow ilson gave his now famous Fourteen Points Speech on January 8, 1918. In this speech he outlined fourteen elements he felt were integral for a lasting peace. These elements were meant to establish ethical aims for America's participation in the arduous orld ar I. In writing the speech, ilson hoped to encourage the end of hostilities between Central powers. "The Fourteen Points in the speech were based on the research of the "Inquiry," a team of about 150 advisers led by Colonel Edward M. House, ilson's foreign policy advisor, into the topics likely to arise in the anticipated peace conference." (Newworldencyclopedia.org) hile there was an initial failure on the plan, there was a notable impact from ilson's actions.
Instead of peace talks, there was intensification of effort on Germany's part in the European western front. hile this was alarming, after ten months, the world witnessed the…
Auchincloss, Louis. Woodrow Wilson. New York: Viking, 2000. Print.
MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919. New York: Random House, 2002. Print.
Newworldencyclopedia.org,. "Fourteen Points - New World Encyclopedia." N.p., 2016. Web. 25 Feb. 2016.
Roosevelt believed in an independent presidency and thought this was best for the American people. Milkis notes that Roosevelt was strongly influenced by ilson and his procedures. Roosevelt shard his vision but he was also more concerned with "practical rather than theoretical considerations" (482). Roosevelt had a vision to establish a "personal party" (484) and Milkis claims that this was an attempt to alter the character of constitutional government in America. Roosevelt won the presidency in 1932 with the pledge "to increase government spending to restore purchasing power" (Noble 1071). e know this as the New Deal and this deal had many government spending programs because it acknowledges many "economic truths as self-evident" (Chodorow 919). For example, Roosevelt believed that individuals had the right to earn enough money to provide for their family, and every family had the right to live in a decent home. These rights were significant because…
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Chodorow, Stanley. A History of the World. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. 1986.
Davidson, James, et al. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. 1990.
Dimock, Marshall. "Woodrow Wilson as Legislative Leader." The Journal of Politics. 19.1. JSTOR Resource Database. Retreived September 6, 2008. http://www.jstor.org
To whom their respective representatives were politically beholden domestically (Goldfield, Abbott, & Argersinger, 2004). By the time of the Conference, Wilson had himself already violated two of his own Fourteen Points by acceding to Britain's demands that contradicted Wilson's proposal for unrestricted international rights to the seas and by sending U.S. troops to ussia in connection with support for the anti-Communists instead of respecting ussia's right to self-determination (Goldfield, Abbott, & Argersinger, 2004).
Domestic Political Opposition Faced by Wilson
Domestically, Wilson encountered the greatest resistance to his proposed solution and his vision of a lasting peace in Europe during Treaty of Versailles in connection with the inclusion of the U.S. In the League of Nations (Goldfield, Abbott, & Argersinger, 2004). In Congress, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts led the epublican eservationists and championed the political opposition to Senate ratification. Together with another group of epublican representatives, the Irreconcilables, they proposed…
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-
LeFeber, W. (1994). The American Age. New York: Norton.
United States, oodrow ilson, Neutrality I (the U.S. neutrality I) essay topic Be explain European background war triple entente show blows assasination Archduke Ferdinand war breaks theme neutrality.
The United States during the First orld ar
The First orld ar had a strong effect on society in the 1910s as people had trouble understanding who was right in fighting this conflict and if the respective power needed support in its endeavor. The condition of the U.S. is particularly interesting when considering its initial position in regard to the war, considering that the country focused on remaining neutral for the largest part of the conflict. Even though it does not rival the Second orld ar when considering the number of victims and its overall gravity, the First orld ar plays an essential part in the history of humanity because of the set of reforms that it triggered around the world. Although…
"Lesson 3: Wilson and American Entry into World War I," Retrieved October 9, 2011, from the Edsitement Website: http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/wilson-and-american-entry-world-war-i#sect-introduction
"The First World War, 1914-1918," Retrieved October 9, 2011, from the Colby Website: http://www.colby.edu/personal/r/rmscheck/GermanyC1.html
"U.S. Declaration of Neutrality, 19 August 1914," Retrieved October 9, 2011, from the First World War Website: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usneutrality.htm
Theodore oosevelt and Woodrow Wilson on Progressivism and eform in 20th century America
As the United States entered the 20th century, American society had witnessed significant changes in the implementation of regulations and reforms in the business and government sectors. Legislation regulating business companies and corporations' activities have been formulated and implemented in the period more popularly known as the period of progressivism. Progressivism is a program introduced by the government which sanctions and attempts to formulate solutions that aim to prevent the detrimental effects of urbanization and industrialization in American society. During this period, two American presidents became known for their active participation in inducing progressivism and reform in the country: Theodore oosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the reforms imposed by oosevelt and Wilson during the period of progressivism. This paper argues that between oosevelt and Wilson, it is the former which…
Davidson, J. And M. Lytle. (1992). After the fact: the art of historical detection. NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Peacemaking aims of President Woodrow Wilson and Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau differed, although both ultimately wanted a peaceful resolution to mark the end of the Great War. Wilson advocated a comprehensive Fourteen Point plan, which advocated for a diplomatic end of the conflicts that had led to and perpetuated the wartime conflict in the post-Ottoman world. Wilson emphasized free trade and national sovereignty as key points. His approach to peacemaking was less punitive and more proactive, at least on paper, than that of Clemenceau and even David Lloyd George. Clemenceau hoped for a more heavy-handed response to the German's behavior during World War One. France had suffered tremendous economic blows. Wilson's declaration of reverting the Alsace-Lorraine to France was not believed to be sufficient from Clemenceau's perspective. Clemenceau wanted to severely debilitate, even decapitate Germany. Wilson had hopes for a future in which European powers could be balanced politically.
Present day international affairs are done to a level much greater than ilson wanted them to, making it especially intriguing for him to examine them and to cooperate with a professional team in looking over the world's problems and finding solutions to them. Although ilson supported the concept of intervening in the affairs of other countries when democracy seemed to be threatened in these territories, he also supported the theory of self-governing, insisting that each country should be allowed to govern itself as it wishes, with international intervention being limited to preserving freedom, instead of forcing people to act against their will.
oodrow ilson's plans to see an international committee preserving peace failed to the highest degree during the years in which the League of Nations functioned. Not only did the organization fail in preserving peace, but in some cases it actually expressed indifference to conditions involving an oppressing country…
1. Cranston, Ruth, The Story of Woodrow Wilson: Twenty-Eighth President of the United States, Pioneer of World Democracy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1945).
2. Hoover, Herbert, The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson, 1st ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958)
She hid the severity of ilson's condition from the public, controlling access to him to everyone except herself and his doctors for a time (Thurston). However, historical evidence suggests that ilson was incredibly weakened by the stroke. Even controlling what reached him and what did not gave her a considerable amount of power. Her actions were barely within the confines of acceptability at the time. It is not surprising that many saw her as "President" at the time.
Historians debate whether to call her the first woman president, or whether, as she stated, she was only acting as ilson's help mate at the time. Certainly, in the context of her time period, she was acting as no women had ever dared in the past. Instead of going to the President's advisors and asking them for advice, she took on the role herself, essentially snubbing their authority as males. She did…
Ashby, R. Woodrow and Edith Wilson. Canada: Byron Preiss Visual Publications, Inc. 2005.
Grant and ilson
I propose that doing a comparison of Presidents Ulysses S. Grant and oodrow ilson would allow for a comprehensive understanding of how the leadership styles of these two men shaped the United States of America during their respective administrations. They will be compared in terms of their public and political leadership, how they functioned as Chief Executive and the leader of the Executive Branch, and how they functioned as Chief Legislator including their relationship with Congress.
Public and Political Leader:
During his initial run for office, Grant was a very popular man with the American public. He was considered a hero of the Civil ar. His accomplishments included expansion of Republicanism into the south which yielded the first elections of black Congressmen. However, his administration was marred by corruption and he has gone down in history as one of the least effective presidents politically (ilentz 2010).
Blackmon, Douglas A. (2009). Slavery by Another Name: the Re-Enslavement of Black
Americans from the Civil War to World War II. Anchor Books. 357-58.
Cooper, John (2009). Woodrow Wilson: A Biography.
Link, Arthur (1945). "The Baltimore Convention of 1912." American Historical Review. 50(4):
He focused on tariff reform in the Underwood-Simmons Act by arguing that high tariffs created monopolies and hurt consumers, pushed to end certain child labor practices, and above all tried to engender a fairer distribution of public funds for housing, utilities, and public projects (Wilson, 2011).
However, looking back at his pre-World War I policies, it was his adamant work on currency and banking reform that seemed to have the greatest impact on American society. The Federal eserve's Monetary Policy is the most important function of the Fed and is probably the most used policy in macroeconomics. Monetary policy refers to the actions undertaken by a central bank, such as the Federal eserve, to influence the availability and cost of money and credit to help promote national economic goals. The Federal eserve Act of 1913 gave the Federal eserve responsibility for setting monetary policy. The Federal eserve controls the three…
Compare the presidencies of Roosevelt, Taft, and ilson. hat made them Progressive presidents? Identify what you believe to be the most important pieces of legislation passed during each administration. hy are these so significant? Finally, be sure to indicate what each president did to expand the meaning of freedom for American
Theodore Roosevelt is often called our nation's first Progressive president. Roosevelt used the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break up heavily consolidated industries that were having a stifling effect upon American commerce and limiting the choices of the American consumer. Roosevelt was also an advocate against child labor and unfair labor practices in general. One of his first noteworthy achievements as president involved negotiating an end to a crippling coal strike. Roosevelt was the first president to pass food and drug safety laws; mandated government supervision of insurance companies; investigated child labor violations and also passed the Hepburn Act,…
Freidel, Frank & Hugh Sidey. "William Howard Taft." White House Historical Association.
2006. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
"Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom." U.S. History. 2014. Web. 30 Jan 2015.
Yarborough, Jean. "Theodore Roosevelt: Progressive Crusader." The Heritage Foundation. Web.
During the turn of the century, maverick muckraking journalists dug up dirt on unfair labor practices including the use of child labor. Muckrakers also drew attention to unsanitary working conditions and the lack of systematic health regulations in meat and food production. President oosevelt responded by initiating a series of labor-related legislation including the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. However, oosevelt at the same time publicly denounced muckrakers and lent them their derogatory name. oosevelt's passion for environmental conservation reflected his personal interests and beliefs more than it did the results of investigative journalism. Environmental conservation emerged as of the main issues that distinguished the progressivism of oosevelt and that of Wilson.
Presidents oosevelt and Wilson transformed the role of the federal government in the United States. Both wielded their executive powers to protect the rights of the poor and working class, to abolish some of the powers…
Theodore Roosevelt." AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://www.americanpresident.org/history/theodoreroosevelt/
Theodore Roosevelt." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 6, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodore_Roosevelt
Thomas Woodrow Wilson." AmericanPresident.org. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at http://www.americanpresident.org/history/woodrowwilson/
Woodrow Wilson." Wikipedia. Retrieved Oct 7, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woodrow_Wilson #Presidency_1913-1921
The South Vietnamese authorities had been fighting the Vietcong communist guerilla forces from the North which were later replaced by the more powerful North Vietnam army. The U.S. had entered the war with the intention of stopping the North Vietnamese communist regime from overtaking South Vietnam. During the 1959-1975 period millions of Vietnamese and tens of thousands of U.S. soldiers had been killed as a result of the war.
The Vietnam War is one of the most debated topics when concerning the U.S. military involvement abroad. There are Americans that condemn the U.S. decision to conduct warfare in Vietnam due to the fact that they consider the war as having been pointless.
Another debated intervention of the U.S. government abroad had been the Yugoslavian war, in which the NATO forces have bombed several areas of the country. The U.S. had allegedly bombed the country with the motive of annihilating all…
Learn About the Vietnam War. (2008, accessed 4 December 2008); available from digitalhistory. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/vietnam/index.cfm
Woodrow Wilson. (From (Nobel Lectures, Peace 1901-1925, Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972, accessed 4 December 2008); available from Noblprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1919/wilson-bio.html
Yugoslavia: The American Way of War. (Revolution, 25 April, 1999, accessed 4 December 2008); available from Revolution. http://revcom.us/a/v20/1000-1009/1003/kosovo.htm
Thirdly, the approach Woodrow Wilson had put forward at the Peace Conference was based on the mutual agreement between the states of the world to avoid any military confrontation in the future. The final point which demanded for the creation of a world body to guarantee "political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike" would have implied certain equality between the parts of this Pact. The actual situation on the ground however could not have supported such a claim because the states present in Paris were split between winners and losers of the war and automatically between countries that were satisfied with the status quo the war had established and the ones that were unsatisfied with the post war situation. Part of the first category, France and ritain, as well as the U.S. tried to keep to the results the armed conflict had reached, while Russia and…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Brigham Young University Library. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. 1996. Accessed 2 August, 2007 at http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/1918/14points.html
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003
World War I
Causes and Consequences of World War I
World War 1
(Causes, America's Contribution to the War, ole of President Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles Failure)
The First World War (1914-1918) or the Great War was fought between the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies included 27 countries of which ussia, the United States of America, France, Japan and Britain are the most prominent. The Central Powers consisted of Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary as the chief combatants. It is the greatest and most atrocious war brawled till date.
There were a number of causes that initiated the brutality of World War I Major causes include imperialism, nationalism, materialism and alliance systems. However, the immediate cause of the beginning of the War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the oyal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. As he was killed by a Serbian nationalist in June…
America in the Great War. (2000). Retrieved from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/snpwwi1.htm
Wilson, Woodrow. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053275
World war one - causes. (2011, 01, 02). Retrieved from http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/causes.htm
World War I. (2009). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117053630
The science of public administration is not a direct or concrete examination. ather, the human tendencies of emotion and subtle manipulation are also included in this discipline. The purpose of this essay is to explore the ideas and major theories of the science of public administration. This essay will examine 5 patriarchal figures to highlight the evolution and transformation of the use of public power for administration purposes.
The presidency of Woodrow Wilson is mostly known in the annals of history as being a disastrous president who legislated away many of the powers and freedoms that were earned by Americans after th 19th century. Wilson's lust for war and violence misled America into World War I and summarily weakened the nation in every way possible. Wilson also failed his people by relinquishing the people's power to print their own money to the Federal eserve in 1914.…
Box, R.C. (1999). Running Government Like a Business Implications for Public Administration Theory and Practice. The American Review of Public Administration, 29(1), 19-43.
Drucker Institute (nd). Peter Drucker's Life and Legacy. Retrieved on 10 Oct from http://www.druckerinstitute.com/peter-druckers-life-and-legacy/
Frederickson, H.G. (1999). The repositioning of American public administration. PS: Political Science & Politics, 32(04), 701-712.
Hood, C. (1995). Emerging issues in public administration. Public administration, 73(1), 165-183.
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…
4)Harting, Tracey L. The Science of "Muddling Through" by Charles E. Lindblom 1998, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~whatley/PADM5302/theo14e.htm
5) Book review. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/1,4096,0130260088,00.html?type=FEA
6) Thomas Wadsworth, Book Review. Political Science. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, Sixth Edition, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://newtexts.com/newtexts/book.cfm?book_id=816
Interconnectedness and Complexity Order Number
Interconnectivity and Complexity
Interconnectedness and Complexity
Given the new challenges facing today's planners, the technical aspect of planning is becoming ever more dominant in my analysis. Thus my hypothesis calling for a "hybrid approach." Planners need to work hand in hand with politicians to achieve public policy goals.
The proper role of planners -- and the question of interconnectedness and complexity in public administration -- has been at the center of debate in the field of planning theory for well over a century now. Sometimes, the goals and roles of planners conflict with each other. On one side, scholars described planners as "value free technical advisors" that were not encouraged to bring up their own values into the planning process. Scholars, on the other hand, have also argued that planning can never be removed from politics. Some have opined that planners should try to influence…
1. The Role of Planners Between Theory and Reality: Revisiting an Old Question, Workshop theme: Planning Theory and Philosophy By Ihab Nabil Elkhawas, MS.Arch, MCRP, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, http://www.scribd.com/doc/7080887/The-Role-of-Planners-Between-Theory-and-Reality-Revisiting-an-Old-Question (Accessed on March 8, 2011)
2. The Study of Administration, W. Wilson, 1887
orld ar One ultimately killed 35 million people -- this alone might have merited its being called "The Great ar," although to a large degree it was the astonishing way in which the deaths happened. On the first day of the Battle of the Somme alone, Britain suffered almost sixty thousand casualties. The ten-month stalemate of the Battle of Verdun resulted in seven hundred thousand (700,000) dead, with no discernible tactical advance made by either side (Tuchman 174). The immediate causes of orld ar One were complicated but fairly straightforward. Many of the long-standing political institutions of Europe were badly outmoded, in particular two of the oldest: the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Each of these institutions were the inheritors of previous large-scale imperial institutions (the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire accordingly) which dated back nearly a thousand years -- and each was failing badly.…
Karp, Walter. The Politics of War: The Story of Two Wars Which Altered Forever the Political Life of the American Republic. New York: Franklin Square Press, 2010. Print.
Tuchman, Barbara. The Guns of August. New York: Ballantine, 1962. Print.
The National Guard, as anticipated by the Constitution's framers, was now a military reserve ready to serve the national interest. The National Guard, while getting large amounts of federal funds and growing in size, continued to struggle to find its true role in military operations and readiness. The natural disasters and civil disorder incidents in which Guardsmen were called to help supported their cause. These included such events as the San Francisco earthquake in 1906; over 21 times" (Smith 1990 P. 11-12).
In Florida, National Guard served the role of preventing the lynching of black, and they maintained order during worker strike in several states. Despite the Dick Act, the National Guard became less favorable before many Americans. Typically, when citizens went into labor strikes across the country and action taken by the undisciplined National Guard against the strikers was very questionable. Typically, National Guard underwent massive massacre of citizens…
Bowman, S. Kapp, L. & Belasco, a. Hurricane Katrina: DOD Disaster Response. CRS Report for Congress.2005.
Doubler, M.D. Listman, J.W., & Goldstein, D.M. "An Illustrated History of America's Citizen-Soldiers the National Guard".. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. 2007.
Doubler. M.D. The Guard Century Series: 1900-1920 Century of Change, Century of Contribution: A Militia Nation Comes of Age. National Guard Association of the United States. 2011.
Coasts, J.A. Base Closure and Realignment: Federal Control over the National Guard. University of Cincinnati Law Review. Vol 75. P 343-370. 2006.
Walter Lippmann, Drift and Mastery
Walter Lippmann wrote Drift and Mastery in 1914, at a time when party politics in the United States were in a distinct state of flux. The 1912 election of Woodrow Wilson was the first time since the Civil War that a Democrat was elected President -- if we recall that Grover Cleveland (the only other Democrat elected in this half-century) was only elected by the support of the renegade "Mugwump" Republicans, who were dissatisfied with corruption within their own party. The split between traditionalism and reform among the Republicans, however, that permitted Cleveland's election had widened into an actual party split -- Theodore Roosevelt ran as a "ull Moose" Progressive against Taft, while Eugene V. Debs ran to Wilson's left as a Socialist. In some sense, Lippmann's Drift and Mastery is a response to the strange condition of partisan politics at this moment in American…
Lippmann, Walter. Drift and Mastery: An Attempt to Diagnose the Current Unrest. New York: Mitchell Kennerley, 1914.
What we can take from this is that their pluralistic society was always being threatened. No matter how far a pluralistic society would come in theories, those individuals without the same morality could immediately endanger and void new theories.
Carpenter focuses on the emergence of bureaucratic policy innovation in the U.S. during the Progressive Era, questioning why the Post Office Department and the Department of Agriculture became politically independent writers of new policy and why the Interior Department did not (Carpenter 2001, 4). To explain these developments, Carpenter gives an essentially new theory of bureaucratic autonomy grounded in organization theory, rational choice models, and network concepts.
In Carpenter's opinion, bureaucracies with very distinct goals are able to achieve autonomy when they are able to create and keep a reputation among different coalitions for offering services that are also very distinct (Carpenter 2001, 4) (which is what happened with the Post…
Bertelli, Anthony. & Lynn, Lawrence. Madison's Managers: Public Administration and the Constitution. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2006.
Carpenter, Daniel P. The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862 -- 1928. Princeton University
Cook, Brian J. Bureaucracy and Self-Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Cold War, the president of the United States was often referred to as the "leader of the free world." This connotes an image of someone with an unsurpassed amount of power and responsibility. From 1861 to 1969, the role of President of the United States progressed from being that of the leader of a moderately powerful, factious republic to being one who was almost singularly responsible for the defense of most of the world's population against Communist tyranny. To understand this evolution requires an broader inquiry into the nature of these leaders and the constantly changing polity that they were elected to represent.
Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt bear the distinction of having lead the country into its largest conflicts during this time frame, which makes them among the most intriguing to historians. Although McKinley, Lyndon Johnson and Truman were also 'wartime' Presidents, their respective conflicts were…
Oxford University Press, 1992.
George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy. Ayer, 1975
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past. Harpercollins, 1986
The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew Rockwell.com. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William R. (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations
After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…
Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,
and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 1978.
Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html .
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html .
Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do .
Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
Nature of American Presidency --
The Nature of the American Presidency and how it has changed during the 20th century
The Nature of the American Presidency and how it has changed during the 20th century
The nature of U.S. presidency of the current century is quite different from that developed by the Founding Fathers during the latter part of the eighteenth century. Provisions in the U.S. Constitution limited earlier Presidents. Up to the 1930s, the federal government was dominated by the Congress. For several years, the Congress held sway over the American President. There were, however, exceptions, such as Woodrow Wilson and Theodore oosevelt, who laid the foundation for a turning point with regard to the Presidential role, for future Presidents of the nation ( Independence Hall Association, 2008-2015).
American Presidency; Theodore oosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and George W. Bush
Theodore oosevelt (1901-1909)
Popularly called the first forward-thinking U.S.…
A&E Television Networks. (2015). George W. Bush. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from History.com: www.history.com
Independence Hall Association. (2008-2015). The Evolution of the Presidency. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from U.S. History: www.ushistory.org
Milkis, S. (2015). Theodore Roosevelt: Impact and Legacy. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia: http://millercenter.org
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
Bernard Baruch and his WIB systematically helped increase national industrial production levels more than 20% as well as appling many price controls at the wholesale level. Unfortunately, these controls were key in raising prices and around 1918 nearly double prior to WWI.
One of the reasons our nation was such a force in the early industrial age was because of the appointment of Baruch as the leader of the War Industries Board. The lasting effect of the changes and methodolgies implemented affect us to this day. Therefore, this single appointment may be one of the more influential ties to why hisstorians are smitten with oosevelt.
The National Origins Act
Chinese immigration was a major factor in the late 1800's and the difference in culture and life philosophies changed many immigration treaties that gave Chinese more privileged travel and residence status in the United States but did not legally permit them…
Chew, Kenneth SY, and John M. Liu. (2004). "Hidden in Plain Sight: Global Labor Force Exchange in the Chinese-American Population, 1880-1940." Population and Development Review Vol. 30
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on May 17, 2005, from EdMonroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
Meyer, Ronald Bruce. (n.d.). Clarence Darrow (1857). Retrieved on May 17, 2005, at http://ronaldbrucemeyer.com/rants/0418almanac.htm
Smitha, Frank E. (1998). World War in 1915: The United States and War at Sea. Retrieved on May 16, 2005, at http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch05b.htm
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
America and the Great War
How the Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism Irrevocably Led to World War I
At face value, it can be concluded that WW started as a result of increasing military power in the participating European nations. It may also be argued that the arms race played a role too. However, an in-depth interrogation of the circumstances that surrounded the outbreak of the war reveals that there were more reasons why countries rose against each other.
To begin with, countries in Europe experienced a strong sense of nationalism that set them apart from the rest. This euphoric nationalistic tendencies and patriotism was also the seed for hatred for other countries. It seemed to the people of that age that for one to excel, the other must be under subjugation or eliminated altogether. Economic competition that existed at the time also played a major role in fuelling…
Wilson, W. (1914). President Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality, issued by The World War I. Retrieved from http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson%27s_Declaration_of_Neutrality
hether it was images of a burning monk, a policeman shooting a person in the head, or a child running naked down a highway, (Loewen 246-48) controversial images seem to be left out of certain texts in the hope that the image of America will not be tarnished by its past actions.
In spite of these efforts, some textbooks have been published recently that take a more objective view at American history, one of which is Howard Zinn's A People's History of the United States. Instead of glossing over the conflict in Vietnam, Zinn presents his readers with a view of the war that is as complex as the war itself. He does not apologize for America's actions, nor does he attempt to omit embarrassing episodes, but successfully presents the reader with the objective facts; mainly that America was fighting a war it could not win. hile many other textbooks…
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History
Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2007. Print.
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper, 2010. Print
World War I
The Causes and How America Joined the War
The events that led to the causes of the first world war had its roots in the Balkans in late July 1914 and there are causes including political, territorial, and economic conflicts among the great European powers in the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, a complex web of alliances, imperialism and nationalism were some of the other causes that led up to the First World War.
The root for the Second World War lay in the peace accords and the punishments that were meted out to the Germans after the First World War and the sense of humiliation and economic debacle following the end of the First World War.
The animosity between the Americans and the Germans started with the sinking of the Lusitania as she made her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York in…
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era…
Brantlinger, Patrick. "Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" and Its Afterlives." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920 50, no. 2 (2007): 172+.
Burton, David H. The Learned Presidency: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988.
Burton, David H. Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician: An Assessment. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.
Collins, Michael L. That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883-1898. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.
With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves, but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the Government and people of the United States....America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other." (Woodrow Wilson's war message)
United States' entry bolstered the Allied forces and gave them extraordinary power over the German Imperial army. With America's entry into the war, things suddenly changed as we were was no longer spectators. The response from the public was however not overwhelming since it had been…
President Woodrow Wilson's War message" accessed online 14th April 2005:
John Bach McMaster. The United States in the World War: D. Appleton & Company. New York. 1918
WWI was also the first time that toxins such as mustard gas were used and this created panic and death in many different countries, significantly raising the death toll from the war and also making it more difficult for the country to stay organized and on-track when it came to supporting the troops that were fighting (Marston, 1981).
Italy was another of the allies that joined up to retaliate against Germany. If it were not for the issue with the alkans, it is likely that WWI would have never taken place, but other countries objected so strongly to the way that Germany handled the problem that they felt they must become involved. When Italy had finally been pushed far enough, it "decided to retaliate" and officially joined the war (Marston, 1981).
For Italy, going into the war meant protecting itself and its allies. It had generally enjoyed a good relationship…
Americanization (1925). Dept. Veterans of Foreign Wars of U.S., America: Great crises in our history told by its makers.
Barnes, Harry Elmer. (1970). The genesis of the world war: an introduction to the problem of war guilt. Howard Fertig, Inc.
Marston, F.S. (1981). The peace conference of 1919: organization and procedure Greenwood Press, 1981.
Rothberg, Gunter E., Moltke, Schlieffen (1986). The Doctrine of Strategic Envelopment. In Makers of modern strategy from Machiavelli to the nuclear age. Peter Paret ed.
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…
Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.
Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.
Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.
Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.
Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…
"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.
Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office
Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
United States entry into world war.
Taking nations from more than half the globe as partakers and victims, the first war broke out, 1914-1918, and that is known as World War 1 or the First World War. Until the World War II broke out, it was widely known as the war which had broken out which had the capacity to put an end to all wars, and commonly it was known as The Great War. In fact multiple factors produced the First World War. An International anarchy was seen all over Europe. On the eve of the World War I there were 25 sovereign states in Europe, each desiring to act on its own individual conscience. None of them was ready to submit to the interference or will of the other, as each of them held its pride high, thinking if they accepted the advice of any other state, their…
Bass, Herbert J., "America's Entry Into World War I." Chicago; Holt, Rinehart And Winston, 1964, p.14-17
Andrea, Alfred J., and Overfield, James H., "The Human Record." Boston; Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994, p.63-66
Pope, Stephen, and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, "The Dictionary of The First World War" New York; St. Marten's Press, 1995, p.24-27
Venzon, Anne Cipriano, "The United States in the First World War" New York; Garland Publishing, Inc., 1995, p.56-59
He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…
Wilson was one of the massive supporters of this League of Nations as he felt it would help in being responsible in preventing subsequent wars. One major aspect of the treaty of Paris in 1919 was that it contained the Treaty of Versailles, one which has a major goal of disciplining Germany and forcing a sense of punishment and finality of Germany. For instance, Germany lost many colonies and investments in lieu of this treaty and their ability to forge a military was crippled and limited to a fraction of its original size; the German air force was also similarly crippled. Germany was also further bankrupt in the reparations that it was ordered to pay -- the equivalent of $132 billion gold marks. These intense punishments were a major aspect of the treaty and were something that did cause a deadlock at certain points in the negotiating process (MacMillan, 195).…
Afflerbach, H. (2007). An Improbable War?: The Outbreak of World War I and European Political. New York: Berghahn Books.
Louis, W. (2006). Ends of British Imperialism. New York: I.B.Tauris.
MacMillan, M. (2007). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. New York: Random House Publishers.
MacMillan, M. (2009). The War that Ended Peace. New York: Random House Publishers.
Lloyd George from England, Woodrow Wilson from the U.S., Orlando from Italy, and Clemenceau from France held a meeting in 1919 to discuss the manner through which Germany was to be made to pay for the harm that had been brought about by World War 1. According to Woodrow Wilson, an agreement founded on his 14-point plan was the most appropriate way of bringing peace to Europe. However, Georges Clemenceau wanted payback. He wanted an assurance that Germany would never attempt to begin another war. Lloyd George welcomed Wilson's idea, however, realized that the British public welcomed Clemenceau's idea. He attempted to find some compromise amidst Clemenceau and Wilson (World War Two -- Causes). Germany was anticipating an agreement founded on Wilson's 14 points, and was not pleased with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Nonetheless, they had no option but to sign the treaty.
The League of Nations…
"Causes of World War 2 - What REALLY caused WW2?" World War Two History Guide -- WW2 Battle Guide. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War Two - Causes -- HistoryOnTheNet." From Ancient Times to the 20th Century -- HistoryOnTheNet. 14 Aug 2014. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War II: Causes and Outbreak." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help.. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
Pershing had G-1 dealing with personnel; G-2 dealt with intelligence; G-3 deals with operations and training; G-4 was the supply division; and G-5 was focused on "strategic planning" (Madloff, 66).
Meanwhile, the Congressional Digest (the official federal publication that explains legislation) in 1934 provided some basic details on the Act of 1920. Beyond what has already been described vis-a-vis the 1920 Act, the Congressional Digest explains that the Act fixed the number of members of the Army at 15,034 combat officers, 280,000 enlisted men, in addition to the number of officers (17,726) alluded to earlier in this paper. There was also flexibility built into the military, in that the size of the army could "be varied depending on the changing importance of the branches in the scheme of defense" (Congressional Digest, 1934).
In conclusion, the Army National Guard has been very active in protecting Americans at home and abroad. At…
Army National Guard. 2011. Always Ready, Always There. Retrieved November 19, 2011,
Congressional Digest. 1934. Provisions of the National Defense Act. Vol. 13, Issue 4. Retrieved
November 18, 2011, from EBSCOhost.
World War I and the Great Depression
World War I
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria. However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question (The Balkans), and the crises before 1914. The main powers of Europe before 1914 were: (i) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882) and (ii) the Triple Entente of Britain, ussia and France (1907). In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts. Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…
Giangreco, D. M. & Griffin, R. E. (1988). Airbridge to Berlin -- The Berlin Crisis of 1948, Its Origins and Aftermath. Background on Conflict with USSR.
Hiebert, Ray, and Roselyn Hiebert. (1970). The Stock Market Crash, 1929. New York, NY: Franklin Watts.
McElvaine, R. S. (1993). The Great Depression: America, 1929-1941. New York, NY: Times Books.
Parrish, M. E. (1992). Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1941. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Those discretionary areas include sales and negotiating. These are open to flexibility, argument, discussion -- all within boundaries. The boundaries that fence them in are the non-discretionary functions of the business, those areas where the lines must not be crossed.
The non-discretionary areas have very firm guidelines, rules, and even laws and regulations that guide what can and cannot be done. It is when we violate those guidelines, that we cross ethical and/or moral standards whether or not we actually violate the law. There is no compromise in the non-discretionary areas. usiness ethics can be a very personal function rather than organizational (Cagle, Glasgo, & Holmes, 2008).
As an example, safety is non-discretionary. Safety procedures must be enforced and employees have to follow them. There is no negotiation or flexibility. If the company does not establish proper safety standards but no one gets hurt, is it a violation of business…
Cagle, J., Glasgo, P., & Holmes, V. (2008). Using ethics vignettes in introductory finance classes: Impact on ethical perceptions of undergraduate business students. Journal of education for business (peer-reviewed) (AN35201100), 76-83, Vol. 84, Issue 2.
Crane, A., & Matten, D. (2007). Business ethics: managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization - (peer-reviewed). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
DeGeorge, R.T. (2005, February). A history of business ethics. Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Santa Clara University: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/conference/presentations/business-ethics-history.html
Harvard Law Review. (2009). Go directly to jail: White collar sentencing after the Sarbanes-Oxley act. Harvard Law Review (peer-reviewed), 1728 (21) (GALE Doc. #A198185467).
2005). Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.
Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation." Rather than seeing other nations as means to promote American interests, FDR believed that American well-being depended heavily on the well-being of its satellite countries as well. This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism.
As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. Thus, by World War II, many Western nations threw their support behind the Allies.…
Who were the Progressives and what were they trying to reform? How and why did the Progressive era end?
Several different Progressives include: Upton Sinclair, Teddy oosevelt, David Thelen, ichard McCormick and Samuel Hayes just to name a few. Their basic goals were to rectify many the social ills that were occurring from the rapid industrialization of the nation. This was creating a tremendous shift in the population, with more people leaving the country and moving to the cities. As a result, there were a number of different problems that emerged in the wake of these transformations. Most notably: unsafe working conditions, the use of child labor, wages and the number of working hours. The combination of these objectives was to give the people a voice in issues of government and society. This would limit the influence of the special interests during this process. (Sage) (Gilmore F-42 -- F-68)…
Divine, Robert. The American Story. New York: Pearson, 2007. Print.
Gilmore, Glenda. Who were the Progressives? Boston: Bedford Publishing, 2002. Print.
Harris, Richard. A History of the U.S. Political System. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Murphy, Robert. The Great Depression and the New Deal. Washington: Regenry Publishing, 2009. Print.
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…
Chen, Duxiu, "Our Final Awakening." (Essay, 1916). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/china/chen_duxiu_final_awakening.pdf .
Chiang, Kai-shek, "Essentials of the New Life Movement." (Speech, 1934). Retrieved from, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/cup/chiang_kaishek_new_life.pdf .
Mao, Zedong, "Reform our Study." (Speech, 1941). Selected Works of Mao, Beijing Foreign Languages Press, 1971.
Frankfurter landed on the Harvard law faculty, thanks to a financial contribution to Harvard by Felix Warburg and Paul Warburg..." (Viereck, 1932; as cited by Mullins, 1984)
In the "Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and anking Influence" as cited by The World Newsstand publication is that chart one "...reveals the linear connection between the Rothschilds and the ank of England, and the London banking houses which ultimately control the Federal Reserve anks through their stockholdings of bank stock and their subsidiary firms in New York. The two principal Rothschild representatives in New York, J.P. Morgan Co., and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. were the firms which set up the Jekyll Island Conference at which the Federal Reserve Act was drafted, who directed the subsequent successful campaign to have the plan enacted into law by Congress, and who purchased the controlling amounts of stock in the Federal Reserve ank of…
French, Douglas E. (1994) Separating Money and the State, Part I: Eighty Years of Destruction" October 1994. Online available at http://www.fff.org/freedom/1094e.asp .
Mullins, Eustace (1982) Historical Beginnings...The Federal Reserve "The London Connection." The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1982. Online available at http://www.apfn.org/apfn/reserve.htm.
Nathaniel Wright Stephenson (1930) Nelson W. Aldrich, A Leader in American Politics, Scribners, N.Y. 1930.
Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr. (1913) Banking, Currency and the Money Trust, 1913, p. 131
Presenting natives as a 'doomed' race is comforting: "Feeling good is a human need, but it imposes a burden that history cannot bear without becoming simple-minded. Casting Indian history as a tragedy because Native Americans could not or would not acculturate is feel-good history for whites. By downplaying Indian wars, textbooks help us forget that we wrested the continent from Native Americans" (Loewen 133).
More liberal textbooks portray native persons as victims, but often as hapless victims. Such attempts at inclusivity smack of tokenism rather than a real, honest attempt to understand history. In fact, tokenism is also rife in addressing women's issues and issues of race: it is either ignored or bracketed into a safe, confined corner of the text. And history is always portrayed as getting progressively more liberal, rather than engaging in 'backsliding,' which certainly occurred during Reconstruction in regards to African-American rights. oodrow ilson, for example,…
Denham, Bryan. "Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got
Wrong." Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 52.3 (1997): 84-5. ProQuest. Web. 8 May 2013.
James Loewen. Official website. 2010. 8 May 2014
264) the result was chaos and no idea of how peace would realistically be achieved. Sharp writes that the statements of President Wilson in the 1918 speeches were the bases of the peace settlement, which was eventually made. (Sharp, 2006, paraphrased)
The primary decision making body of the gathering in Paris is reported by Sharp to have been the 'Council of Ten' which was comprised by the French, Italian and Great Britain prime ministers and the U.S. president including the respective ministers of foreign affairs and two delegates from Japan. Sharp reports that the 'Council of Four' including Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Wilson and Vittorio Orlando formed the critical decision making body. It is reported that it took the promises of Lloyd George and Wilson to assure the full support of the British and U.S. forces were Germany to attack France again to convince Clemenceau to demonstrate more flexibility. A decision…
Alan Sharp,(2006) Peacemaking after World War I, in G. Martel (ed.), Companion to Europe 1900-1945, Blackwell, Oxford, 2006, pp. 261-75.
David a. Andelman, a Shattered Peace: Versailles and the Price We Pay Today, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons, 2008, pp. 1-3, 4, 6, 9, 10-11, 13-14.
Margaret Macmillan, (2005) Making War, Making Peace: Versailles, 1919 Queen's Quarterly, vol. 112, No. 1, 2005, pp. 8-18.
The resulting quandary becomes one, therefore, that textbooks are being written and history taught in this manner so as to show and instruct people how they should act and strive to become - a rather false vision. What this accomplishes is nothing more then to relay to the student what is deemed acceptable to everyone and what is not - a general consensus filled with errors and inadequacies. When it comes to a student remembering historical lessons they normally do not remember what is being taught to them unless they are emotionally involved (Lies, 301). The lingering question for society to ponder is why are students being taught this manner for doing so results in our students not knowing the true history of their country. Although a sad commentary Loewen firmly believes it is an accurate one, given responses to questions he has asked his students throughout the years. As…
QUESTION 2: In rebutting the word of the hitorian in Quetion 1, an equally perceptive cholar argued, "The mot damning force in America, 1900-1940, wa the rie of buine. Corporation produced little but hardhip and depair, and gave u nothing. Indeed, thi period wa marked by the rie of large corporation, but it wa the growth of the large corporation intead that doomed American ociety and detroyed democracy."
In the year prior to Theodore Rooevelt' preidency, two of the greatet ocial/political problem facing America were baed on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy clae and the expanion of "Manifet Detiny" in foreign land. Dometically, the country wa burdened by a financial panic in the 1890' which complicated the live of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more properou. In the citie, people demanded democratic change in many area, uch a the twelve hour work day,…
statement which virtually guaranteed that American capitalism, supported by the huge corporations, would endure well into the twentieth century.
With the demise of the Wilson Administration and the opening years of the Coolidge Presidency, America experienced tremendous growth in what has been called the "roaring twenties." Yet during this time, not all Americans were given an equal share in the prosperity. In 1929, the richest Americans controlled the vast majority of savings, while the remainder had no savings at all. A prime example of this disparity was the automobile mogul Henry Ford, who earned $14 million as compared to the average income of $7500 a year. As usual, the major reason for this disparity was due to the increased manufacturing output of the big corporations which saw immense gains in their profit margins while those of the common working man increased nominally. One other factor was the Revenue Act of 1926 which favored big business and the wealthy by reducing the federal income tax and inheritance taxes.
But the major event, beginning in 1929, which financially catapulted American corporations and the wealthy was the Great Depression, the worst economic catastrophe in U.S. history that affected every American citizen. Although many factors contributed to the Depression, the main cause centered around the unequal distribution of wealth and the speculations in the stock market. Once again, American corporations came out on top, due to the disparities between the rich and the middle classes. The stock market crash, a result of excessive stock speculations in the late 1920's, created a very unstable economy yet at the same time helped to foster the growing monopolies in American industries.
The Great Depression continued well into the 1930's, but with the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1931, the economy began to turn upwards and the working man, for the first time in more than half a century, experienced some financial gains. Roosevelt's "New Deal," designed to stabilize the economy and create a more equal society, included among others the Agricultural Adjustment Act and the Wagner National Labor Relations Act. In essence, Roosevelt's "New Deal" took power away from the wealthy business owners and gave more power to the growing labor unions which represented the working man. Yet with the onset of World War II in 1941, American corporations found themselves in another advantageous position which increased their power and wealth and helped to form the current system of corporate "Manifest Destiny" in American society.