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Memory Has Been Separated Into Three Categories
Words: 872 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92210960
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Memory has been separated into three categories on the basis of the "amount of time the memory lasts." (Zhang, 2004, p.1) The three categories are stated to include the following: (1) sensory memory; (2) short-term memory; and (3) long-term memory. (Zhang, 2004, p.1) The focus of this brief study is to describe each of these memory storage processes.

Sensory Memory & Short-Term Memory

Sensory memory is reported to act as "a buffer for stimuli received from the senses. A sensory memory exists for each sensory channel." (Zhang, 2004, p.1) Sensory memory is the shortest-lived of all types of memory and lasts only milliseconds to a few seconds. (Zhang, 2004, paraphrased) Iconic store is where visual images within sensory memory are stored for only a very short period and serves to integrate our visual experience. It is reported that in a presentation of three rows of four letters to subjects for…


Clark, Don (nd) Learning and Memory. Retrieved from: 

Memory Loss & The Brain (2010) Rutger's University Memory Disorders Project. Winter 2010. Retrieved from:

Sensory Memory (nd) Changing Minds. Retrieved from: 

Sperling, G. (1960) The information available in brief visual presentations, Psychological Monographs, 74, 1-29

Memory Ronald T Kellogg's Working
Words: 1248 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49106294
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Though Kellogg developed a study with significant findings, working memory can effect more than just sentence generation. Because "heavy loads" on working memory do affect sentence generation, it is reasonable to assume that they might also affect simple mathematical processes. Do "heavy loads" placed on working memory affect just sentence generation or writing skills, or do they also affect left-brained skills like simple math calculation? Because of the effect on right-brained skills, the assumed hypothesis for this experiment is that if college students are given a "heavy load" on working memory, they will take longer to complete simple math skills. In fact, one would hypothesize that the "heavy load" on a working memory would impact mathematical skills even more than sentence generation skills because the subjects are being asked to remember a large number and then work with numbers. For this experiment, data using both a "heavy load" consisting of…

Works Cited

Kellogg, Ronald T. "Working Memory Components in Written Sentence Generation."

The American Journal of Psychology. 117.3 (2004): 341-361.

Memory Is One of the
Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 7566951
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The other group of participants was asked to identify the same words with missing letters, but without having first been primed by viewing the list of words spelled out completely. Each individual's response time in recognizing the incomplete words was then measured, to develop a comparison of response time between the primed and unprimed groups. Both groups of participants in the study were given the same incomplete words to identify, and efforts were taken to ensure that all other aspects of the experiment were kept uniform between the two groups, to ensure that unpredicted and uncontrolled variables would not have an unforeseen effect on the results of the study. In this way, any difference in the response times of the two groups of participants could be relied upon to reflect only the differences created by the priming.

The hypothesis of this experiment is that response times in the recognition of…

Memory and Learning and Cognitive Psychology
Words: 2891 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79054100
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Learning and Cognitive Psychology Related to Memory

Memory has control over everything that an individual does and is a part of cognitive psychology that deals with all the human behavior and mental processes. It is divided into different categories with each of them performing their particular functions. The paper investigates the different types of memories and their purpose as each one plays its part in keeping the memory part of the brain functioning. The nature, maintenance, retrieval and capacity of memory are also discussed along with the different factors that influence it. The paper also discusses the application of TRS model on the working memory, which leads to the prediction that maintenance activities should postpone concurrent processing.


Memory is what drives our everyday life, makes us relate to or recollect things from the past and in many ways defines our behavior. We take it for granted as the effort…


Baddeley, A.D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975).World length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575-589.

Blankenship, A.B. (1938). Memory span: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 1-25.

Brener, R. (1940). An experimental investigation of memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 467-482

Bousfield, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229 -- 240. doi:10.1080/00221309.1953.9710088

Memory Functions Memory Is a
Words: 2422 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48494637
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..Educational psychologists have made rather extensive investigations of semantic (declarative) and procedural memory with respect to studying and theorizing about classroom learning and teaching....very little theoretical or empirical work has been conducted in educational psychology that has examined the episodic (experiential and autobiographical) memories of teachers and learners in relation to instructional interventions and students' learning from such interventions.

Martin 1993: 169-170)

Another memory theory that has become popular and may have significant educational distinction is the concept of working memory, or rapid access memory that is finite (such as the AM of a computer and therefore cannot be stretched across to much stimulus or brain work to elicit memory of the core concepts.

esearch on test anxiety and working memory suggests that performance deficits caused by test anxiety can be explained by the extent to which individuals are able to use their working memory capacity (Darke, 1988b; Eysenck, 1985).…


Antoine, Marie, Shannon Donald, and Carolyn C. Cox. 2003. "Are Students Throwing Away Nutrition?." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 17:230.

Arnold, Magda B. 1984. Memory and the Brain. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chance, P.A. 1999. Learning and Behavior. New York: AIPI.

Das, J.P. 1989. "Good and Poor Readers' Word Naming Time, Memory Span, and Story Recall." Journal of Experimental Education 57:101-114.

Memory or Short-Term Memory as it Is
Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47055691
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memory, or short-term memory as it is most commonly referred to, is the brain system that stores and manages information for a comparatively short time (Cowan 2008). Psychologists study primary memory to explain how humans and animals remember, as well as how they learn. Mathematical abilities, the ability to solve problems, reason, and understand language are all thought to depend on short-term memory. For example, solving a story problem in math hinges on the ability to keep in mind more than one piece of information at once (Unsworth & Engle 2007). esearchers disagree about how much information the working memory can retain, whether its capacity can be extended, and how it works (for example, as a system distinct from long-term memory or not). Impaired working memory is linked to some learning disabilities and to illnesses such as Alzheimer's (Polyn & Kahana 2008).

In order for something to be stored permanently…


Unsworth, N., & Engle, R.W. (2007) The nature of individual differences in working memory capacity: Active maintenance in primary memory and controlled search from secondary memory. Psychological Review. 114(1): 104-132. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.1.10

Cowan, N. (2008) What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res. 169: 323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9

Polyn, S.M., & Kahana, M.J. (2008) Memory search and the neural representation of context. Trends Cogn. Sci. 12(1): 24-30. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2007.10.

Primary Memory

Comprehensive Analysis of Memory and Forgetting
Words: 27179 Length: 100 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 93076981
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Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis

Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.

No substantive cure for memory loss.

Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.

Different types of memory loss:





The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.

Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.

There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness

Background music



Daily behavioral changes

The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness

Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis

Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory

F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.

G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities



Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].

Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.

Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9

Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].

Memory Studies Memories of Cyprus a View
Words: 3506 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59140487
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Memory Studies

Memories of Cyprus

A View of Greek & Turkish- Cypriots

Memories of the past play an important role in deciding our present and future. They even have a potential of molding the course of our life. Different people sharing the same history may have a different perspective of looking at it; therefore they develop their own different set of memories based on their individual events. This is exactly what happened to the Greeks and Turks as a result of political and military events in Cyprus. Where the centre of this memory is same: Cyprus, how two sides of the same story vary greatly, is quite amusing. Memories about Cyprus affected the lives of Greeks and Turks greatly however they both chose to respond to it differently and that is what changed the course of their lives.

The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, launched on 20 July 1974, was a…


Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of Nationalism

Bourdieu, P.and Jean C.P. (1996), Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture

Bowman, J., "Seeing what's missing in memories of Cyprus," Peace review: A journal of Social Justice 18, 119-127.

Bryant, R. (2005), "Writing the catastrophe, Nostalgia and its Histories in Cyprus." Journal of Modern Greek Studies 25, 399-422.

Memory Tips the First Memory
Words: 348 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36085032
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Third, I say the information out loud, engaging the verbal part of my brain. Finally, I listen to the information, which I feel is the most passive aspect of learning. In this way, I use four different types of skills to learn the same information. It may be that one of these skills taps into the best way that I learn, but my personal belief is that using several different types of learning helps me create different associations for the information, making it easier to learn the information.

Finally, the last memory tip I have is that I try to break information down into manageable units. For example, if I am learning information for which I can create an anagram, I use that anagram to represent other information. This is an example of chunking. As long as I can remember a one-word anagram, I can associate each of those letters…

Memory in My Everyday Life
Words: 322 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 98634051
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Whenever I will have to remember anything like dates or thing in order, I always try to ask myself what each of this thing reminds me of so that I can get a strong connection with them. Then, I will try to link this connection with an immense and vivid representation to make my recollection a lot more stronger. This task involves keeping the information in mind while performing another task (Uttl, Ohta, & Siegenthaler, 2006). Technically, Baddeley postulates what he calls a central executive (Bjork and Bjork, 1996), which is involved in the coordination and control of behavior (Levitin, 2002).

eference List

Bjork, E.L., & Bjork, .A. (Eds.). (1996). Memory. San Diege, CA: Academic Press Inc.

Levitin, D.J. (2002). Foundations of Cognitive Psychology. Boston, MA: The MIT Press.

Uttl, B., Ohta, N., & Siegenthaler, a.L. (Eds.). (2006). Memory and Emotion. Malden, MA:


Reference List

Bjork, E.L., & Bjork, R.A. (Eds.). (1996). Memory. San Diege, CA: Academic Press Inc.

Levitin, D.J. (2002). Foundations of Cognitive Psychology. Boston, MA: The MIT Press.

Uttl, B., Ohta, N., & Siegenthaler, a.L. (Eds.). (2006). Memory and Emotion. Malden, MA:

Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.

Learning Memory Is an Important Construct of
Words: 1176 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18885927
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Memory is an important construct of human brain which performs a significant role in each and every activity of life. It is interesting to mention that brain is also a muscle and its energy can be increased by using it. There are many tactics found in literature and everyday practises to sharpen memory skills. However, the most effective technique is to play games which appear interesting to the players and involve memory cells as well. Before planning any exercise to sharpen memory, it is helpful to understand the basic memory process and the types of memory.

This report is about types of memory and their use in the daily life of a human being. The types of memory are elaborated using the example of a game. It is commonly said that memory becomes weak when it is frequently switched from one task to another. In other words, multitasking reduces…


Bernstein, D. (2010). Essentials of Psychology. USA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Dehn, M. (2010). Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Easysurf. (n.d). Retrieved from 

NCBI. (2009). Retrieved from

Psychology Memory Process There Are
Words: 1346 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36148398
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When you clicked to move on it then asked you to fill in the boxes with as many words as you could remember, spelled correctly. You then had to pick your age group, your gender and what country you were from. Upon hitting the check my memory button it told you how you compared with similar people to you who also took this test (How good is your memory- Memory Test, n.d.).

Of the twelve words I could recall 7 of them. The explanation of the test results explained that on average our short-term memory can hold an average of 7 chunks of information (names, numbers, etc.) + or - 2. So if someone scores between 5 and 9 of the words on the list, their short-term memory is working at an average capacity (How good is your memory- Memory Test, n.d.).

The more that one repeats something the more…


How good is your memory- Memory Test. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2009, from Psychologist

World Web site: 

Human Memory. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2009, from NASA.gob Web site: http://human-

Prospective Memory and Aging Prospective
Words: 6199 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16388304
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Windy McNernev and obert West (2007), both with the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, India, explain that returning the DVD while running errands depicts an illustration of effective prospective memory. Substantial documentation signifies that in various instances, the accessibility of one's effective memory ability or attentional resources can be vital for the comprehension of deferred intentions.

ichard L. Marsh, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Jason L. Hicks, Louisiana State University, Baton ouge, Louisiana and Gabriel I. Cook (2006), University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, examine whether ask interference, having an intention, creates a cost to other ongoing activities. In the journal article, "Task interference from prospective memories covaries with contextual associations of fulfilling them," Marsh, Hicks and Cook report contemporary research indicates that particular intentions held over the shorter term interfere with other tasks. As the collective effect of such costs would prove prohibitively costly in everyday life, Marsh, Hicks…


Breneiser, J.E., & McDaniel, M.A. (2006). Discrepancy Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13(5), 837+. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from Questia database: 

Brewer, G.A., Knight, J.B., Marsh, R.L. & Unsworth, N. (2010). Individual differences in event

based prospective memory: Evidence for multiple processes supporting cue detection.

Memory & Cognition. Psychonomic Society, Inc. Retrieved December 10, 2010 from HighBeam Research:  

Caffeine and Short-Term Memory Caffeine
Words: 2803 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3074842
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This will help to eliminate the possibility of psychological effects on the results. Group a will receive the caffeinated coffee and Group B. will receive the Decaf. Group a will serve as the test group. Group B. will serve as the control group. The independent variable will be caffeine and the dependent variable will be short-term memory. This study will measure the effect of caffeine on short-term memory.


Both groups would be instructed to refrain from consuming any food containing caffeine for one week before the test. The test would be administered first thing in the morning. Both groups would be instructed to fast after midnight on the night before the test. They would be instructed to consume nothing prior to taking the test. This procedure was designed to eliminate as many confounding variables as possible. For instance, the consumption of protein or sugars might affect the test and…


Anderson, K., Revelle, W., & Lynch, M. (2004). Caffeine, impulsivity, and memory scanning: A comparison of two explanations for the Yerkes-Dodson Effect. Neuroscience Letters.

367 (3), 327-331.

Bichler, a.; Swenson, a.; & Harris, M. (2006). A combination of caffeine and taurine has no effect on short-term memory but induces changes in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. Amino Acids. 31-940, 471-476.

Moo-Puc, R., Villanueva-Toledo, J., Arankowsky-Sandoval, G., Cercera, F., and Gongora-

effort and impact on memory
Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84832918
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A Proposal for Research

Background/Review of Literature

Cognitive effort, defined as the “engaged proportion of limited-capacity central processing,” has been found to impact memory recall but only in specific settings (Tyler, Hertel, McCallum & Ellis, 1979, p. 607). In four separate experiments, Tyler, Hertel, McCallum & Ellis (1979) tested the impact of cognitive effort on recall and found that high effort was indeed linked to better recall than low effort, but not for all types of memory (short term versus long term). Moreover, there are a range of extraneous variables that might mitigate the effect of effort on memory recall. The type of material being memorized, the length of time between the active memorization mode and the recall, and intervening distractors including lying about the material or personality variables may also have an effect on whether the effort spent on memory recall will lead to improved recall (Simon,…

intelligence learning memory cognition
Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41677365
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Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.

Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…

Long-Term Memory
Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 966428
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Long-Term Memory

Memory Demonstration Analysis

One of the most unreliable elements of our cognitive processes is the system known as the short-term memory (STM). This is the second memory system, and tries to recall brand new information that is not stored within a more permanent place in our thinking process. The first demonstration that was utilized was the digit span and was meant to test the short-term memory of the taker. This was a test where there were an incremental number of digits flashed on screen for the test taker to remember. The test started at two digits and ended at eight. It is easy to remember the series of digits when there is only a few of them. However, the more digits involved in the demonstration, the harder it was to remember their order. The fact that it was so hard to recall the digits when more were presented…


MacKay, David J. (2011). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory. Inference Group. Web. Retrieved October 22, 2012 from

Growth Hormone and Memory Endocrinology
Words: 3513 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25950193
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, 1998). Cognitive functioning, particularly memory performance has been found to be impaired in patients with childhood onset of growth hormone deficiency and HGH replacement therapies have been found to offset this memory impairment (Arwert et al., 2005). Studies have identified a link between improved attention and increases in memory performance in children with growth hormone deficiency (Arwert et al., 2005; Arwert et al., 2006). This is due to the connection between memory capacity and attentional resources.

Growth hormone deficiency that begins in childhood is most often treated with growth hormone supplementation in order to increase body size during adolescence (Nieves-Martinez et al., 2009). Yet recent studies have demonstrated that this treatment directly correlates to improved memory in adulthood. In fact studies have suggested that treatment with growth hormone in child onset deficiencies can in fact prevent learning and memory deficits later in life (Nieves-Martinez, 2009). Childhood onset of growth…


Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Sytze van Dam, P., & Drent, M.L. (2006). Effects of Growth Hormone Substitution Therapy on Cognitive Functioning in Growth Hormone Deficient Patients: A Functional MRI Study. Neuroendocrinology, 83 (1), 12-19. doi: 10.1159/000093337

Arwert, L.I., Deijen, J.B., Muller, M., & Drent, M.L. (2005). Long-term growth hormone treatment preserves GH-induced memory and mood improvements: a 10-year follow-up study in GH-deficient adult men. Hormones and Behavior, 4, 343 -- 349. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2004.11.015

Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Lammerstsma, A.A., Jonker, C., Drent, M.L. (2005). Memory performance and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis in elderly: A positron emission tomography study. Neuroendocrinology, 81(1), p31-40. doi: 10.1159/000084872

Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Van Dam, P.S., Delemarre-Van de Waal, H.A., & Drent, M.L. (2005). Growth hormone deficiency and memory functioning in adults visualized by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroendocrinology, 82(1), p32-40. doi: 10.1159/000090123

Effects of Video Games on Short Term Memory
Words: 3840 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 98815860
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video games have on short-term memory. esearchers normally study action games, but quest/puzzle games were also included in this study, to allow for direct comparison of different game types along with a control group. In this research, we looked at three different types of short-term memory, the visual-spatial dimension, verbal and numerical. We examined some correlations between improved memory and video game usage. However, not all of the null hypotheses were confirmed in this study, meaning that there is room for future study. In particular, it has been established that quest/puzzle games are correlated with higher visual-spatial and verbal short-term memory, but it has not been determined if differences between baseline abilities amount the study participants might have influenced this result. This, therefore, would be one avenue for future study that has been opened up. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge with respect to the influence that…


Amladi, S., Andrist, S., Ducommun, M. & Leabo, L. (no date). Using action video games to train working memory in students with working memory deficits. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from

Anand, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. Cyber Psychology and Behavior. Vol. 10 (4) 552-559.

Anderson, C. & Bushman, B. (2001). Effect of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, psychological arousal and prosocial behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 12 (5) 353-359.

Applebaum, L, Cain, M., Darling, E. & Mitroff, S. (2013). Action video game playing is associated with improved visual sensitivity, but not alternations in visual sensory memory. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from

Theory on Memory and Attention
Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42396535
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Attention and Memory
One of the most important determinants of how good one can remember something is attention. The reason for this is that learning and the subsequent encoding of information in the brain cannot happen if the learner is not attentive. Additionally, the recall of a piece of information from the brain also cannot happen if one is not attentive. Therefore, attention is one of the most important things for proper functioning as a human being. It is required for intelligence. It has been ascertained that attention is especially useful for the storage of explicit memory (memory about objects, places, and people) – a process that heavily involves the hippocampus.
As I psychologist, I split my time between my workplace and the university. To be the best in my field, I have to continue learning. I therefore engage in learning both at the workplace and at the university.…

Human Memory Organization Has Been
Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92795986
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This tested their temporal memory. Additionally, subjects were asked whether or not the test stimuli and the study stimuli were the same or different in location, which tested their spatial memory organization. Interference and non-interference tasks were combined with the memory tasks. The study showed that while memory for temporal information was impaired by some interference tasks, the spatial organization task was not. The conclusion of the data supported the idea that temporal and spatial memory organization are different, in that each task is made more difficult through the use of different interference. This data suggests that the memory organizational structures are different (Halbig, 1998).

Another study by Smith (2001) showed similar results, using brain imaging information. In this study, subjects were asked to perform a memory tasks while simultaneously verifying equations. While the subjects performed the tasks, positron emission tomography scans were taken. When the two tasks were done…


Westen, D. (2002). Psychology. Boston, M.A.: Boston University.

Wilson, B.A., Clare, L., Young, A.W., Hodges, J.R. (1997). Knowing where and knowing what: a double dissociation. Cortex, 33, 529-541.

Halbig, T., Mecklinger, A. Schriefers, H.J. And Friederici, A.D. (1998). Double dissociation in the processing of temporal and spatial information in working memory of intact human subjects. Neuropsychologia, 36 (4), 305-312.

Smith, E.E., Jonides, G.A., Miller, A. Reuter-lorenz, P., Koeppe, R.A. (2001). The neural basis of task switching in working memory: effects of performance and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 2095-2100.

Effects of Music on Memory
Words: 2435 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66265009
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Music on Emotions and Behavior

Music and education

Psychological implications

The effect of music on word recall

Several studies have been dedicated to the study of the effect of music on the memory. Most of the studies have been dedicated to the analysis of the way the human mind processes information. The brain has been indicated to be made up of a very complex system of neurons that is actively involved with the transfer of information from one part to the other. A study of the neural networks .The study of the effects of music on the human memory is still ongoing (Kirkweg 2001). Several factors have been found to affect the memory of a person. The most common ones being music, attention, emotion, stress as well as aging.

The mechanism involved

The human memory has been pointed out to be a mental system that is involved with the reception,…

Works cited

Ashcraft, Mark H. Learning and Remembering. In J. Mosher, & M. Richardson (Eds.), Cognition (pp.211-257). New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall,2006

Carruth, Ellen K., "The Effects of Singing and the Spaced Retrieval Technique on Improving Face-Name Recognition in Nursing Home Residents with Memory Loss, Journal of Music Therapy, 34 (3), 165-186,1997

Coon, Dennis. Essentials of Psychology. New York: Brooks/Cole Publishing,1997

Krumhans, Carol.L. Music: A link between cognition and emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2) 45-50,2002

How the Mind Works Memory and Motivation
Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54211499
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Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.

Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term…

Language Impairment Phonological Memory Deficits
Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6488698
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The focus of academics continues to focus on finding a cause and on developing reliable interventions for children suffering from this condition. It is important to begin intervention as early as possible so that incorrect speech patterns do not become ingrained. In addition, it is important to make certain that other learning complications do not develop as a result of SLI.

The research conducted by ice, Wexler, & Cleave (1995) helped to draw attention to SLI as being different from other language deficiencies. Their work helped to identify and define SLI as its own subset of language delay symptoms. This important step led the way for research that explored causality and intervention. SLI is typically associated with deficiencies in verbal skills. However, research into non-verbal skills was also suggested by these and other study results. This avenue will help to further define and distinguish SLI from other language delays.



Bishop, D., Bright, P. & James, C. et al. (2000). Grammatical SLI: a distinct subtype of developmental language impairment? Applied Psycholinguistics. 21-92): 159-181.

O'Brien, E., Zhang, X., & Nishimura, C. et al. (2003). Association of specific language impairment (SLI) to the region of 7q31. American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (6): 1536-1543.

Rice, M., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. (1995). Specific Language Impairment as a Period of Extended Optional Infinitive. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 38: 850-863.

Sajanrimi, N., Suhonen, E., & Kontu, E. (2008). Verbal and non-verbal development in SLI children after early intervention. Early Child Development and Care. 02 May 2008. Abstract.

Long-Term Memory and the Effects on the Individual
Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24293115
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Erickson Kintsch Argument

Erickson and Kintsch Argument

In the world of psychology, there are number of theories which are used to understand the impact of various events and stimuli on long-term memory. Each one discusses these transformations and the lasting impacts on everyone. To fully understand what is taking place requires focusing on the ideas from: Cui, Kelley & Lavie and Ericsson & Kintsch. This will be accomplished by examining their overlapping methods and then designing an experimental approach. Together, these different variables will determine which approach is the most effective and the best ways for measuring them.

Cui (2012) determined that NMDA receptors in the brain will have an impact on long-term memory. This is taking place with genetics influencing their ability to function and maintain high levels throughout a person's life. When someone becomes older, this will affect the ability to analyze events and their meaning. This shapes…


Cui, Z. (2012). Increased NR2A. Scientific Reports, 3 (5), 1036-1044.

Ericsson, T. & Kintsch, W. (1995). Long-Term Working Memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211 -- 245.

Kelley, T. (2013). The impact of distractor congruency on stimulus processing in retinotopic visual cortex. Neuroimage, 1 (81), 158 -- 163.

Memory as a Child When I Was
Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30236222
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memory as a child, when I was just four years old, continues to haunt me until this day nearly 50 years later. The eldest of five children in an impoverished dysfunctional family, my mother often made me look after my younger siblings. My mother was upstairs on the neighbor's phone while I watched my ten-month-old sister, (name). Suddenly, (name) started choking and turning blue. Petrified, I did not know what to do. I screamed for my mother, who came rushing down the stairs and immediately called for an ambulance. Although (name) had a freak heart attack, and I was not to blame, guilt plagued me for years as she became blind, deaf and mute. As I matured, I realized that I was not culpable for (name's) illness and death at a young age. I also realized that this experience so early on in life, along with my impaired home life,…

Working Definition of an Accent
Words: 1103 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37955751
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The article continues by presenting the argument that adults are unable to acquire a new language (although most are capable of acquiring a new accent) due to the fact that adults no longer possess the tools to build a new "Sound House." According to the article's author a Sound House is the process a newborn child begins when acquiring a language. The article states "the Sound House is the 'home' of the language, or what we have been calling accent - the phonology - of the child's native tongue" (46). The Sound House, according to the author, is the place where children learn to speak and to communicate in the most effective manner with the largest amount of individuals. The problem with this scenario is that the newborn only consistently comes in contact with a certain few people. These are normally parents, aunts, uncles, cousins and other close relationships. These…

Memory Retrieval Within Criminal Justice Investigation
Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49194244
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ecognition Within Criminal Justice Setting

Within the criminal justice profession the act of memory retrieval is essential to the act of investigating cases of all variety -- from the petty theft committed by a purse-snatcher to the wanton violence inflicted by a murderer -- because invariably the state's case against those accused will involve the statements of sworn eyewitnesses. While the American system of jurisprudence has placed a great deal of faith in the ability of ordinary people to recall sequences of events and crucial details under high-stress circumstances, as well as their proficiency at recognizing facial features and identifying markers during the commission of a crime, contemporary research on the subject of memory retrieval suggests that this trust may be misplaced. An article published in 2008 on the divergence between recall and recognition -- written by a team of British researchers led by Charlie D. Frowd and titled "Improving…


Frowd, C.D., Bruce, V., Smith, A.J., & Hancock, P.J. (2008). Improving the quality of facial composites using a holistic cognitive interview. Journal of Experimental Psychology:

Applied, 14(3), 276.

Learning Culture and Memory
Words: 2090 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91902626
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A learning culture is an organizational practice, system and values that encourage and support individuals and organizations to increase performance levels, competence and knowledge. It promotes continuous support and improvement for an achievement of goals. Adjustment of current strategies can be done by adjusting to a trend, business model, capital model, launch strategy and making a great plan.
There are several ethical principles and professional standards of learning and cognition in the workplace. Some of them are; encouraging contact between faculty and student, developing cooperation between students, encouraging active learning and respecting adverse talents and learning techniques. Some implications that should be considered when working with others are; demonstrating respect at work, providing feedback with an impact, showing appreciation and overcoming fear of conflict.
Memory Suppression in Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s diseases is chronic degenerative disease of the neurons. It causes about 60-70% of dementia cases. The…

Cognition and Memory Cognition Particularly Memory Starting
Words: 1086 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17785288
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Cognition and Memory

Cognition: Particularly Memory

Starting from a purely global point, at least as far as it applies to humans (animals in general actually), the brain is where everything begins. Within its folds and neural pathways are contained the chemicals that allow the electrical impulses which in turn produce thought. Every creature has thought at some level. A gnat does not travel completely based on instinct; there is some primitive awareness of what it is traveling toward and the need to possess certain elements from its environment which will allow the tiny insect to feed and reproduce. Of course, some would have people believe that every action is the result of some type of instinctual movement toward some reward and away from a punishment. Others see every action or thought as resulting from environmental stimuli and believe that nothing occurs innately. Of course, most beliefs that include such all…

Enhancing Memory Performance May Be
Words: 1418 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 98108748
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The researchers hypothesized that the participants would be less likely to use the operand retrieval strategy in solving difficult problems than with simple problems. It is easier to use the operand retrieval strategy with simple problems because solving them requires no computation. The opposite holds true for difficult multiplication problems. Use of the operand retrieval strategy is expected to be associated with a greater generation effect.

The second experiment in the study examined whether an increased generation effect was possible due to better memory for the operands involved in the problem, what is known as the operand memory hypothesis. The hypothesis for this experiment, which took into consideration the principles of procedural account, was that the generation effect observed for difficult and simple problems should be similar when the operands are recalled, but should be different when recall of answers is required.

The final experiment in the study, experiment 3,…


McNamara, D., Healy, a. "A procedural explanation of the generation effect for simple and difficult multiplication problems and answers." Journal of Memory and Language 43 (2000): 652-79.

Stress Effects Memory in Adults
Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14283461
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The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.

The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.

Implication of the esults

If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…


Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.

Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null

Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.

Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.

Politics of Memory
Words: 2845 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94543967
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politics of memory, and the politicization of memory, with particular reference to Chile and the human rights violations inflicted upon the population by the Pinochet regime.

What memories are present in Chilean society? In 1973, Chile witnessed a political coup, with President Salvador Allende's left government being overthrown by the military dictatorship of General Pinochet. Following this coup, Pinochet made it his mission in life to eradicate 'leftist' thinking, to rid society of the evils of this thinking, by killing political opponents, by torturing people thought to be of a leftist persuasion, by forcing leftists thinkers into exile (Angell, 2000; rook, 2000). Thousands upon thousands of people 'disappeared' in Chile during the Pinochet regime. This situation brings about many memories, all of which are painful. For those on the left, there are the memories of the people who were killed, memories of the torture, memories of their family members forced…


Paul Brook, Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government and Politics (new York: St. Martin's Press, 2000) Chapter 1: Theories of Non-Democratic Government.

Pamela Constable and Arturo Valenzuela, A Nation of Enemies: Chile Under Pinochet. (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1991). Chapter 1: The War, Chapter 6: The Culture of Fear.

Patricio Silva, "Collective Memories, Fears, and Consensus: the Political Psychology of the Chilean Democratic Transition," in Kees Koonings and Dirk Kruijt, eds. Societies of Fear: The Legacy of Civil War, Violence and Terror in Latina America. London. Zed Books, 1999.

Felipe Aguero, "Chile: Unfinished Transition and Increased Political Competition" in Jorge Dominguez and Michael Shifter, Eds. Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America. Second edition. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. (only pp.292-303)

Shared Memory Multiprocessor System Performance Simulating Shared
Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64547440
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Shared Memory Multiprocessor System Performance

Simulating Shared Memory Multiprocessor System Performance

In simulating the performance of shared-memory microprocessors, the study Shared-Memory Multiprocessor Systems -- Hierarchical Task Queue (Serrazi, 2007) seeks to isolate the effects of parallel processing as it relates to memory and process resource allocations. The researcher who also wrote this analysis relied on a series of very precise simulations of multiprocessor performance that sought to define variables to quantify the allocation of memory and processor performance in centralized, distributed, and highly hierarchically-driven memory and application load performance across a standardized memory usage architecture (Serrazi, 2007). The researcher concludes that of the three approaches to testing shared-memory multiprocessor systems, hierarchically-based methodologies are the most effective in optimizing shared memory performance as they compensate for shared memory performance. The author and researcher concludes from this analysis that the hierarchical model is the best for equally balancing workloads across tasks queues…


Serrazi, G. (2007) Shared-Memory Multiprocessor Systems -- Hierarchical Task Queue. University of Lugano, Advanced Learning and Research Institute. Retrieved March 26, 2012 from 

Unger, B.W., & Bidulock, D.S. (1982). The design and simulation of a multi-computer network message processor. Computer Networks, 6(4), 263-263.

Nature of Thought and Memory the Nature
Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36023207
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Nature of Thought and Memory

The Nature of Complex Thought Processes

The human thought process represents a complex set of different types of cognitive processes, some of which occur consciously and some of which occur entirely automatically and without our conscious awareness (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Conscious thought emphasizes reasoning processes, but they occur simultaneous with multiple aspects of thought that are functions of prior conditioning and memory. However, the most complex aspect of complex thought is the degree to which conditioning and memory play in conscious thought. Despite the fact that we believe our responses to others and to the environment are under our conscious awareness and control, even our most conscious thought processes are profoundly influenced by our previous experiences, our environmental conditioning, and our socialization. Those elements of our development determine most of what we come to consider normal and most of what we expect from others…


Dennet, D. (1999). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Gerrig, R.J. And Zimbardo, P.G. (2008). Psychology and Life. Boston: Pearson.

Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31023695
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Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…


BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from

Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley

Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme

Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power

Interview Reflections Was Still Working
Words: 1610 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 69902968
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One of the major things I noticed throughout this interview, both through her answers and her general behavior, was the fact that her body was unable to cope with her extreme work ethic anymore. Although she admits to continuing to work long hours even after she was diagnosed with Type II Diabetes, she also admits to the fatigue and general soreness she now overwhelming feels after such a long days work. This would not be a surprising fact in anyone else's perspective, but for a woman with such a drive within her, this could be a devastating beginning of her end, which she can not even take time to prepare for. She still works long hours, and forces herself to deal with the pain of no longer being able to keep up with her ambitions. The pace of the factory where she works has not changed, but her ability to…


McInnis-Dittrich, Kathleen. (2004). Social work with elders: a biopsychosocial approach to assessment and intervention. Allyn & Bacon.

Traumatic Long-Term Memory
Words: 2263 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73666051
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Traumatic Long-Term Memory and related issues of forgetfulness. The differentiation of current competing theories under review regarding Traumatic Long-Term Memory are explored and critiqued. This research paper also explains the differences between the theories and their positive / negative contributions toward improving human memory.

Long-Term Memory is memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction (Long, 1996). It represents the storehouse of information that has been consolidated and made relatively permanent. Although the limbic system is the essential structure initiating consolidation, the actual memory stores are throughout the nervous system. Their location is a function of the brain structures involved in processing the information (Long, 1996).

Receptors to projection cortex have very little storage capability as they are used to process all information for that modality and thus are subject to interference. The sensory association cortex is more important for, at this level, patterns…


Anderson. (1995). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:

Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.

Bjork & Bjork. (1992). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:

Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.

Retirees Return to Work Working
Words: 1321 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43401447
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" She initially came out of retirement to work three days a week, but now she only works one day per week. Mitre in fact offers workers a phased-in retirement, with fewer hours and fewer workdays; but they keep a core of "reserves at the ready" like Doreen. Now Doreen has a little extra income so she won't have to dip into her nest egg, and the company doesn't have to worry that "it could lose too much institutional knowledge as its workforce retired," Fetterman explains.

In the same article, Joyce Montgomery of Detroit retired from her job as a counselor at a children's home, after her husband also retired. But soon they " tired of sitting around...I wanted to come into the workplace to be around people." So she applied for a part time job at CVS pharmacy, planning on perhaps ten or fifteen hours a week, but now,…

Works Cited

Crowson, Aryana. (2006). Early Retirees Head Back to Work. KTHV-TV Retrieved 29 Nov. 2006 at 

Fetterman, Mindy (2006). Retirees back at work, with flexibility. USA Today. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2006 at .

Phipps, Jennie L. (2003). An older worker's guide to getting a job. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2006 at .

Ryberg, William. (2006). Employees return to work, hassle-free. Des Moines Register. Retrieved 28 Nov. 2006 at .

Humans Have Been Intrigued by the Workings
Words: 1069 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99071998
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humans have been intrigued by the workings of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists pondered the questions that psychology, as an independent science, now addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. There exist many subfields within this discipline and as such, supporters of each may alter the aforementioned definition to emphasize their area of concentration.

Developmental psychology examines changes and growth over the lifespan. Child and adolescent psychology along with gerontology are subdisciplines of developmental psychology. The influence and effect others have on our feelings, behaviors, and thoughts describes social psychology. Personality psychology is the study of stable characteristics that influence behavior. Traits include aggressiveness, anxiety, and sociability to name a few. Experimental psychology, as the name implies, relies on the experimental method in its proceedings. Fields of research include cognition, sense perception, and memory. iological processes are the central concerns in physiological…


Cardwell, Mike (1996). Schaum's A-Z Psychology. United Kingdom: The McGraw-

Hill Companies.

Schultz, Duane & Schultz, Sydney Ellen (1994). Theories of Personality. California:

Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Cognitive Processes Differ for Students
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91136447
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It also breaks down the inevitable hierarchies that may exist in a class between students who believe they 'aren't as smart' as their peers.

Address how information is transformed into knowledge as it passes through the three stages of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory in these students. Cite examples of strategies employed during working memory to ensure processing into long-term processing.

The sensory memory stage is very transient. "Sensory memory briefly holds the tremendous amount of information coming in from the senses. Unless you focus your attention on some part of that information, the memory disappears in about one second" (Bennoit 2001). To retain the memory of a particular sight, sound, smell, texture or taste, the individual must usually be mindful and conscious of creating the memory. He or she must make an association with the sensory stimuli and currently-existing knowledge. Auditory memory tends to last a few seconds longer…

Works Cited

Benoit, Anthony G. "Memory." Introduction to Psychology. November 21, 2001. April 9, 2011. 

Rebora, Andrea. "Survey: Teachers concerned about resources for students with diverse learning needs." Education Week. March 23, 2011. April 9, 2011.

Limit Your Summary to 8 Sentences The
Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95942145
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limit your summary to 8 sentences.

The research area is in cognitive processes related to performance, skill learning, and execution. It is related to research on mathematics anxiety, stereotype threats, and how those factors affect performance on math-related tasks. In particular, the researchers are interested in the "choking under pressure" phenomenon in which individuals perform poorer than expected on a task they have mastered, because they are under pressure. Moreover, the research touches upon working memory and its relationship to performance on mathematics tasks. Working memory is defined as a short-term memory system that can be especially relevant to concentration on a specific task at hand. Anxiety has been shown to impede working memory, basically by clogging it up with the worrisome thoughts.

Why was the current study conducted?

The current study was conducted to identify the individual traits and circumstances in which choking under pressure is most likely to…


Beilock, S.L. & Carr, T.H. (2005). When high-powered people fail: Working memory and "choking under pressure" in math. Psychological Science 16(2), 101-105.

Linguistic Learning Studies Differences in
Words: 793 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71073706
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That is a function of the complex cognitive mechanisms involved in human language processing and speech, which Kormos explicitly acknowledges as possibly the most complex of all human cognitive processes (Levelt, 1995 in Kormos, 2003 p88). Given that characterization, the use of a word span test -- in which performance could quite conceivably measure other variables besides raw working memory, such as parallel recognition and various other associative or pneumonic devices -- instead of a non-word span test likely undermined the validity of the Mota study (2003) results.

Furthermore, the Kormos and Safar study (2008) employed standard objective academic tests of foreign language proficiency, whereas the Mota study (2003) employed a novel matrix of variables (fluency, accuracy, and complexity) to measure foreign language proficiency (Mota, 2003 p69). The former type of diagnostic test would appear to be an appropriately accurate and narrowly targeted measure of memory-based performance and learning in…


Kormos, Judit, and Safar, Anna. "Phonetical short-term memory, working memory and foreign language performance in intensive language learning" Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Vol. 11, No. 2; 2008: 261-271.

Mota, Mailce Borges. "Working memory capacity and fluency, accuracy, complexity, and lexical density in L2 speech production" Florianopolis, Vol. 24; 2003: 69-104.

Fragile X Syndrome
Words: 2837 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97214966
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Fragile X syndrome (also called Martin -- Bell syndrome, or Escalante's syndrome) is the most common single cause of mental retardation and the second most common inherited form of mental retardation, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 males and 1 in 2000 females (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Fragile X syndrome is the result of a single gene mutation, a mutation of the FM1 gene, located on the X chromosome. Every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes). Twenty two pairs of chromosomes are autosomes and one pair is an allosome, also known as sex the chromosomes. The allosomes determine the person's gender. Female infants receive two X chromosomes (one each from mother and father), whereas males receive one X chromosome (from the mother) and one Y chromosome (from the father). The site of the Fragile X mutation is on one of these X chromosomes (Sadock & Sadock, 2007).



American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Test Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K.W & Spence, J.T. (Eds.) pp. 89 -- 195. The psychology of learning and motivation (Volume 2). New York: Academic Press.

Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews

Fruit Flies the Importance of
Words: 2167 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14864618
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The chronological order of these studies, having started with most recent ones, also proves that constant advancements have been made in this particular arena. Thus, some important conclusions can be drawn for a further study.

First, in order to properly study long-term memory in fruit flies, it is essential to have both qualified individuals and qualified equipment. This will necessitate some funds, or at least the inclusion of the experimenter in a laboratory which can furnish him or her with these particulars. In other words, this is not an easy experiment. This is, in part, due to the nature of studying long-term memory, which cannot easily be observed, especially in animals, but also to the fact that the behaviours that demonstrate long-term memory in this particular species are quite hard to observe with the naked eye. However, the species does prove the best possible for such studies, for its behaviour…

Baker, M. "Long-term memory controlled by molecular pathway at synapses." (2007). Ground Report. Retrieved July 22, 2011, .

Ulman, Neil. "Fruit-fly gene: Clue to human memory." (1996). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 22, 2011, <>.

"Fruit Fly Definition." (2011). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved July 22, 2011, .

Martin A Conway's 2001 Sensory-Perceptual
Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59623317
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3. The Controversy Associated With ecovered epressed Memories and Conway

The importance of autobiographical memory, as confirmed by Conway (2001) has lead not only to research regarding memory distortions, but also to studies regarding recovered repressed memories. obinson-eigler and obinson-eigler (2008) state that a controversy exists as to whether or not memories of traumatic events that have been "recovered" can be completely trusted. Conway's (2001) argument relating episodic memory to autobiographical memory certainly relates. Conway (2001) argues that episodic memories are routinely forgotten, even as soon as 24 hours after they occur, and that the autobiographical memory is the context to which they are tethered in order to be remembered. Thus, Conway (2001) would most likely argue that the validity of recovered memories lies in their relation to the self or autobiographical memory.

4. An analysis of Autobiographical Memory According to Conway

While obinson-eigler and obinson-eigler (2008) call autobiographical…


Conway, M.A. (2001) Sensory perceptual episodic memory and its context:

autobiographical memory. In Episodic Memory (Baddeley, a. et al., eds), Oxford University Press

Robinson-Reigler, G. & Robinson-Reigler, B. Cognitive Psychology: Apllying the Science of the Mind. Second Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Night and Good Luck Bruce
Words: 1110 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25620443
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Even if he practiced on the sample tests, students may have had more extensive preparation on similar tests for much of their educational lives beforehand.

Bruce cannot change his past exposure to the material, of course, but he can change his study habits. A critical problem may be Bruce's overreliance upon semantic memory, or rote memory of facts and names. Other types of memory may be more indelible and evocative, such episodic memory, or memory of a specific incident, and associating different concepts and facts with episodes from Bruce's own life rather than simply memorizing may be helpful on the next exam. Bruce's study habits may not deploy effortful encoding, in other words, he may feel that a brief scan of the material is enough, as if simply rolling the book across his eyeballs registers the material in his brain, or that memorizing a 'cheat sheet' of names and dates…

Experiences of Visual Consciousness
Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45625329
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Visual Consciousness

Visual Perception

In conducting this study, the first step I took was to procure a book with a cover on it that I would attempt to read. I have read most of my books, but am unfamiliar with the text on the front of them. I actually selected one of my larger books (it is a coffee table book) in order to maximize my chances of reading. Next, I sat in a comfortable spot and entirely covered my left eye with my left hand. Once I was sure I could not see out of it, I fixated my right eye on a tiny crack in the wall. After doing so, I extended the book in my right hand as far to the right as I could, so that I could not even see it at first. Then, while maintaining my eye on the same crack, I slowly moved…


Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.

Brogaard, B. (2012). "Non-visual consciousness and visual images in blindsight." Consciousness and Cognition. 21: 595-596.

Celestia, G.G. (2010). "Visual perception and awareness: a modular system." Journal of Psychophysiology. 24 (2): 62-67.

Overgaard, M., Grunbaum, T. (2011). "Consciousness and modality: On the possible preserved visual consciousness in blindsight subjects." Cosciousness and Cognition. 20: 1855-1859.

IT Security Lang David A
Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99207988
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This makes it easier for investigators to identify connections by clicking on a particular item in the three-dimensional link.

The difficulties of this process of proving such a chain indicates the importance of creating steps that can help companies simplify the task of conducting a computer forensic investigation, should one ever be required. The article stresses that the most important step is to ensure that network logging devices are turned on, even though these devices use disk space and processor time. If they are turned off, investigations can become impossible. Closing any unneeded ports on the company firewall and patching systems regularly, are also helpful.

This article paints an overall benign portrait of law enforcement, zealously protecting user privacy and safety. It demonstrates how an apparently invisible crime can be rendered visible through the use of technology, and both the law and law enforcement's attempts to stay one step ahead…

Works Cited

Burke, Dan. "Transborder Intellectual Property Issues on the Electronic Frontier." Volume 5. Stanford Law & Policy Review 

Lang, David. "A Graphic Picture of Crime." ASIS. Sept 2002.

Cognition and Aging
Words: 4217 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31466565
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Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process

The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.

Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…

Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?

Psychol Aging. 2005 Mar;20(1):19-32.

PMID: 15769211 [PubMed - in process]

Change Management Online Multitasking Perhaps
Words: 11474 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46897960
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Over time, from one second to the next, human behavior constantly changes, contributing to the fact that human behavior, consequently human cognition, constitutes a dynamic process. (Thelen and Smith, 1994). Communication, also a continuous interactive process, serves as the overtime interaction between the human motivated information processing system and the communication message. (Geiger and Reeves, 1993; Lang, 2000; Rafaeli, 1988)

Media multitasking indicates a user will simultaneously experience exposure to content from various media. As an individual possesses only a limited number of cognitive resources, he/she will not be able to process information at the same level of efficiency as media single use. As a result, the continuing, shifting attention results in less effective retrieval of information, as well as, experiencing challenges retrieving, encoding and storing information.

Statement of Problem

Despite contradictory indications from communication and cognitive psychology, younger adults' fill their lives with multitasking around media, as well…

Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning
Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10711915
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When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

ognitive Theory of Learning


The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…

Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.

Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.

Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.

Learning Model Morris Goes to School by
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Learning Model

"Morris goes to School" by B. Wiseman.


Your name, whole group, 5th grade, all, 09/03/2012.

Objectives for Lesson

The students will engage in reading and writing activities with reflection and understanding.

The students will be motivated to connect the story to their own particular cultural/ethnic / routine experiences

The students will be encouraged to generate situations and to apply to new circumstances using the story as their base

The students will be encouraged to imagine a recipient of their story and to direct the writing of their story to this recipient.

CSO's or SOLs (WV New Generation Content Standards and Objectives)

Student will:

Engage in reading of the text with understanding and motivation

Apply the story to their own circumstance be able to find launch pads from the story with which they can craft their own informative and meaningful tale.

Participate in collaborative conversation with partners and…

Basal Ganglia
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Basal Ganglia

The control of motor movement progresses from mastery of gross movement to fine motor control as humans develop (Wilson, 2013). This progression depends on the maturation of the extrapyramidal motor system, followed by the maturation of the pyramidal motor system. The extrapyramidal motor system incorporates multiple areas of the brain that are involved in controlling gross motor movements, including the cerebellum and basal ganglia. The cerebellum functions to coordinate muscle movement in response to sensory stimuli generated by muscles, tendons, the reticular formation, and the vestibular system. By comparison, the role of the basal ganglia in regulating muscle movement is still being investigated. In general terms, the basal ganglia serve as an information relay center for various centers within the cerebral cortex; however, researchers seem to agree that one of the functions of the basal ganglia is to inhibit muscle movements before they can begin.

esearchers have also…


Rieger, Martina, Gauggel, Siegfied, and Burmeister, Katja. (2003). Neuropsychology, 17(2), 272-282.

Shohamy, D., Myers, C.E., Onlaor, S., and Gluck, M.A. (2004). Role of the basal ganglia in category learning: How do patients with Parkinson's disease learn? Behavioral Neuroscience, 118(4), 676-686.

Stocco, Andrea, Lebiere, Christian, and Anderson, John R. (2010). Conditional routing of information to the cortex: A model of the basal ganglia's role in cognitive coordination. Psychological Review, 117(2), 541-574.

Wilson, Josephine F. (2013). Biological Basis of Behavior. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-62178-103-5.

Computer-Based Training and Traditional Training
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Likewise, a similar study by Desai et al. (2000) that compared traditional lecture format training with CBT found that, "The CBT subjects' overall end-of-training and one-month-after-training performance was significantly better than [the traditional lecture method] subjects' performance" (p. 239).

By sharp contrast, the analysis of the effectiveness of CBT by Bowman et al. (2009) found that the effectiveness of this alternative can be adversely affected by a number of Navy-specific factors, including the pace of operations in some settings, an enormously diverse population that often requires more individualized instruction, and that self-paced formats can actually serve to increase student failure rates. Nevertheless, Dye (2004) emphasizes that the Navy has taken steps to integrate lessons learned and best practices into newly developed CBT curricular offerings, and notes that improvements in the support technologies continue to provide better ways of individualizing computer-based training opportunities in the future. In fact, one of the…


Bowman, W.R., Crawford, a.M. & Mehay, S. (2009, August 24). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.

Computer-based training. (2009, March). Navy Inspector General report to the Secretary of the Navy. NAVINSGEN computer-based training study.

Desai, M.S., Richards, T. & Eddy, J.P. (2000). A field experiment: Instructor-based training vs.

computer-based training. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27(4), 239.

Old the Very Late Old
Words: 1780 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60410136
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, 2012). When considering housing for this group it is important to make sure that you do not isolate someone sharing their spiritual or religious beliefs. A social worker who does not keep up with the understanding of the individuals with whom they work could be inadvertently setting up a disaster for such an elderly individual. It is always important to discover, praise, and attend to new developments and changes regarding all aspects of the clients with which the social worker involved.


Christensen, H. (2001). What cognitive changes can be expected with normal ageing?

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 768 -- 775.

Escobar-Bravo, M.A., Puga-Gonzalez, D., & Martin-Baranera, M. (2012). Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Spain. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 109-116.

Hodge, D.., Horvath, V.E., Larkin, H., & Curl, a.L. (2012). Older adults' spiritual needs in health care…


Christensen, H. (2001). What cognitive changes can be expected with normal ageing?

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 768 -- 775.

Escobar-Bravo, M.A., Puga-Gonzalez, D., & Martin-Baranera, M. (2012). Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Spain. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(1), 109-116.

Hodge, D.R., Horvath, V.E., Larkin, H., & Curl, a.L. (2012). Older adults' spiritual needs in health care settings: A qualitative meta-synthesis. Research on Aging, 34(2), 131-155.