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) who complement one another in order to achieve functions of the family. In the opinion of Stephan Beach and Linda L. Lindsey, who are the authored, "Essentials of Sociology," reproduction, socialization, provision of protection, regulation of sexual behavior, companionship for the members of a society all comes under the functions of family along with the social placement (2003:290).
It is gender according to which the roles are divided in the family so that the family's functions could be achieved. Although, it is only the nuclear families for whom this gendered division of roles work, in case of the heterosexual couples along with their adopted or biological child/children it is the father who works outside the house while the mother is expected to take care of the house and children. There are a lot of people who find this ideal unattractive or impossible. In case of the homosexual couples, single-parent…… [Read More]
1986). In actuality, as long as there is enough love and support at home, a woman working outside the home could actually provide some very useful instruction to her children, not just on the redefinition of gender roles and the multiplicity of a woman's choices that has occurred in recent decades, but also on the responsibilities of life and the hard work it takes to achieve success.
This conclusion is born out by earlier research that shows children that come from two-parent households with a working mother actually spend more structured quality time with their children, and that the children have a greater sense of responsibility, without any noticeable detriments. These conclusions were drawn as early as the 1960s, in a study that focused solely on middle-class white families and controlled for economic conditions and other known issues in child success rates and development (Yarrow et al. 1962). In general,…… [Read More]
The study focused on mothers in management because as white collar workers they were more inclined to suffer from the loss of steam, reputation ability to advance as they worked to combine their mothering responsibilities with the needs of the career. In addition they would have the financial ability to negotiate roles and if needed move into different jobs as opposed to quit all together to go home.
Gaining greater knowledge about how, when, and why these privileged women make sense of and construct work-family choices and identities may provide more appreciation for the struggles that other women face when not living under (presumably) the best of conditions (Bowers, et al., 2005)."
Women in management already face obstacles as the nation still struggles with perceiving women as supervisor personalities.
Add to this the introduction of children and the female manager faces a double dilemma when it comes to maintaining her…… [Read More]
When the working mother effectively manages her job's demands and occupational stressors, instead of inevitably experiencing distress, she can experience growth and positive change as she faces and addresses challenges.
In the midst of concerns relating to distress, the working mother would do good to remember that removing all stressors from work is frequently not feasible nor may it always be desirable. When one recognizes that the potential for positive outcomes of the stress process exists, the potential to identify ways to manage of work-related demands and experience satisfaction, contentment and better performance in the workplace and at home increases. ecognizing, acquiring, and implementing the tools necessary to more effectively manage workplace demands that may translate into stressors, however, requires education and effort.
In the following table, Straub (2006) compares a number of common hassles working mothers may experience to numerous common uplifts they may cultivate or nurture to help…… [Read More]
Working full time while being a parent to two children is one of the most challenging positions to be in. According to Barrow (2006), most working parents spend just 19 minutes a day looking after their children. The situation is more intense for working mothers than fathers, as record numbers of women are working full time while also contending with mortgages, household bills, and rising cost of petrol and other expenses.
Mothers like me who have husbands that can watch the children are the lucky ones. Yet it remains a struggle. Although my husband does pick up the kids from school and watches them while I am at work, he still ascribes to traditional gender roles and norms that make my job tougher. In addition to working full time, I also perform the household domestic chores: a form of unpaid labor that must be factored into my daily…… [Read More]
Working egulations & Conditions
The Working Tine egulations of 1998 established a variety of legal provisions impacting the working hours and rest periods of employees. egulation 12 establishes the right to an uninterrupted break of 20 minutes for a daily work period in excess of six hours. egulation 10 establishes an entitlement to a daily rest period of 11 consecutive hours for each 24 hours during which the employee works, although there are a host of exceptions to this provision. egulation 11 establishes the right of adult workers to one day off a week, averaged over a two-week period (National Archives 2012).
There are a variety of provisions, and rights, available to mothers, fathers, and adult caretakers that impact the terms and conditions of an employee's employment. Using women as an example, it is clear that there are many provisions intended to protect, and enhance, the employment conditions and opportunities…… [Read More]
Working Women and Breastfeeding
According to Bouchez (2016), nursing babies once involved hardly any complications. As a majority of mothers were housewives, it wasn't hard to keep up with breastfeeding.
However, the scenario today is quite different and complex. With throngs of females joining the labor force, an increasing number of new moms face breastfeeding-related problems, which they must balance with their career demands. About 70% of moms in the workforce have kids aged below three years. About 33% of this cluster rejoins their jobs as soon as their baby turns three months, while about 66% return to work within half a year of the baby's birth. Clearly, a large employee group's breastfeeding requirements are to be accommodated. A number of females claim rejoining their jobs is the key cause of breastfeeding cessation. The many physical and emotional obstacles they encounter at work are: the absence of a pumping-friendly, private…… [Read More]
It has been recognized that breastfeeding constitutes the best source of infant nourishment, functioning as nutrition as well as the "living fluid" imbued with a complex blend of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, unique to the mother and her infant. Baby formula is unable to replicate the above essential substances. As breastfeeding is recognized as the superior mode of feeding infants, it must be protected, promoted and supported even among working mothers, after they return to their jobs. The WHO (World Health Organization) recommendation is that babies ought to be given nothing but breast milk until six months of age, with some amount of breastfeeding to be continued, at least till they reach two years of age (Deirdre Desmond & Sarah Meaney, 2016).
Breastfeeding at the Workplace
Breastfeeding rates in a majority of industrialized nations are generally below the desired levels. For instance, the 2002 U.S. estimate is that roughly seven…… [Read More]
Thus, these two stories point out a variety of plights for the working person of the modernist time. First, they both suggest that socioeconomic status and occupational status is very closely tied to respect within the community. ithout a good job, both stories imply, it is easy for one to be looked down upon in addition to being chastised. Second, the stories point out that working conditions can be so deplorable that they affect a person's mental and emotional functioning and characteristics. This certainly occurs in Abner's case, as he is driven to a violence that eventually kills him because of the work that he must do, toiling daily for those who have more wealth and power. For Krebs, too, the conditions of fighting as a soldier have so impaired his emotional and psychological faculties that he finds it difficult to assimilate into the society and the family that he…… [Read More]
Working Poor and the Efficacy of the Earned Income Credit and T.A.N.F.
When many Americans think of poverty, they think of people who are not working. Moreover, when they think of social welfare programs, they think of those programs aimed at assisting families without wage earners. However, many of America's poor are the working poor; families with one or two wage earners that are still mired in the depths of poverty. The government has implemented two different programs aimed at providing financial assistance to these Americans: the Earned Income Credit (EIC) is a special income tax rebate for low-income workers which can actually help low-wage workers avoid paying any income taxes and entitle them to a cash rebate beyond any taxes that they have paid; while the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program provides for the direct distribution of cash payments to families struggling with poverty.
These two programs…… [Read More]
I know that I cannot give all of my students the advantages of a stable, high-income, two-parent home, a safe neighborhood, and parental involvement. If educators could do that, then there would not be an education crises in this country. However, I can work to make sure that all children receive the same real opportunities in their educational environment. This means going beyond giving children theoretical access to the same opportunities, and making sure that high-needs children have the same real access to resources and opportunities. If I can play a role in bringing educational equality to disadvantaged children, then I think that I can help make a meaningful difference in the lives of disadvantaged children. Just days ago, the United States experienced an inauguration that was historically significant because a poor, African-American child of a single mother attained the highest office in our nation. Obama would not be President…… [Read More]
The question of whether TANF is working to reduce the number of teen pregnancies is inconclusive. The literature review leaves many more questions than answers.
The literature review found many conflicting results and studies that were significantly flawed. The real impact of TANF on teen pregnancies cannot be determined from the studies conducted thus far. The mass media was found to quote inconclusive findings. The body of evidence found is in need to further studies to determine the status and effects of TANF on teen pregnancy. This research will fill the gap in research by providing a reliable assessment of the impact of TANF on the ability to teen mothers to become independent and successful.
The literature review found many effects of TANF on the status of mothers as a result of the program. However, there were many flaws found in the program as well. In order for TANF…… [Read More]
Women's Issues: Poor Single Mothers
Poverty single Mothers
Poor Single Mothers
Does Parker's 1971 definition of poverty still have relevance today? The purpose of this work is to discover the answer to this question as well as research the plight of single mothers in America today and explain the major economic and social problems that are faced by single mothers. Further this work will discuss the assistance available today that would have improved Parker's life in the decade of the seventies.
According to Parker, 1971 there is shame in being poor and poverty is to be viewed with anger and not pity. Poverty is "dirt," "being tired" states Parker who uses much small definition that poignantly catch the reader's attention. Parker reveals to the reader the vicious cycle of poverty. The facts concerning poverty are not the kind that are encouraging or inspiring and quite unfortunately the cycle…… [Read More]
Whereas in 1963, 70% of all African-American families were headed by married couples, that rate had dipped to 46.1% by 1996. In 2001, the rate had increased to 47.9%, the first uptrend in 40 years (Kinnon, 2003). The rate of African-American crime and incarceration, which is closely linked to males from single-parent households, has also dipped since 1996.
Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs
While the statistics are compelling, there are a series of questions which have not been addressed by these welfare reforms. There are still about 50% of the former welfare population which has not been able to graduate from the welfare-poverty cycle, nor have they been able to find work. In states where the TANF provisions were enacted, including the 5-year limitation on welfare benefits, there has been a back-sliding on the part of state legislatures to extend welfare assistance for the "hard core" unemployed.
The…… [Read More]
After a literature review of existing studies on the subject, "we have clear indications that breast-feeding helps prevent an extra incident of gastrointestinal illness in some kids -- an unpleasant few days of diarrhea or vomiting, but rarely life-threatening in developed countries" noted Hana osin in a controversial article in The Atlantic (osin 2009). Despite graphic public advertisements that link breast-feeding with putting a child at great medical risk, the evidence is less certain than one might assume. Although breast-feeding has been credited with everything from improving babies' IQs to preventing obesity, the ability to prevent these conditions with breast-feeding remains uncertain, particularly when women's economic status is taken into consideration when evaluating the studies (osin 2009).
Cultural biases against trusting a woman to actively make choices about how they will be mothers may have more to do with the censure of women who choose to discount so-called common wisdom…… [Read More]
" (Coigall, and Konad) Women tend to value bette hous, an undemanding commute, helping othes, intepesonal elationships, along with a divesity of basic job aspects moe than the job components men value. These pefeences, this eseache contends, could advesely o positively affect deteminations elated to FWH. As "society pescibes diffeent values, attitudes and activities fo women and men that lead to diffeences in job attibute pefeences,... women's and men's job attibute pefeences ae thought to diffe because diffeent oppotunities ae available to the sexes and diffeent constaints encumbe them in the paid wok and family domains." (Ibid) Along with these diffeences, the study Coigall, and Konad implemented also consideed the influences of cultual context, and ensuing oppotunities affoded to men and women.
Gende steeotypes, shaed sets of beliefs egading psychological taits chaacteistic of women and men, may diffe in vaious counties, howeve, in the majoity of counties, feminine chaacteistics usually…… [Read More]
acculturative stress of African Catholic Missionary Nuns (ACMN) serving in the United States. This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part explains the meaning of acculturation and adaptation experiences specific to missionaries. This part emphasizes (1) different perspectives from social and behavioral scientists examining the phenomenon of acculturation (2) different theoretical models describing the stages of acculturation (3) dissimilarities between immigrants and missionary immigrants and what makes the two unique. The second part of this chapter examines the emotional and psychological distress missionaries experience as a result of acculturative stress. The third part focuses on coping strategies and resilience of missionaries. The fourth part introduces the existing literature in the area of acculturative stress of missionaries, emphasizing on limited empirical research in this subject and the necessity for further research in this area of study.
Part One: Background and Overview
Different Social and Behavioral Scientific Perspectives Concerning Acculturation.…… [Read More]
Mothers -- Transitioning from elfare to Corporate America
elfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. e first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…… [Read More]
Indeed, the children were far more interested in finishing their meal in order to play than in the games that were included as part of their lunch.
None of the children introduced themselves by name, instead, there seemed to be an innate and unspoken level of communication, which allowed the introduction and departure of group members on a rather random basis without interrupting the play cycles. For example, one young boy, about 5 years old, was the ostensible "ruler" of the slide tower. When a new person came into the area, this youngster immediately asserted his role by directing them how to climb the stairs, how to sit, and interestingly enough, how to be safe when sliding down the ramp. In general, the female children were more verbal in their naming of the characters present -- Ronald McDonald, Mayor McCheese and the Hamburgler especially. The verbal naming of characters was…… [Read More]
American Mother's Living In Poverty
Welfare reform in the United States has been hailed as a great success, reducing the number of people on the welfare rolls from 4.4 million in 1996 to 2.1 million in 2001. But these figures hide the suffering of the multitude of American women who are living on or below the national poverty line. In this paper we will challenge the argument that the welfare reform initiative is 'working' and suggest instead that according to credible sources women are in fact penalized by the very system that has been put in place to 'help' them.
The United States Census bureau shows how the 'poverty threshold" is calculated each year. This figure is a dollar amount that the department has determined is what is required for a number of people living together. The two main characteristics of the threshold formula are the size of a family…… [Read More]
My mother recognized that my lack of self-confidence was holding me back more than my inability to memorize lines from a Shakespearean play.
A certainly didn't expect to get a part in the play when I tried out, and was more than a little surprised to be given the role of Friar Lawrence (my mother, interestingly, seemed proud but not at all surprised). it's a relatively small part in the play in terms of lines, though the Friar plays a pivotal role in the arc of the narrative. In order to avoid appearing foolish on stage in front of scores of my classmates and their parents, I worked on my lines as hard as I could muster, bringing to the surface reserves of linguistic strength that I didn't even know I'd had. The play finally came and went and was produced without any major problems -- aside from the fact…… [Read More]
African-American MOTHES AND THEI DAUGHTES
Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern
The Executive Officer, ABC Company
Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern
It has come to my attention that the actions and functions of the Gumdrop Northern are not up to standards. The company besides afflicting the American citizens, particularly the military, has lacked a sense of corporate social responsibility to both their employees, customers and the natural environment. Notably, the business world faces the notion of corporate social responsibility in all aspects of business undertakings (Bitektine, 2011). In a wide assortment of issues, corporations get motivation of to behaving in a socially responsible manner. In the contemporary world, corporate businesses focuses on the interest of the society through taking responsibility for the effect of their actions on employees, shareholders, communities and customers in all facets of their operations (Bitektine, 2011).
Nevertheless, this is contrary to what Gumdrop Northern is doing to…… [Read More]
The visits would also include the distribution of basic food items to help alleviate the food shortages and associated hunger in the area. The country is one that has a high reliance on agriculture and subsistence farming, but with the recent civil war the poverty is exacerbated with a need to recover. Recovery is needed for both production and the access to funds that may be realized from the sale of agricultural goods. This is an ongoing issue which one is constantly aware of when handing out food, knowing it is a short-term solution to a long-term problem. However other projects do exist which are seeking to address this issues.
The visits also involve medical checks, with doctors and healthcare workers visiting people in their homes to help with medical issues to carry out checks and to give advice. This was also a learning experience, seeing the range of medical…… [Read More]
The first of these is regarding their share of population and they have been compelled to admit that they do not have 10% share of population as has been claimed earlier. This admission was recorded at a Friends of the Court filed in the Supreme Court on March 26, 2003 for a case known as the Texas Sodomy Case identified as Lawrence v. Texas case. This was a case through which the homosexuals were trying to get the Texas law against Sodomy declared as unconstitutional. The declaration made was "The NHSLS found that 2.8% of the male, and 1.4% of the female, population identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This amounts to nearly 4 million openly gay men and 2 million women who identify as lesbian." (Homosexual Urban Legends: The Series) This is also reflected in the 2000 census figures which show that homosexuals exist in far lesser numbers…… [Read More]
She never says "no," and always takes on these tasks, even though they might not be her direct responsibility. I think my mother is under-employed, but she does not see it that way. I think she could become a graphic designer or at least a document specialist, but she is content to remain in her own sphere.
I think my mother fears alienation if she changes job responsibilities. She has been at her present company for many years, and has seniority over many other office workers. She would be brand new and probably older than most of her peers if she went into another area of document creation, and I think that scares her. She will not say that to me when we talk, just that she's "content" where she is. I think my mother works too hard, and I wish that she would stop working, but she says we…… [Read More]
interview was my mother Saleena Irani, who was born to Mexican and Parsi parents in Germany, and who spend the greater portion of her childhood in Berlin. Because Saleena attended an international school in Berlin and grew up in a multicultural and multi-linguistic household as well, her educational background and socialization experiences differed significantly from those of her peers. This interview elucidates many of the aspects of education that may be traditionally overlooked in the emphasis on test scores.
The interview took place in person, over the course of an evening. Having dinner and after-dinner drinks allowed for a long and pleasant conversation that allowed my mother to reflect deeply and provide her story in a non-linear fashion in accordance with the order in which her memories arose. Moreover, Saleena was able to bring photographs to the interview in order to trigger her memory and enhance the accuracy of my…… [Read More]
Celeste is a wife and mother of two young children. She is in her mid-30s and has decided to go back to work. Her husband, a college professor, works an extra job, and so is tired all the time and does not spend enough time with the family. Celeste wants things to slow down for him. She will put the children in daycare. She'll have a 45-minute commute. The extra money will help Jim give up extra commitments. Economically, they will remain about the same but the burden will now be shared more fairly. She expects these changes will make the family happier.
the extra job of the husband leads him to being tired all the time
the extra job precludes husband from spending enough time with family
the children being put in daycare will not cause any affiliated burdens (tearing family apart)
enough money will be made from Celeste's…… [Read More]
To make an exact copy of the Manhattan headquarters, the executives will create the exact positions in China. They will discuss the requirements of the positions with the American employees and will search for those Chinese that best meet them. Also, the American homologue should participate to the hiring process. For instance, if the Chine company is looking to hire a Marketing Director, the Marketing Director within the Manhattan offices should participate to the selection, hiring and most importantly, the training process. In terms of training, the programs will have to be offered to all employees, not just the top-management ones. The primary goal of the training sessions will be to introduce the new associates to the operations, partners and goals followed by the mother company as to aid them best perform their tasks. Aside from this however, a vital issue is that integrating the Chinese employees into the corporate…… [Read More]
One of the major things I noticed throughout this interview, both through her answers and her general behavior, was the fact that her body was unable to cope with her extreme work ethic anymore. Although she admits to continuing to work long hours even after she was diagnosed with Type II Diabetes, she also admits to the fatigue and general soreness she now overwhelming feels after such a long days work. This would not be a surprising fact in anyone else's perspective, but for a woman with such a drive within her, this could be a devastating beginning of her end, which she can not even take time to prepare for. She still works long hours, and forces herself to deal with the pain of no longer being able to keep up with her ambitions. The pace of the factory where she works has not changed, but her ability to…… [Read More]
Women who wanted to uphold a superior class were forced to stick to the false impression that they did not do any work, and their work was not physically challenging. Others believed that their professions brought about socially-prescribed and conventional qualities expected of refined ladies like motherliness and compassion. This made middle-class women get involved in social work and other professions related to the less fortunate. Others preserved their class characteristic by working in positions detached from public sight and heavy labor like seamstresses and office workers.
There were many women who were working as prostitutes in many European cities, mostly in 1800s. Low wages offered in piecework as well as other domestic service led some women to look for additional income in casual prostitution (Boulding, 1975). Other women who were fired became prostitutes fearing to face starvation. Maids who were found to be pregnant or were caught participating in…… [Read More]
client is a 28-year-old, recently divorced single mother with a six-year-old daughter. She is the primary caregiver, as the father lives out of state and visits every 6-8 weeks. The father pays no child support. The divorce was due to drug abuse and infidelity on the father's part. The client is limited in social support resources; her parents are restricted from babysitting the child because of a child molestation accusation that has yet to be resolved. The inability to rely on her family for babysitting creates difficulties for the client, who attends school in addition to working. The child is also experiencing some stressors, which have manifested as an obsession with the weather and a focus on death. The client feels extreme stress due to the ongoing legal issues, financial issues, lack of paternal involvement, and inability to access her normal support network. The client is seeking help and has…… [Read More]
teaching and learning to patients with dysphagia. The situation involves the researcher's own personal experience teaching a Mom of 16-month-old diagnosis with dysphagia and how to learn how to feed him. This paper discusses the client's background, learning objectives, learning needs, outcomes, teaching strategies, and evaluation of outcomes and provides guidance for a mother facing these same issues.
Infants and children need to consume sufficient amount of nutrients in order to grow. Swallowing difficulties has an effect on dietary intake and affects a child's growth and development. For this reason, it is important to manage dysphagia in pediatrics.
Dysphagia is a disruption in swallowing that compromises safety, efficiency, or adequacy of nutritional intake. Swallowing and breathing share a common space in the pharynx, and problems in either of these processes can affect a child's ability to protect their airway during swallowing and ingestion of fluid or food safely.
About 1%…… [Read More]
Beyond High School
I started at Essex Community College immediately after completing my high school. I joined the college seeking a degree in nursing and was also advised by my advisor to start college before going into any university. Before joining Essex Community College, I joined Coppin State University, but because of initial difficulties in adjusting in a university fresh out of high school and on the advice of my mentor, I joined the college so as to get used to the environment of colleges and then adjust in the university.
My troubles started when I became pregnant during my nursing classes in the Essex Community College, and because of severe illness, I had to leave my studies midway. After leaving I started my career as a Certified Geriatric Assistant and continued my personal life as a single mother. Managing career and personal duties as a single mother of young…… [Read More]
In the article "The Triumph of the Working Mother" by Stephanie Coontz in the New York Times, the working mother is viewed from the standpoint of emotional, social and economic vulnerabilities quite well. On the emotional level, it is reported that working mothers today are happier than non-working mothers. They are at lower risk for depression, sadness and all-around poor mental health. Their work outside the home gives them a sense of fulfillment, purpose, and financial assurance, whereas stay-at-home moms are more likely to suffer from depression. This article suggests that Betty Friedan was correct when she urged women to enter the workforce in order to find contentment.
On a social level, marriages seem to work best in which the mother works after giving birth. According to statistics, both mothers and fathers spend more time with their children when both mom and dad work than mothers and fathers in families…… [Read More]
Coping With Stress:
Stress has become a relatively common part of life since every individual is likely to experience it at certain times regardless of whether they are adults, teens, or children. Generally, stress can be described as a situation characterized by signs of emotional or physical reaction, particularly when responding to a situation when an individual feels threatened or is worried. While there are several common reactions to a stressful situation, stress can either be positive or negative. The positive or beneficial aspect of stress occurs when an individual develops the skills for coping and adapting to new situations in life. On the contrary, stress is negative if it's severe to the extent that it overwhelms the ability of a person to care for themselves and family. Therefore, it's important for an individual to develop healthy ways for coping and obtaining right care that lessens stressful feelings and symptoms…… [Read More]
Business and Leadership
Peter Northouse, in his newly released book Theory and Practice along with Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal in their also newly released book eframing Organizations can help each one of us to understand the ways in which we take a role of greater leadership within our own lives and so achieve more of what we want of our own goals. By asking us to examine the nature of the relationships that exist among individuals in our own workplaces (as Northouse does) and asking us to examine how we present us to others (as Bolman and Deal do in their section on the symbolic framing of our actions), I have been able to come to terms with what I have seen as my own shortcomings. ather than seeing these attributes as failures on my own part, I am now better able to understand them as part of myself…… [Read More]
In addition, because her neighborhood does not feature many other stay-at-home moms, she has joined an organization called the MOMS Club, which provides support and companionship for stay-at-home mothers. Finally, because she is aware that being a stay-at-home mother puts her in a financially dependent position, she has made sure that she controls all of the finances and has a substantial separate savings account. In fact, her husband's inability to participate in daily life means that she makes all of the major decisions in their household; she selected their home without his input, researched and purchased both of their automobiles, and plans all of their family vacations and holidays.
In the working mother's household, the division of labor is far more apparently equitable. She and her husband have comparable salaries and work comparable hours. While the mother was responsible for all activities in the domestic sphere, her husband took care…… [Read More]
TANF Time Limits
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or TANF for short, is one of the more controversial and maligned or one of the most lauded and touted social safety net programs in the United States. Whether it is praised or denigrated depends a lot on who is doing the talking and what their motivations are. TANF has turned in a political football on a scale that dovetails quite nicely with the words of awls (1985) when it was noted in an essay of that author that there are sometimes periods (some of them quite long in duration) that are bereft and full of political divisiveness and vitriol (awls, 1985).
History of TANF & its Predecessor
A bulk of the TANF program is to provide cash-based payments to needy families who are living in destitution or are otherwise in stark financial peril and how those funds are allocated, to…… [Read More]
Yet the reader can easily piece together this scenario: the harried working mother trying to find a spouse sends away her daughter so that (as an unattached woman) she can pursue romance and remarriage. That the daughter had been shuffled out of the way in favor of romance is made evident by the fact that once she returns she is severely marginalized by her mother's relationship with her stepfather. For example, they frequently leave this little five-year-old home alone when they go out together at night -- something that by modern standards is considered abusive. In fact, Emily is obviously traumatized by this, and becomes frightened and delusional. This overwhelming fear is made worse when her mother gives birth to a second child.
When her sister is born, Emily is entirely pushed aside in favor of the newcomer. One cannot easily justify her mother's selfishness in this case. When her…… [Read More]
1297). Another study referenced by Correll in the article claims that female consultants are rated "less competent" when described as being "a mother" than women who have no children at home. In our culture, Correll continues, fathers are not discriminated against because "…understandings of what it means to be a good father are not seen in our culture as incompatible with…what it takes to be a good worker" (p. 1298). But when women are mothers, they are seen as less "committed" than women without children.
Brown, Alan S. "Study: Women Are Putting Family Before athematics." echanical
Engineering 131.5 (2009): 10-12.
In this article two Cornell University professors conducted a study by researching "400 studies and analyses of women in math-related professions"; the results of their research shows that twice as many women as men "drop out of math-intensive careers, including engineering" Brown, 2009). Why do women leave engineering and math-intensive…… [Read More]
At the high end of the economic spectrum, Reddy can waffle back and forth about whether she wishes to stay home with her children or not simply because she can afford to make that choice. Her ability to maintain a roof over her head and food in her children's stomachs does not depend on whether she has employment or not, and her childcare concerns are confined mainly to the difficulty one has in finding a good nanny. Although it may be unintentional, many of Pearson's best commentaries on motherhood are illustrated through Reddy's relationship with her nanny in that her casual dismissal of her nanny's history and individuality speaks to an inherent power imbalance rooted in class and gender bias. Reddy has the luxury of coming home from a hard day at work to find her children already fed and put to bed; her biggest concern is dealing with a…… [Read More]
Leslie Bennetts (2007) vents her rage on the system that compels mothers to stay home and forgo career dreams and opportunities of higher wage in order to care for their children. he also seethes at women who turn their anger and embitterment inwards instead of directing it outwards at a callous and unjust system.
I think that Bennetts (2007) has a point, but I also find her conclusions to be too categorical and it seems to me that she may be too generic in her fault-blaming. Ironically she herself may be evidencing the same fault that she accuses her targets of portraying, namely insufficient understanding and empathy of the other.
Bennetts writes that:
tressed and resentful, the majority of women nonetheless continue to work, many out of financial necessity. Others quit their jobs to stay home, although the price may include conflicted feelings about having had to make such a…… [Read More]
Sally bounces her six-month-old boy on her knee while she responds enthusiastically to my questions. At twenty-six she is a relatively young mother; however, Sally had her first child when she was only eighteen.
A wasn't using any birth control at the time," she tells me. "I was really worried that I wouldn't be able to support my kid without dropping out of college, but I made it! Joey here wasn't an accident," she tells me frankly. "I thought the relationship was going to last, but you know how these things go."
Many of the single mothers I interviewed for this study shared similar sentiments: most of expected their relationships with men would last and that they could form a "big, happy family." Their disillusionment has made some of them stronger, others bitter and mistrusting of members of the opposite sex. Sally is of the former camp; her lively…… [Read More]
Parenting then and now: effects of social forces on diminished role of parenting to healthy child development
In the book, "Oneness and separateness: from infant to individual," Louise Kaplan presented her analysis of the changes that occurred in the past century regarding the role of parenting in child development. In it, she centered her discussion on the vital role that mothers play in helping a child be developed in a healthy manner. One of the most important point that she put across was the importance of biological roots as the factor that 'tempers' the strong, yet sometimes, unhealthy influence that forces in the society have over an individual's development.
Kaplan identified these social forces as the 'educational, political, economic, and religious institutions,' forces that promote the "postindustrial mentality," which she defined as "a mentality that locates a person's most significant activity outside the home and therefore questions the…… [Read More]
Nontraditional families in America have seen a remarkable increase in numbers over the past twenty years. The traditional family unit depicted in sitcoms on television and spoken about in the literature still dominates the social scene but in actual numbers it exists in only about twenty-five percent of the nation's households. Strangely, discussions regarding this magical unit still occupy the thoughts and arguments of politicians, preachers and conservative activists as they talk about the merits of "family values." Yet, what truly is the impact of the nontraditional family on today's society? How do children raised in such families fare in the social make-up such as school performance and their social interaction and, finally, why are the remaining prejudices against such families not logically justified?
The rapid increase in the number of nontraditional family is a social phenomenon. Such families, few in number, existed in near anonymity until the past twenty…… [Read More]
Having more training
Consulting with colleagues
Being keen and dedicated to an activity
At the beginning of a new project
At any activities undertaken
Avoiding stressful situations
Take rests, eat balanced diet, take jobs you can handle
Take breaks at work and break at the stipulated time
Both at Home and at the office
esources needed for implementation
Equipment such as computers, files, notebooks etc.
Funding to undertake the training.
Permission to carry out these activities from my organization through the manager.
esource materials such as books, internet and reports from consultants.
At the end of my professional development, I will extend this transformation to my colleagues through the H department and through these sharing and evidence of how my work performance has improved, the organization will be aware of my development and achievements.
BAETT, .S. 1995. EMPLOYEE SELECTION WITH the PEFOMANCE…… [Read More]
New Trends in Employee Compensation and Benefits
This essay examines new trends in compensation and benefits. The essay discusses the impact of benefits offerings for both employer and employee, and reviews recent trends and discusses their significance.
Reasons for working vary from individual to individual, and compensation is usually among the most important reasons. However, many people list other factors that are almost equally important to them. These factors can range from opportunities to develop new skills, to an experiencing a sense of community, to more tangible benefits such as provisions for retirement. Currently benefits programs account for approximately one third of the average worker's total compensation, based on the size, profitability and philosophy of a particular employer. Programs that are effectively designed and promoted work to the advantage of both employers and employees (ish).
Compensation packages have changed significantly over the years. They no longer consist of a flat…… [Read More]
"From the moment of conception where our survival depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic decisions of our host, to the conflicts of development within our internal and external environment, we are consistently reconciling our past, present and future" (Bjorklund & Bee, 2008).
Many of the studies of stressful life events and health have used the Schedule of ecent Experiences, an instrument developed in the mid 1950s, or the Social eadjustment ating Scale, an elaboration of this instrument developed by Holmes & ahe in the mid 1970s. These instruments are not considered state-of-the-art at this time. A detailed history of the evolution of major stressful life event scales can be found in Cohen, Kessler and Underwood Gordon (1995; Chapter 1) and Wheaton & Turner (1995). Moreover, a reader planning to use a life events instrument is strongly encourage to read Wheaton & Turner's (1995) detailed discussion of issues in measuring stressful…… [Read More]
Either way the reality is that the two works demonstrate that ultimately motherhood is work and doing it effectively while concurrently chasing career goals and challenges is even more work. Though this issue is played down to some extent as the mother (while her daughter is in her body) is allowed to ignore and remake some of the obligations of her frantic career and social world, the works are congruent in that the conflict for working mothers is an essential one, often creating lighthearted conflicts and genre-based statements about the stress that the conflict can create in a women's life. In other words, having it all takes a significant toll on self, and each mother is depicted as seeking resolution that is found then through the reintroduction of childlike needs and freedoms, that help her realize what is really important and what needs to be paid attention to, i.e. family.…… [Read More]
policy problem for which a proposed solution will be developed. The policy problem is the difficulty that single mothers face when they attempt to re-enter the job market, but have no funds to use to negotiate the pre-employment maze of requirements, meetings, and other demands on their time and resources -- all of which occur well before the women receive their first paycheck. One of the primary problems that these single mothers must solve is how to provide safe and adequate child care so that they can focus on the immediate pre-employment demands.
Identify the recipient of the report. The epresentative of the voter district and state of [name the state you live in] is the target audience for this report. The proposal covered by this report functions to created awareness of a socio-economic problem for which there is a reasonable solution. Further the report requests a meeting with the…… [Read More]
She found that this was true, even when a plan was developed for the division of labor so that it was distributed more evenly between both partners. Gjerdingen's study used a time study analysis similar to that used by Craig. Gjerdingen discussed the possibility that cultural differences could have influenced the results. Cultural differences might have influenced Craig's study in a similar manner, but this factor was not mentioned as a potential limitation of the study either.
New Zealand study supports the potential for cultural bias regarding work related gender differences. Else (1997) addressed the same division of labor issue in New Zealand. They found that the gendered division of labor was prevalent in New Zealand society, with the women's work outside of the home having less importance than the men's as far as "breadwinning" is concerned. Else's study found that men's transfer of "household" wages is still considered payment…… [Read More]
Anxiety, poor school performance and suicidal conduct have been among the frequent signs of sexual abuse. Excessive masturbation and other unusual sexual activities are also associated with sexual abuse. Symptoms of emotional abuse, on the other hand, are loss of self-esteem, sleep disturbances, headaches or stomach aches, refusal to go to school and running away from home. Neglect can be more visibly detected when the child's normal physical, social, emotional and mental development is hampered. Symptoms can be underweight, slower acquisition of language skills and emotional neediness. Child abuse inflicts lifelong consequences (aker 1999). These include poor school work, emotional problems, the formation of an antisocial personality, promiscuity, drug or alcohol abuse and suicide attempt. Abused children often find difficulty in establishing intimate relationships as adults (aker).
The economic, cultural, and social revolution 50 years ago changed the scenario for everyone. Young women joined the workforce even when they became…… [Read More]
The anxiety that difficulties in juggling family and work tasks can negatively affect worker presentation has led some employers to offer on-site child-care or add family leave to benefit packages. If such initiatives, employers have assumed, reduce friction between family responsibilities and work demands, then worker productivity should increase and unexcused absenteeism and unnecessary turnover should decrease (randon & Temple, 2007).
Employer enefits of Providing on-site Child Care
Keeping up a population of skilled, industrious workers is a recurrent challenge for employers. For working parents, their challenge is frequently related to obtaining convenient, quality child care solutions. Today, a lot of employers are addressing this work-life challenge and have started offering child care benefits that sustain the work/life balance of workers. and, in spite of budget crunches and space limitations that many companies face today, there are many options to meet the needs and budgets of employers both large and…… [Read More]
Work - Family Conflict
It has been the traditional division of labor between men and women that men would be the bread -earners of family and that women would cater to managing the household responsibilities as women have to take care of children. The work within the family was extended and decreased accordingly since it was an unpaid labor. ut as developments took place women started to work outside their homes. As a result of both working parents the family and work conflict started to emerge. As a result the families of the present age are being affected by several responsibilities of work, family and community on individuals.
The conflict between work and family is due to the depression, stress and anxiety, which occur as a result of the divergent responsibilities. These divergent responsibilities make it extremely difficult in taking care of these responsibilities. Developmental Psychologists and work-family sociologists have…… [Read More]
Although he says his book is not an attack on feminists, feminists become the villains in his book. In Robertson's view, feminists are a monolithic ideological block. He speaks about feminists in broad, sweeping terms: "Feminist advocates of the working mother model of social organization claimed that the quantity of time," was irrelevant to the child's upbringing, he sneers (30). To say that quality rather than quantity time is important when discussing childrearing practices, however, is far different than saying that quantity is irrelevant, or that working mothers have no concern for the amount of hours they spend away from young children. Feminists surely have a wide variety of views on the matter, and some feminists support flexible work time arrangements as well as day care.
Robertson shows his ideological again orientation when he says: "the media elites will not take on feminists," despite the fact that numerous media exposes…… [Read More]
Women are still expected to do it all, however with more women getting more and more independent, the typical depiction of the supermom is changing. Today in our society, I think that that these traits of a working woman suggests that she is ' active ' and ' capable ' because these are her individual personalities, not because she has been pushed to adjust to an excessively challenging agenda. I also concur with the third main point Hochschild discloses, because it explains that unless our culture starts to back male contribution in the household and childcare tasks, the transformation for women will move forward without society and support from the spouse. We can relate to this in today's society in some homes but there are a growing number of households where the roles are being reversed. Men are staying at home more and taking on the duties of child bearing;…… [Read More]
esearchers have an occasion to further organizational science and to make research practical by producing information that can impact changing organizational forms and circumstances. Pragmatically, academic researchers are not likely to get access to a company that is going through change unless the practitioners believe the research will be helpful (Gibson & Mohrman, 2001).
There have been a number of calls to augment the significance and effectiveness of organizational science to companies. The usefulness challenge cannot be defined merely as getting practitioners to value and include what academics learn. It is believed that the usefulness of research depends, somewhat, on the degree to which the perspectives of organization members are incorporated in research procedures and the results are included into those members' organization design activities that take place as their company adjusts to its changing environment. esearch is more likely to be seen as useful if there are occasions for…… [Read More]
The question is, how does one decide which path is more beneficial?
John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism in the Philosophy of J.S. Mill, raised similar concerns when he stated:
"…any, even unintentional, deviation from truth does that much toward weakening the truth-worthiness of human assertion, which is not only the principal of all present social well-being but the insufficiency of which does more than any one thing that can be named to keep back civilization, virtue, everything on which human happiness on the largest scale depends" (p. 349).
Considering that human happiness is a subjective commodity that varies for every individual in its "truth," then whether or not one perceives the mommy track trend to be in line with utilitarian principles ultimately depends on one's personal definition of the greater good. From the utilitarian perspective (i.e. Mill), the wishes of the individual must be forsaken for the long-term "big picture."…… [Read More]
& the Center for American Progress). What's not discussed is that this means that the child will not be out of the house until the woman is close to 50 or 60 years old and how these older mothers will be able to cope given they will be raising children at the time their careers are peaking and their energy levels are declining. Perhaps this will change the types of working arrangements women have with employers such as more job sharing, part-time employment, and telecommuting. and, older women could experience higher stress levels that younger working mothers.
Last, but certainly not least, is that, on average, a full-time, full-year woman worker brings home 77 cents on the dollar, compared to her male colleagues (Shriver, M. & the Center for American Progress). Pay differences should improve as women take on jobs in traditionally male-dominated industries and assume new job roles which…… [Read More]
fathers are taking an increasing part in the role of caring for children and bringing them up, particularly so since women have entered the workforce en flux, social research has increasingly focused on the part that father's play in raising their young children. The current opinion today as regards parenting is that shared parenting is the ideal situation particularly for mothers who are compelled to act as both breadwinners and fully available and concerned parents in a supportive and nourishing environment. Data shows that although the father often attempts to assume the nurturing role, the working mother often still remains the primary responsible caretaker in the family.
Questions that this study attempted to answer, consequently, were the following: Firstly, how do father and children form an attachment relationship in the first few years of life? In which sort of contexts do they do so, given that mothers remain responsible for…… [Read More]