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World Bank-ole in Avoiding Economic Crisis
World Bank and Economic Crisis
World Bank: How necessary is World Bank in avoiding an economic crisis?
Increased capital flows and economic crisis
Leveraging the liquidity of developed countries
Global Financial Development eport 2013 (GFD)
World Bank: How necessary is World Bank in avoiding an economic crisis?
As a result of Bretton Woods's conference, the World Bank (WB) was created in 1944. The most influential role in the establishment of WB was played by the U.S. And United Kingdom. This transnational institution comprises of two main institutions named as International Development Association (IDA) and International Bank for econstruction and Development (IBD). The main objective of this establishment is to provide loans to the under-developed and developing countries. Poverty alleviation and promotion of equitable economic growth are also amongst main objectives of this bank. The outcome of WB loans and funding is aimed to be…
Bretton Woods Project. (2013). Avoiding crashes on the financial 'Highway'? Retrieved from: http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-571190
GFDR. (2013). Global Financial Development Report. The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTGLOBALFINREPORT/0,,contentMDK:23267383~pagePK:64168182~piPK:64168060~theSitePK:8816097,00.html
Ibrelji?, I., & Kozari?, A. (2009). The role of the international monetary fund and world bank in solving global financial crisis. Facta universitatis-series: Economics and Organization, 6(2), 161-176.
Lane, P.R. (2012). The European sovereign debt crisis. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(3), 49-67.
World Bank was established in 1944 with its headquarters at Washington, DC. It was formed as a single organization that later expanded to a group of five strongly connected development institutions. The five members of the World Bank Group include the International Bank for econstruction and Development (IBD), the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). The main reason behind its inception was to smooth the progress of post-war reconstruction and reorganization. However in the present times, its main objective is to alleviate worldwide poverty. It also focuses on:
the sustainable growth in the most underprivileged countries, helping weak states y providing solutions to the special confrontations, providing capital and investment for middle-income countries, global problems and disasters such as hazardous diseases, trade and climatic changes
Arab world as there are innumerable opportunities…
"About Us - History." World Bank Group. The World Bank Group, n.d. Web. 7 Sept. 2011.
French, Hilary F. . "The World Bank: Now Fifty, but How Fit?."World Watch Jul-Aug. 1994: 10+. Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning.. Web. 7 Sept. 2011.
Danaher, Kevin, ed. 50 Years Is Enough: The Case against the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Boston: South End Press, 1996. 146-47. Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. Web. 7 Sept. 2011.
Over the last several years, the World ank has played an important part in helping to ensure continuous economic growth throughout East Asia. As, the have worked with a number of different countries to improve their standards of living and in addressing a variety of lingering issues that have been impacting these areas. In the case of Hong Kong and Singapore, they have begun to experience above average growth during the 1980's and the 1990's. As, both countries began to see their GDP rise by 5% or more on yearly basis. (Wen, 2010) This is significant, because it allowed a number of businesses to begin developing their own markets to address the underlying demands of customers. To fully understand what is taking place in both situations requires: examining the two methods that have been utilized, the techniques that should be embraced by businesses and the rationale for these…
Corniuk, C. (2011). Economic Growth Strategies for Hong Kong and Singapore. Cameron Coriuk. Retreived from: http://cameroncorniuk.hubpages.com/hub/Economic-Growth-Strategies-for-Hong-Kong-Singapore
Crook, C. (2002). Third World Economic Development. Econlib. Retrieved from: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc1/ThirdWorldEconomicDevelopment.html
Wen, C. (2010). A Study on Technological Progress. HKU. Retrieved from: http://www0.hku.hk/hkcsp/ccex/ehkcss01/a_pdf2.htm
One way to reform the Bank would be to make it more accountable to an outside body of independent examiners, so that information it generates is not so self-serving and internally generated. In addition, since there have been so many charges of corruption and mismanagement, it is clear divisions such as the "anti-corruption" division are not working, and these areas need to undergo major reform. Perhaps a total reorganization of the Bank is in order, with a goal of replacing long-term Bank staff with new members, and undergoing serious organizational training and goals. If the Bank cannot remain corruption free, how can they possibly expect member nations and projects to maintain anti-corruption in their own areas? The Bank needs to take a hard look at itself and its goals, assess where it is meeting them, and where it is not, and make those changes, accordingly. They have enacted at least…
Defending the World Bank. (2006, June 20). The Washington Times, p. A18.
Editors. (2008.) About us. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the World Bank Web site: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,pagePK:50004410~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00.html.
Editors. (2008). Accountability at the World Bank. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the BICUSA Web site: http://www.bicusa.org/en/Issue.25.aspx .
Editors. (2007). World Bank: Resigned Wolfowitz cites accomplishments. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the Global Security Web site: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2007/05/mil-070519-rferl01.htm .
Perhaps as a reflection that the orld Bank had maintained more relevance over the past decade than the IMF, the G20 did not expand its role as significantly. There were, however, changes made to the orld Bank. The first step was to lessen the influence of the United States on the institution, which had been dominated by the Americans since its inception. More power was given to emerging economies such as China with respect to how the orld Bank is governed. The Bank was given $250 billion to help provide trade finance and additional development funding (Miller & Kennedy, 2009).
Of interesting note is the potential for dramatic shift in the role of the orld Bank. Traditionally run by Americans along American fundamental principles, the latest developments are pushing the orld Bank to become a more globally-minded entity. The increasing power handed to the world's emerging economies signals a fundamental…
Reform of the IMF and World Bank: Where do Things Stand-Anthony Elson. World Economics. Henley-on-Thames: Apr-Jun 2007. Vol. 8, Iss. 2; pg. 65
No author. (2004). International Monetary Fund: The Role of the IMF and IMF History. CFTech. Retrieved April 17, 2009 from http://www.cftech.com/BrainBank/FINANCE/IMFHistory.html
Kapur, Davesh; Lewis, John Prior; Webb, Richard Charles. (1997). The World Bank: History. Retrieved April 17, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=mtBFK_ACbv8C&printsec=frontcover
No author. (2007). Finance and Economics: Sister-Talk; the World Bank and the IMF. The Economist. Mar 3, 2007. Vol. 382, Iss. 8518; pg. 87
22 (United States Census Bureau). Finally, Best Market esearch surveyed a disproportionate amount of those with incomes under $20,000 per year (United States Census Bureau), sample issues that most likely arose from the media of the survey, a survey. In addition to these severe sample discrepancies, the fact that the data was collected significantly earlier than the implementation date of the project is a serious time fallacy. Additionally, the statistical data only collected survey data from customers who logged onto the U.S.A. World Bank's web site. This limits the types of persons questioned to either customers of USA World Bank, those who are interested in USA World Bank, and those who accidentally stumbled onto the bank's web site. Thus, the population will not be random because it includes mostly those who already have a preference toward banking with USA World Bank, making the question regarding changing banks nearly meaningless.
Arsham, Hossein. (2008). Statistical Thinking for Managerial Decisions. Retrieved October 5, 2008, from the University of Baltimore.
Web Site: http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/Business-stat/opre504.htm#rrstatthink
News You Watch Says a Lot About How You'll Vote." (2008). Retrieved October 5, 2008 at http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/election_20082/2008_presidential_election/news_you_watch_says_a_lot_about_how_you_ll_vote
United States Census Bureau. (2008). Retrieved October 5, 2008, from the United States
The growing need for interdisciplinary education in the sciences has been recognized, as well, since students have often limited themselves to a specialized field without gaining the required skill sets to undertake broader issues.
As the world becomes more complex, technology faster and business increasingly competitive, organizations are going to need "enaissance people" who have a broad background in different areas, so they can clearly see the gestalt of a situation. When they are too pigeonholed, they will have more difficulty recognizing other avenues, making changes on a regular basis, or assume other roles when needed.
Within North America, traditional corporate structure used to be tightly hierarchal and segregated. Decisions were made by a very few individuals on top of the organizational pyramid. Today, organizations that are made up of narrow functional middle managers working within vertical and functional aligned departments are changing their structure or dying out. These layered…
Ethics in Practice (Hardcover)
Andrews, Kenneth. Ethics in Practice. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, 1989.
Folson, Burton Entrepreneurs vs. The State: A New Look at the Rise of Big Business in America, 1840 -- 1920. Herndon, VA: Young America's Foundation, (1987).
Glatthorn, a. Developing a quality curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994.
China has been a strong driver of growth since 1980, and South Korea has contributed. The wealthy city-states of Hong Kong and Singapore may be among the richest countries in the Pacific im, but their overall economies remain small compared with the big three. The other nations in Asia that were charted -- Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam all were noted as being minor economies. They may have seen growth in fifty years, but they remain small economies with relatively low GDP per capita rates. As a result, the conclusion that can be drawn from the data is that Japan remains the most sophisticated economy in the Pacific im, with South Korea and China making some contributions to the region's economic relevance. The city-states are valuable contributors, albeit with small economies, and other nations remain peripheral to Asia's economic success story.
There has not been any noted dropoff in any…
All statistics derive from the World Bank: http://databank.worldbank.org
Exhibit A: GDP in Constant 2000 USD 1960-2010 for Selected Asian Nations
Poverty has always been the bane of society.
In modern-day times, with the easy spread of information, poverty is even more magnified. People in wealthy areas and situations are aware of exactly how poor people are wretched areas, and, more critically, people in wretched areas are entirely aware how wealthy people in more fortunate areas. Civilizations have always had vast discrepancies of wealth -- as is indicated by every GINI study -- but today, the knowledge of that discrepancy has become an even more viable and potent cause for violent action.
The events of September 11th were engendered by religious differences, yes, but the root cause is indisputably economic inequalities. The poor not only are poor, they now have access -- through technology -- to information like televisions which portray lives of opulence in other lands, and to weapons of mass danger. The vast majority of the world's poor are…
Works Cited and Consulted
Altman, D. "As Global Lenders Refocus, A Needy World
Waits." New York Times, March 25, 2002.
Einhorn, Jessica. "The World Bank's Mission Creep."
Foreign Affairs, Volume 80 Number 5.
The role of the state is subject to considerable debate, with respect to the forces of globalization. Some feel that the state will become obsolete. Certainly, the role of the state has evolved over time -- identities and the idea of sovereignty are subject to this evolution (Mozaffari, 2001). Stiglitz (2007) has argued that the expansion of globalization has outpaced this evolution of the nation-state. There is a good case to be made for this, certainly at present. Large-scale trade agreements are enforced through tribunals that are superordinated to national government justice systems, but that also lack transparency. Such tribunals are a recent development in globalization, but they have the power to render judgements to which a state is bound. Investor-state dispute settlement mechanisms (ISDS), as these extra-judicial bodies are known, essentially place corporate entities as the legal equivalent of a state, and given that the panels lack…
Baker, B. (2012). Leaked TPP investment chapter presents a grave threat to access to medicines. Northeastern University School of Law Research Paper No. 121-2012.
Chowla, P. (2012). The World Bank: A glimmer of a possibility of change. The Guardian. Retrieved January 9, 2016 from https://www.globalpolicy.org/social-and-economic-policy/the-three-sisters-and-other-institutions/the-world-bank/51510-the-world-bank-a-glimmer-of-a-possibility-of-change-.html?itemid=id#956
Easterly, W. (2009). The ideology of development. Foreign Policy. Retrieved January 9, 2016 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/10/13/the-ideology-of-development/
Joshi, D. & O'Dell, R. (2013). Global governance and development ideology: The United Nations and the World Bank on the left-right spectrum. Global Governance. Vol. 19 (2) 249-275.
As they are interested in increasing economic growth at all costs, while ignoring the short- and long-term impacts that their actions could have on the population. This is evidence, of the validity of the criticisms leveled against: the World ank, it policies and its role. Where, they would play a part in helping to support, various activities that are contradictory to their intended purpose. In this aspect the various criticisms are accurate, as they highlight a hypocrisy that exists between: World ank policy and its long-term effects upon a country.
About Us, 2009, World ank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
China Overtakes Japan as World's Second Largest Economy, 2010, loomberg. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Fighting Poverty, 2010, World ank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Global Monitoring Report 2009, 2009, World ank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Summit on Millennium Development Goals, 2010, UN. Available from: [5 October 2010].…
About Us, 2009, World Bank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
China Overtakes Japan as World's Second Largest Economy, 2010, Bloomberg. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Fighting Poverty, 2010, World Bank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
Global Monitoring Report 2009, 2009, World Bank. Available from: [5 October 2010].
hile the orld Bank is intended to assist in the development of the world's countries, the IMF's purpose is to keep a balance in the world's economy concerning financial operations between countries.
The effectiveness of the two has often been doubted with several other institutions from countries receiving assistance being able to take advantage of the funds provided by either the orld Bank or the IMF. Another reason for why some condemn the two institutions is the belief that the U.S. had actually created the orld Bank and the IMF in order to gain benefits from the deal.
Both the orld Bank and the IMF would certainly be more effective if their leaders would not give conditioned help and would see that all the people in the world would benefit the systems equally.
Driscoll, David. The IMF and the orld Bank: How Do They Differ?. International Monetary Fund.…
Driscoll, David. The IMF and the World Bank: How Do They Differ?. International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/index.htm (accesed 9 December 2008)
Economics & Global Health
Economically deprived nations are places where poverty is widespread, and poverty almost always leads to some form of hunger; facts show that people who do not have enough nutrients become ill. This is the deadly cycle that many developing countries face. "Poverty is the principal cause of hunger," according to the UN's Education Service; and the principal underlying cause of " ... poverty and hunger" is poorly administered economic and political systems. Control over those systems is often based on "military, political, and economic power that typically ends up in the hands of a minority"; those in power often live quite well while those at the bottom of the ladder " ... barely survive" (worldhunger.org). This paper delves into the problem of poor economics, poverty, and global health issues.
Hunger: The United Nations / orld Bank Programs
The United Nations and the orld Bank have programs…
The World Bank. (2015). Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger by 2015. Retrieved
December 9, 2015, from http://www.worldbank.org .
World Hunger Education Service. (2015). 2015 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics. Retrieved December 9, 2015, from http://www.worldhunger.org .
Discuss international trade issues and how they impact starting a business in Denmark and how it pursues doing business with other countries
Denmark has been following bilateral trade policy based on free trade. This has helped it penetrate major markets while keeping the balance between import and exports. Denmark has been successful in the policy and has a lot of products exported to the U.S. And these include pharmaceutical products, nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; electrical machinery and equipment, and Denmark also imports from the U.S. The World Bank economic indicators for Denmark for the year 2010 show that the current purchasing power per capita -- PPP is at $40,290. (Panjiva, 2012)
Denmark has expanded its trade relations recently with Canada. They both have identical business strategies. Both are based on the agri-food export sectors. The knowledge industries and the agricultural sector and modern concepts like…
Canada International. (2012) "Canada & Denmark trade" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/denmark-danemark/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada_denmark-danemark.aspx?lang=eng&view=d
Ebay.com. (2012a) "International trading policy" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from http://pages.ebay.com/help/policies/international-trading.html
Ebay.com. (2012b) "Welcome to the new ebay" Retrieved 24 October 2012 from http://announcements.ebay.com/2012/10/welcome-to-the-new-ebay/
EconomyWatch. (2010) "Denmark Export, Import and Trade"
The Bank has taken a proactive role worldwide. It has attempted to adopt a vocal role in addressing concerns of biodiversity, ozone depletion, narcotics, crime, corruption, and post-conflict reconstruction, particularly in the Balkans and est Bank.
The orld Bank has lent money to admittedly undemocratic, often brutal dictatorships, in the hopes that economic stability will lead to government reform. Yet "the public infrastructure projects funded by the IBRD have consistently been recognized as unmitigated disasters. Notably, Brazil's Polonoroeste road-building project set a significant portion of the Amazon rainforest on fire; the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India uprooted 240,000 Indians and was condemned by the orld Bank's own panel of investigators;...Internal reports suggest that one-third of orld Bank financed projects are failing" (eekes 2005)
There is a risk that the Bank may be duplicating the role of existing UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (eekes 2005). The UN…
About us." The World Bank. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,contentMDK:20653660~menuPK:72312~pagePK:51123644~piPK:329829~theSitePK:29708,00.html
Weekes, Rob. "World Bank: Success or Failure?" Ideabate.org. June 21, 2005.
March 10, 2009 at http://www.idebate.org/debatabase/topic_details.php?topicID=173
From its creation to 1988 it undertook banking functions and opined generally on the international banking system.
2. Starting in 1988 it began to assume the role of an unofficial international bank regulator. Although it had no official international status, its members -- central banks of the major banking countries -- were obligated by the nature of their membership to abide by its edicts and the rest of the world took them seriously.
3. Starting in the late 1990s, it began to consider itself the equivalent of an international bank regulator. Every subject of significance was within its jurisdiction and, although its legal powers were no greater, it assumed that it had a right to make rules for local banks to observe in the conduct of their businesses.
4. Sometime in the future there is a widespread anticipation that it will be given, through some treaty mechanism, the power to…
Baker, James Calvin. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
Birdsall, Nancy. "Whither the IMF in the Current Crisis? Invite the Big Emerging Economies to the Table." 2 October 2008. Center for Global Development. 26 February 2009 http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2008/10/whither_the_imf_in_the_current.php.
BIS. Bank for International Settlements (BIS). n.d. 25 February 2009 http://www.bis.org/about/index.htm .
Carl Felsenfeld, Genci Bilali. "The Role of the Bank for International Settlements in Shaping the World Financial System." January 2004. Social Science Research Network Electronic Library. 26 February 2009 http://ssrn.com/abstract=496022 .
The World Bank asserts that this project will also improve the quality of life for the people of Uruguay by producing skilled jobs ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves...").
The article reports that another purpose of the project is to support the government as it relates to strengthening the capacity of the country to produce, transfer, and adapt knowledge and new technology ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves..."). As it relates to this aim the project is designed to encourage the strengthening of the institutional framework for technology, science, and innovation. In addition the project is designed to support investments in education; technology transfer and innovation within the private sector; and research alliances and transportation/flexibility for researchers between educational institutions and the productive sector ("Uruguay: World Bank Approves...").
In addition to the aforementioned activities, there are many other activities that the World Bank is currently involved in that are aimed at improving living standards…
Albania: Micro-credits Support a Growing Rural Economy. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20871875~menuPK:141311~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
Uruguay: World Bank Approves U.S.$26 Million to Promote Innovation and Improve the Country's Competitiveness. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:21318964~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
World Bank Vows to Strengthen Health Systems in Poor Countries with New http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:21318554~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html
Food and dietary habits vary from region to region; mostly guided by cultural preferences, access to resources and income levels. It has often found that western countries rarely ever complain of malnutrition problem, while it persists in third world countries. The reason for this is grounded in income levels and access to resources. Most developing countries heavily rely on pulses and beans for calories while most western-nations exhibit a greater taste for meat and poultry. This demonstrates on the one hand, cultural tastes while on the other it also says a great deal about income and poverty. In a report and survey revealed in 1980s, it was found that there existed noticeable differences in per capital supply of calories and protein in different regions of the world (see Table 1). It was observed that developing countries had calories intake 9% lower than the world average. The developed countries on…
1. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996a The sixth world food survey. Rome: FAO.
2. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1996b. Food balance sheets 1961-1994. Rome: FAO.
3. Grigg, D. 1995 The nutritional transition in Western Europe. Jl Hist. Geogr. 21: 247-61.
4. Grigg, D. 1996 The starchy staples in world food consumption. Ann. Ass. Am. Geogr. 86: 412-31.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…
Allan, T. (2003). The Causes of World War I. Chicago: Reed Elsevier.
Bosco, P., & Bosco, A. (2003). World War I. Infobase.
Heyman, N.M. (1997). World War I. Greenwood.
Marshall, S.L.A. (2001). World War I. New York: First Mariner.
Improper Foreclosure and Mortgage Practices in the Banking Industry
Efficient Market Hypothesis
Real Estate Bubble
Overview on the Value of Banks
Arguments against Financial Intermediaries
This research paper aims to shed light into what led to the global financial collapse that, for the most part, began in the U.S. housing market and the ethical implications that followed. Many researchers agree that the primary drivers that led to the real estate crisis was the lifting of the Glass Steagall Act, the fostering of sub-prime lending, and the creation of derivatives and credit default swaps which were used as complex financial instruments. This offered the big five banks an entire new range of operating opportunities. All of these financial tools were justified by the efficient market hypothesis and as a consequence provide evidence for the lack of a truly efficient market. As a result of the financial…
Ball, R. "The Global Financial Crisis and the Efficient Market Hypothesis." CFA Digest (2010): 44-45. Web.
Bauman, S., M. Conover and R. Miller. "Growth vs. value and large-cap vs. small-cap stocks in international markets." Financial Analysis Journal 54.2 (1998): 75-89.
Beers, B. "End the Fed, Save the Dollar: Ron Paul." 7 September 2009. CNBC. Web. 19 March 2012.
Chen, B. And F. Kaboub. The Repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis. 8 February 2012. Web. 19 March 2012.
Yet Mr. Friedman does not go to this depth of analysis and relies instead of lengthy, conversational passages in the book that could be trimmed and made more potent, relevant and valuable. The concept Mr. Friedman discusses of the Untouchables is altogether too elitist as well, and this chapter of the book is an illusion; there is no job safe in a globalized world. Only those willing to compete at exceptionally high levels and deliver exceptionally high levels of service, value and insight are going to survive. Globalization's safe harbors are exceptional knowledge, talent and intensity of focus. It is not merely due to the fact that someone is from a given nation. This is certainly the case in Saudi Arabia, where the growth of financial services firms from the United Stakes, the United Kingdom and other westernized nations are more dependent than ever on the Saudi economy as the…
From the beginning of the war, there had been some variation in the Canadian attitude toward the conflict. Canada never questioned the legitimacy of the war and did not question the need for Canadian participation. There were differences of opinion, though, concerning how extensive the Canadian contribution should be. These variations affected the response to calls for enlistment and divided the country as the towns were more willing than the countryside, the prairies more willing than the Atlantic seaboard, and "it was observed that the proportion of enlistments achieved by any social group appeared to vary almost inversely to the length of its connection with Canada. On the one hand, the ritish-born -- the new arrivals with a large proportion of unattached males of military age -- gave the highest percentage of their numbers to the armed services, and, on the other hand, the French Canadians unquestionably gave the…
Ameringer, Charles D. Political Parties of the Americas, 1980s to 1990s: Canada, Latin America, and the West Indie.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Bothwell, Robert. History of Canada since 1867. Washington, D.C.: Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, 1996.
Boudreau, Joseph a. "Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert "Canada and Worlod War I," the History of Canada (2007), http://www.linksnorth.com/canada-history/canadaandworldwar1.html .
National debt and veterans benefits for example drove a permanent increase in taxes, although these were not as high as during the war. The country's international economic position was also permanently affected. Its pre-war status as a debtor country was permanently changed to a net creditor, in the order of $6.4billion. Also, the power as financial world leader shifted from London and the Bank of England to New York, with an enhancement of the Federal Reserve's role (World War I History). In general, it appears as if the war effort had a favorable impact on the U.. economy. The devastating human and resource losses were offset by favorable economic factors. In this way, World War I changed the economic position of the United tates both permanently and favorably.
Duffy, Michael. "The Causes of World War I." FirstWorldWar.com feature articles. March 27, 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/origins/causes.htm
U.. Declaration of War with Germany,…
Duffy, Michael. "The Causes of World War I." FirstWorldWar.com feature articles. March 27, 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/origins/causes.htm
U.S. Declaration of War with Germany, 2 April 1917" FirstWolrdWar.com primary documents. April 14, 2002. URL: http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usneutrality.htm
Feldmeth, Greg D. "U.S. Involvement in World War I." U.S. History Resources. March 31, 1998. URL: http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Bunker/3017/
Rockoff, Hugh. "U.S. Economy in World War I." EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. September 30, 2005. URL:
It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.
Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…
The Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce (CIBC) is one of the "Big Five" Canadian banks. It was founded in 1961 by the merger of the Canadian Bank of Commerce (founded 1867) and the Imperial Bank of Canada (founded 1875). Today, the CIBC is the fifth-largest of these by total revenue, earning $12.09 billion in FY2010 (PC, 2011). This report will evaluate the CIBC in terms of a number of different factors in order make a judgment about the merits of investing in the bank's stock. The analysis will comprise of an industry analysis, a company analysis, and a valuation analysis.
According to the company's 2011 Annual Report, the CIBC earned total revenue of $12.249 billion in FY2011. This was split between interest income (51.8%) and non-interest income (48.2%). From this, the bank earned a net income of $3.079 billion. The recession years of 2008 and 2009 saw a sharp…
Alexander, D. (2010). CIBC may have C$211 million debt writedown in third quarter, Mihelic says. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-07-22/cibc-may-have-c-211-million-debt-writedown-in-third-quarter-mihelic-says.html
CIBC 2011 Annual Report. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from
The effects of information technology on the society
The social capital framework
In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.
The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…
Veenstra, G. (2000). Social capital, SES and health: An individual-level analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 619-629.
Wellman, B.A., Quan-Haase, A., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 437-456.
Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225-249.
Mountain Bank Case Study
In order to achieve competitive advantage, Mountain Bank needs to work on its existing four lines of business instead of expanding into any new area. This is because if it concentrates on the currently served markets, it will find room for improvement that would help the bank gain competitive advantage without eroding its profits or using its financial resources.
The one most important strategy that it must adopt is to improve its deposit volume. We learn from the case study that Mountain bank doesn't find checking accounts very profitable but we know that they can be turned into highly stable source of income if correct strategies are implemented and deposit growth is one such strategy. (Zagha et al. 2005, p. 206)
For one if the company gives its customers some incentives for using their checking accounts for direct deposits, this would make Mountain Bank their primary…
Donelan, J.G. And E.A. Kaplan. 1998. Value Chain Analysis: A Strategic Approach To Cost Management. Journal of Cost Management (March/April): 7-15.
LAWLER, E.E. (1969) JOB DESIGN AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION. Personnel Psychology, 22: 426 -- 435.
Zagha, R. Gobind T. Nankani, Economic growth in the 1990s: learning from a decade of reform. World Bank Publications, 2005-364 pages
Ending Extreme Poverty
To read the reports and the projections of The World ank, it would seem that it is possible to end extreme poverty in the world by 2030. How realistic is that goal? It is not possible to know for sure if that goal is achievable, but when the facts of how many people live in terrible, depressing poverty, credit has to be given to The World ank for trying. This paper presents the facts and projections of The World ank and of the United Nations as well.
The World ank's Plan
In a press release issued in April, 2014, The World ank expressed the notion that countries cannot expect to reduce grinding poverty amongst their citizens simply by expanding economic growth. The right way to reduce extreme poverty is to " ... complement efforts to enhance growth" with programs that allocate more resources to the extreme poor"…
Cronin, John. "Pope Francis Pointed the World's Attention to Its largest Environmental
Problem: Poverty." Huffington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Taylor, Adam Russel. "Meeting the moral imperative to end extreme poverty." Friday,
October 2, 2015. Retrieved from http://blogs.worldbank.org .
Any tactical decision must take into consideration its costs and its benefits, and be used only in those instances when the company will outperform as a result. Yes, empowerment must be aligned with strategy, but the concept of empowerment is sufficiently vague that managers may have difficulty knowing when this is the case.
hen the orld Bank speaks of empowerment, the context is known. It is derived from principles such as democracy and free markets. If people can do as they please then as rational economic actors they will, in aggregate, improve their economic lot. The corporation, however, is a poor analogy for the world or a nation. Corporations have specific goals, and they also have constraints with respect to funding and activities that are not present in broader societies. Management's role in empowerment is much greater than the role of governmental leaders. Management must not only facilitate employee empowerment…
No author. (2009) Empowerment. World Bank. Retrieved April 2, 2009 from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/EXTEMPOWERMENT/0,,contentMDK:20245753~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:486411,00.html
Sharma, Dr. Manoj K. & Kaur, Gurvinder. (no date). Employee Empowerment: A Conceptual Analysis. Journal of Global Business Issues. Vol 2, Issue 2, pp 7-11.
Native populations never had such concepts. That many nations are artificial creations incapable of food self-sufficiency undercuts the self-sufficiency argument. Nations around the world may need, at the very least, to organization into larger, more diverse blocs the way Europe has in order to have any hope of attaining food self-sufficiency.
Inefficient and illogical colonial-era boundaries are just one externality that is impacting the ability of the world to feed itself. Trade regulations are another. No matter the justification, trade barriers and tariffs reduce the efficiency of the global food trade. hen nations protect certain industries with these barriers, they fail to take advantage of comparative advantages. orse, such regulations stifle innovation. hen regulations are removed, innovation allows industries to find a new equilibrium. An example of this can be found with Canadian wine production. Prior to the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Act, the Canadian wine industry was subsidized heavily.…
This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…
ESRI (2006). Environmental Systems Research Institute. Retrieved from the Internet on July 14, 2006. (www.esri.com)
Gates Technology Foundation (2005). Interviews and on-site visits with GIS planners and network technicians while donating servers, laptops, and desktop computers for a major PC manufacturer. Onsite interviews in Seattle, Washington. April, 2005.
HHS (2006). Federal Register Data on Poverty Line Statistics by size of household. January 24, 2006. See table 1 of this document.
Pew Center for Internet Research (2006). Key statistics downloaded from the Internet on February 14, 2006. http://people-press.org/
The only hope rests in being sensible and alert to the danger we have incurred upon ourselves. Going green and seriously focusing on renewable forms of energy is the only way that we could save this planet from the impending disaster.
1) World Water Council, 'Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
2) U.S. Census ureau, 'World Population Summary', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php
3) WWF, 'Water: Our Rivers Lakes and Wetlands', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/
4) Lester rown, (Oct 2001), 'China's Water Table Levels are Dropping Fast', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.grist.org/article/table/
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7) Science Daily 'Environmental Scientists Estimate That China Could Meet Its Entire Future Energy Needs y Wind Alone', retrieved Oct…
1) World Water Council, 'Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
2) U.S. Census Bureau, 'World Population Summary', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php
3) WWF, 'Water: Our Rivers Lakes and Wetlands', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/
4) Lester Brown, (Oct 2001), 'China's Water Table Levels are Dropping Fast', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.grist.org/article/table/
This development approach, by the European Union, is similar to the Bretton Woods institutions' 'Washington consensus', which was developed in the latter half of the 1980s, following "several severe balance of payments crises of developing countries" (Nienhaus, 2002, p. 55). The European Union does not favor indiscriminate opening of markets, but rather it looks for more liberal trade arrangements with developing countries and the European Union solely. This policy has been repeatedly criticized by the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and World Bank.
The basic philosophy behind this position is that market forces are better able to foster economic development, compared to state intervention. If a developing country has prices which reflect the relative scarcity of goods and services, as well as indicate comparative advantages, these countries will be able to attract foreign investment. This investment will result in a transfer of both capital and technology. As Nienhaus…
Darby., J. (2009). French antipathy to Turkey's EU candidacy. Journal of Multilingual & Multicultural Development, 30(3). Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Academic Search Compete database.
European Union. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9033265
Hunter, R. & Ryan, L. (2009). Poland, the European Union, and the Euro. Global Economy Journal, 9(2). Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Business Source Complete database.
Maastricht Treaty. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved December 8, 2009, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/eb/article-9001460
rapid, post-orld ar II economic growth for the Japanese economy. A survey of the literature provides insights into management practices of Japanese firms, and offers direction for necessary changes that the American economy must make to successfully compete.
Because of the exceptional growth of East Asia in the 70s and 80s, a number of studies were conducted to determine the causes of economic development, particularly in Japan. Hayumi's article explored the question of whether there were lessons to be learned that would improve U.S. economic performance. Hayami argued that while the orld Bank study of the "East Asian Miracle" acknowledged successful cases of government planning and control in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the report did not provide a unique model of economic development. Given the complexity of political and government interventions, Hayami argued that the success of the northern tier could not be duplicated. Moreover, countries in the southern tier…
Anderson, William S. "Meeting the Japanese Economic Challenge." Business Horizons. 24. 2 (1981): 56-62. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.
Hayami, Yujiro. "A Commentary on the 'East Asian Miracle': Are There Lessons To Be Learned?" Journal of the Japanese and International Economies 10 (1996): 318-325. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.
Makino, Shige and Tom Roehl. "Learning From Japan: A Commentary." Academy of Management Perspectives 24. 4 (2010): 38-45. Web. 20 Oct. 2011.
Creating Word Class Performance in a Jaguar Assembly Plant
Multiple Cause Diagram
In the above multiple cause diagram, six feedback loops exist and they relate to the following sub-systems.
Stores, and Production
The model indicates that the goal is matching the demand with production and is causal to seamless back-to-back activities in the areas of purchasing, production and planning. The diagram explores significant areas such as the impact changes in customer schedule has on production requirements. Customer schedule changes are difficult to determine precisely, especially as pertains to production due dates and material needs (Tomar, 2008).
The diagram below can be very helpful in identifying the factors driving a certain change event. It can be used to identify "cause chains" and help in the identification of key elements. While it is relatively simple, it indicates clearly why a change is taking place and in doing so…
Belogolovsky, E. & Bamberger, P., 2014. Signaling in Secret: Pay for Performance and the Incentive and Sorting Effects of Pay Secrecy. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), pp. 1706-1733.
Ahmed, A. & Hussain, E., 2014. Effect of Disturbance on Closed-Loop Control System. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(8), pp. 15672-15676.
Andrews, R., Boyne, G. & Enticott, G., 2007. Performance failure in the public sector. Public Management Review, 8(2), pp. 273-296.
Bajorek, Z. & Bevan, S., 2015. Performance-related-pay in the UK public sector: A review of the recent evidence on effectiveness and value for money. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(2), pp. 94-109.
International business: Sweden
The world economic powers have controlled the world economies for the longest time. Sweden is a remarkably small nation, yet it has developed to become among the best and wealth endowed nations in the world. It is a historically established nation that has been existence as early as the 7th century. From these early centuries, Sweden has been known for the level of involvement and development in trade.
Geographic, demographic and natural resources information of Sweden
The geography of Sweden makes it a nation of envy by many others. Sweden has a small area of total coverage of about 449,964 sq km. The area that is dry land is about 410, 934 sq km, and the rest is water. This in comparison to the United States is just slightly larger than the state of California by about land total 2,233 km. Sweden has a coastline…
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2012). OECD Territorial Reviews:
Sma-land-Blekinge, Sweden 2012: (Swedish version). Vaxjo: Regional council of Southern Smaland, Sweden.
Development, O.E.C. (2013). OECD Economic Surveys. Paris: OECD Pub.
Kent, N. (2008). A concise history of Sweden. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
preferences by countries can led to different forms of the challenges that they face and the strategies they choose to address these challenges. However, in an increasingly globalized world, many modern challenges are increasingly affecting the world's population as a whole; like climate change for example. Thus the next generations of challenges will require solutions that involve an unprecedented level of global collaboration. Furthermore, these challenges can be thought of in terms of social, economic, and environmental challenges. This paper will briefly outline three development challenges that are facing development in the 21st century.
Climate change, also known as global warming, is an environmental phenomenon that has attracted significant global attention in recent decades. This is arguably an issue that can be thought of as an existential issue. Climate change stands the potential not only to threaten many animal species around the world in a new global masses…
AFP. (2013, March 14). Chavez 'devil' speech recalled at UN tribute. Retrieved from Nation: http://www.nation.co.ke/News/world/Chavez-devil-speech-recalled-at-UN-tribute/-/1068/1719726/-/2omnx2z/-/index.html
Hanna, S., & Osborne-Lee, I. (2011). Sustainable economy of the ecological footprint: economic analysis and impacts. In V. Esteve, Ecosystems and Sustainable Development VIII (pp. 313-342). Southampton: WIT Press.
Harris, G. (2014, March 25). Borrowed Time on Disappearing Land. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/29/world/asia/facing-rising-seas-bangladesh-confronts-the-consequences-of-climate-change.html
Kabir, A. (2015, May 14). Democracy Departs From Bangladesh. Retrieved from The Diplomat: http://thediplomat.com/2015/05/democracy-departs-from-bangladesh/
Each region in the world has a different economic policy guided by various fundamentals and policies in place. Members of a region may dictate how the business in that particular region is conducted. Several factors therefore have to be considered by businesses and countries when they want to engage in business with one another. When doing business, a critical analysis of the host country in terms of the macroeconomic dynamics is of great importance to evaluate how they affect business and also taking into account the barriers, tariffs and regulations of trade that may affect the exportation of goods and services.
Certain regions have trade blocks that govern the rules of doing business; such regions enforce barriers to protect the economies of the member countries and to bar foreign investors and importers from providing goods and services to compete against their respective domestic products. Some countries have heavy…
For purposes of this paper, the focus is on Australia which has one of the best economies in the world. Australia is ranked thirteenth best economy with its per capita income being ranked as one of the best in the world. Its human development index is also one of the best compared to other major economies of the world with its national performance in areas such as the economic freedom, education, protection rights, health and quality of life in general still ranked high. It has one of the best organized governments with clear structures and a working constitution that governs and protects the citizens. Geographically it is one of the largest countries with six states namely; South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia (Ralph Kelly, 2012).
Australia generally is a wealthy nation with a population of about 22.2 million; its major cities are ranked as the most livable cities in the world. The Australian dollar (AUD) which is its main currency is stronger than the U.S. dollar (USD) and the exchange rate is 1 AUD equals to 1.03810 USD an indication of a good economy for foreign investment (XE, 2012). A stronger domestic currency is good for the importers but unproductive for the country's exports in the International markets as they become expensive and less competitive. The barometer predicts a decrease in the value against the USD by 2013 with a strong performance before the 2013 down drift. Different categories of business operators expect AUD/USD to go as high as $1.06 and weaken to $1.02 by 2013 onwards (Commonwealth Bank 2012).
Australia's annual economic growth for the last 15 years is 3.6%, the GDP growth rate estimates for 2011-2012 according to World Bank ranges from 3.2% to 3.8% which is a positive indicator. The International Monetary Fund report has also indicated that it is the world's best performing advanced economy, a status that is expected to prevail in the next two to three years. The year 2012 has had a growth rate of 3.1% therefore with all the fundamentals constant, a forecast of 3.3% increase is expected in 2013. The inflation (CPI) for Australia is 2.8% while the interest rate ranges between 3-6%.The interest rate forecast remains constant as sources reveal, the rate has been constant at 3.25% for the last three consecutive months being backed up by the domestic indicators. Inflation is also expected to remain
Workers are employed in fisheries, mining, and defense industries while the farmers work in the agricultural collectives. Standards of living are defined by the family background as to the political and ideological heritage. The children of revolutionaries (those who died in the Korean War) are given special educational opportunities at an elite school called the Mangyndae Revolutionary Institute. However, the children and descendants of those who were in collaboration with the Japanese or the "exploiting class" are considered to be 'bad elements' in the society.
North Korea supports equality in aspect of the genders. The employment of women is expected and demanded by the South Korean government and those working with children under the age of four are expected to put the children in permanent nurseries if there is no family to take care of them while the mother works. However, the women are paid less than are men and…
Edgell, Alvin G. (2003) Globalization and Cultural Encounters 2003
International and Third World Studies Journal and Review Vol. XIV 2003 Dept
Political Science Kent State University.
Opondo, Patricia a. (2000) Cultural Policies in Kenya 2000 May 1 Arts
Natural Resources: The Leading Development Trap
This paper argues that the natural resources trap is the main cause of poverty among billions of people in the poorest countries in the world today.
Paul Collier (2007 p 4), in his famous book, ottom illions, thoroughly explores and discusses the causes behind the grueling poverty of a billion people in the poorest countries. At the outset, he narrows down the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations into tracing the development progress of countries up to this year. This has led to the realization of a billion rich people in separate developed countries against five billion in separate under-developed, developing or non-developing countries. That horrid contrast reflects the 80% of humanity that lives in these stagnant countries and poses the true challenge to all development efforts everywhere. The author emphasizes that these people in these countries are not only "falling behind" but…
Collier, P. (2007). The bottom billions. Parts 1 and 2. Oxford University Press
-. (2015). Improving aid with smarter compassion. An Interview. Oxford Economist:
PovertyCure. Retrieved on April 25, 2015 from http://www.povertycure.org/voices/paul-collier
Durairaj, V. (2007). The bottom billion: why are the poorest countries failing and what can be done about it. Vol 85 # 11, Bulletin of the WHO: World Health Organization. Retrieved on April 22,2015 from http://www.who.it/bulletin/volumes/85/11/07-045229/en/#
World War II drew to a close, and the planet was forced to recalibrate in unprecedented proportions, the United States began its long emergence as the most expansive super-power that had yet been known. Its influence that would compete virulently with the post-war Soviet influence for half a century, has since disseminated into every facet of the geopolitical theatre. As such, American support can operate as the determining factor in the success of a national agenda. Likewise, American dissent can be the stifling roadblock that sets nations adrift in failure and, consequently, resentment. So it's important to acknowledge that a nation's complaint of American neglect is more than just the bitter rhetoric of the disenfranchised. The emphasis placed on American approval and volition is fairly justified when one considers the weight and implication of the U.S. stance on any given topic. And it's certainly fair to say that American intervention…
5. Maisel, David, The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1998.
6. Rabinovich, Itamar, Waging Peace, New York, NY, Farrer, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
7. Smith, Charles D., Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, New York, NY, St. Martin's Press, 2001
Bank for International Settlements
The inception of the Bank for International Settlements
The Bank for International Settlements was created in 1930 pursuant to the Young Plan, also known as the Dawes Plan under the Hague Agreement (Baker 2). At its inception, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) was to assume the responsibilities of the Agent General for Reparations in Berlin which consisted of collecting, administrating and distributing the annuities that were payable as reparations (BIS History -- Overview 1). These original responsibilities were the source of the BIS' name (BIS History- Overview 1). According to the BIS eb site, "The BIS was also created to act as a trustee for the Dawes and Young Loans (international loans issued to finance reparations) and to promote central bank cooperation in general" (BIS History -- Overview 2). As these original responsibilities were satisfied, the purpose of the BIS has also changed as discussed…
About BIS. (2014). The Bank for International Settlements. [online] available: http://www.bis.
Baker, James C. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Westport,
CT: Quorum Books, 2002.
The increase in profits (at certain points) highlights the overall risks vs. rewards, as they can see substantial growth of 5% each year. Moreover, the performance of various strategies used in management of hedge funds experienced a greater feat, despite having less asset classes to choose from.
Over the years, the hedge fund industry has shown consistent growth and increase in its regulatory issues. This is because managers are using strategies that: increase the overall amounts of risk, while offering the possibility of greater financial rewards. As a result, the odds improve that investors could experience significant losses in these areas (which increases the overall amounts of regulatory scrutiny).
Hedge funds will experience more changes that will lessen its variance in comparison with mutual funds. Where, it will determine its investors and techniques of management without being greatly influenced by: institutionalization or regulation of the finance industry. In 2005, Ibbotson…
Hedge and Pension Funds, 2011.
Ackermann, C, McEnally R. & Ravenscraft, D 1999, "The performance of hedge funds: Risk, return and incentives." Journal of Finance, 54 (June), pp. 833-874.
Adrian, T 2007, "Measuring risk in the hedge fund sector," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, 13, Federal
Reserve Bank of New York, pp. 1 -- 7.
Bank of America: Organizing Function of Management
Bank of America is the leading commercial financial institution of the United States. Founded in 1874, the bank has a long history of offering financial services to large and small businesses and individuals in America and abroad. Bank of America couldn't possibly have been where it is today without an efficient Human resource management system and good and effective use of technology. The company places great emphasis on human resource development right from the start. For starters it has a good hiring policy that ignores differences of race, sex, color and creed. The bank has truly been an equal opportunity employer. BoA has also been focusing on appropriate job design by offering job rotation and enlargement so each individual can get the best out of the position at which he/she is serving. It has been trying to improve its job design so every…
Bank of America. Press Releases.
HRM REPORT. Accessed online 18th May 2011 http://www.hrmreport.com/article/Bringing-Discipline-to-HR/
World War I and the Great Depression
World War I
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria. However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question (The Balkans), and the crises before 1914. The main powers of Europe before 1914 were: (i) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882) and (ii) the Triple Entente of Britain, ussia and France (1907). In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts. Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…
Giangreco, D. M. & Griffin, R. E. (1988). Airbridge to Berlin -- The Berlin Crisis of 1948, Its Origins and Aftermath. Background on Conflict with USSR.
Hiebert, Ray, and Roselyn Hiebert. (1970). The Stock Market Crash, 1929. New York, NY: Franklin Watts.
McElvaine, R. S. (1993). The Great Depression: America, 1929-1941. New York, NY: Times Books.
Parrish, M. E. (1992). Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1941. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
1770 and 1850, the economy of England became industry based as opposed to agriculture based as it used to be before (Toynbee, 1884). This was due to technological inventions that were ongoing in many spheres that were finally integrated. This led to the development of factories that really never existed before. The development of industries was owed to better transport system that created larger markets. It took the society some time to adjust to the new economic system different from the agrarian economy they were conversant with. This paper seeks to highlight why industrial revolution started in Britain. There were quite a number of factors that led to British Industrial evolution.
One of the major factors that caused industrial revolution in Britain was the expansion of trade save for the mercantile economic policies that had early been instituted. Because of decline of feudalism, farmers were no longer bound to the…
Kreis, S. (2011). Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved March 29, 2013 from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
Mack, P.E. (2005). The British Industrial Revolution. Retrieved 29, 2013 from http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/britir.htm
Toynbee, A. (1884). Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved 29, 2013 from http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/toynbee/indrev
Making loans to high-risk borrowers, engaging in risk or faulty investments, and otherwise managing money in a sloppy way is a surefire way to get derision from regulatory bodies and/or the public. The figures for the competition bear out that remaining in proper fiscal shape in banking operations is possible even during these uncertain times and there is no reason why egions Bank cannot do the same.
Over the next twelve quarters, customer service initiatives to drive and retain recurring business are important as this is the best thing egions Bank can do to get some breathing room. Attracting high-quality borrowers that are willing to borrow money during uncertain times is also important and at a premium nowadays. A barrier to both of these ideas is that people often become paralyzed and are hesitant to make major fiscal decisions in the midst of economic uncertainty. The potential loss of a…
Annual 10(k). (2011). Birmingham, AL: Regions Bank.
Competition. (2012). Online: Bankers GPS.
Forecast With Drift. (2012). Online: Bankers GPS.
Forecast With No Drift. (2012). Online: Bankers GPS.
Johnson Bank v. George Korbaken Company
Johnson Bank v. George Korbakes Company
Over the last several years, the role of the auditor has been continually evolving. This is because financial institutions are relying on the information they are provided with to help them make better choices in the long-term. However, there are times when these firms may not have accurate figures and erroneously report their findings. When this happens, there is a possibility of these facts leading to incorrect decisions. (Adelopo, 2012) ("Johnson Bank sued George Korabakes," 2006)
The case of Johnson Bank v. George Korbakes Company is examining these factors and the long-term impacts they will have on various stakeholders. To determine if the auditor is responsible for the claims they make requires carefully examining the effects. This will be accomplished by focusing on the case itself, the primary / secondary legal questions, the rule of law, the court's…
Johnson Bank sued George Korabakes. (2013). Find Law. Retrieved from:
Johnson Bank sued George Korabakes. (2013). Justia. Retrieved from:
Commonwealth Bank of Australia
etail Banking Service
Premium Business Services
Marketing Strategies at CBA
National Australia Bank
Australian and New Zealand Banking Group
Western Pacific Bank
Sustainable Competitive Advantage
One Stop Solution
Commonwealth Bank of Australia
Commonwealth Bank of Australia:
Headquartered in Sydney, Australia, Commonwealth Bank of Australia or CBA is one of the four large banks of Australia. The bank was established in 1911 as a government bank, since then, it has seen tremendous growth. Today, Commonwealth Bank of Australia is a multinational bank with operations across United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK), Fiji, New Zeeland and Asia. The bank got privatized in 1996, with issuances of shares worth 1.2 Billion USD in 1991, 1.7 Billion USD in 1993, and 5 Billion USD in 1996. As of January, 2008, Commonwealth Bank of Australia was the second largest Australian listed company…
Anz.com. 2014. Personal - Online Banking | ANZ. [online] Available at: http://www.anz.com/personal / [Accessed: 29 Mar 2014].
Commbank.com.au. 2014. Personal - Commonwealth Bank. [online] Available at: https://www.commbank.com.au / [Accessed: 29 Mar 2014].
Commbank.com.au. 2014. Tools - Commonwealth Bank. [online] Available at:
Over the past few years Furniture Bank has differentiated itself from other charity organization through its commitment to industry innovation which has made it one of Canadian most famous organization (Peter & Donnelly, 2006). The marketing abilities of the Organization have enabled it to compensate for its initial otherwise tight financial circumstances to establish an excess cash record over few years of operation whose main sources were; donations from the government and other corporate entities (Slack et al., 2010). The main vision of the Furniture Bank Organization includes constant achievement of operational excellence, conducting business in a safe environmentally sustainable and economically optimum way and manufacturing and supplying furniture and other households as well as services that ensure customer satisfaction in as far as their needs are concerned (Ahlstrom & Bruton, 2009). The Organization also has a few objectives that include realization of potential of their staff, maximum…
Adeniyi, M.A. (2007). Effective Leadership Management: An Integration of Styles, Skills & Character for Today's CEO. AuthorHouse.
Ahlstrom, D., and Bruton, G.D. (2009). International Management: Strategy and Culture in the Emerging World. Boston, M.A.: Cengage Learning.
Peter, P.J., and Donnelly, J.H. (2006). Marketing Management: Knowledge and Skills. 8th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Slack N., Chambers S., Johnston R. (2010). Operations management. New York: Prentice
The morning meal will be included in this fare, with $100 being spent on the necessary six other meals of the three day stay. $175, 3,542.89 MXN, is allocated to transportation, sightseeing fares, souvenirs (compulsory sombrero) and the exploration of the night life; $100 is saved (all the money saved in one location is used to pay the counter value of the larger expenses, such as a cruise to Africa).
(*) Three days in Brazil -- a budget of $525 (925.755 Brazil reais, at an exchange rate of 1 USD = 1.76 BL); $300, or 529.01 BL will be spent on boarding within a three start hotel; $50 will be saved and $125 will be spent on bus transportation, sightseeing fares and food.
(*) Estimated cost of the trip from Brazil to Nigeria - $400
(*) Three days in Nigeria -- $180 per hotel room (26,865 Nigerian naira, at an…
Antarctica, Enjoy Chile, http://www.enjoy-chile.org/antarctica-attractions-chile.php last accessed on December 10, 2009
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India Tourist Attractions, Info India, http://www.info2india.com/rajasthan/india-attractions.html last accessed on December 10, 2009
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.." The Federal Reserve continues to keep a watch on both "current and potential exposures..." And are in the process of a review of the collateral valuation methods of the banking industry." (Kohn, 2008)
Kohn states that disruptions in liquidity in some financial markets have resulted in banking organizations facing challenges and specifically at present "significant liquidity demands can emanate from both the asset and liability of the bank's balance sheet." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn relates that when liquidity is reduced in the markets specifically for "certain structured credit products the creation of challenges and concerns relating to valuating spreads into other sectors and "illiquidity in some credit markets may make it difficult for some market participants, including banking organizations, to hedge positions effectively." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn states that the banking industry in the U.S. is up against some very serious challenges however, the Federal Reserve in cooperation with banking agencies…
Berger, Allen N.; and Bouwman, Christa H.S. (2007) Bank Liquidity Creation. 15 Jan 2007
Brown, Ellen (2008) April Fools: The Fox to Guard the Banking Henhouse 30 Mar 2008. Online 'The Web of Debt' available online at http://www.webofdebt.com/articles/banking-henhouse.php
Buiter, Willem (2008) Lessons from Northern Rock: Banking and Shadow Banking. VOX. 4 March 2008. Online available at http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/960
Estrella, Arturo (2002) Securitization and the Efficacy of Monetary Policy. Economic Policy Review. Vol. 8 No.1 Federal Reserve Board Bank of New York. Online available at http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/epr/02v08n1/0205estr/0205estr.html#chart1
While many banks are closing branches, that is not necessarily the best strategy for banks attempting to stay close to their customers.
Transaction costs: Of course all banks want to reduce transactions costs, but how many look at their customer's cost/value trade-offs. A win-win may be online banking at Wells Fargo, or a tie-up with Quicken and Microsoft Money, assuming the customers in focus are computer-savvy and are happy with low touch. Transaction costs exist on both sides -- the bank and the customer. A bank's strategic plan should insure that the customer sees time-savings, lowered costs or improvements to his/her business.
Promotion: Promotion, advertising and other techniques should be the result of the above thinking. Once a bank decides on its chosen market and what services it wants to deliver, the decision on marketing strategies is much easier.
The preponderance of evidence indicates that banks which employ strategic…
Hopkins, SA and Hopkins, WE. "Strategic Planning-Financial Performance Relationships in Banks: A Causal Examination." Strategic Management Journal (1997): 635-652.
Ibrahim, NA and Rue, LW. "The Relationship between Planning Sophistication and Performance in Small Businesses." The Journal of Small Business Management (1998): 24-33.
Scholtens, B. Competition, Growth, and Performance. Economic Performance Analysis. Groningen: University of Groningen, 2000.
This is clearly difficult to derive, but an excellent study on the G7 countries found robust proof that large and smaller banks do best. Source: (Scholtens)
Federal eserve Bank
Financial services as an industry has progressed to become one of the widely transforming sectors of the global economy, having significant changes in information transference and processing, innovation in terms of commodities and processes, and rapid competition among the financial institutions -- among themselves and also among their several customers. The industry and its part in the transformations in the economy show that the supervising and regulatory structure also needs to be reevaluated periodically. The aim of bank regulation is mostly the same -- to attain maximum static and dynamic efficiency levels in the midst of a politically and economically permissible framework which is stable and equal. However the profits are always associated with a cost by means of stability and equity. A more stable and equal financial system usually need sacrifices with regard to efficiency. (Saunders, p. 3)
A properly functioning, effective banking system is necessary…
Federal Reserve System. Encyclopedia Article. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574452/Federal_Reserve_System.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005
FR 2644- Weekly Report of Selected Assets. http://www.chicagofed.org/banking_information/financial_institute_reports_fr2644_instructions_and_worksheets.cfm Accessed on 7 May, 2005
FR 2900 Commercial Banks -- the Federal Reserve Board. http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/reportforms/ReportDetail.cfm?WhichFormId=FR_2900cb& ; WhichCategory=4 Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Garbade, Kenneth D. Recent Innovations in Treasury Cash Management. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Current Issues in Economics and Finance. Vol: 10; No; 11; pp: 2-11.
Compensation in Wachovia Bank's Base Employee Tier
Bank Teller Pay
Compensation in Wachovia Bank's Base Employee Tier
Banking Industry Practices
etention ates for Tellers
Opportunity Cost for Promotion
Consideration of Drawbacks
Compensation of tellers at Wachovia Bank is closely tied to turnover rates. Employee turnover is costly because resources must be expended to replace employees who leave. ecruitment and training can be expected to be approximately one-third of an employee's salary. In the banking industry, the turnover rate for tellers also impacts the bank's ability to efficaciously cross-sell investment products. High turnover rates of promotable employees contribute to increased expenditures by the human resources department since searches must be orchestrated with outside executive search consultants. The banking industry is in survival mode. In order for Wachovia Bank to survive in this industry, we must take care of our frontline. The frontline of Wachovia Bank is our tellers. A…
Careers: Teller, (2011). Wells Fargo / Wachovia [Web] Retrieved https://www.wellsfargo.com/careers/fit/opportunities/teller
Hourly rate snapshot for bank teller jobs, PayScale. (n.a., n.d.) [Web] Retrieved http;//www.payscale.com/research/U.S./Job=Bank_Teller/Hourly_Rate
Looking for research on the cost of staff turnover? (2011). LinkedIn. [Discussion] Retrieved http://www.linkedin.com/answers/management/business-analytics/MGM_ANA/
612746-20209499 [Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) in the UK]
This is largely due to time and logistical issues involved in conducting the face-to-face interviews. However, this still represents 50% of the entire sample population. Therefore, it is expected that the opinions expressed in the interviews will be a good representation of Iranian banks.
3.5 Data Collection
The primary aim of the study is to identify the challenges that Iranian banks face in the implementation of EMV. This research is divided into two portions. The first part will be the survey questionnaire. The second will be face-to-face interviews. Where possible, the researcher will visit the bank and administer the questionnaire in person. However, is some cases, this will not be possible, either because of the distances that need to be traveled or the schedule of the bank official. In these cases, the questionnaire will be emailed to the participant and they can return it at their convenience. As the sample…
Hall, C. 2009. New study pinpoints risk issues for Hispanic business owners. Houston Business Journal. Friday, May 8, 2009.
"List of Banks in Iran." 2010. Available at: http://openoffshorebankaccountsfornonresidents.com/ListofBanksinIran.htm. [accessed August 29, 2010].
Sumner, M. 2000. Risk factors in enterprise-wide/ERP projects Journal of Information Technology 15, 317 -- 327
One of the main reasons that have been highlighted by the prosecutors is that the pressure to clear up the asbestos from the basement was intense and the contractors were constantly being forced to finish the work. Because of an increased pressure, the contractors and the workers working under the contractors were working in a miscalculated manner. One of the wrong decisions that were made by the contractors was to ignore the broken water pipe in one of the floors being demolished. This has been highlighted as evidence by the District Attorney Joel Seidemann in one of his closing arguments at the trial that had been going on since two months in the Manhattan Supreme Court
Other than the three contractors, the third party that had been under investigation for more than 16 months was the New York City itself. In this case, the court mentioned that the city authority…
Association Of Fire Chiefs International. Fire Inspector: Principles and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011.
Bureau of National Affairs (Arlington, Va.). Construction labor report, Volume 55, Issues 2710-2736. Bureau of National Affairs., 2009.
Eligon, John. Final Defendant Acquitted in Deutsche Bank Fire. 2011. 29 November 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/07/nyregion/final-defendant-is-acquitted-in-deutsche-bank-fire-trial.html
Italiano, Laura. FDNY Firefighter Recalls Fatal Deutsche Bank Fire. 2011. 29 November 2011. http://www.firehouse.com/news/top-headlines/fdny-firefighter-recalls-fatal-deutsche-bank-fire
The UK economy was one of the major victims of the recent global economic downturn. This is in no small measure to blame on the country's significantly sized banking sector, where giants like HSBC and Barclays were generally assumed to be "too big to fail." Today, after being the subject of both economic and political scrutiny, the very same reasons are being used to claim that these giants are "too big to save." Both concepts have enjoyed significant critical attention since the economic downturn. Although little has been offered by way of a cure for the failures of the current UK banking system, the general consensus appears to be that something needs to change if future economic disaster is to be averted.
According to Preston (2010), there can be little argument about the phrase "too big" when applied to the UK banking giants. When comparing the market share…
Figg, S. (2011, Feb 2). Britain's Banks: Too Big to Save? The Socialist. Retrieved from: http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/pdf/issue/655/10.pdf
Henderson, R. (2011, Mar 7). All British banks are "too big to fail." Living in a Madhouse. Retrieved from: http://livinginamadhouse.wordpress.com/2011/03/07/all-british-banks-are-too-big-to-fail/
Preston, R. (2010, Sep 24). Commission tackles too-big-to-fail banks. BBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/robertpeston/2010/09/commission_tackles_too-big-to-.html
Reece, D. (2011, Mar 7). Barclays chief Bob Diamond says let banks fail. The Telegraph. Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/8365101/Barclays-chief-Bob-Diamond-says-let-banks-fail.html
Critically analyze the strategies adopted by Dinesh to retain the leading position.
The hard work and determination of Dinesh, who joined the branch as branch head in June 1998 helped to create a successful business. He went in with one focus, which was to grow the banks probability margin and make it successful as he could. Taking note of new technological advances and innovations at an early start helped to establish ideas of services that would help to establish their place at the top of the sector. The Multi-programmed strategy set into place by Dinesh helped to save the bank from an otherwise different outcome, into a profitable success.
A very important strategy that every business must have on point is their customer service. Without the presences and happiness of customers your business will slowly fail and soon a business will not exist. Dinesh saw this important aspect…
Herding in Bank Panics
The work of Devenow and Welch (1996) states that the most basic of human instincts is likely to be that of "…imitation and mimicry" which are the primary characteristics in what is known as 'herding' which often specifically occurs related to such as "fashion and fads…" (Devenow and Welch, 1996, p.603) Devenow and Welch go on to state that among financial economists there is a belief that "investors are influenced by the decisions of other investors and that this influence is a first-order effect." (p.603)
It is reported in the work of Donaldson (1992) entitled "Sources of Panics: Evidence from the Weekly Data" that panic is defined by Jevons (1884) as "a rapid rise in the rate of discount, a sudden flood of bankruptcy and a fall in consols, followed by a rise" (p.8). It is additionally reported that Calomiris and Gorton (1991) "define a panic…
Avgouleas, E. (20008) Reforming Investor Protection Regulation: The Impact of Cognitive Biases. Retrieved from: http://www.law.man.ac.uk/aboutus/staff/emilios_avgouleas/documents/AvgouleasCognitiveBiasesOgusfinal.pdf .
Bulow, Jeremy and Paul Klemperer, 1994, Rational frenzies and crashes, Journal of Political Economy 102, no. 1, 1-23. Chari, V.V. And Ravi Jagannathan, 1988, Banking panics, information, and rational expectations equilibrium, Journal of Finance 43, no. 3, 749-761.
Chen, Yehning, 1995a, Bank runs: Panic of efficient monitoring, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA).
Chen, Yehning, 1995b, Banking panics: The role of the first-come, first-served rule and informational externalities, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA). Donaldson, R. Glen, 1992, Sources of panics: Evidence from the weekly data, Journal of Monetary Economics 30, 277-305.