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If there is a period that will always be remembered in the history of the 20th century, it is the Second World War. Although it was blamed for deaths of hundreds of thousands, it is also a period that stimulated technological advancement and prepared the world for the social changes that ensued after the war. Some of the most notable social changes include the termination of European colonial rule in some countries. It is also the period that marked heightened civil rights movements in the U.S.A. and the emergence of women's movements. The programs that set the pace of the exploration of outer space also started in this period. The warring groups involved a split on the axis of Nazi Germany, imperial Japan, Fascist Italy and some relatively smaller allies versus the allied group that involved ritain along with the commonwealth nations, the Soviet Union, and USA[footnoteRef:1]. The allies…
Diffen - Compare Anything. Diffen. Discern. Decide. World War I vs. World War II - Difference and Comparison -- Diffen. Accessed January 28, 2016, from http://www.diffen.com/difference/World_War_I_vs_World_War_II
"The European Theater in WWII: The Eastern Front, Western Front & Fight for North Africa." Study.com. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://study.com/academy/lesson/the-european-theater-in-world-war-ii-the-eastern-front-western-front-and-fight-for-north-africa.html .
"The European Theater." World War 2 History Info. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.worldwar2history.info/Europe/ .
"World War II." History Net. Accessed January 28, 2016. http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii .
The explanation that the Non-Aggression Pact was an agreement in which Hitler ultimately exploited Stalin may not necessarily be accurate. There is even the supposition that Stalin was deeply hurt on a personal level by Hitler's betrayal. But in reality, the Pact was sufficient to prevent the Soviet Union and Germany from coming into conflict until almost a full two years later. These were two years during which Hitler needed to focus his efforts on facing the British and French while strengthening Germany's key alliances with Japan and Italy.
Likewise, the Soviets benefited in the intervening time both by reaching gradual armistice with the Japanese and by enjoying the full extent of the Pact's guarantees to unchecked Soviet reclamation of the Baltic States, and its share of Poland. Though "Nazi Germany occupied the remainder of Poland when it invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941," the Soviet foothold in Poland…
Halsall, P. trans. (1997). Modern History Sourcebook: The Molotov-Ribbentrop
Pact, 1939. Modern History Sourcebook. Online at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1939pact.html >
Holocaust Memorial Museum. (2005). Invasion of Poland, Fall 1939. Holocaust Encyclopedia. Online at http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?ModuleId=10005070 >
Roberts, G. (2001). From Non-Aggression Treaty to War: Documenting Nazi Soviet Relations, 1939-41 Geoffrey Roberts Explains the Fateful Sequence of Events from the Nazi-Soviet Pact to Hitler's Invasion of the U.S.S.R. History
Post-orld ar II Photographers
Because post-modernism does not have a standard definition or set of common characteristics it is basically best described as the rejection of modernism (http://members.tripod.com/ambro32/postmod.html).The world has been changing in terms of politics, economic and social systems since orld ar II as it rapidly moves into the Information Age (http://members.tripod.com/ambro32/postmod.html).Modern photographers recorded life from their perspective, while advocates of post-modern photography claim that photographs simply confirm the power relationships in a society (Norfleet 1995).
Post-orld ar II modern photographers challenged the "existing notions of what a photograph should look like, what it could contain and what it might mean" (Turner 1987). Gone were "all the woolly, successful photo-sentiments about human-family hood" of the previous half a century of photography. Modern photographers were not replacing the old, they merely had a new landscape to view, one that was of "concept, where what was photographed took on a lesser…
About Post-Modernism." http://members.tripod.com/ambro32/postmod.html
Lacayo, Richard. "Visionary Voyeurism: In illuminating the marginal, Diane Arbus became one of the most influential artists of her time. Time. November 03, 2003.
Norfleet, Barbara. "Photography and life: pictures depend on attitudes of viewer and Maker." Nieman Reports. September 22, 1995.
Turner, Peter. History of Photography. Exeter Books. 1987.
Europe Faced After World War II
The objective of this work in writing is to examine the challenges that Europe faced following World War II. This work will examine the fall of communism in 1991 and answer the question of how Europe has managed to transition away from communism.
World War II ending in Europe officially in May 1945 and although the war did come to an end the challenges faced by millions of individuals who were homeless "who had been displaced as a result of military action, deportation into labor or concentration camps, local racism and discriminiation or the relocation of national borders, were large ones indeed. (Gale Cengage Learning, nd, p.1) It is reported that the Allied governments and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) relief groups were stretched to the limit in their "attempts to administer, feed and house a moving people searching for their lost families and a permanent…
Brown, Archie (2000) Transnational Influences in the Transition from Communism. Working Paper #273. April 2000. Kellogg Institute. Apr 2000. Retrieved from: http://nd.edu/~kellogg/publications/workingpapers/WPS/273.pdf
DeLong, J. Bradford (1997) Slouching Towards Utopia?: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century XIX. Present at the Creation. Feb 1997. University of California at Berkeley and NBER. Retrieved from: http://econ161.berkeley.edu/tceh/Slouch_Present19.html
McFaul, Michael (2002) The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: NOncooperative Transition in the Postcommunist World. World Politics. Jan 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/bmoraski/Democratization/McFaul02_WP.pdf
Stone, Dan (nd) Post-War Europe: Refugees, Exile and Resettlement 1945-1950. Gale Cengage Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.tlemea.com/postwareurope/index.htm
There was an increase in the human right agencies that fought for the protection of their rights. Multiple efforts such as recognition of their contribution and minimal exposures to traumatic experiences were adopted to ensure their protection (Parker 113).
Gaines (58) recognized that significant variability is traceable in the roles of the human rights bodies in the orld ar I and II. The First orld ar was characterized by minimal activity of the black press. The orld ar II witnessed a significant change, as there was a transformation in the representation of the Africans taking part in the orld ar For example, the Second orld ar saw an increase in the black press that offered a forum for the expression of contemporary issues affecting Africans in the ar. orld ar II also witnessed the transformation of civil right efforts with more focus on opposing discrimination of Africans on issues related…
Gaines, K. "The Civil Rights Movement in World Perspective." OAH Magazine of History 21.1 (2007): 57-64
Parker, Christopher S. "When Politics Becomes Protest: Black Veterans And Political Activism In The Postwar South." The Journal of Politics 71.01 (2009): 113
ideological relationship between WWI and WWII. The writer explores the ideological relationship between the two wars and then moves into the arena of contrasting the differences between several war germane terms. The comparison includes Fascism and Nazism. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Should the U.S. launch an attack on Iraq? Nations of the world have been lining up on both sides of this question for the last few weeks. The world is used to divisions when it comes to military action. World War One and World War Two both provided training grounds for the world nations drawing lines in the sand and choosing sides. The World Wars were ideologically related in several ways with the most important ideal being personal freedom.
Each of the world wars stood for freedom. The freedom to choose one's lifestyle and the freedom to choose one's government style and participants were…
Axel, Alan. The Complete Idiot's Guide to World War II. Alpha Books (October 23, 1998)
Calvocoressi, Peter. The Penguin History of the Second World War
Penguin USA (Paper);; (February 27, 2001)
Morrow, John. The Great War in the Air: Military Aviation from 1909 to 1921 Smithsonian Institution Press;; (May 1993)
U.S. eliance of the National Guard
The National Guard is a private army (militia) of the United States of America. The United States' Constitution has authorized this militia and has also specified the different functions and roles of the National Guard in the federal and state governments. According to the Article 1 of the Section 8 in the United States' Constitution, the Congress has been granted the authority "to call forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions" ("National Guard," 2013). The power to organize, arm and discipline the militia was handed over to the Congress. However, it was the responsibility of the states to appoint the officers and train the militia. The second Amendment consisted of further provisions regarding the regulation of militia ("National Guard," 2013).
In general, the National Guard is answerable to the state jurisdiction when there is peace. The…
Bunting, J. (2005, Nov. - Dec.). George Marshall: An American for All Seasons.Humanities, 26, 22+. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1063012361/george-marshall-an-american-for-all-seasons
Cooper, J. (1997). The Rise of the National Guard: The Evolution of the American Militia, 1865-1920. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Doubler, M.D. (2001, Summer). The National Guard at War. Joint Force Quarterly, 1, 63+. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-84544982/the-national-guard-at-war
Doubler, M.D. (2003). Civilian in Peace, Soldier in War: The Army National Guard, 1636-2000. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas.
Seuss and WWII
The political themes exposed in the WWII political cartoons of Dr. Seuss, or Theodor Seuss Geisel, influenced a number of his later works of children's literature.
Seuss' Editorial Cartoons in WWII
Seuss and Japanese-Americans
First PM Magazine Cartoon, Virgino Gayda
May 19, 1941 Hitler Cartoon
July 16, 1941 Isolationist Cartoon
F. The Influence of Seuss' Editorial Cartoons
Political Aspects of Seuss' Children's Literature
ecreation of PM Magazine Characters in Children's Literature
Yertle the Turtle and Other Stories and Totalitarianism
The Sneetches and Other Stories and Tolerance and acism
The Butter Battle Book and the Cold War
E. Marvin K. Mooney, Will You Please Go Now! And ichard Nixon
F. The Influence of the Political and Social Content of Seuss' Children's Literature
The political themes exposed in the WWII political cartoons of Dr. Seuss, or Theodor Seuss Geisel, influenced a number of his later…
Dr. Seuss Enterprises, L.P. Dr. Seuss Memorial at the Quadrangle. 2004. 25 April 2004. http://www.catinthehat.org
Nel, Philip. 2004. Dr. Seuss: American Icon. Continuum Pub Group.
MacDonald, Ruth K. 1988. Dr. Seuss. Twayne Publishers.
Minear, Richard H., Geisel, Theodor Seuss and Spiegelman, Art. 2001. Dr. Seuss Goes to War: World War II Editorial Cartoons of Theodor Seuss Geisel. The New Press.
Internment of Japanese During WWII
The Internment of Japanese-Americans During the Second World War
Between 1942 and 1945, the United States federal government forcibly interred more than 100,000 immigrants, most of them American citizens, in what President Franklin Delano Roosevelt called "concentration camps." At the time, supporters of the this program argued that this was a necessity because Japanese immigrants and Japanese-Americans were threats to the American war effort. In reality, the internment of Japanese-Americans during the Second World War did not emerge "out of thin air," but rather was the result of outrage over the attack on Pearl Harbor mixed with nearly a century of anti-Asian sentiment.
Undoubtedly, the catalyst for interning was Pearl Harbor but, as TenBroek, Barnhart, and Matson make clear on page 86: "The decision to evacuate all Japanese-Americans from the West Coast… was reached in a context of gathering fear, suspicion, and anger on the…
Instead of acting on the intelligence firmly and avert the crisis, the government introduced some reforms that were just cosmetic to cover up the real situation. The politicians and the government made people have a false hope that they were secure and that the counterterrorism measures were well in place, only to get a shocker.
If the ideas of odney Stich who was a specialist in air safety were implemented in time and the cockpit doors secured as well as placing an air marshal on board or arming the pilots with basic weapons, may be the danger could have been averted and lives saved on that particular day. These are researches that cost a lot of taxpayer's money and the recommendations were neither implemented by the government nor acted upon by the private air transport companies until it was too late.
The FBI also knew the whereabouts of Khalid Al-Midhar…
Department of Homeland security, (2012). Protecting America. Retrieved on May 7, 2013 from http://www.dhs.gov/files/programs/protecting-america.shtm
Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, (2002). Did Bush Know? Warning Signs of 9-11 and Intelligence Failures. Retrieved March 7, 2013 from http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq36.html
Gradually, though, the war effort eroded the practical and theoretical underpinnings of racism in the United States. The war stimulated the domestic economy, particularly in the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Jobs were opening up rapidly, and because so many white men were fighting the war, many black men were available to work. "For black workers orld ar II opened up opportunities that had never before existed," (O'Neil 1). The same was true for women, as the war left gaping holes in the labor market that needed to be filled in untraditional ways. At the same time as the war exposed American prejudice, "orld ar II gave many minority Americans -- and women of all races -- an economic and psychological boost." (Harris 1). The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded, and overall, the war "jump-started the civil rights movement" in the United States (Harris 1; "Identify the impact of…
Harris, Michael. "How WWII Affected America's Minorities." Los Angeles Times. 13 June, 2000. Retrieved online: http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/13/news/cl-40272
"Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America." (U.S. History)." Retrieved online: http://share.ehs.uen.org/node/6217
O'Neil, William L. "Minorities and Women During World War II." Retrieved online: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/RA/NCraig/Minorities.html
Takaki, Ronald. Double Victory. New York: Time Warner/Little Brown.
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino
History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to win the war in the holy land. The problems stem from their not being able to directly attack certain Muslim holy locations or shrines even though Iraqi insurgents are constantly utilizing these positions as sanctuaries and initiation points for waging battles against the allied forces or the new Iraqi government. During World War II, the Axis powers with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi army also attempted to use similar tactics to fend off attacks by Allied forces.
This report discusses the Battle of Monte Cassino and the pros and cons of the Allied Forces' actions during World War II. A historic shrine was completely destroyed by the events of the Allied forces during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian…
Colvin, David, & Hodges, Richard (1994). Tempting providence: the bombing of Monte Cassino. History Today, Vol. 44.
Eagle19. (n.d.). The Battles for Monte Cassino and the Defense of the Gustav Line. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.eagle19.freeserve.co.uk/cassino.htm
Griess, Thomas E. (2002). The Second World War Europe and the Mediterranean. The West Point Military History Series.
Hapgood, David, & Richardson, David (1984). Monte Cassino: The Story of the Most Controversial Battle of World War II. Add City: Add Publisher.
Without a doubt, the expansionist policies of Germany, Italy and Japan and a direct attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor necessitated the need for America to enter World War II. However, the real question is not whether America should have entered World War II, but could it have prevented it from happening. As the world's new super power following World War I, America should have done more to restore stability to Western Europe, particularly Germany, a country saddled with huge reparation payments. And, the United States could have taken a more active role in the League of Nations to discourage aggression. Instead, America enjoyed the spoils of World War I and became isolationist in response to the Great Depression. Economic and political instability caused by World War I led the rise of fascism. The Nazi goals of reversing the Versailles Treaty and the establishment of a German Empire by…
'World War II." Wikipedia. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II#Home_front (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II.," Available: http://web.uccs.edu/history/student%20presentations/heidi/world_war_two.htm (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II." Wikipedia. Available:
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-
3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…
Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)
Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)
Today, the Americans fight different insurgent factions, who have limited weaponry, no air force, and no real large scale fighting tactics. Instead, they create havoc with roadside bombs and suicide bombers. Vietnam was fought on the scale of a world war, while Iraq is being fought on a much smaller scale. In addition, there was a draft in place during Vietnam, and no draft in place today, so our forces are stretched much thinner in Iraq and at home.
In contrast, many experts believe there are similarities between the two wars, but there are far more differences that keep the two wars very far apart in perspective. For example, there is no real Communist influence in Iraq; rather the country suffers from domestic unrest and insurgency, rather than large-scale intervention from other countries (except perhaps Iran). Thus, Americans are not fighting a "cold" war but rather a war supposedly based…
Kagan, Frederick W. "Iraq Is Not Vietnam." Policy Review (2005): 3+.
Letters from Iwo Jima. Dir. Clint Eastwood. Perf. Ken Watanabe, Kazunari Ninomiya, Tsuyoshi Ihara, and Ryo Kase. Warner Brothers, 2006.
Lopez, George a. "A Quagmire? Vietnam, Iraq & Other Analogies." Commonweal 16 Jan. 2004: 11+.
May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. Revised ed. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
World War II
The Use of Atomic Weapons on Japan in WWII
The Second World War officially began in 1939 with the evasion of Poland by Germany. The United States of America did not officially enter this international conflict of epic scale until the Japanese attacked American and European territories in the Pacific in 1941. The war persisted until 1945, culminating with the surrender of Japan and Germany to the U.S. & Allied Forces. During World War II, the world saw the first demonstrations of nuclear weapons -- atomic bombs. There were two infamous attacks on Japan by the U.S. On Nagasaki and Hiroshima, where the atomic bombs were dropped and caused unparalleled damage. The paper will provide a historical and political context within which to consider why the United States of America resorted to the use of atomic bombs upon Japan.
War campaigns waged by Germany and Japan were…
It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.
Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
Sonar esearch and Naval Warfare: 1914-1954
During both World War I and World War II, there were a number of informational tactics used by the Navy in order to gain ground on enemy troops. One of those was sonar research, because it provided them with knowledge they would not have otherwise had (Hackmann, 1984). Sonar is not perfect, but a great deal of work has gone into it since its creation, and that has helped it to become a more valuable tool for Naval operations. Sonar is used for navigation, but also for communication and the detection of objects, primarily underwater (Urick, 1983). There are two types of sonar: passive and active. In active sonar, pings are sent out to search for other objects (Hackmann, 1984). Passive sonar does not send out a signal, but only listens for the pings and signals of others (Hackmann, 1984). Both have their place,…
Abbatiello, J. (2005). Anti-submarine warfare in World War I: British Naval aviation and the defeat of the U-boats. NY: Routledge.
Adamthwaite, A.P. (1992). The making of the Second World War. New York: Routledge.
Barber, J., & Harrison, M. (2006). Patriotic war, 1941 -- 1945. In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed. The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III: The Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hackmann, W. (1984). Seek & Strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy 1914-54. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
World War II (WWII) Transformed the United States Domestically
World War II was a global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most tragic war in human history. It started in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French coalition but eventually grew to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in 1945, leaving a new world that was dominated by the United States and the U.S.S.R.
When the United States became involved with World War II, there were immediate and long-term changes in virtually every aspect of American life. Millions of men and women joined the military and saw areas of the world they would likely never have seen on their own. The labor demands of war industries caused millions more Americans to relocate, mainly to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts, where most defense plants were located.…
Encarta. World War. Encyclopedia Article. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563737/World_War_II.html.
Sage, Henry. (March 23, 2004). The Postwar United States. The Library of Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist122/topics/PostWorldWarIIDom.htm.
Stravelli, Gloria. (March, 2004). In unexpected ways WWII changed women's lives: Role in war effort helped shift societal perceptions and expectations. New Jersey: The Hub.
The New Georgia Encyclopedia. (2004). Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/ArticlePrintable.jsp?id=h-2716 .
World War II. World War II was a turning point in world history, and brought together many allies to fight strong opponents for world domination. The War was supposed to be the "last" world war fought, but other conflicts since that time show the world is still a volatile and unsettled place, and it seems there will always be wars fought in this world.
World War II was fought on two major fronts -- Europe and Asia. There was also fighting in North Africa, and many Pacific Islands. The initial war began in 1939 when German dictator Adolph Hitler invaded Poland. England and France had pledged to support Poland as Hitler continued to take over countries in Europe, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia in the late 1930s. When Hitler invaded Poland,
France and England issued ultimatums to Germany which were ignored, and the war had officially begun, even though actual…
Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996.
Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
Kitchen, Martin. A World in Flames: A Short History of the Second World War in Europe and Asia, 1939-1945. London: Longman, 1990.
In this sense, Stalin decided to extend his influence and to impose certain types of government in countries such as Poland, Hungry, or omania. The same fate would have had Greece and Turkey as well, should the U.S. not have outlined the Truman Doctrine. It can be said that the doctrine itself was a reaction to the tendency of the soviets to extend their influence.
The Marshall Plan can be seen as the economic component of the Truman Doctrine. It was in fact a set of principles pointed out in 1947 at Harvard by Secretary of State George Marshall (American hetoric, 2008). This economic plan too was designed for cater for the economic needs of eastern countries as well, but seeing that the ussian side considered it to be the mere economic arm of the Truman Doctrine, it forced countries under its occupation to reject this reconstruction aid. In fact…
American Rhetoric. "The Marshall Plan 1947." American Rhetoric website. 2008. 30 Jan. 2008 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/georgecmarshall.html
The Avalon Project. "The Truman Doctrine." Yale University. 2008. 30 Jan. 2008 http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/trudoc.htm
The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew Rockwell.com. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William R. (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
This is when they would go after some highest officials in the German and Japanese governments that knew about the atrocities. Under this approach they were publically making an example of these individuals and their involvement with these activities. This created the impression that the Allies were doing everything possible to hold ex-Nazis and Japanese officials accountable. (Plesch 101 -- 118)
However, beneath the surface is when the U.S. And Soviet Union, were cherry picking individuals that could help develop new weapons programs (most notably: rocket scientists). At the end of the war, the Germans had developed the V-1 and the V-2 rockets. These were loaded with a simple warhead and fired at England. Moreover, the Germans had been able to create the first jet aircraft. (Ward 34 -- 52)
After the war was over, the Allies were rounding up these scientists and were learning everything about these secret programs.…
Plesch, Dan. America, Hitler and the UN. New York: IB Tarius, 2011. Print.
Ward, Bob. Dr. Space. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2005. Print.
Nazi Propaganda and the Spread of Fascism
orld ar II was precipitated by the rise of fascism throughout Europe. As the mores of socialism began to take root in many parts of the continent, fascism emerged as a powerful counterpoint. For nations like Italy, Spain and Germany, the consequences of a sustained and devastating recession would be a coalescing of support behind strong, self-proclaimed and authoritarian leaders. Certainly, most notorious among them would be Adolph Hitler, whose Nazi party would first occupy Austria and Germany before ultimately pursuing a more global agenda. However, for our discussion, the primary interest is the degree of success that the Nazi party had in ultimately penetrating Germany with its values, ideals and policies. As the discussion here will show, propaganda would play a central role in the ability of the Nazi party to garner support and generate the impassioned loyalty of the…
German Propaganda Archive. (2013). Es Lebe Deutschland. Bytwerk.com.
History Learning Site (HLS). (2012). Propaganda in Nazi Germany. Historylearningsite.co.uk.
Welch, D. (2011). Nazi Propaganda. BBC History.
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack of industrialization, the defeat by Japan in 1905, and a lack of support by the people for involvement in this new war. hat seems clear is that Russia was not prepared when the war began and had to work to muster its army, provide war materials, and protect its own territory against the German advance. The fact that Germany was indeed stopped cold in Russia shows how well the Russians did their job, but the issue is why they did not do what they could before the war started given that the whole world could see war coming long before it reached Russia. More recently, though, the question of unpreparedness has been given a new look, and a new theory of…
McTaggart, Pat. "Winter Tempest in Stalingrad." World War II 12(4)(November 1997), 30-36.
Raack, R.C. "Stalin's Role in the Coming of World War II: Opening the Closet Door on a Key Chapter of Recent History." World Affairs 158(4)(1996), 198-211.
Taylor, a.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Athenaeum, 1985.
Tucker, Robert C. Stalin in Power. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
World War II was carried out on the home front, how it was presented to the American people and conducted in America. World War II never really touched American shored, but it certainly made a difference in American lives.
On December 8, 1941, President Franklin D. oosevelt addressed congress and asked them to declare war on Japan after their unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7. He called December 7 "a date which will live in infamy," and it brought Americans directly into the war, and their lives changed. As soon as oosevelt declared war, thousands of patriotic and emotional Americans hurried to enlist and help fight the war. These young people were angry about the Japanese attacks, and they wanted to defend their country. Young men enlisted in the Armed Forces, and young women signed up as nurses, and even pilots, helping to ferry airplanes from one…
Daniels, Roger. "10 Bad News from the Good War: Democracy at Home During World War II." The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Eds. O'Brien, Kenneth Paul and Lynn Hudson Parsons. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. 157-167.
O'Brien, Kenneth Paul and Lynn Hudson Parsons, eds. The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Propaganda is an important tool for shaping public opinion during wartime. The United States initially resisted using propaganda, but later established two official government propaganda agencies: the Writers War Board and the United States Office of War Information (Riddle, 2016). The latter became the primary propaganda engine during World War Two. The Office of War Information used multiple media for propaganda dissemination, including the relatively new media like comic books and movies. Posters were a primary means of influencing public opinion, too. Through these different propaganda techniques, the United States government reduced the potential for anti-war sentiments, minimized dissent, and created a normative cultural environment of patriotism. The “loose lips sink ships” message is an example of how the government established norms of behavior, and also used fear as a driving emotive force behind its propaganda (Little, 2016). Propaganda posters were also designed to create a sense of community-driven war…
World War II called out the American troops, the country's economy could have been in grave danger had it not been for the untapped reservoir of human resources. Wives, mothers and sisters picked up where their husbands, sons and brothers left off. Not only were these women brave in their efforts to take on something as foreign as factory work, they also directly affected the outcome of the war. Conversely, without that call to action, women's roles in our society today would also be quite different.
Initially there was broad-based concern about women taking men's jobs, what would happen to the family structure and how society would deal with such a drastic change. However, it was a better solution than putting children to work as in the past.
There was no time to analyze or try and come up with a better solution. Women jump into industry with both feet…
U.S. Economy Since orld ar II
economy is the largest in the world but has the most unequal distribution of wealth among all the developed countries of the world. The major reason for this inequality is that since the Second orld ar most U.S. governments have tended to favor the wealthy and the corporate sector while formulating their economic policies. Such "rich friendly" policies have become more pronounced since the early 1980s and continue to this day to the detriment of the society and the economy. This essay gives an overview of the post-orld ar II U.S. economy and outlines the ways in which various U.S. administrations have enacted policies favoring the corporate sector and the wealthy.
The 18th century British economist Adam Smith advocated the benefits of a Laissez faire economy in his The ealth of Nations (1776) by proclaiming that a "free economy" in which every individual…
'Eisenhower, Dwight David." Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2004. December 17, 2004.
"Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)" American President.org. 8/26/2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.americanpresident.org/history/harrytruman/
"How Unequal Are We, Anyway?." A Statistical Briefing Book. Inequality.org. July, 2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.inequality.org/facts.html
World War II drew to a close, and the planet was forced to recalibrate in unprecedented proportions, the United States began its long emergence as the most expansive super-power that had yet been known. Its influence that would compete virulently with the post-war Soviet influence for half a century, has since disseminated into every facet of the geopolitical theatre. As such, American support can operate as the determining factor in the success of a national agenda. Likewise, American dissent can be the stifling roadblock that sets nations adrift in failure and, consequently, resentment. So it's important to acknowledge that a nation's complaint of American neglect is more than just the bitter rhetoric of the disenfranchised. The emphasis placed on American approval and volition is fairly justified when one considers the weight and implication of the U.S. stance on any given topic. And it's certainly fair to say that American intervention…
5. Maisel, David, The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1998.
6. Rabinovich, Itamar, Waging Peace, New York, NY, Farrer, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
7. Smith, Charles D., Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, New York, NY, St. Martin's Press, 2001
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
Chinese American Women Defense Workers in World War II: Article Review
In the article entitled “Chinese American Women Defense Workers in World War II” by Xiaojian Zhao, the author examines that role that Chinese American women played during WWII when they went to work for the Defense Industry and essentially acted as Chinese American versions of the famous Rosie the Riveter who was popularized during the Women’s Movement of 1970s as a throwback to the wartime era and the empowering position that women assumed on the home front as the men went off to war. Overall the works is very fascinating and provides a lot of details about the lives of many of the Chinese American women who helped make the planes and claim their piece of history in the 1940s. The author’s main purpose in writing the article was to show how Chinese American women were not left out…
discrimination in U.S.
There are people still alive today who remember Jim Crow laws. Half a century ago, segregation of drinking fountains, public restrooms, public buses, and public schools was still legal. Fifty years ago blacks in many states could not make a living except to work in jobs that resembled slavery in their wages and work conditions. The Civil Rights movement ostensibly changed everything. Yet decades of political correctness and affirmative action have all but glossed over the deeply rooted problems of racism and other forms of injustice evident in the daily lives of many Americans. African-Americans are also not the only minority group to suffer from systematic discrimination. Half of all Americans -- black, white, rich poor -- experience daily discrimination at home and in the workplace. Less than a hundred years ago, women could not even vote. Suffrage created twice as many voters and like the Civil…
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
The WITE initiative was a collaborative approach that drew upon industry, state, local governments as well as the EPA's isk eduction Engineering Laboratory with the overall goal of developing more effective pollution prevention technologies that could assist the electronics manufacturing industry in developing a "crade to grave" approach to managing these products (appaport, 1999).
Besides these earlier efforts, in more recent years, increasingly rigorous laws and regulations have been implemented by the EPA with the goal of minimizing the impact of electronics and electrical device waste on the environment have began to make a major difference in recovering these toxic substances before they ever have a chance to become waste. For instance, pursuant to the above-mentioned esource Conservation and ecovery Act, it is now illegal for companies in the United States to simply discard hazardous waste, including electronics and electrical devices, in normal trash receptacles (The importance of recycling computers,…
Brown, V.J. (2004). Electronics, lead and landfills. Environmental Health Perspectives,
Gaba, J.M. (2008). Rethinking recycling. Environmental Law, 38(4), 1053-1054.
Gebrewold, F. (1999). Current hazardous waste management and disposal practices among small quantity generators. Journal of Environmental Health, 57(2), 11.
Cornlius Ryan, one of the finest writers of the history of World War II, was born in Dublin in 192. He worked as a correspondent from 1941 to 1945 and covered stories of the battles in Europe for Reuters and the London Daily Telegraph and in the final months of the Pacific campaign.
The first book written, published in 1959, was The Longest Day, that sold four million copies in twenty -seven editions and later in 1962 a film was made on it. However, it is said that The Longest Day was originally published in 1959 and since then it ahs reprinted several times.
Furthermore, another book was published in 1966 The Last Battle, while in 1974, he finished his third book A Bridge Too Far, though at the same time he was undergoing treatment for cancer that killed him in 1976.
Moreover, he was the author was a native…
WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944
One of the events that rocked the world and consequently shaped the world was the WWII that commenced effectively in 1939 and ended in 1945. It is however worth noting that some of the conflicts that eventually ended up in the culmination of the WWII started much earlier. The WWII parse involved majority of the nations, including the powerful nations at that time taking sides and aligning themselves and their military and diplomatic allegiance to either the Allies or the Axis, each side forming their combined forces. The commanding forces in the Allies were France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and to some little extent China (odye-Smith J., 2014). One the other side of the divide the Axis were Italy, Germany and Japan. This war was largely seen as a continuation of the WWI bearing the 20 years of unresolved disputes that emanated from…
Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II
Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE
Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp
World War II -- Techniques Adopted by American usinesses to Expand War Production
During World War II, American industry geared up with several highly effective techniques. These techniques included but were not limited to: absorbing factories and workers idled by the Great Depression, building new factories in new geographical areas, attracting workers from rural areas to industrial areas, using blacks and women in significantly greater numbers, and using/improving mass production. Through these methods, U.S. industry met the military demands of World War II and made America rich by the war's conclusion.
American businesses expanded World War II production in several ways, discussed here in no particular order of importance. First, America used existing factories and built many new ones while it also used idle workers and attracted new ones. Post-Depression American was saddled with a significant number of unemployed workers and idle factories; however, by the summer of 1941, more…
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…
Keegan, John. The Second World War. Penguin Books, 1989.
Allen, Thomas. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945. Random House, Inc., 1996.
A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War. Atheneum, 1983.
John Keegan. The Face of Battle. Penguin Books, 1987.
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
World War 2 Women
World War 2 offered unprecedented opportunities for American women to take up jobs that were previously reserved for men, especially in the defense industry. Before 1940, women were only allowed to work in traditionally female professions like typing or sewing, and they were expected to leave when they gave birth or got married (Anderson). However, World War 2 changed all this and women were allowed to enter into the labor force. Women were mainly taking up the positions that were left vacant by the departing soldiers. World War 2 resulted in many women taking jobs in factories and defense plants across the country.
Due to these jobs, the women had unprecedented opportunities to move into occupations that were exclusively reserved for men. For instance, in the aircraft industry, a majority of workers was women by 1943. There were approximately 350,000 women who joined the military during…
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…
"America at War: World War II." Digital History. Web. 23 May 2012
Black, Helen K., and William H. Thompson. "A War Within a War: A World War II Buffalo Soldier's Story." Journal of Men's Studies 20.1 (2012): 32-46. Web. 23 May 2012.
Clive', Alan. "Women Workers in World War Ii." Labor History 20.1 (1979): 44. Web. 23 May 2012.
De Graaf, Lawrence B. "Significant Steps on an Arduous Path: The Impact of World War II on Discrimination Against African-Americans in the West." Journal of the West 35 (1996): 24-33. Web. 23 May 2012.
Second orld ar and how the Allied Powers were able to defeat the Axis Powers, ending Nazism, the Holocaust, and Japan's stranglehold on the Pacific. However, fewer people are truly knowledgeable about the beginning of the war. For the United States, orld ar II officially began on December 7th, 1941 with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. For the rest of the world, the war began much earlier and had already produced massive damage of property and people. The series of events that would lead to a world at war began in the early 1930s with the invasion of Manchuria by Japan and the seizing of power in the nation of Germany by Third Reich leader Adolf Hitler.
After the First orld ar, Germany was suffering from a massive depression. Losing the war left the people destitute; many were jobless and many were homeless. hen things are their bleakest, it can…
Paxton, Robert O. Europe in the Twentieth Century. 5th. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College,
It was also a pivotal tool in discovering the ussian nuclear missile sites that sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The U.S. also gained spy satellites in 1960, and combined with the U-2 and other tools, American technological superiority began to assert itself. The spy satellites were a direct result of rocketry experimentation during and after World War II, and many German rocket scientists transplanted to America helped create the rockets that would launch the satellites. The scope of the intelligence operations was growing, and so were the technological advances that helped the agencies grow and learn more every day.
There are many who believe that factors such as the Cold War may help develop new agencies, but they have little to do with how the agencies evolve. Author Zegat continues, "The truth is that international factors such as the onset of the Cold War may catalyze the…
Andres, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only. (New York: HarperPerennial), 1996.
Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency from the Cold War Through the Dawn of a New Century. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
Painter, David S. The Cold War: An International History. London: Routledge, 1999.
Powers, Thomas. Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: New York Review Books, 2002.
Gypsies during World War II [...] treatment of the Gypsies by the Nazi in World War II, concentrating on pre-war treatment, and treatment during the war, including the round up of the Gypsies as compared to the Jews. It will also describe what made a Gypsy and how they were rounded up and transferred to the concentration camps. The Gypsies of Europe lost thousands during the war in the concentration camps, but their history is full of persecution and hatred. Even today, many Europeans look down on the Gypsies. These people have suffered as much as the Jews at the hands of Hitler's Nazis, but their story is far less known.
Who were the Gypsies in Europe? The gypsies, broken into different tribes or bands, first appeared in Europe sometime in the fifteenth century. After studying their language, made up of dialects of Sanskrit, Persian, Kurdish, and Greek and called…
Browder, George C. Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Greenwald, Rachel T. "Genocide as a Category of Analysis." German Politics and Society 20.4 (2002): 151+.
Turning Points of WWII: Battle of Midway, Battle of Britain, and Battle of Stalingrad
There were many significant turning points in World War II, within which, had they not happened as they did, the outcome of World War itself could, arguably, have been much different
In particular, many of the key battles fought during World War II; between the Americans and the Japanese; Germany and North Africa; Germany and England; Germany and Russia, or elsewhere, could arguably be considered the three most significant. Some of these would including the Battle of Kursk; the Battle of El Alemain; and the Battle of Moscow
However, it is my opinion that the three major turning points of World War II, which played the biggest roles in the war's turning out as it did, were: (1) The Battle of Midway; (2) the Battle of Britain, and (3) the Battle of Stalingrad. In this essay,…
Military -- Naval Role Post-WWII
The period from 1945 to 1991 is commonly known as the Cold War period. Stretching from the end of World War II to the fall of the U.S.S.R., the Cold War saw a decades-long struggle between Communism and Democracy. With dramatically expanded capabilities, the U.S. Navy in particular and its allies by association were engaged in a "Containment Strategy," walling off Communism and preventing its spread throughout the World. For its part, the U.S.S.R. And its allies were equally dedicated to spreading Communism throughout the globe. In addition to its multifaceted containment role during the Cold War, the United States Navy engaged in Japanese security measures and notable Space Program contributions.
ody: The Main Roles for Navies and Naval Power in the Post-World War II and Cold War Eras
During the Cold War Era, running from the end of World War II in 1945 to…
Ambrose, Stephen E., Caleb Carr, Thomas Fleming, Victor Hanson, and Robert Cowley. The Cold War: A Military History. New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group, 2006.
Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.
Craven, John Pina. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York, NY: First Touchstone, 2002.
Battles of World War II
Battle of Britain:
When Hitler conquered France in June of 1940, he acquired a forward base to launch his attack against England. Had England fallen in the Battle of Britain, the Nazis would have, at the very least, conquered the entire continent of Europe. The fall of Britain would have allowed Hitler to concentrate his forces on one front in Operation Barbarosa, the invasion of ussia, which he launched in 1941. Most
historians believe that, more than any other single fact, Hitler's decision to fight a war on two fronts, simultaneously, accounted for the eventual defeat of Germany at the hands of the Allies.
The Battle of Britain was won by the heroes of the British oyal Air Force,
flying Spitfire fighters who handed the German Luftwaffe its first defeat of the war in a savage, month-long battle over the skies of Britain in the…
1. Ambrose, S. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won (2001)
2. Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
3. Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
4. Lucas, J. The Last European War (1976)
All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…
Daniels, Roger. "Executive Order No. 9066." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/haiku/9066.htm
Dower, John. War without Mercy: Pacific War. Random House Digital. 2012.
Lie, John. Multiethnic Japan. Harvard University Press. 2004.
Primus, Richard A. The American Language of Rights. Cambridge University Press. 1999.
Origins of the Second World War, by A.J.P. Taylor. Specifically, it will critically analyze the book, its theme, and the author's methods.
THE OIGINS OF THE SECOND WOLD WA
Author of "The Origins of the Second World War," A.J.P. Taylor, was a noted British historian who wrote widely on European and world politics, policies, and history. His views were often unorthodox and controversial. "Taylor practiced a legitimate revisionism that is found in every field of history. Similar revisionists included Daniel J. Goldhagen who has argued that a deep-rooted anti-Semitism in Germany caused the Holocaust, not just Hitler and the Nazi party" (Schoenherr). He wrote numerous books and publications, including "The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918," and "English History 1914-1945." He also worked as a broadcaster for the BBC. He was primarily interested in English and German history, but wrote extensively on a variety of historic and political subjects. Taylor…
Schoenherr, Steve. "The Taylor Thesis." University of San Diego. 18 July 2001. 17 Feb. 2003. http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/WW2Timeline/Taylorthesis.html
Taylor, A.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Touchstone, 1996.
WWII and Identifications
American Suburbs after World War II
America post-World War II was filled with a massive exodus from city life to the life of the suburbs. With the government's financial sanctions of the creation of highways, and the desire for families to move out of cramped, city apartments, the American Dream manifested into one that would take them to once-rural environments. After the development of the suburbs, an entirely new community developed outside of the multicultural cities, with major economic and cultural results.
With the dawning of interstate highways and massive automobile production, transportation became feasible between states. One did not have to live in the city to experience its luxuries or work at the office. By the beginning of the 1960s, a grand number of city working suburbanites commuted between the suburbs and the city. Large estates were divided by the government, creating lands and building houses…
Gruenberg, Sidonie M. "Homogenized Children of New Suburbia: Mass-produced, standardized housing breeds standardized inhabitants, too -- especially among youngsters. Here is what parents can do about it. Children of the New Suburbia." New York Times (1923-Current file) 19 Sep. 1954, ProQuest Historical Newspapers. ProQuest. Web. 29 Mar. 2011.
Roberts, Sam. "1956: the Roads That Changed America: Suburbia, Shopping Malls, Fast Food, and Drive-in Everything the Interstate Highway System Gave Birth to Much of American Life as We Know It." New York Times Upfront. 13 Nov. 2006. Web. 29 Mar. 2011. .
Salisbury, Harrison E. "It's Not Smallness That's Wanted but Intelligent Bigness: SUBURBIA: Its People and Their Politics. By Robert C. Wood. 340 pp. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. $4. Intelligent Bigness." New York Times (1923-Current file) 25 Jan. 1959, ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851-2007), ProQuest. Web. 29 Mar. 2011.
Magnesium was in great demand during World War II. It was described as the wonder metal and used for incendiary munitions casings and airplane engines, frames, and other parts. The processing of magnesium is multi-step task using significant amounts of energy. In the June 1944 issue of the Desert, Lelande Quick provides the following pictorial of how magnesium is processed:
everal employees of Basic Magnesium spent much time in England learning the skills required for the above process. Ironically, the Germans assisted England in building the plant prior to war. Locating the processing plant near Hoover Dam resulted in low cost energy. When the facility was at full capacity it produced over five million pounds of magnesium nuggets per day and employed over 13,500 people. This made BMI bigger than the employee base of the Hoover Dam and BMI's weekly payroll was greater than a month's payroll at the dam.…
Elliott, Russell R. And William D. Rowley, History of Nevada. Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1987
Schemata, Geoff Sun, Sin and Suburbia: An Essential History of Modern Las Vegas. Nevada: Stephens Press LLC, 2010.
Quick, Lelande. Miracle Metal from Nevada Hills, Desert Magazine, June 1944, pages 10-13. Retrieve from http://www.scribd.com/doc/2097157/194406-Desert-Magazine-1944-June
Las Vegas Evening Review-Journal and Boulder City Journal, August 14, 1942
History of World War II: American Involvement and Social Effects of the War on America
Many people think that the United States' involvement in World War II did not actually begin until Japan infamously attacked the American navy base at Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 1941. However, in truth, even before the Pearl Harbor attack by the Japanese, the American President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) and other U.S. military, industrial, and economic leaders had taken initial steps to mobilize the nation into a wartime economy. In terms of both mobilization at home and social effects of the war, the onset of World War II contributed greatly to changes, many of them permanent, in American society and the American way of life.
In the build-up to the war, American factories were offered economic rewards by the government for adopting wartime production modes and practices. Consequently, United States industry focused increasingly on…
General George Smith Patton and His Contribution in World War II
General George Smith Patton (1885 -- 1945)
George S. Patton, an American general in World War II, was born in California in 1885. He was graduated in 1909, from American Military Academy, and was recognized for his contradictory characteristics. He was well-known as a polo player, horseman, a poet and also a competent sailor. In addition, he was an introvert and famous for his unpredictable actions.
He participated in the U.S. 1912 Olympic pentathlon team and created the U.S. Cavalry's last combat sever in 1913 due to which it was named as "Patton Saber." He was also the first one to do the U.S. motorized vehicle attack at the Mexican order. He was also given the responsibility of doing action with the new United States Tank Corps in World War I[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Wilson, Dale. The American Expeditionary Forces Tank…
Blumenson Martin. "General George Smith Patton," The Patton papers 1940 -- 1945, Da Capo Press.
Pipkin Bernad, Trent D, Hazlett Richard and Bierman Paul . "Geology and the Environment"(5th ed.).
Belmont, California, USA: Thomson Brooks. (2008). p. 172 -- 173.
Germans, Post World War 2
Evil, German attitudes through the Twentieth Century, and humanity
The Second World War has had a terrible impact on society as a whole and it is safe to say that it shaped the way that people perceived the idea of being human and of life in general. Michael Hanake's 2009 motion picture The White Ribbon discusses with regard to a series of events happening in a fictional German village during the era leading to the First World War. While the film discusses ideas that apparently have nothing to do with the Second World War or with the National Socialist ideology, an in-depth analysis would make it possible for someone to find parallels between many of the concepts it contains and values promoted in Nazi Germany.
Haneke's film provides viewers with the image of an apparently perfectly organized village in which everyone is well-acquainted with…
Schwab, Gabriele. Haunting Legacies: Violent Histories and Transgenerational Trauma. ( Columbia University Press, 13 Aug 2013)
Dir. Michael Haneke, The White Ribbon. Filmladen (Austria) X Verleih AG (Germany), 2009.
World War II is considered by many historians and scientists to be so-called "mother of technologies." It is true that such periods of human history as conflicts and rivalries between different states stimulate scientific progress, particularly in military sphere. Technological progress of the Cold War was only a continuation of the one started by Germany in 30-40's of 20th century. We have to admit that Nazi Germany was a true technological leader of the world and even now Nazi inventions impress people. Moreover, such great powers as the United States and Soviet Union used German technologies after the war, they also developed them and used as a basis of future great inventions. For example first Soviet jet-fighters (MiGs) were Me-262 replicas; U.S. B-2 "flying wing" was constructed using German project of Horten flying wing.
No doubt that military technology is the leading technological sphere and is the most productive…
Post WWII Art Analysis
The piece of art that the paper will analyze is "Sleeping Girl." oy Lichtenstein painted "Sleeping Girl" in 1964, as part of his work in pop art & pop culture. Another artist who painted in the style of pop art was Andy Warhol, just to add context with whom Lichtenstein kept artistic company. "Sleeping Girl" is a seminal work in a series of paintings in comic book style. Comic book culture saw a huge surge after WWII and so did pop art. These artistic forms expressed a desire to escape from the horrors and great changes around the world after the war. Artists such as Lichtenstein tapped into these desires producing mash-ups of popular art forms to express an even more layered message. "Sleeping Girl" is directly influenced by DC Comics, as it is a rendition of an image found in Girls' omances, #105. It was…
Watson, L. (2012). Bringing home the Bacon: The record-breaking pop art masterpieces that fetched tens of millions at auction. Mail Online, Web, Available from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2142740/Lichtensteins-Sleeping-Girl-record-breaking-masterpieces-fetch-tens-millions-auction.html . 2013 April 16.