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Justification for a New X-Ray Machine
COUNTING THE TRUE COST
A New X-ray Machine in a Healthcare Organization
A New Digital X-Ray Machine for Ebrahim Haji Health Centre
The World Federation of KSIMC urgently seeks donations from members all over the world for the purchase of a new digital x-ray machine for the Ebrahim Haji Health Centre in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (COEJ, 2011). Its X-Ray Department at the health center operates six days a week and 12 hours a day. Physicians regularly use x-rays for the diagnosis of disease and injury and as an essential part of treatment. This health center is currently faced with the dilemma of a limited budget and the need for a more reliable x-ray machine. The present Fujitsu x-ray machine is 13 years old and has been malfunctioning often. Problems encountered with its use include unavailability of parts for replacement, frequent breakdown, rising cost…… [Read More]
It is observed that majority of the beams have in them positive beam limiting collimators -- PBL. The distinguishing features of these devices are that these are automatic collimators which gauge the proportion of the image receptor and make adjustment of the collimating shutters to that size. (Bushong, n. d.)
Focal-spot size: The spatial resolution of radiographic system is basically found out by calculating the focal-spot size of the x-ray tube. At the time when new equipment or a replacement x-ray tube is deployed, the focal-spot size should compulsorily be measured. The three most important tools which are used for calibration of focal-spot size are the pinhole camera, the star pattern and the slit camera. While the pinhole camera poses difficulty in use and needs a great exposure time, the star pattern is simple to use but has a great deal of limitations for focal-spot sizes less than 0.3 mm.…… [Read More]
Speech on X-ay
Speech on why X-rays should be taken
Today our organization is going to talk look at some issues surrounding X-rays. Many people in our community for a long time have had misconception about x-rays. However, these misconception have not been true since various researches that have been done have proved otherwise.
There are many complications that we experience in our daily life in terms of our health. Some of them can only be identified and solved through X-ray because of their ability to pass through human tissues. Yes, all of us knows that too much X-rays radiation in large quantity can be harmful therefore all the necessary precautions have been always put in place to make sure that this does not happen, as echoed by David Attwood (1999).
rays are always part of the electromagnetic spectrum which also includes ultraviolet light, radio and infrared waves. Since they…… [Read More]
doind a research project pay green?
I collected an articles .
ilhelm Rontgen is generally accepted as the person responsible for having discovered X-rays in 1895 in spite of the fact that a series of individuals had been involved in researching the phenomena in years preceding his studies. Even with this, Rontgen is provided with more consideration because he was the first to actually play an active role in studying this concept. The first X-ray picture illuminated the bones in Mrs. Rontgen's hand, practically creating a precedent for what was going to become the medical X-ray machine. These rays have apparently been called X as a result of their strange nature, as Rontgen was practically astonished as a result of seeing them. The German physicist received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 as a result of his important contribution to the world of medicine.
hile Rontgen is basically the…… [Read More]
" (Jan. 16, 1896, p. 9) oentgen won a Nobel Prize for his discovery which was very well deserved considering the fact that he was the first to notice the X-rays when similar rays had been seen before. Once the discovery became public, there was no stopping the physicists, scientists and even photographers. Everyone tried to find out how they could make use of those rays with Edison developing incandescent bulbs to produce X-rays and British scientist William Bragg worked on inner nature of X and y-rays. Many more researches and studies followed the initial discovery and they helped better understand the nature of X-rays and how they could benefit the medical community.
Alexi Assmus: Early History of X-rays. etrieved online 3rd June 2009 from http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/2/25-2-assmus.pdf… [Read More]
Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…… [Read More]
Conventional Tomography outlining the various aspects, issues and methods used. It has 10 sources.
The field of medical imaging has been in existence for over one hundred years but new research and scientific breakthroughs have changed both its image and its role. adiology is not only diagnostic but is expanding to encompass curative techniques as well. The most common radiological investigation remains the conventional X-ray but a wide range of new and more efficient modalities have also been available for the past several decades. Amongst these methods is tomography, specifically in reference to this paper, Conventional Tomography.
adiographs deal with the internal anatomy of bodies, commonly used to view bones, calcified material, and soft tissue masses. This area has branched out since the use of fluorescent dyes but still is limited by the fact that a conventional radiography is unable to display within the framework of two-dimensional…… [Read More]
hile Powlison may not agree with those approaches, he does acknowledge their existence. Therefore, in the second part of his book, Powlison examines psychological knowledge of human behavior and motivation.
However, it is important to keep in mind that the Bible is the basis for all of Powlison's discussions. hile he may develop a personality theory, it is a personality theory based on Scripture. According to reviewer Bob Kelleman:
"the strength of this section is found in Powlison's insistence on building a view of human nature not coram anthropos (from the perspective of humanity), but coram Theos (from the perspective of God). e can understand people via people, or we can understand people via God. Powlison rightly chooses to understand the creature not through the creature but through the Creator (Kelleman).
To do this, Powlison uses x-ray questions, which he says reveal what God sees when he looks at an…… [Read More]
Fractures of Tibia and Fibula
Fractures of the Tibia and Fibula
In the human body there are four specific "long bones:" the femur, humerus, tibia, and fibula. ("Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures") The tibia and fibula are located in the lower part of the leg, between the knee and the ankle. The tibia is the larger of the two, is the weight bearing bone, but also the most common long bone for a person to fracture. However, because serious complications can arise from a fractured tibia, or a fibula, it is vitally important to "be aware of the early warning signs." (Semer, 2001, p. 205) Failure to treat a fracture early can result in permanent damage including disability, paralysis, an even amputation. But with proper treatment, a fracture of the tibia or fibula, or both, can "heal without complications and a person is able to resume his or her normal activities."…… [Read More]
Spinal Disc Herniation, also called slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition that affects the spine. This may be caused by trauma, injury, or idiopathic causes that are combinations of issues. Physiologically, an injury causes a tear in the outer ring of the intervertebral disc, more specifically in the fibrous ring that surrounds the disc. This injury then allows the softer, central portion of the disc to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. This tear sometimes causes the release of inflammatory chemicals causing intense pain, even with there is no severe root compression. In addition, herniated discs are almost always postero-lateral because of the way the ligaments are attached to the spinal cord (Postacchini, 1999).
Most minor herniations heal within several weeks using anti-inflammatory treatment for pain and swelling. However, severe herniations, the so-called slipped disc, even though it is not accurate from a medical…… [Read More]
Cross-Cultural Perceptions of Religious and Ideological Movements: The Effects of Nationality and Ideological Preference
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a very common illness. Research shows that the large bowel or colon is the site of a lot of various beneficial bacteria. Also, may many may be aware that a good colon gives a lot of detail on the way the colon and its bacteria work in unison in order to provide our bodies with particular health profits. On the other hand, the colon is the site for numerous of the symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients. Because this organ is where all fiber and other food leftovers arrive, it would seem rational that some parts of food we eat could play a part in the signs of IBS, which for the majority, are a reflection of an excessively complex colon that is sensitive. As stated by the International…… [Read More]
I stood by my younger sister when she fell from the giant tree in our backyard, her leg twisted behind her. She was crying, but I was doing my best to hold back my tears to help her feel strong. At the hospital, the first sign that I would eventually follow a career path in radiology became clear. I saw my sister's x-ray. It looked exactly like the x-rays I had seen on television but with one big difference: this was the x-ray that belonged to someone I knew, and it was with this magical document that the doctors were able to piece my broken sister back together. My decision to be a radiographer was not an immediately transparent one, though. I did not then and there become determined to be a radiological science professional. Instead, the experience planted a seed. This seed has since been nurtured and is…… [Read More]
evidence is widely used in today's courts and legal systems. There are a wide number of examples of demonstrative evidence. Essentially, it is all evidence that represents an object or person. ather than the real object itself, demonstrative evidence includes things that represent it. This includes evidence such as pictures, sound recordings of conversations, video tapped evidence, x-rays, simulations of events, professional sketches, drawings, animations made to represent a real life scenario, computer generated imagery, and models. According to the research, "Demonstrative evidence is that evidence addressed directly to the senses without intervention of testimony. Such evidence is concerned with real objects such as charts, graphs, videotape, and computer animation, which illustrate some verbal testimony" (Marks, 2004). Such types of evidence help establish a sense of context within any given case or scenario. Thus, they help augment actual physical evidence in establishing a stronger case. It can help support the…… [Read More]
There have been rumors relating to the fact that the authorities might have lied concerning the number of curies released and that it had actually been much bigger.
hile the initial communications from the authorities advised people not to panic and that the situation had been under control, the later reports informed people that precautions needed to be taken. Several tens of thousands of people had been evacuated from the area within a few days and the surrounding schools had been closed. According to surveys done consequent to the event, people apparently considered that the job done by the authorities had been deficient.
According to the studies performed in order to determine the level of radiation exposure, people had not been subjected to life-threatening doses of radiation. The average dose of radiation to which people have been subjected to consequent to the TMI incident is believed to be eight millirem.…… [Read More]
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…… [Read More]
Paget's Disease Of Bone
James Paget, 1877
Paget's disease of bone
general information about disease
Effects of disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Treatment and Prognosis for patient
disease can be treated but not cured.
Paget's Disease of Bone
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…… [Read More]
Terminology and Concepts
American companies have suffered in recent years. In their efforts to reduce cost, restructuring and downsizing have affected almost every organization either directly or indirectly. These attempts to 'right the ship' so to speak will cause problems for these organizations in the terms of their ability to perform in the long-term. Organizational behavior has been cast aside in too many areas which entails that these companies have shown poor leadership by trying to capitalize on technological breakthroughs as opposed to building the human resource aspects of their businesses. This paper is a summary of some organizational behavior concepts and terminologies that are affected by the quest for profits. Through readings, articles, and my personal experiences, I have summarized what I feel can be construed as organizational behavior, culture, diversity, communication, effectiveness, efficiency and learning. I have been blessed by the fact that I hold a…… [Read More]
The conclusion according to Ludwig, et al. (2001) is that "the flat-panel detector has diagnostic performance superior to that of conventional screen-film storage-phosphor radiography for detecting shall artificial osseous lesions at clinical exposure settings. With the flat-panel detector, exposure may be reduced by a sum of 50% in order to gain satisfactory
In the study entitled: "Performance of a Flat-Panel Detector in Detecting Artificial one Lesions: Comparison with Conventional Screen-Film and Storage-Phosphor Radiography" which was written by Karl Ludwig, M.D. et al. states that the case study was done with the express purpose of comparing a "large-area direct-readout flat-panel detector system with a convention screen-film system and storage-phosphor system" for the detection of "small artificial osseous lesions simulating osteolytic disease" and in the assessment of diagnostic performance as the exposure dose decreases over time. The results stated in the study were that: "ROC analysis showed A) Values of 0.820 (speed…… [Read More]
A found it interesting that at all the practice sites; they eschewed the use of paper in favor of linen gowns and sheets. When I questioned this practice, I was told that it was done mostly out of a fear of MRSA being spread from patient to patient. I wondered about this, because it would seem to me that the use of disposable linens would definitely reduce the incidence of MRSA and save the cost of laundering the linens. This was definitely a different practice that what I was used to.
All in all I found the sonographers to be a very competent bunch. They appear to be extremely technically proficient and know what they are doing. It also appears that this field is held in high regard by the physicians who will even speak to the sonographer about the results of the scan or consult with them on different…… [Read More]
capital purchase, costing $5,000, company benefit . Examples include a X-ray machine, MI processor, software filing patient records, a research library, large item company . o Identify management goals expenditure support
The health care field is becoming presented with more and more pressures in today's society. There are numerous changes in the social and economic environments, which become combined to generate new pressures for the health care providers. The life expectancy of the population increases, generating increased needs for medical care for several years. Then, the Baby Boomers are retiring, causing a demanding generation, used to financial resources and access to services, to turn to the medical care sector for more services. The policies regulating the field also change as do the demands and expectations of patients.
In such a context, the health care institutions find themselves in a position in which they have to be better managed…… [Read More]
According to the text by Sanders (2011), the Venturi Mask is likely to be the most appropriate assistive device in this process. Sanders indicates that this particular apparatus is "advised for patients who rely on hypoxic respiratory drive. This includes, for example, patients with COPD. The main benefit of the Venturi Mask is that it allows precise regulation of the FiO2. It also permits the paramedic to titrate oxygen for the patient with COPD so as not to exceed the patient's hypoxic drive while allowing enrichment of supplemental oxygen." (Sanders, p. 422)
In addition the Venturi Mask which can help to normalize pulmonary activity, the patient is also experiencing a productive cough with thick yellow sputum. The presence of excessive mucus is also likely contributing to Mr. Hay's airway blockages. This would be an appropriate place to use the Yankeur sucker in order to help remove fluids that might be…… [Read More]
Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)
The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…… [Read More]
An analysis of IT policy transformation
The aim of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of information security policy in the context of an organization, OSI Systems, Inc. With presence in Africa, Australia, Canada, England, Malaysia and the United States, OSI Systems, Inc. is a worldwide company based in California that develops and markets security and inspection systems such as airport security X-ray machines and metal detectors, medical monitoring anesthesia systems, and optoelectronic devices. The company is also represented by three subsidiary divisions in offices and plants dedicated to the brands, apiscan Systems, OSI Optoelectronics and SpaceLabs Healthcare.
In 2010, OSI, Inc. had sales of $595 million with net income of over $25 million. As of June 2010, the company was comprised of 2,460 personnel globally. The parent company provides oversight and fiscal control to the different divisions, and is connected through its virtual network world-wide intranet system;…… [Read More]
Consequence of apid Advances in Science and Technology
Identify A Potential Unintended Consequence Of The apid Advances Made In Science And Technology
Potential unintended consequences of rapid advances in science and technology
The purpose of this paper is to identify the unintended consequence of radiotherapy treatment on the cancer patient. adiotherapy is the technology that is regularly used to directly kill the cancerous cells through the use of the short-wave rays. The process is intended to help the patient with a treatment option other than leaving the patient suffers from the impacts of cancer. Unintended consequences are those impacts that arise from a technology that was initially meant to have a solution to a specific problem. The unintended consequences may be positive or negative but mostly they are negative consequences that are observed. For example, the purpose of the Avandia or rosiglitazone that was intended to help the diabetes II…… [Read More]
Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…… [Read More]
An interdisciplinary team is formed from a group of health care providers belonging to different fields of health sciences; they work together as a team to bring the best possible outcome for patient. The efficiency of this team is achieved by following three basic steps that include communication, coordination and sharing of responsibilities. In order to provide quality care in primary health care system, the hospitals need to get closely integrated with the whole health service system (Ilyas, 2006).
Who makes up the membership of the interdisciplinary team in this agency?
Members of the interdisciplinary team vary according to the age and the degree of disability of an individual. Main aim of such team is to provide support to the patient in the best possible manner. The interdisciplinary team members of Hospitals at Ontario, includes Physicians, Nurses, Midwife, Dietitian, Pharmacist, Psychologist, Podiatrist, Physiotherapist, Chiropractor and Occupational Therapist. In…… [Read More]
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]
It appears that the experimental hypothesis was confirmed by the data. The fact that no checkpoint agents permitted building access to strangers regardless of attractiveness established that if the phenomenon does exist at all, it is limited to situations where the checkpoint agent perceives no actual security risk (i.e. where the cohort is recognized by the agent as a building employee). The fact that male cohorts were denied access in every trial strongly implies that physical attractiveness in general does not influence the specific behavior being studied. Similarly, the fact that highly attractive female cohorts were denied access by female checkpoint agents in every instance strongly suggests that female attractiveness is not, generally associated with influence over the behavior being studied, but that female attractiveness does strongly influence
In hundreds of trials, no males and no average looking females were permitted unauthorized access. No female agents permitted any cohort…… [Read More]
Edwards Syndrome, Trisomy 18 8 sources ( 4-5 Print Sources 3-4 online Sources) All questions answered essay ( mandatory): -What ? (Discription genetic disorder) -What genes chromosomes linked disorder? -Describe populations affected Edwards Syndrome (Include gender, age & number affected USA wordwide.
Edwards syndrome which is also known as Trisomy 18 is a genetic disorder that is caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 18 instead of the normal two copies. The extra 18th chromosome comes as a result of nondisjunction of the chromosomal material during meiosis. As a result of failure in the segregation of a chromosome to the daughter cells, there can be errors in the meiotic division leading to an extra chromosome. This extra chromosome usually occurs before conception and it is the second most common autosomal trisomy that carries to term after Down syndrome though it is more common in females than males…… [Read More]
Despite the fact that full body scanners may be the most technologically advanced equipment we could realistically put in an airport, they still have their shortcomings. Full body scanners can't see inside your body. Generally, the machines also can't find items stashed in a body cavity. This means that a determined terrorist could potentially store bomb materials or weapons inside their body, specifically in their anus. Since such a low dose of electromagnetic energy is beamed inside the people who enter the scanners, the images are only skin deep. So just how drug traffickers smuggle drugs inside their bodies, terrorists could do the same but with far more dangerous materials. As America witnessed with the failed shoe bomber, it does not take a great deal of free space to hide materials that could overthrow or take a plane down. For instance, C4 explosive, which is military grade, can be…… [Read More]
Computed tomography, more commonly know as a CT or CT scan, is an X-ray technique that is used to produce very detailed images of internal organs located in various parts of the body, such as the head, chest, and abdomen. Doctors use the images produced through this procedure to help diagnose and treat diseases. Other terms for the technique are also called computerized tomography or computerized axial tomography (CAT). While conventional X-ray exams produce two-dimensional images, CT scans uses an X-ray-sensing unit that rotates around your body and a large computer to create cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. This paper will address vital educational information including a brief history, uses for computed tomography, and the effects that it may have on the patient.
British engineer, Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England and Allan Cormack of Tufts University in Massachusetts invented computed tomography. Their…… [Read More]
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…… [Read More]
, 2010). egardless of the cause, infant SV is linked to "significantly more symptoms of wheezing disorder and clinical allergy than controls and were more likely to be sensitized to common inhaled allergens" (Todd et al., 2010). The number of studies and the number of subjects is still small, but the correlations have been consistently large enough to suggest that a serious bout of SV-bronchiolitis in infancy is linked to later lung problems such as asthma, wheezing, and atopy. Therefore, M.C.'s parents should be educated about the possibility that M.C. may experience breathing problems in later life, and told to advise her primary care physician of her SV diagnosis and hospitalization.
Caiulo, V.A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., Fisicaro, A., Moramarco, F., Latini, G., & Picano, E.
(2011). Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: Comparison with chest x-ray. Eur J. Pediatr, 170, 1427-1433.
Healthwise. (2012). Bronchiolitis- topic overview. etrieved March 9, 2013…… [Read More]
This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…… [Read More]
The last major x-ray flare occurred in 2003 ("O'Dell). Most of the energy from an x-ray flare is absorbed by the earth's ionosphere ("O'Dell). Thus, a CME can be far more dangerous for human societies than an x-ray flare.
The first and most subtle observable phenomenon signaling an upcoming solar storm are known as coronal loops, which are "kinks in the magnetic flux form" forced to the surface of the sun due to a buildup of magnetic energy (O'Dell). Dark spots on the sun's surface then appear, usually in the "footprint" of the coronal loops ("O'Dell). The dark spots visibly signal the buildup of magnetism. NASA describes the phenomenon of solar flares as occurring in three stages: a precursor stage, an impulsive stage, and a decay stage. During the precursor stage, the release of magnetic energy is only triggered and leads to "soft x-ray emissions," ("What is a Solar Flare?").…… [Read More]
(Computed Radiography Digital Solutions)
The advantages of the system can be numerous. One of them is better image quality, wherein better trabecular details would be seen; another advantage is that there is absolutely no need for retakes. This would save time and money, as well as avoid additional radiation for the patient. There will also be no loss of films, because there is no danger of these images being misplaced or lost, unlike as in the case of conventional x-rays. It is also possible to obtain multiple images with one single exposure, and the images can be manipulated according to the need of the attending physician/s. In addition, it is also possible to obtain multiple images on one film, and images can also be provided on medium other than film, like for example, on a CD, on paper, or they can even be viewed on a monitor. These are some…… [Read More]
Electromagnetic waves are energy waves produced by the oscillation or acceleration of an electric charge. They include radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. Their wavelengths in meters are: radio waves (0.1 to 1000), microwaves (1 x 10-3 ~ 1 x 10-1); infrared (7 x 10-7 ~1 x 10-3); visible light (4 x 10-7 ~ 7 x 10-7); ultraviolet rays (1 x 10-8 ~ 4 x 10-7); x-rays (1 x 10-11 ~ 1 x 10-8) and gamma rays (< 1 x 10-11).
Scientists have inferred that such great amounts of energy as produced by the Sun (4x1026 watts per second) can only be the result of nuclear fusion
If such energy were produced through the most efficient chemical reaction, the Sun would not last for more than a few thousand years. Evidence suggests that the lifespan of the Sun is in billions of years;…… [Read More]
Airport Security System
The secure operation of the aviation system across the globe is one of the most significant factors in the security and economic development of the United States. The use of the world's airspace should also be secured because aviation has become a major target for criminals. Actually, criminals, terrorists, and hostile nations increasingly consider aviation as a major target for exploitation and attack. An example of the security threats facing this industry is the 9/11 terror attacks, which highlighted the desire and ability of enemies to generate considerable harm to the United States. Therefore, aviation security is increasingly important in order to protect the country and its citizens from such attacks. According to Federal of American Scientists (2007), aviation security is realized through combination of private and public aviation security activities across the globe. These activities are then coordinated to detect, prevent, deter, and defeat threats that…… [Read More]
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]
E Nurses -- Evaluated situation, helped calm Hally, retook vital signs, prepared for NP
E Nurse Practitioner -- Examined Hally, ordered X-ay, reviewed all symptoms and signs; interpreted x-ray, with Nurse, administered muscle relaxer and anesthesia, set arm in cast.
X-ay Technetium -- Took X-ay films of Hally's right arm; processed for NP's review.
General Practitioner -- Follow up after E visit, watched for signs of infection or discoloration; insured blood flow to arm, managed pain and swelling medication. emoved cast at appropriate time.
ehabilitative Personnel -- Specialized to help Hally gain full use of her arm through exercise therapy, ultrasound, Jacuzzi, and massage therapy.
Part 3 -- in its very basic form, broken bones are quite common in children. However, there were a number of factors that needed to be assessed by health professionals during Hally's incident:
Location and type of Break -- Ensure no bone or part of…… [Read More]
underground location of landmines complicate detection?
Landmines are notoriously difficult to detect due to being buried underground and often-in hostile environments. Contrary to 'above ground' investigation of weapons or bombs that, given their miniscule size, are in themselves challenging to discover, they, at least, can be sniffed out by thoroughly trained and vigilant dogs. Concealed explosives can be detected at limits that are as low as a few ppb (parts per billion) since the detectors search for insignificant and infinitival molecules. These searches, however, occur to objects that are 'above ground' and the searches take place in countries that seek to obliterate terrorism. Landmines, on the other hand, pose far more of a threat since they may be anywhere underground and are usually existent in hostile environments. We, therefore, have approximately 100 million landmines that go untreated on planet earth, and just as several are dealt with, tenfold more reappear…… [Read More]
Properties of Light
Light is one of the most basic physical phenomena. It is observed by most people on a daily basis, and even people who lack formal understanding of the properties of light have some understanding of its properties. For example, most people have seen mirrors, rainbows, and know that glasses can improve vision, though they may not understand that reflection of light explains how mirrors work, that dispersion explains the formation of a rainbow, or that refraction of light is used to form optic lenses. This paper will describe the various properties of light and explain how it acts in various mediums. It will discuss: the nature of light, which is a particular but behaves like a wave; color; velocity; refractive index; reflection; refraction; dispersion; total internal reflection; diffraction; and interference. Taken together, these various properties help explain how light functions.
Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.…… [Read More]
Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.
Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.
Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.
Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.
Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or…… [Read More]
Verification of Nasogastric Tube Placement
Feeding through nasogastric tubes is an integral part of the care of critically ill patients. Improper placement of nasogastric tubes is not a rare occurrence and has been estimated to occur in 3% of all placements (Borgault and Halm 2009). Improper placement can lead to complications including esophageal perforation, pneumothorax, pulmonary aspiration and intracranial tube placement. Asphyxiation can result from aspiration of large volumes. Unfortunately, incorrect placement may remain undetected, resulting in enteral feed and medications being introduced directly into the lungs. Currently there are several methods for verifying proper placement of gastric tubes such as radiographic, auscultation, pH testing of aspirates and detection of CO2. eviewing the recent literature may help to clarify which techniques are preferred for both proper positioning of the gastric tube on insertion and ensuring that it stays in place after insertion.
eview of the Literature
Bourgault and Halm (2009)…… [Read More]
Fractures and Causes
A fracture is a broken bone or a break of any size on the bone (Giza 2009, Vorvick 2009, Parmet 2010). The cause is the application or exertion of physical force, which is stronger than the bone itself. Fractures are common occurrences and experience. The average person is said to experience two fractures in his lifetime. The risk depends partly on age. It is quite common in childhood although fractures during childhood are, as a rule, less serious than those in adulthood. This is because bones become more brittle with age. Fractures result from injuries, osteoporosis, tumors near the bone, and prolonged walking or running. The severity depends on the location and extent of damage to the bone and surrounding tissues. Unless treated promptly, complications may develop. Recuperation depends on the person's age and health and the type of fracture. Healing may take a few weeks if…… [Read More]
Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is based on the fact that atoms contain both positive and negative charges. MRI's use magnetism to use the electrical charges of atoms to create images of materials. he most common use for MRI's is in medical diagnosis. MRI's were available for patients starting in 1984 (Nordenberg, 1999).
One of the MRI's greatest advantages is its relative safety compared to some other imaging techniques. he first method for imaging the body, x-rays, which use radiation to create its images. Another advantage is that MRI's can image less dense tissues than x-rays can (Nordenberg, 1999). But where the MRI has a tremendous advantage over x-rays is in its ability to create 3-dimensional images. It also does a better job of showing contrast between dense parts of the body, such as bones, and softer tissue, than other imaging techniques (Nordenberg, 1999).
How hey Work
In medical…… [Read More]
Angiography;, Types Categories, , Signs & Symptoms, Treatment, Imaging Modality
An angiography involves the use of water-soluble X-ray contrast media by injecting it into blood streams in arteries or veins with the purpose of imaging blood vessels. The process is meant to observe normal or pathological conditions of the vessel organization. By seeing the lumen of blood vessels and organs, an angiography can provide information concerning conditions like luminal narrowing and aneurismal widening. Vessel access is essential and serious complications can appear if the substance is unable to pervade the veins and arteries, but this is rare and unlikely to occur. hile these are some of the conditions that are frequently detected through an angiography, it can also play an important role in analyzing sources of bleeding, tumors, and diverse malformations in veins and arteries.
The discovery of X-rays led to some of the first experiments with angiographies as…… [Read More]
atson and Crick
The fact that James atson and Francis Crick were able to discover the structure of DNA is, in retrospect, somewhat shocking. By the early 1950s, it had become clear that the riddle of DNA's structure would be solved through X-ray crystallography, while atson admits in the fourth chapter of The Double Helix that "I knew nothing about the X-ray diffraction techniques that dominated structural analysis" (atson 31). Moreover, some of the best scientists who did have a knowledge of X-ray crystallography -- like Linus Pauling in America and Rosalind Franklin in the UK -- were consciously working on the structure of DNA at the same time that atson and Crick got involved. Additionally, atson was extraordinarily young at the time of the discovery. Although Crick was "thirty-five, yet almost totally unknown" at the time of their collaboration (atson 7) but atson was born in 1928 and in…… [Read More]
Radiation can be described as energy that is in the form of streams or waves of particles. Numerous types of radiation surround us. When most individuals hear the term radiation, the thing that comes to their mind is nuclear power, radioactivity, and atomic energy. Radiation, however, has several other forms. Visible light and sound are some familiar kinds of radiation. Other kinds of radiation include television and radio signals, infrared radiation (some type of heat energy), and ultraviolet radiation (responsible for suntans). The earth together with occupants are always subjected to radiation produced by the sun, stars as well as other galactic sources and from the radioactive substances found on the earth’s crust. Here on earth, being exposed to radiation is unavoidable as a result of the radioactive materials present in the air, water, and also within the body. Radiation cannot be seen, but it occurs in form if…… [Read More]
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]
Air Cargo Security
Since the events of 911, airport security has been an important issue. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)" is responsible for ensuring the security of all modes of transportation, including cargo placed aboard airplaines and particularly focuses on passenger-carrying planes" (TSA). The TSA is part of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the latest information available, the TSA employs 620 Cargo Transportation Security Inspectors who are exclusively dedicated to the oversight of air cargo. One hundred twenty of these are canine teams. The numbers of security inspectors and canine teams has increased significantly since 2006 (TSA).
Obviously, no one wants to see another tragedy. Terrorism continues to be a threat and security measures must try to keep pace with ever-changing strategies that terrorists try to employ. There has been much in the news about passenger screening, x-ray technology, and rights to privacy. Passengers do not present the…… [Read More]
The scanner's ability to translate typewriter characters into bit-mapped image into ASCII text depends on a number of factors, including the sensitivity of the device itself and the legibility and method of preparation of the original document; however, improvements are being made all of the time and even formerly graphic-based scanning systems such as Adobe's notoriously slow PDF applications have incorporated character recognition systems that allow for textual scanning. Some of these character recognition systems incorporate features that provide output options to convert the text into a format used by common word-processing programs such as TF, Word and so forth. According to Dry and Lawler, the term "scanning" is frequently used today to describe the process of creating digitized images; in this approach, a graphic picture of the page, rather than an actual transcription of the text itself, is stored in the computer. "While this provides an effective means of…… [Read More]
6. Identify the collaborative team members pertinent to the care of the geriatric patient in the scenario, including the emergency room nurse's response to changes in the level of consciousness and increasing respiratory distress.
The collaborative team here would consist of a primary care physician / geriatrician, pain management specialist, laboratory specialists, and x-ray team. Additional consultants may be neurologist, neurosurgeon, gastroenterologist, psychologist, and drug and alcohol detoxification specialist.
In the case of increasing respiratory distress, the nurse is advised to continue or modify the interventions: to continue to teach patient how to breath and cough correctly; to summon a productive cough; to attempt to clear lungs to auscultation; and to achieve symmetric chest excursion of at least 4 cm; also that her respirations and pulse beats should be regular, and that she should inhale a normal volume of air. This is done by encouraging Fowler or semi-Fowler's position; monitoring…… [Read More]
Strong wheezing, indicative of cardiac asthma, is also probable. Noisy breathing efforts make cardiac auscultation hard. Signs like neck vein distention and peripheral edema may occur and indicate right ventricular failure (Arnold).
Interstitial pulmonary edema is diagnosed when clinical evaluation reveals severe dyspnea and pulmonary crackles (Arnold, 2009). Diagnosis is also made by chest x-ray, serum natriuretic peptide or N-terminal-pro NP, ECG, cardiac markers and other tests for etiology. In most cases, chest x-ray is immediately performed and establishes the diagnosis with marked interstitial edema. If the diagnosis is inconclusive, bedside measurement of serum NP levels will help. ECG, pulse oximetry and blood tests are conducted on severely ill patients. An ECG will help identify the cause of the pulmonary edema and direct the choice of treatment. Possible causes of pulmonary edema may be myocardial infarct, valvular dysfunction, hypertensive heart disease, are dilated cardiomyopathy. Severe hypoxemia may also occur.…… [Read More]
The third exhibit was another highlight from "Mission to the Planets," which was the Cassini-Huygens Probe. This highlight is related to the educational standard 4(e) from the earth sciences unit for grade 8. It states that "students know the appearance, general composition, relative position and size and motion of objects in the solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids." This exhibit relates to the standard by revealing how scientists are still discovering new information about planets like Saturn and their moons like Titan within the solar system through unmanned spacecrafts like this one.
Cassini-Huygens is responsible for finding out about Saturn's gravitational and magnetic fields, mapping Titan's surface, and studying Saturn's and its moons' atmospheres and ionospheres among other things. The exhibit conveys the standard by displaying full-scale models of Cassini-Huygens that are covered by insulating blankets; the blankets can be pulled back to reveal the spacecraft underneath.…… [Read More]
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has recently constructed an ultramodern pediatric imaging facility. The healthcare facility exclusively focuses its improved services on children's imaging. In this paper, we present a marketing approach that covers computed Tomography (CT), fluoroscopy, General radiology (X-ay), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MI), Nuclear Medicine as well as ultrasound. The work includes an assessment of both the internal as well as external environment which is important in allowing us to determine the full advantage associated with the CHOP brand, the strategic location of the facility as well as the purchase of the new and improved equipment to warrant the integrated marketing strategy. The approach is however, threatened by the existence of another major hospital within Philadelphia that also offers pediatric imaging services. This risk will however be mitigated by CHOP's approach of focusing on pediatric imaging at an affordable price. Pediatric imaging is to form CHOP's niche market.…… [Read More]
esearch and development was encouraged for future developments as well to continue to make security a priority (Airport Security, 1989, p. 2).
Also in response to the bombing of Flight 103, the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 was passed. Senator Wendell H. Ford opened the proceedings with the statement: "The terrorist bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in December 1988 tragically demonstrated that something more is needed to be done to protect Americans traveling by air" (Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, 1990, p. 1).
In later hearings on implementation, it was noted by Thomas C. Kelly, Vice President of Security for the Air Transport Association, that U.S. airports were much safer than foreign airports and that this fact should be noted when dealing with this legislation: "Our primary focus in the development of this legislation was to ensure that it would contain provisions imposing the same extraordinary procedures…… [Read More]
A reserve force will be positioned south of PL WHITE IOT reinforce the line should 77th MID push BCT past PL BROWN. Heavier fighting is expected along eastern column, as two key avenues of approach enter AO4 near eastern border.
After BHO, sustaining operations will be minimal until decisive operation, particularly for the western column located in mountainous areas. Furthermore, while eastern column is located in more accessible territory, fighting will also be heavier, as the COA depends upon channeling 77th MID into KURA RVR valley. IAW the COA, the decisive operation will occur shortly after initial AH attack, and thus substantial sustaining operations beyond initial BHO and AZ passage behind lines will not be necessary or available.
Fire assets located near KURA RVR will attack AH forces using two main avenues of approach. Fire assets located in western column will prevent 77th MID from moving…… [Read More]
The basic work of the heart is to pump blood to the entire body. It performs two types of functions, electrical and mechanical. The electrical function of the heart is the periodic contraction that is triggered by the pacemaker. The pacemaker generates the pumping effect throughout the heart. This pumping action commonly known as action potential is carried in an electrical conduction system. The mechanical function is the fluidic movement of blood; the heart is a pump. The heart's anatomical features include; ventricle, which is the pump, heart valves; that allow blood to flow one way and the atria, which includes the four chambers of the heart. The heart is susceptible to disease and as a result if unable to pump blood can lead to failure in other body organs.
Treated Heart Conditions
Cardiology is generally a field of medicine focusing on diagnosis and treatment of the heart. Discussed…… [Read More]
Care of Cancer
In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.
There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;
This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…… [Read More]