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After instituting a controlled burn, forest managers can determine what areas are ripe for vegetation and which are not. Because this article contains one of the many effects of burning, its inclusion in the cannon of literature is important.
Houston, Douglas B. (1971). Ecosystems of National Parks. Science. 127 (3984), 648-
Though Douglas B. Houston's article is older than some, its topic is one that does not necessarily require a modern time stamp. Additionally, this article that discusses national park maintenance was written before the great fire in Yellowstone National Park. For those writing about controlled burning, this gives a unique example of the opinions of maintenance and the ecosystem before the fire, which allows the researcher to make comparisons between the pre and post-fire opinion. Other relevant information in the article is a detailed discussion of the parks' ecosystems, and a conclusion that the destructive activities of humans are…
In this article, the authors discuss changes in landscape patterns, and how these changes affect natural features including "wildlife abundance, nutrient flow, and lake productivity" (664). Though this may not seem relevant to controlled burning at first, landscape patterns are intrinsically important to the ecosystem of any national park. Landscape patterns also have a direct impact on plant diversity and what kinds of plants thrive in certain areas. This article will be an important research for those who believe it is important to discuss planting and planning after the controlled or prescribed burn. Additionally, the article describes prescribed burning and some of its effects, including effects on nutrition and plant and animal life. Finally, the article is easy to read and chalk full of facts, numbers, and information about the park. As a reference, therefore, it is useful if only for fact-finding purposes.
Turner, Monica G., Romme, William H., and Tinker, Daniel B. (2003). Surprises and Lessons from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 1(7), 351-358.
For ecologists, naturalists, park personnel, and those living in Wyoming, the 1988 Yellowstone Fires were a monumental experience. When discussing prescribed burning, therefore, scholars continue to return to the fires for inspiration and research purposes. Written by at least two of the leading experts on controlled burning and the Yellowstone Fires, this article discusses the surprises levied by the 1988 Yellowstone Fires. These were mainly positive surprises, such as plant life growing rapidly, and the fact that human restoration in the area was not necessary. By studying the wealth of information available about the fires that was discussed in the last fifteen years, the scholars are applying the information they discovered due to the 1988 fires to prescribed burning and forest fires in other areas. Because this article is written by experts in the field and addresses the real-life effects of prescribed burning, this article is an excellent addition to the collection of research about controlled burns in Yellowstone National Park.
...This whole country is dry...If you don't have to burn it, don't burn it" said the fire marshal from the area (Shay & Johnson 2008). Fire damage at Yellowstone such as the damage that occurred in 1988 and 2008 has come at a tremendous cost: "Since 1984, the annual average number of fires that burn 1,000 acres or more has increased from 25 to 80...and the total average number of acres burned by each of these fires has increased from 164,000 to 765,000. Naturally, the costs of controlling such fires also have escalated exponentially -- from $134 million in 1986 to $335 million in 1994 -- which does not include the higher costs of preparedness, not to mention health consequences, environmental impact and property damage" (Paige 1998). Fire is not only damaging to life and property but also to water quality and air quality, which can hurt the wildlife the…
Albright, Del. (May 2008) "Controlled fire." Retrieved June 4, 2008 http://www.delalbright.com/Articles/fire.htm
Cullen, Barry. (24 Sept 2008). "No, don't let Yellowstone burn." The New York Times. Retrieved June 4, 2008 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE1D81F3EF936A1575AC0A96E948260
Shay, Becky & Clair Johnson. (19 Apr 2008). "Winds take control of controlled burn."
Helenair.com. Retrieved June 4, 2008 http://www.helenair.com/articles/2008/04/19/state/top/50st_080419_bil-fire.txt
Aristotle and the Cynics Conspire to get Snowmobiles out of Yellowstone National Park
In the scenario whereby individuals are rampaging across the wilds of Yellowstone National Park, willy-nilly upon snowmobiles, the great Greek philosopher Aristotle (presumably after overcoming his initial surprise at the existence of such a mechanized craft) would remind the snowmobile's users of Book VIII, Chapter 3, of his Ethics. A means of use of the park that is amicable and amenable to all, rather than to one subspecies of user, the snowmobiler, would be most desirable.
In this treatise upon Ethics, Aristotle defines relationships between human beings on the basis of friendships into of good people, friendships based on utility and friendships based on shared pleasures of company. Ethics, for Aristotle, is grounded in a need in human nature, that is, the essence of living human beings to require a just, virtuous, and happy way of…
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "
Yosemite National Forest
In East Central California, Yosemite National Park spans the eastern portions of Tuolumne, Mariposa, and Madera County. Approximately 3.7 million tourists have come to love and visit the park on an annual basis, spending time on a seven square mile sector of the 760,000 acre park. Yosemite is known for the enormous rocks dating as far back as ten million years in age, with one particular known site: The half dome, where hikers may climb the treacherous rock (Yosemite National Park, 2011). With such a large amount of tourists, the park calls for a well developed management team.
Yosemite Tourism and Ownership Establishment
Yosemite was officially discovered in 1855 by James Mason Hutchings, Thomas Ayers, and other tourists to the area. The two were among the first to create publicity for the area, making artwork and articles about the wildlife and experiences, and sending them…
Harris, A.G., Tuttle, E., & Tuttle, S. (2003). Geology of national parks. Kendall/Hunt
National Geographic. Dna to help find "problem" bears at yosemite. (2001, April 1). National
hat are the pros and cons of controlled burning in Yellowstone?
The pros and cons of controlled burning in Yellowstone National Park have the same consequences -- uncontrollable fire. The pros of controlled burning are twofold. First, studies have proven the positive effects of controlled burning with regards to fire management. As previously stated, controlled burns remove debris from the forest floor that can be considered fodder for larger fires. In addition, controlled and natural burning allow fires to ecologically impact the park. In recent decades, a variety of research has been completed concerning the benefits of the burns on ecology, and controlled burning is proven to, in most cases, allow for positive change within the ecosystem.
Part II Recommendation Analysis
Based on the above information, fires in Yellowstone National Park, whether controlled or otherwise, are an issue of grave importance to park personnel. In order to appropriately deal with…
National Park Service. "Evolution of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy." The National Park Service. 2001 January. 17 June 2008. http://www.nifc.gov/fire_policy/docs/chp1.pdf .
National Park service. "Wildland Fire in Yellowstone." The National Park Service. 28
June 2007. 11 June 2008. http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/wildlandfire.htm .
The Gray Wolf, which is also sometimes referred to as the tundra or timber wolf, belongs to the canidae species-also known as the dog family. Among its kind it is the largest member and can weigh up to 100 pounds. The gray wolf typically originates from areas in North America, Europe and North Africa. Although these wolves are called gray wolves, they are not necessarily gray in colour. They can range from being black to white or anywhere in between. Colour depends on the age of the wolf and also the area from where the wolf belongs. These wolves have an average life span of 12 to 20 years.
Gray wolves live in the open forests and before they occupied European areas they were commonly found in areas of North America. These wolves travel in packs and the number of individuals in the packs may go up to…
Bangs, E. (2012). The reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone national park and central Idaho; final environmental impact statement.
Ewing, C. (2012). Gray wolves and the endangered species act. Nova Science Pub Inc.
Lopez, B. (2004). Of wolves and men. Scribner Mech, D. (2007). Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation. University Of Chicago Press.
V, A. (2009). Recovery of gray wolves in the great lakes region of the United States: An endangered species success story.
He also mentions how the lack of fire has affected whitebark pine, a species that supports a variety of high mountain flora and fauna, and attributes this to the fact that there is not sufficient fire to eradicate competing species.
H.E. cLean, writing in 1995 in American Forests, covers a handful of relevant topics. These include stating that there is an inherent risk in using prescribed fires because they are subject to the unpredictable forces of nature, but that this risk is acceptable. He discusses the need for prescribed burns in Alaska, due to the state's climate and corresponding slow decomposition rate. In addition, he outlines briefly the role of prescribed burns in Sequoia NP, Yosemite NP, and Stanislaus NF.
Further examples of controlled burning programs and a recap of the issues discussed above are found in other sources. The article "Wildland Fire in Yellowstone" discusses issues pertaining to that…
McLean, H.E. (1995) Fighting fire with fire. American Forests. Retrieved on June 15, 2008 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-17099755.html
No author. (2007) Wildland Fire in Yellowstone. National Park Service Retrieved June 11, 2008 at http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/wildlandfire.htm
Havnes, M.T. (2004) Officials set Largest-Ever Planned Burn in Zion National Park in Utah. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved on June 14, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5553/is_200409/ai_n22242861
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The process sparked off battles between stakeholders in the state. In 1966 when the idea was introduced to congress, the main concern was the critically high elk population in the region and this was because of the eradication of the wolves by the residents. For decades, the elk population grew tremendously because there were no predators in Yellow Park causing ecosystem instability. Soon after, other species disappeared such as the aspen because of the huge population of elks. The coyotes could not manage the large ungulate population; moreover, the large coyote population diminished the red fox. The government struggled with the wolf issue from the 1974 when a wolf recovery team was established. The general public has been engulfed in the wolf…
ABC News. "Court Rules Yellowstone Wolves Can Stay." ABC News, January 14, 2000.
Cockerham, Sean. "Idaho Gov. Otter to feds: Pony up more cash for wolves." www.idahostatesman.com. March 8, 2012. http://www.idahostatesman.com/2012/03/08/2026038/otter-to-feds-pony-up-more-cash.html (accessed April 7, 2012).
Duffield, J. "An economic analysis of wolf recovery in Yellowstone: Park visitor attitudes and values." Report for Yellowstone National Park, 1992.
Duffield, John, Chris Neher, and David Patterson. "Wolf Recovery in Yellowstone: Park Visitor
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also cite history that shows wolves are quite difficult to dissuade from attacking vulnerable livestock, and that many ranchers and farmers saw eliminating the wolf as the only real way to protect their stock and their families. Writers Smith and Phillips continue,
Although several methods have been developed to minimize or prevent depredations, few have proven successful. Guard dogs have been used widely, but with marginal results. Generally one guard dog is not sufficient, as several dogs seem necessary to deter a wolf attack. Another approach requires farmers and ranchers to intensify husbandry of livestock (e.g., confine sheep to structures overnight, develop calving areas near ranch headquarters, or monitor open range stock daily). Ultimately, killing the wolf or wolves responsible for the…
Donnelly, K.J. (1999, January). Canine in the wild. World and I, 14, 180.
Editors. (2005). Gray wolf. Retrieved from the National Wildlife Federation Web site: http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/graywolf / 26 Aug. 2005.
Jones, K. (2002, March). Fighting outlaws, returning wolves: Karen Jones examines the significance of the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park. History Today, 52, 38+.
Li, J. (2000). The wolves may have won the battle, but not the war: How the west was won under the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf recovery plan. Environmental Law, 30(3), 677.
Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it seemed, the more of a synergistic effect upon their funding and use (Jensen and Guthrie, 2006).
By the Johnson Administration in the 1960s, coupled with more media attention, there was increased public awareness of America's natural treasures. This was now that "Parks for People" Campaign. During this period there was also a fairly significant new awareness about ecology and the natural environment. The mission of the National Parks Service was called into question. eacting to this, Congress passed the General Authorities Acts of 1970, which became known as the "edwood Amendment," since a large part of the Act was devoted to conserving edwood National Park. Based on political pressure from citizens, Congress was also forced to provide a rather significant funding increase…
The National Park Service. (2002, March). Retrieved October 2010, from U.S. History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1605.html
National Park Services Almanac. (2008). Washington, DC: National Parks Service, GPO.
Blackburn, S. (2007). Plato's Republic. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Brown and Pozner. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Develpment, 68(2), 274-80.
Given these condition, wolf population will recover rapidly4.
Part 2: The management of the wolves from the information given it the congressional hearing. Congress decided that the U.. Fish and Wildlife ervice (ervice) will reintroduce the gray wolf (Canis lupus), that is currently considered an endangered species, into Yellowstone National Park, which is located in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.
Congress also decided to follow Alternative One namely that the wolves would be classified as experimental wolves according to section 10(j) of the Endangered pecies Act of 1973 (Act).
Congress chose to do this since they adjudged the gray wolf populations to be expunged from most of the Western United tates and that only a small population of the gray wolves remain in the extreme northwestern Montana, and in part of Idaho, Wyoming, and Washington where migrating wolves from Montana and Canada accidentally settled.
The objective of the reintroduction idea is…
Department of the Interior, part VII
Fish and Wildlife Service: 50 CFR Part 17; RIN 1018-AC86 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1994-11-22/html/94-28746.htm
Final. Env. Impact statement. The reintroduction of greywolves to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho
Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this biologically vital corridor may include birds (like the ring-necked pheasant, grouse, geese, falcons, great blue herons, hummingbirds and warblers), small mammals (such as longtail weasel and striped skunk), reptiles (garter snake and the western painted turtle), and amphibians (red-legged frog and the Pacific giant salamander). The flora and fauna often include many threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, among which could be the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and kit fox (The Columbia iver Basin watershed and its ecosystems 2005).
The plant life along the river can also has an effect on the health of the species living in the river by maintaining the health of the river by influencing the amount and kind of sediment in the river. The vegetation along the side…
Columbia River (2005). Center for Columbia River History. Retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.ccrh.org/river/history.htm.
The Columbia River Basin watershed and its ecosystems (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/crb.html .
How a hydroelectric project can affect a river (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html .
Human history in the Tetons (2001). Grand Teton History, retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.americanparknetwork.com/parkinfo/gt/history/ .
We have never prescribed a "let-it-blow policy for tornadoes and hurricanes, a "let-it-erupt" policy for volcanoes or a "let-it-grind" policy for glaciers. Why, then, did we need a "let-it-burn" policy for fires, or surrogate strategies like prescribed fire? Humans and fire have an inseparable history." (p.5) Agee states that the classical view of the succession of plants "...persisted much of the 20th century: the Clementsian view of regional convergence towards a vegetation life-form created by autogenic succession in the presence of stable climate." (p.6)
Agee relates that the primary obstacle to conducting an "appropriate economic analysis of fire in wilderness as understanding "the natural state" was defined by Mills in 1985 who held that the objective of wilderness policy then would be to "allow resource change to be viewed as cost or benefit." (p. 14) Agee reports that in 1983 the Wilderness Fire workshop was held in Missoula in which…
Aplet, Gregory H. (2006) Evolution of Wilderness Fire Policy. International Journal of Wilderness APRIL 2006 • VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1-9.
Agee, J.K. (2000) Wilderness Fire Science: A State-of-Knowledge Review. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. 2000.
Leong, J.C. (nd) Evolution of Fire Science. Online available at: http://220.127.116.11/mainpages/teacher/J_C_Leong/updata/lab/syllbi/fires/Lesson%20a1%20-The%20Evolution%20of%20Fire%20Science.pdf
Additionally, the exact boundaries of the park must be clearly understood and marked, so that no citizens accidentally enter into the park lands and slaughter the Bison while they are protected by the federal government. At the same time, there needs to be some leeway so that the citizens in need can still take the vital source of meat and protein when in need, especially in the winter.
The current policy required NPS officials to try to corral Bison that left the park before they got to private lands. Yet, there is a major problem here because Bison are naturally migratory. Thus this plan is not the most appropriate because the Bison are always going to leave the park at some point in time. Thus, there are a number of policy alternatives here. First and foremost, the park officials can work with the federal government to persuade Montana to adopt…
These calls are done in a rapid series of low-pitched throaty notes (Great1 pp).
A study titled, "A Comparative Analysis of Plasticity in Larval Development in Three Species of Spadefoot Toads," reported by David Reznick in the June 01, 2000 issue of Ecology, evaluated four salient features of the ilbur and Collins (1973) model for amphibian metamorphosis (Reznick pp) H.M. ilbur and J.P. Collins offered an evolutionary explanation for the labile nature of amphibian metamorphosis (Reznick pp). Their model has provided the most important framework for interpreting phenotypic plasticity in age and size at metamorphosis (Reznick pp). This model is attractive due to its simplicity, and the fact that it focuses on selection at the larval life stage, is time invariant, and ignores complex relationships between larvae and their predators (Reznick pp).
Reznick study performed an experiment on three species of spadefoot toads derived from environments that differ in their…
Aidem, Patricia Farrell. "Wildlife Shields Proposed Protected Areas May Expand." Daily
News. February 04, 2001. Retrieved October 08, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Biota Information System of New Mexico. Retireved October 08, 2005 at http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/states/nmex_main/species/020076.htm
Bransfield, Ray. "Lands of contrast, diversity, and beauty."
Hawaiian Volcanoes and Relationship to a Deep-Mantle Plume
From the many topics that were given as options by the facilitator of this class, the author of this report has chosen to write about Hawaiian volcanoes and their relationship to the deep-mantle plumes that are nearby and close to them. The area that has come to be known as Hawaii exists within a hotbed of volcanic activity. Of course, this is true both above ground and below it as well. Volcanos play a huge part in how the earth has taken on its current shape as many islands and even many continents have been greatly impacted or formed by the activity of volcanoes. hile the topic of this report makes it very clear that the deep-mantle plume and Hawaiian volcanoes are very heavily linked and this report will explore this in great detail using the suggested resources.
The deep-mantle plume…
Foulger, Gillian R., and Don L. Anderson. "The Emperor and Hawaiian Volconaic Chains." The Emperor and Hawaiian Chains. N.p., 11 Mar. 2006. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.
Mastin, Larry G., Robert L. Christiansen, Donald A. Swanson, Peter H. Stauffer, and James W. Hendley, II. "Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i? Fact Sheet 132-98." Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i? Fact Sheet 132-98. N.p., 14 Oct. 2004. Web. 10 Mar. 2016.
NPS. "Frequently Asked Questions: Volcano - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park
Service)." Nps.gov. N.p., 2016. Web. 20 Apr. 2016.
(4) Oakleaf, JK; Curt, M; and Murray, DL (2003) Effects of Wolves on Livestock Calf Survival and Movements in Central Idaho. Journal of Wildlife Management. Apr 2003, Vol. 67, Issue 2.
Oakleaf, Curt and Murray (2003) report a study that examined the impact of wolves on livestock and the survival and movements of calf in central Idaho during two grazing seasons.
(5) Fritts, SH et al. (1997) Planning and Implementing a Reintroduction of Wolves to Yellowstone National Park and Central Idaho. Restoration Ecology; Mar 1997. Vol. 5, P. 7. Fritts, et al. (1997) reports on reintroduction of wolves into Idaho in the Rocky Mountains and states that findings show that wolves released into Yellowstone Park "continued to live as packs, stayed closer to their release sites and settled into home ranges; two packs produced a total of nine pups."
(6) Marshall, Michael (2011) Grey Wolf Hunt is Back on. New…
The author discusses the legal issues surrounding grey wolf hunting in the sates of Idaho and Montana allowed in 2009, ruled against the law in 2010, and then reinstated in 2011.
(7) Wilson, PI (1999) Wolves, Politics, and the Nez Perce: Wolf Recovery in Central Idaho and the Role of Native Tribes. Natural Resources Journal Summer 99, Vol. 39, Iss. 3
This author examines the politics surrounding the recovery of the grey wolf in the Rocky Mountains of the U.S. And the role of the Nez Perce and management of natural resources in regards to policymaking.
Elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, heodore Roosevelt, while being one of the most ambiguous political figures in American history, was also extremely influential, both culturally and socially, and reflected the times in which he lived as no other President. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's Presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America and foreign nations were based on the continuing struggle between the poor and the wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" into foreign lands. Domestically, America was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which upset the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic…
TR: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt. TR's Legacy -- The Environment. Internet. 2003. Accessed February 28, 2003. www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tr/environment.
Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Random House, 2001.
Theodore Roosevelt's Influence. Bartleby.com -- Great Books Online. Accessed February 28, 2003.
Aldo Leopold and Environmental History
In answering the question of whether the United States has improved on environmental policy since the 1930s, the cyclical nature of the political system must be considered. A generational reform cycle occurs every 30-40 years, such as the Progressive Era of 1900-20, the New Deal of the 1930s and the New Frontier and Great Society of the 1960s and early-1970s. All of the progress that the United States has made in conservation, wilderness preservation and other environmental issues has happened in these reform eras. Barack Obama represents yet another reform cycle and his environmental record is better by far than any other president over the last forty years, although much of what he attempted to accomplish has been blocked by the Republicans and the corporate interests that fund them. In conservative eras like the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s and 1990s, almost nothing worthwhile happens with…
S. For discerning travelers" by the Travel Channel. (ll labama, 2013, p.1) In addition, the World Fishing Network nominated Orange Beach, which is adjacent to Gulf Shores, the World Fishing Network's Ultimate Fishing Town.
II. Gulf Shores ttractions
Included in the attractions in Gulf Shores is the 'Gulf dventure Center at Gulf State Park'. This features a Hummingbird Zipline consisting of seven towers and six ziplines over the length of one mile. The Zipline provides a great point for "taking in spectacular views of the white sand beaches and crystal clear waters found only at Gulf State Park." (Gulf dventure Center, 2013) The following picture shows the ziplines at night.
Hummingbird Ziplines in Gulf Shores, labama
Source: Gulf dventure Center (2013)
Rather than construct the zipline towers with concrete and steel, the ziplines were constructed out of wooden poles and lumber which is much more eco-friendly and environmentally…
Also featured in Gulf Shores, Alabama are fishing expeditions and kayaking as well as the Alabama Gulf Coast Zoo. These are just a few of the many attractions in Gulf Shores, Alabama.
Wildlife tourism is a big business in Gulf Shores, Alabama and according to one report, wildlife tourism "generates over $19 billion in annual spending." (Stokes and Lowe, 2013, p.5) The total spending in wildlife tourism includes $8 billion spent on
Growing up gazing at the glistening Bosphorus, I never thought once that there was any part of our world untouched by the hands of humans. hen my family took us on vacation, it was always somewhere beautiful: by the sea or in the mountains. The air was fresher over there; and my parents smiled much more than they do when they are home in bustling Istanbul. eekend escapes to the Prince's Islands would satisfy our -- really, their -- longing for escape and solitude. Yet never once did I know that there might be zones devoid of human contact called "wilderness" areas, that were wild, untouched, and untamed. Sure, we read about the Sahara Desert and the Mongolian Steppe; the Australian Outback and Yellowstone National Park. But these places were just places, like any other. Beautiful, wild, and free: call it what you want, we people simply seek solitude…
Cronon, William. "The Trouble with Wilderness." Retrieved online: http://www.williamcronon.net/writing/Trouble_with_Wilderness_Main.html
Williams, Terry Tempest. "A Shark in the Mind of One Contemplating Wilderness." The Nation. 11 Nov 1999. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/shark-mind-one-contemplating-wilderness?page=0,0#
Zwinger, Ann. "A Desert World."
control of wildfires continues despite growing evidence that fire is necessary for good woodland health. Some authorities maintain that wildfires should be allowed to take their course while others argue that fires are dangerous events that need to be controlled in every case. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the literature in support of the proposition that wildfire can co-exist with humans and should be allowed to burn when it ignites "naturally." A discussion concerning whether fires that are accidentally started should that be treated differently is followed by an analysis of whether prescribed fire is worth the expense and smoke? Finally, an evaluation of Smokey the Bear as a good spokesperson for the whole issue of wildfire or whether he is biased is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning wildfire in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
The earth is a fundamentally a planet…
Keiter, Robert B. (2006, Spring). "The Law of Fire: Reshaping Public Land Policy in an Era of Ecology and Litigation." Environmental Law 36(2): 301-304.
"Smokey Bear has a fresh new look." (2014, August 11). CBS News. [online] available: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/smokey-the-bear-turns-70-years-old-gets-makeover/ .
Vandlik, John M. (1995, May-June). "Voting for Smokey Bear: Political Accountability and the New Chief of the Forest Service." Public Administration Review 55(3): 284-288.
Crocodiles are appreciated for their self preservation capacity and for their apex predator position. However, hundreds of people are killed every year as a result of their encounter with the beasts. In order to control the problem, people resorted to having crocodiles removed from human-inhabited areas. In spite of the fact that the situation ameliorated as a result of crocodiles being removed, people are still easy victims for stealthy crocodiles. (Lynne, Kelly.)
The Australian government is determined to put an end to crocodile attacks. Considering the fact that tens of thousands of crocodiles are found on the continent, people believe that it is virtually unavoidable for others to fall victims to crocodiles. (Lynne, Kelly.)
hile it is generally believed that only carnivores can be apex predators, omnivores can also be true killers. Brown bears, for example, have no natural enemy within the ecosystems that they reside in, and,…
1. Lynne, Kelly. Crocodile: evolution's greatest survivor. Allen & Unwin, 2006.
2. Prugh, R. Laura, and Stoner, J. Chantal, and Epps, W. Clinton, and Bean, T. William, and Ripple, J. William, and Laliberte, S. Andrea, and Brashares, S. Justin. "The Rise of the Mesopredator." Bioscience Vol. 59, No. 9.
3. Whyte Macdonald, David Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio. The biology and conservation of wild canids. Oxford University Press, 2004.
4. "Wolf Management Strategies." Wisconsin Departament of Natural Resources. 25 Nov. 2009
They seek pleasure and avoid pain in their assessment of the situation. Therefore, consequentialism is hedonistc and egotism. Using this argument, one could say that utilitarianism is more altruistic than consequentialism. However, utilitarianism is not completely altruistic either. Utilitarianism is neither altruistic nor egotistic. However, it is difficult to call consequentialism altruistic. Some acts might have a hint of altruism, but there are few that consider the consequences of others before direct consequences for ourselves.
Hedonism requires the absence of pain, in most cases. hen one is in pain, either emotional or physical, it is difficult to feel complete happiness. hat is considered pleasure and what is considered pain is up to interpretation. This is an open question to which there are no clear guidelines. Utilitarians are hedonists in that they consider pleasure to be the intrinsic good. They consider pain to be bad. However, this concept can be challenged…
Brink, D. And Copp, D. "Some forms and Limits of Consequentialism." Chapter 14.
A www.ingentaconnect.comThe Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory, December 2005, pp. 357-380.
Hurka, T. And Copp, D. "Value Theory. www.ingentaconnect.comThe Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory, December 2005, pp. 357-380.
Theodore Roosevelt, elected as President of the United States in 1901 and 1904, was one of the most ambiguous characters in American history. His political beliefs and attitudes, both progressive and conservative, influenced and shaped many domestic and international events which took place in the early 1890's and into the opening years of the twentieth century.
In the years prior to Roosevelt's presidency, two of the greatest social/political problems facing America were based on the continuing warfare between the poor and wealthy classes and the expansion of "Manifest Destiny" in foreign lands. Domestically, the country was burdened by a financial panic in the 1890's which complicated the lives of the urban poor and made the wealthy even more prosperous. In the cities, people demanded democratic change in many areas, such as the twelve hour work day, the dangerous conditions in American factories, the exploitation of immigrant laborers, corporate resistance…
American President. Internet. Accessed February 6, 2003.
Ayers Website. Accessed February 5, 2003.
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Water is very important for life. Indeed, the processes of life, both external and internal even, at the cellular and the molecular level, are governed by water. Without water, most living organisms suffer from what is known as water stress.
This water stress can be due to the loss of water or dehydration. Desiccation is a special case of dehydration where drying takes place in air. Alternatively, another form of water stress is due to the excessive accumulation of salts. This is relatedly called osmotic stress. Osmosis seeks to reduce this accumulation by moving fluids across a concentration gradient. While most living beings cannot survive without water, lesser species belonging to the eukarya group -- that includes both bacteria and a more primitive organism archaea show remarkable tolerance to water stress.
Responses to water stress takes place at a supracellular level as well as a cellular…
Bartels, D., & Salamini, F. (2001). Desiccation tolerance in the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. A contribution to the study of drought tolerance at the molecular level. Plant Physiol, 127(4), 1346-1353.
Billi, D., Friedmann, E.I., Hofer, K.G., Caiola, M.G., & Ocampo-Friedmann, R. (2000). Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis. Appl Environ Microbiol, 66(4), 1489-1492.
Breeuwer, P., Lardeau, A., Peterz, M., & Joosten, H.M. (2003). Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii. J Appl Microbiol, 95(5), 967-973.
DiRuggiero, J., Santangelo, N., Nackerdien, Z., Ravel, J., & Robb, F.T. (1997). Repair of extensive ionizing-radiation DNA damage at 95 degrees C. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. J Bacteriol, 179(14), 4643-4645.
This happens as the magma chamber empties and a ring fracture occurs. This collapse often blocks the flow of magma but the heated interior still produces gasses and steam. Often, that steam and other gasses create a lake in the middle of the caldera similar to Crater Lake in Oregon or Glen Coe in Scotland.
8. WHY DO SOME VOLCANOES EXPLODE, WHILE OTHERS EMIT ONLY GASEOUS CLOUDS?
Some volcanoes explode because the magma that is beneath them is physically forced out of the volcano and into the air. Also, some volcanoes have a core or cap that was formed long ago that holds magma back until it can reach a pressure high enough for it to explode outward. Other volcanoes release only gas because there are pockets of gas and ash trapped above the magma chamber, but below the surface of the volcano. This is released instead of magma and…
esearch on extraterrestrial life is trying to find possible life forms in other planets. The article 'Scientists Study Earthly Microbes for Clues about Extraterrestrial Life' informs us how heat-loving microbes which are present in deep-sea volcanic vents bring about new hypotheses, about how life would have started on Earth and thereby allowing certain researchers to be more hopeful that life would prevail in other parts of the galaxy as well.
We all know earth supports life forms as we are all living in it. Earth is one of the planets of the star Sun. However, we do not know whether other planets of Sun also support life forms. These other planets of sun and planets of other stars constitute the extraterrestrial. These research groups conduct experiments in extreme conditions of hot, cold, and acidic environments in laboratories and check any species survives in these conditions. Few evidences suggest that…
Scientists Study Earthly Microbes for Clues about Extraterrestrial Life. Retrieved from http://www.microbe.org/news/extraterrestrial_life.asp Accessed on 3 February 2005
NEPA and SEQA
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was ratified in 1970. It is a federal law that is designed to assess the damage to the environment from various projects. This was in response to decades of neglect to the ecosystem and its effect on the general public. Under the law, any project that is initiated by the federal government must conduct some type of evaluation to determine the impact of its activities on nature. This takes place by having all federal agencies conduct Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Studies prior to implementation. These tools are helping to provide an objective analysis of the proposed project on the ecosystem. It is at this point, that the effects will clear by taking into account a number of perspectives (prior to beginning). What these regulations do is to create a standard that must be utilized…
"National Environmental Policy Act." CEQ, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012.
"State Environmental Quality Review Act." ELR, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
"SEQR." DEC, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
"Village of Pomona v. Town of Ramapo." New York Court of Appeals, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
A petroleum geologist against drilling in the area writes, "For all practical purposes, the refuge is utterly pristine. It also encompasses an area 26 times larger than Yosemite National Park, almost nine times the size of Yellowstone" (Herndon). While few visitors seek out the Refuge, there are several small native villages in and around the area, and these Native Americans rely on the bounty of the Refuge for their continued survival. These Gwich'in people oppose drilling in the ANWR for a number of important reasons. They feel it will permanently damage the tender tundra, which is easily damaged and non-renewable once it has been damaged, and it could affect the Porcupine Elk herd, which migrates through the area, as well. Drilling could disrupt their traditional birthing and nursery grounds, which could cause them to migrate along a different route. Since the Gwich'in people rely on the caribou for sustenance, this…
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
Maintenance is often put on hold until it is desperately needed, rather than a simple preventative measure. I believe Mainella is unknown, and most Americans, who do not understand the scope and depth of the Park Service and what it tries to accomplish, misunderstand her work.
Mainella has a background in Parks and Recreation, and has been recognized by some peer groups for her work. However, I believe that in the future, as she manages the Park Service more effectively, that she will become more well-known and well thought of. The Park System needs renovation, just as many of the parks need renovation. Through new volunteers, additional publicity, and tireless work, the people of the National Parks attempt to reach more visitors every year, and as they do, these visitors take home a unique and often majestic experience. To allow more volunteers to interact with visitors and bring their own…
Therefore, the totalitarian threat does not just replace the first president with Hitler, but also removes any possibility of difference or ambiguity. The multiple, varied, and multifaceted portraits of Washington are replaced entirely by a single, repeated image, because the totalitarian regime must remove any room for interpretation. Furthermore, the importance of the name of Washington himself is demonstrated by the careful attention to the ribbons which once held his name:
And on the ribbon beneath each portrait, there was no longer the name "Washington" either. Whether the ribbon curved downward as on the one-half-cent stamp and the six, or curved upward as on the four, the five, the seven, and the ten, or straight with raised ends as on the one, the one and a half, the two, the three, the eight, and the nine, the name lettered across the ribbon was "Hitler" (Roth 43).
Thus, the family's trip…
ising From the Plains
John Mcphee, a writer of creative nonfiction books, started writing about the earth in 1985. He described the structure and movement of the earth's crust and mantle based on geology. He focused on the theory called plate tectonics which describes the earth's crust as several plates that bump with each other while gliding over the mantle. That theory was accepted only in the latter part of 1960's (decades after this idea was put forward for consideration), based upon geologic beliefs (Quammen, 1998). ising from the Plains is a good book in itself but can be seen as a sequel to his two earlier books namely In Suspect Terrainand Basin and ange. The book revolves around the ocky Mountains' geology and an adjacent terrain in Wyoming, both of which are near Interstate 80. The life story of David Love, a ocky Mountain geologist, and his household was…
Hannibal, J. (n.d.). Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Retrieved from Library Journals LLC: https://www.buffalolib.org/vufind/Record/428564/Reviews
Long-Term Landscape Evolution of the Colorado Front Range and its Foreland. (2016). Retrieved from Colorado University Papers: http://cires1.colorado.edu/science/groups/tucker/documents/info_for_prospective_students_nov10.pdf
Maher, S. (2014). Deep Map Country. University of Nebraska Press.
McPhee, J. (1986). Rising from the Plains. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Preservation and Conservation
Conservation, Preservation & Natural Regulation
Te purpose of tis paper is to define te difference between "conservation" and "preservation" and to researc "natural regulation" and define tat as well and to examine te results of "natural regulation" in terms of animal population, forest fires and any oter results wic may be discovered due to "natural regulation."
Te 'conservationist movement' was born in te decade of te 1960's and grew strong in te 1970's. Tere was a smaller movement of preservationists tat was bot ally and enemy to te conservationists in teir pursuits. Te survival is eac plant and animal in te ecosystem, or teir demise as a species if by te process of natural selection is only accomplised troug maintaining biodiversity in te ecological system of te eart. Biodiversity as been described as te "structural and functional variety of life forms at genetic, species, population,…
Covering of the Tree Tops
This paper to be used for reference purposes only
Ethics in Organizational Culture
The National Park Service (NPS) is a government agency that was established in the early 20th century and based upon the ideas and plans of the 19th century frontier and public leaders to conserve the parks and lands that were full of beautiful wonders like Yellowstone (Kurtz, 2003). The organizational culture that emerged out of the ambitious and "can-do" mentality of the early founders of the NPS promoted a cultural sense of pride that was not always linked to ability, as the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the NPS's response to it showed. While the NPS's mandate from the government is to preserve and maintain the ecological environments entrusted to its oversight, it was not the best organization prepared to handle the oil spill that spread to devastate numerous parks and national treasures of the U.S. (Kurtz, 2003). By refusing to communicate with the Incident Command…
Bradley, J. How to apply the Cooper's ethical decision model. Chron. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/apply-coopers-ethical-decision-model-76952.html
Kurtz, R. S. (2003). Organizational culture, decision-making, and integrity: The National
Park Service and the Exxon Valdez. Public Integrity, 5(4), 305-317
Samaan, J., Verneuil, L. (2009). Civil-Military Relations in Hurricane Katrina: A Case Study on Crisis Management in Natural Disaster Response. Berlin: Global
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
Jack Turner's "The Abstract Wild"
Jack Turner, who authored The Abstract Wild, is a widely traveled individual whose purpose in writing is not to indulge into issuing judgemental opinion regarding environmental issues or theoretical whining. Throughout the book the author introduces complex arguments that discuss a vast range of wilderness related issues and ultimately defends the wild in all of its forms.
This book comprises of eight provocatively written essays, which share a common theme. The author primarily indulges into explaining why conservation efforts have instead of leading towards preservation of the environment have led to the very contrary. Briefly the subject of the essays is the ways in which wildness has been interceded, micromanaged and in effect taken nearly out of subsistence.
In the book the author brings the reader to think how wild actually wilderness is and how wild are the reader's related experiences. Jack Turner then himself…
However, the book should not be out rightly criticized since it has thrown light on many aspects, which had earlier been left unexplored. Moreover in Jack Turners work the views of many other American authors has been echoed which gives the approach a more researched backing and credibility.
Turner, Jack. The Abstract Wild. University of Arizona Press. October 1996.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Roosevelt became a boxer, he lifted weights and climbed mountains (he ascended the Matterhorn at the age of 22). His famous charge up Kettle Hill (Battle of San Juan Heights, Rough Riders) during the Spanish-American ar set him apart as an athletically gifted soldier with courage and heart.
And along with his workouts and activism, he "began to collect animal specimens, including fireflies and squirrels"; he filled notebooks with "drawings and life histories of animals and insects"; he read Darwin and Huxley; and, Dalton continues, he loved camping and became an "experienced outdoorsman."
hen the "strain of the job" of president "weighed on him," Dalton explained, "he stepped outside to watch the spring birds migrating"; he "identified the blackpoll warblers perched in the elms outside the Oval Office," and kept notes on his various bird sightings. In the spring of 1903, the president went est "to dramatize his commitment to…
Benedetto, Richard. 2006. No rest for the president. USA Today, 3 August 2006.
Cavendish, Richard. 2001. Assassination of President McKinley. History Today 51 (September).
Dalton, Kathleen. 2006. The Self-Made Man: He was a sickly child. But through sheer will,
Muscular effort - and a lot of time in the great outdoors - he became a powerful, passionate
The study revealed that pollution in the are run off water was measurably reduced after running through the ecosystem. Ron Turco, a soil microbiologist and senior researcher of the project had this to say, "Golf courses are a perfect place for constructed wetlands used as part of a water management system, because wetlands can filter chemicals out of surface water, and they can also store excess water during storms," ("Cleaning ater and Controlling Flooding with etlands" 53) So there may be some hope on the back nine for some wetlands after all. But all kidding aside, this is the type of project, smaller and more immediate, that needs to be funded along with the philosophy of co-habitation of wetlands and human beings kept in mind. This kind of thinking helps to counter the "manifest destiny" concept that the American culture has in regarding land and their possession of it. It…
Blumenauer, Earl. "Water Vision 2001." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 16.1 (2001): 82.
Cleaning Water and Controlling Flooding with Wetlands." Journal of Environmental Health 68.1 (2005): 53.
Gale, Thomas. "Wetlands." Gale Encyclopedia of Science. 2001:
Grant, Dave. "Disappearing Wetlands." Underwater Naturalist 26.4 (April 2004): p11
Ergonomics or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of relations among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human comfort and overall system performance. Ergonomists add to the design and assessment of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them attuned with the needs, abilities and limitations of people (Helander, 2006).
"Ergonomics is defined as the design of the workplace, equipment, machine, tool, product, environment, and system, taking into consideration the human's physical, physiological, biomechanical, and psychological capabilities, an optimizing the effectiveness and productivity of work systems while assuring the safety, health, and well-being of the workers" (Fernandez, 1995). In general, the aim in ergonomics is to fit the task to the individual person, not the individual person to the task.
Low back injuries, often due to…
Helander, M. (2006). A Guide to Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2ed. Boca Raton, FL:
Taylor & Francis Group
HHE Report No. HETA-92-0073-2337, United States Postal Service, General Mail Facility,
Denver, Colorado. (1993). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/1992-0073-2337.pdf
socal and cultural mpacts of establshng an eco-Toursm enterprse n Joao Pessoa, Brazl. The man focus of the dssertaton s on the followng areas:
An analyss of eco-toursm development
An assessment of the opportuntes - regonal, domestc, nternatonal
An evaluaton of the projects feasblty
An examnaton of the socal-cultural mpact of the eco-toursm
Brazl has a sanctuary of the fnest natural resources ("fauna & flora") n the world, and therefore toursm s n ascendence, and demands for md-class hotels are on the ncrease. The development of eco-toursm n specfc areas s antcpated due to partnershp wth local bankng ntutons; local government nterest and regulatons; and a general growth of awareness of the tenson between the tourst dollar, the envronment and local cultures.
Prmary research (ntervews and questonnares) wll be conducted to analyze the feasblty of the project. Secondary research wll be carred out, n the form of a…
i) Adventurers set out to discover other lands (e.g., Captain Cook) ii) People traveled for scientific research (e.g., Darwin) iii) People traveled for business (trade) iv) People traveled in order to visit friends and family (social), v) People traveled for leisure (relaxation) vi) People travel as Eco-Travelers (learners).
The development of tourism has influenced people and society, and has created thousands of organizations, at many levels: national and international, governmental or non- governmental. Tourism has thus led to the creation of million of jobs worldwide, in what is today is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism has led people to confront different attitudes and to admire eclectic cultures. In addition, to be able to understand these cultures, society at large has had to adapt to the pluralism of cultures by learning languages other than their own, different types of gastronomy and music, and also by adopting a greater tolerance of different religions.
Accordingly to Kaluf (2001), the development of tourism has been worldwide, and has been sustaining a growth of 20% over last five years: 5% in mass tourism and an incredible 15% in
Conservationism vs. Development
Land is a serious subject for the private and public sectors, both of which vie against one another for its control. All over the states, partisans exist who are either pro-conservationism or pro-development. Typically these partisans can be divided into two camps: the pro-business camp which supports development and the conservationists/environmentalists who resist development and promote land preservation. There is no easy resolution for the two disagreeing sides on how to approach the issue; either the land must be protected or it must be developed. However, a solution is possible -- and in many cases it is not just one solution but a number of solutions that work together to effect a compromise. In short, it is up to the public sector to establish rules and regulations stating exactly where the private and public sectors start and stop regarding land usage.
Santos, Watt and Pinceti (2014) show…
Eilperrin, J. (2009). Obama signs major land conservation law. Washington Post.
Retrieved from http://voices.washingtonpost.com/44/2009/03/30/obama_signs_major_land_conserv.html
Santos, M., Watt, T., Pinceti, S. (2014). The push and pull of land use policy:
Reconstructing 150 years of development and conservation land acquisition. PLOS One, 9(7): 1-9.
return of the Gray Wolf. The writer details the history of the species including their near extinction. The writer then discusses the comeback efforts that have been employed and their success levels. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Earth Watch, The eturn of the Gray Wolf
For many decades the plight of the Gray Wolf was underplayed through the public's misunderstanding. The Gray Wolf brought to mind flickering movie screens in which gray wolves would howl at the moon and attack prey after dark. The image conjured up a strong and virile species that was destined to live forever in the wild for the public to fear and admire at the same time. The truth is the Gray Wolf was slowly dying off and was eventually threatened with extinction. The Gray Wolf was not a species that elicited warm fuzzy feelings nor did people think they should…
Author not available (1999). DEFENDERS OF WILDLIFE RELEASES FIRST COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL WOLF STRATEGY. U.S. Newswire, 12-17-1999.
Hebert, Josef. H.(2000). Gray Wolf Makes Remarkable Recovery. AP Online, 07-11-2000.
Uhlenbrock; Tom (1998).Of The Post-Dispatch, GRAY WOLF SHOT BY CAMPER IN ARIZONA IS SETBACK FOR A ST. LOUIS WILDLIFE GROUP MALE WAS REINTRODUCED INTO WILD., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 05-01-1998, pp B4.