45+ documents containing “yellowstone national park”.
After instituting a controlled burn, forest managers can determine what areas are ripe for vegetation and which are not. Because this article contains one of the many effects of burning, its inclusion in the cannon of literature is important.
Houston, Douglas B. (1971). Ecosystems of National Parks. Science. 127 (3984), 648-
Though Douglas B. Houston's article is older than some, its topic is one that does not necessarily require a modern time stamp. Additionally, this article that discusses national park maintenance was written before the great fire in Yellowstone National Park. For those writing about controlled burning, this gives a unique example of the opinions of maintenance and the ecosystem before the fire, which allows the researcher to make comparisons between the pre and post-fire opinion. Other relevant information in the article is a detailed discussion of the parks' ecosystems, and a conclusion that the destructive activities of humans are especially….
In this article, the authors discuss changes in landscape patterns, and how these changes affect natural features including "wildlife abundance, nutrient flow, and lake productivity" (664). Though this may not seem relevant to controlled burning at first, landscape patterns are intrinsically important to the ecosystem of any national park. Landscape patterns also have a direct impact on plant diversity and what kinds of plants thrive in certain areas. This article will be an important research for those who believe it is important to discuss planting and planning after the controlled or prescribed burn. Additionally, the article describes prescribed burning and some of its effects, including effects on nutrition and plant and animal life. Finally, the article is easy to read and chalk full of facts, numbers, and information about the park. As a reference, therefore, it is useful if only for fact-finding purposes.
Turner, Monica G., Romme, William H., and Tinker, Daniel B. (2003). Surprises and Lessons from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 1(7), 351-358.
For ecologists, naturalists, park personnel, and those living in Wyoming, the 1988 Yellowstone Fires were a monumental experience. When discussing prescribed burning, therefore, scholars continue to return to the fires for inspiration and research purposes. Written by at least two of the leading experts on controlled burning and the Yellowstone Fires, this article discusses the surprises levied by the 1988 Yellowstone Fires. These were mainly positive surprises, such as plant life growing rapidly, and the fact that human restoration in the area was not necessary. By studying the wealth of information available about the fires that was discussed in the last fifteen years, the scholars are applying the information they discovered due to the 1988 fires to prescribed burning and forest fires in other areas. Because this article is written by experts in the field and addresses the real-life effects of prescribed burning, this article is an excellent addition to the collection of research about controlled burns in Yellowstone National Park.
...This whole country is dry...If you don't have to burn it, don't burn it" said the fire marshal from the area (Shay & Johnson 2008). Fire damage at Yellowstone such as the damage that occurred in 1988 and 2008 has come at a tremendous cost: "Since 1984, the annual average number of fires that burn 1,000 acres or more has increased from 25 to 80...and the total average number of acres burned by each of these fires has increased from 164,000 to 765,000. Naturally, the costs of controlling such fires also have escalated exponentially -- from $134 million in 1986 to $335 million in 1994 -- which does not include the higher costs of preparedness, not to mention health consequences, environmental impact and property damage" (Paige 1998). Fire is not only damaging to life and property but also to water quality and air quality, which can hurt the wildlife the….
Albright, Del. (May 2008) "Controlled fire." Retrieved June 4, 2008 http://www.delalbright.com/Articles/fire.htm
Cullen, Barry. (24 Sept 2008). "No, don't let Yellowstone burn." The New York Times. Retrieved June 4, 2008 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE1D81F3EF936A1575AC0A96E948260
Shay, Becky & Clair Johnson. (19 Apr 2008). "Winds take control of controlled burn."
Helenair.com. Retrieved June 4, 2008 http://www.helenair.com/articles/2008/04/19/state/top/50st_080419_bil-fire.txt
Aristotle and the Cynics Conspire to get Snowmobiles out of Yellowstone National Park
In the scenario whereby individuals are rampaging across the wilds of Yellowstone National Park, willy-nilly upon snowmobiles, the great Greek philosopher Aristotle (presumably after overcoming his initial surprise at the existence of such a mechanized craft) would remind the snowmobile's users of Book VIII, Chapter 3, of his Ethics. A means of use of the park that is amicable and amenable to all, rather than to one subspecies of user, the snowmobiler, would be most desirable.
In this treatise upon Ethics, Aristotle defines relationships between human beings on the basis of friendships into of good people, friendships based on utility and friendships based on shared pleasures of company. Ethics, for Aristotle, is grounded in a need in human nature, that is, the essence of living human beings to require a just, virtuous, and happy way of life. The aim….
Yosemite National Forest
In East Central California, Yosemite National Park spans the eastern portions of Tuolumne, Mariposa, and Madera County. Approximately 3.7 million tourists have come to love and visit the park on an annual basis, spending time on a seven square mile sector of the 760,000 acre park. Yosemite is known for the enormous rocks dating as far back as ten million years in age, with one particular known site: The half dome, where hikers may climb the treacherous rock (Yosemite National Park, 2011). With such a large amount of tourists, the park calls for a well developed management team.
Yosemite Tourism and Ownership Establishment
Yosemite was officially discovered in 1855 by James Mason Hutchings, Thomas Ayers, and other tourists to the area. The two were among the first to create publicity for the area, making artwork and articles about the wildlife and experiences, and sending them to the more established….
hat are the pros and cons of controlled burning in Yellowstone?
The pros and cons of controlled burning in Yellowstone National Park have the same consequences -- uncontrollable fire. The pros of controlled burning are twofold. First, studies have proven the positive effects of controlled burning with regards to fire management. As previously stated, controlled burns remove debris from the forest floor that can be considered fodder for larger fires. In addition, controlled and natural burning allow fires to ecologically impact the park. In recent decades, a variety of research has been completed concerning the benefits of the burns on ecology, and controlled burning is proven to, in most cases, allow for positive change within the ecosystem.
Part II Recommendation Analysis
Based on the above information, fires in Yellowstone National Park, whether controlled or otherwise, are an issue of grave importance to park personnel. In order to appropriately deal with the issue, Yellowstone….
National Park Service. "Evolution of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy." The National Park Service. 2001 January. 17 June 2008. http://www.nifc.gov/fire_policy/docs/chp1.pdf .
National Park service. "Wildland Fire in Yellowstone." The National Park Service. 28
June 2007. 11 June 2008. http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/wildlandfire.htm .
The Gray Wolf, which is also sometimes referred to as the tundra or timber wolf, belongs to the canidae species-also known as the dog family. Among its kind it is the largest member and can weigh up to 100 pounds. The gray wolf typically originates from areas in North America, Europe and North Africa. Although these wolves are called gray wolves, they are not necessarily gray in colour. They can range from being black to white or anywhere in between. Colour depends on the age of the wolf and also the area from where the wolf belongs. These wolves have an average life span of 12 to 20 years.
Gray wolves live in the open forests and before they occupied European areas they were commonly found in areas of North America. These wolves travel in packs and the number of individuals in the packs may go up to 12. Pack….
Bangs, E. (2012). The reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone national park and central Idaho; final environmental impact statement.
Ewing, C. (2012). Gray wolves and the endangered species act. Nova Science Pub Inc.
Lopez, B. (2004). Of wolves and men. Scribner Mech, D. (2007). Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation. University Of Chicago Press.
V, A. (2009). Recovery of gray wolves in the great lakes region of the United States: An endangered species success story.
He also mentions how the lack of fire has affected whitebark pine, a species that supports a variety of high mountain flora and fauna, and attributes this to the fact that there is not sufficient fire to eradicate competing species.
H.E. cLean, writing in 1995 in American Forests, covers a handful of relevant topics. These include stating that there is an inherent risk in using prescribed fires because they are subject to the unpredictable forces of nature, but that this risk is acceptable. He discusses the need for prescribed burns in Alaska, due to the state's climate and corresponding slow decomposition rate. In addition, he outlines briefly the role of prescribed burns in Sequoia NP, Yosemite NP, and Stanislaus NF.
Further examples of controlled burning programs and a recap of the issues discussed above are found in other sources. The article "Wildland Fire in Yellowstone" discusses issues pertaining to that park;….
McLean, H.E. (1995) Fighting fire with fire. American Forests. Retrieved on June 15, 2008 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-17099755.html
No author. (2007) Wildland Fire in Yellowstone. National Park Service Retrieved June 11, 2008 at http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/wildlandfire.htm
Havnes, M.T. (2004) Officials set Largest-Ever Planned Burn in Zion National Park in Utah. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved on June 14, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5553/is_200409/ai_n22242861
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount of funding….
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The process sparked off battles between stakeholders in the state. In 1966 when the idea was introduced to congress, the main concern was the critically high elk population in the region and this was because of the eradication of the wolves by the residents. For decades, the elk population grew tremendously because there were no predators in Yellow Park causing ecosystem instability. Soon after, other species disappeared such as the aspen because of the huge population of elks. The coyotes could not manage the large ungulate population; moreover, the large coyote population diminished the red fox. The government struggled with the wolf issue from the 1974 when a wolf recovery team was established. The general public has been engulfed in the wolf….
ABC News. "Court Rules Yellowstone Wolves Can Stay." ABC News, January 14, 2000.
Cockerham, Sean. "Idaho Gov. Otter to feds: Pony up more cash for wolves." www.idahostatesman.com. March 8, 2012. http://www.idahostatesman.com/2012/03/08/2026038/otter-to-feds-pony-up-more-cash.html (accessed April 7, 2012).
Duffield, J. "An economic analysis of wolf recovery in Yellowstone: Park visitor attitudes and values." Report for Yellowstone National Park, 1992.
Duffield, John, Chris Neher, and David Patterson. "Wolf Recovery in Yellowstone: Park Visitor
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They also cite history that shows wolves are quite difficult to dissuade from attacking vulnerable livestock, and that many ranchers and farmers saw eliminating the wolf as the only real way to protect their stock and their families. Writers Smith and Phillips continue,
Although several methods have been developed to minimize or prevent depredations, few have proven successful. Guard dogs have been used widely, but with marginal results. Generally one guard dog is not sufficient, as several dogs seem necessary to deter a wolf attack. Another approach requires farmers and ranchers to intensify husbandry of livestock (e.g., confine sheep to structures overnight, develop calving areas near ranch headquarters, or monitor open range stock daily). Ultimately, killing the wolf or wolves responsible for the….
Donnelly, K.J. (1999, January). Canine in the wild. World and I, 14, 180.
Editors. (2005). Gray wolf. Retrieved from the National Wildlife Federation Web site: http://www.nwf.org/wildlife/graywolf / 26 Aug. 2005.
Jones, K. (2002, March). Fighting outlaws, returning wolves: Karen Jones examines the significance of the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park. History Today, 52, 38+.
Li, J. (2000). The wolves may have won the battle, but not the war: How the west was won under the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf recovery plan. Environmental Law, 30(3), 677.
Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it seemed, the more of a synergistic effect upon their funding and use (Jensen and Guthrie, 2006).
By the Johnson Administration in the 1960s, coupled with more media attention, there was increased public awareness of America's natural treasures. This was now that "Parks for People" Campaign. During this period there was also a fairly significant new awareness about ecology and the natural environment. The mission of the National Parks Service was called into question. eacting to this, Congress passed the General Authorities Acts of 1970, which became known as the "edwood Amendment," since a large part of the Act was devoted to conserving edwood National Park. Based on political pressure from citizens, Congress was also forced to provide a rather significant funding increase….
The National Park Service. (2002, March). Retrieved October 2010, from U.S. History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1605.html
National Park Services Almanac. (2008). Washington, DC: National Parks Service, GPO.
Blackburn, S. (2007). Plato's Republic. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Brown and Pozner. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Develpment, 68(2), 274-80.
Given these condition, wolf population will recover rapidly4.
Part 2: The management of the wolves from the information given it the congressional hearing. Congress decided that the U.. Fish and Wildlife ervice (ervice) will reintroduce the gray wolf (Canis lupus), that is currently considered an endangered species, into Yellowstone National Park, which is located in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.
Congress also decided to follow Alternative One namely that the wolves would be classified as experimental wolves according to section 10(j) of the Endangered pecies Act of 1973 (Act).
Congress chose to do this since they adjudged the gray wolf populations to be expunged from most of the Western United tates and that only a small population of the gray wolves remain in the extreme northwestern Montana, and in part of Idaho, Wyoming, and Washington where migrating wolves from Montana and Canada accidentally settled.
The objective of the reintroduction idea is to reestablish a….
Department of the Interior, part VII
Fish and Wildlife Service: 50 CFR Part 17; RIN 1018-AC86 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-1994-11-22/html/94-28746.htm
Final. Env. Impact statement. The reintroduction of greywolves to Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho
Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this biologically vital corridor may include birds (like the ring-necked pheasant, grouse, geese, falcons, great blue herons, hummingbirds and warblers), small mammals (such as longtail weasel and striped skunk), reptiles (garter snake and the western painted turtle), and amphibians (red-legged frog and the Pacific giant salamander). The flora and fauna often include many threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, among which could be the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and kit fox (The Columbia iver Basin watershed and its ecosystems 2005).
The plant life along the river can also has an effect on the health of the species living in the river by maintaining the health of the river by influencing the amount and kind of sediment in the river. The vegetation along the side….
Columbia River (2005). Center for Columbia River History. Retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.ccrh.org/river/history.htm.
The Columbia River Basin watershed and its ecosystems (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/crb.html .
How a hydroelectric project can affect a river (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html .
Human history in the Tetons (2001). Grand Teton History, retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.americanparknetwork.com/parkinfo/gt/history/ .
We have never prescribed a "let-it-blow policy for tornadoes and hurricanes, a "let-it-erupt" policy for volcanoes or a "let-it-grind" policy for glaciers. Why, then, did we need a "let-it-burn" policy for fires, or surrogate strategies like prescribed fire? Humans and fire have an inseparable history." (p.5) Agee states that the classical view of the succession of plants "...persisted much of the 20th century: the Clementsian view of regional convergence towards a vegetation life-form created by autogenic succession in the presence of stable climate." (p.6)
Agee relates that the primary obstacle to conducting an "appropriate economic analysis of fire in wilderness as understanding "the natural state" was defined by Mills in 1985 who held that the objective of wilderness policy then would be to "allow resource change to be viewed as cost or benefit." (p. 14) Agee reports that in 1983 the Wilderness Fire workshop was held in Missoula in which….
Aplet, Gregory H. (2006) Evolution of Wilderness Fire Policy. International Journal of Wilderness APRIL 2006 • VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1-9.
Agee, J.K. (2000) Wilderness Fire Science: A State-of-Knowledge Review. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. 2000.
Leong, J.C. (nd) Evolution of Fire Science. Online available at: http://22.214.171.124/mainpages/teacher/J_C_Leong/updata/lab/syllbi/fires/Lesson%20a1%20-The%20Evolution%20of%20Fire%20Science.pdf
Additionally, the exact boundaries of the park must be clearly understood and marked, so that no citizens accidentally enter into the park lands and slaughter the Bison while they are protected by the federal government. At the same time, there needs to be some leeway so that the citizens in need can still take the vital source of meat and protein when in need, especially in the winter.
The current policy required NPS officials to try to corral Bison that left the park before they got to private lands. Yet, there is a major problem here because Bison are naturally migratory. Thus this plan is not the most appropriate because the Bison are always going to leave the park at some point in time. Thus, there are a number of policy alternatives here. First and foremost, the park officials can work with the federal government to persuade Montana to adopt….
Transportation - Environmental Issues
After instituting a controlled burn, forest managers can determine what areas are ripe for vegetation and which are not. Because this article contains one of the many effects…Read Full Paper ❯
...This whole country is dry...If you don't have to burn it, don't burn it" said the fire marshal from the area (Shay & Johnson 2008). Fire damage at Yellowstone…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Yellowstone Aristotle and the Cynics Conspire to get Snowmobiles out of Yellowstone National Park In the scenario whereby individuals are rampaging across the wilds of Yellowstone National Park, willy-nilly upon snowmobiles,…Read Full Paper ❯
Yosemite National Forest Yosemite History In East Central California, Yosemite National Park spans the eastern portions of Tuolumne, Mariposa, and Madera County. Approximately 3.7 million tourists have come to love and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
hat are the pros and cons of controlled burning in Yellowstone? The pros and cons of controlled burning in Yellowstone National Park have the same consequences -- uncontrollable fire. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Gray Wolves The Gray Wolf, which is also sometimes referred to as the tundra or timber wolf, belongs to the canidae species-also known as the dog family. Among its kind…Read Full Paper ❯
He also mentions how the lack of fire has affected whitebark pine, a species that supports a variety of high mountain flora and fauna, and attributes this to…Read Full Paper ❯
Environmental Ethics US Government and Environmental Ethics The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through…Read Full Paper ❯
Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Because ranchers have long distrusted wolves, most ranchers in the surrounding area saw the wolves as a threat to their livestock and their very way of life. They…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it…Read Full Paper ❯
Given these condition, wolf population will recover rapidly4. Part 2: The management of the wolves from the information given it the congressional hearing. Congress decided that the U.. Fish…Read Full Paper ❯
Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this…Read Full Paper ❯
We have never prescribed a "let-it-blow policy for tornadoes and hurricanes, a "let-it-erupt" policy for volcanoes or a "let-it-grind" policy for glaciers. Why, then, did we need a…Read Full Paper ❯
Additionally, the exact boundaries of the park must be clearly understood and marked, so that no citizens accidentally enter into the park lands and slaughter the Bison while…Read Full Paper ❯