Young Goodman Brown: Faith -- the Wife
In the Young Goodman Brown, the two important characters are the protagonist, Brown and his wife Faith. While Faith, the wife, has a small role to play yet her significance increases as we closely study her symbolic use in the story. The story revolves around a man's journey into the heart of darkness to discover the strength of his own faith. He considers himself a moral being but on this one occasion, he realizes that faith is but a weak power which can easily be suppressed by evil forces. Faith acts as a force that continuously tries to stop Brown from committing sin. The author aptly named his wife Faith because throughout the story, she acts as the force that stands opposed to evil. And references to Faith also depict the various stages and forms of Brown's faith at different points in the…… [Read More]
Young Goodman Brown
In the story "Young Goodman Brown," much of the story is centered on Goodman Brown and his struggle to use his faith to suppress his evil impulses and his internal doubts. This struggle is undoubtedly a representation of some of the same struggles that Nathaniel Hawthorne must have faced within his own life in which he embraced the Puritan way of life and its beliefs. Given Hawthorne's background in the Puritan way of life, the story is filled with clear demonstrations of the author having an intimate knowledge of Puritanism as the main character deals with his own struggles of good and evil.
Goodman Brown believes that he is of good character and is from a family of good men. The devil directly challenges Brown's self-perception however and claims that his family members were among those who committed acts such as burning witches or destroying Indian villages.…… [Read More]
Therefore in the remarkably persistent debate over whether Young Goodman Brown lost faith in human redemption or not, which critics have apparently quarreled over for a century and a half now, this reading takes the side that Brown did in fact retain some core belief that human redemption was possible, or else he would not have been alienated, tried to save the girl or had a family. The resulting message of the allegory becomes that if the reader wants to go to heaven, this will require difficult and deliberate separation from the human community, but may result in achieving the ultimate goal of salvation. Otherwise there is no reason for that costly sacrifice and the reader should just accept personal damnation and join the general mass of well-adjusted hypocrites, if indeed the reference to Salem and the religious leaders and their alleged crimes past and present generalize as many authors…… [Read More]
As soon as that objective was achieved the whole theatrics was withdrawn. On the contrary it could well be nothing but his subconscious that expressed his own desire to see the world according to that perspective in which all the nice people embracing high standards of morality are all but faux. But it could be safe to assume that the whole episode in the forest was the figment of his imagination and his brain concocted everything during the sleep. Towards the end of the story we see that this event had profound effect on his later life and he was never able to recover out of the mental trauma he faced there in the forest that night. He spent the life of skeptic could never trust anyone in his life and because of his dysfunctional behavior he passed away unnoticed "... For his dying hour was gloom" (Hawthorne)
The writer…… [Read More]
Doubts enter Brown's mind on page 15, as he looks "up at the sky" (which of course is pitch black in the deep forest at night) and doubts whether there is a heaven. But he cries out that he will "stand firm" - so readers know he still hopes to be strong and resist what is happening to him. But this night is not about resistance: "The cry of grief, rage, and terror" went out from him as he believes his lovely wife's pink ribbon indicates that the Devil has taken her. "Come devil; for to thee is this world given."
The story - like Goodman Brown's heart and conscience - is filled with opposites and contrasts; Brown is "maddened with despair" yet he "laughed loud and long"; there is a scream, then laughter; the night is black, yet a pink ribbon flutters down out of the darkness. There…… [Read More]
Goodman's internal conflict was brought about by his realization that he was vulnerable and can easily succumb to the temptations of the devil. Being in the wilderness did not help Goodman prevent this conflict from happening within him, since the wilderness was obviously not a part of society but of nature, therefore, the wilderness only follows the laws of nature and not the laws of humanity. The wilderness acted as the agent that opened Goodman's mind to the true feelings hidden within his heart -- that Goodman is not the faithful individual known in his community, but is actually the person who questions whether he is indeed faithful to God.
Reading "Young" for the first time, the utilization of nature as both a theme and a symbol of Goodman's loss of faith would be the main elements that could be found in the story. A deeper analysis of the story,…… [Read More]
Young Goodman Brown - Ambiguities
While in actuality, this short story is an accurate historical reference to Hawthorne's Puritan ancestry and his great grandfathers' participation in the Salem witch trials, through the character of Brown, Hawthorne reveals his own journey of discovery, and its troubling impact upon him. Hawthorne uses the theme of darkness to cast light upon the even darker truth, and shows how the impact of discovering the truth can alter one's life forever.
Although in allegory Young Goodman Brown is married to his Faith, and although it is his Faith that warns him not to undertake his journey of discovery, he takes the journey regardless of warning and travels into the dark past as represented by thick woods where anything might be lurking. There, upon discovering the past, he brings it to light.
He finds that under the cover of darkness, those who are thought to be…… [Read More]
Young Goodman Imagines Himself an Excessively adman
Young Goodman rown will become a bitter and hopeless man, "A stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a distrustful, if not a desperate man," whose "dying hour was gloom," and who cannot even smile and be joyful with his own wife and children. This perpetual foul mood is attributed in the story to the ill effects of his "fearful dream." Indeed, at the story's beginning he does seem far more light-hearted than he will become. However, one might suggest that the seeds of his distrustful and stern nature are planted far earlier and that even from the beginning he is falling into such a mindset, for Young Goodman rown has an excessive (one might even say gothic) perception of nature and evil which from the beginning inclines him to think the worst of the natural world around him and to fault people more…… [Read More]
Although Lomax does admit his actions do influence his condition, Satan does still lure him more covertly.
These two stories are, however, incredibly similar. In both cases, Satan poses as a man in order to lure the two characters into forgetting their faith and joining him in sin. Both Brown and Lomax have young brides who, despite their original virtue and faith, eventually help lead their husbands into Satan's arms. Faith, Brown's wife, is seen in the forest partaking in the satanic rituals; he then looses all his trust in humanity, and looses his faith in both senses. Despite Mary Ann's original purity is proven through her suicide, at the very end she does influence her husband Lomax to let sin into his heart. When greed fails, Satan finds that vanity may be a better road to lead Lomax down, partly through his wife's weakness for fame. Both Brown and…… [Read More]
Young Goodman Brown," Nathaniel Hawthorne suggests that a young man's nightmare about his wife being sucked into a witch's cult sours him on his wife as well as their larger community, and causes him to live out his life as a bitter and suspicious man. However, other points in the story argue against the events being a dream. Near the end of the story, Nathaniel writes,
Had Goodman Brown fallen asleep in the forest, and only dreamed a wild dream of a witch-meeting? Be it so, if you will. But, alas! It was a dream of evil omen for young Goodman Brown. A stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a distrustful, if not a desperate man, did he become, from the night of that fearful dream."
However, by considering the rest of the story, it seems unlikely that Goodman saw the events in a dream. If they were real events,…… [Read More]
Brown sees the initiation of a new "soul" into the devil's dark group, and this symbolizes the disintegration of Brown's own soul. He may not have "danced with the devil" in the forest, but the devil has still corrupted his soul. Another critic notes, "The devil, in the form of doubt and duplicitous thoughts, has done his work within the heart and soul of Goodman Brown, even if the physical details of the story are merely a reverie. Hawthorne removes the mask of piety from his characters to show that the real devil is the one lurking within each individual" (Maus 76). Indeed, Brown allows the devil to take over his life and ruin it just as effectively as if he had signed over his soul and received something in return. Hawthorne writes, "A stern, a sad, a darkly meditative, a distrustful, if not a desperate man, did he become,…… [Read More]
If this is true, then that would mean Brown is the grandson of the devil himself, and he would not be afraid or angry at the devil, he would embrace him. Of course, since Brown turns into such an unhappy and strange old man, it could be said that he did indeed fulfill the prophecy, and he was the devil, while those around him were not. One literary critic puts it a little bit differently. He writes, "Young Goodman Brown experiences in the Salem woods his other self, his inner demon" (Moores). Another critic agrees, and writes, "Hawthorne removes the mask of piety from his characters to show that the real devil is the one lurking within each individual" (Maus 76). Young Goodman Brown becomes then, what he is most afraid of, and that is the true sadness of the story, and it seems like that is the real message…… [Read More]
Like the Devil, the mysterious stranger does not appear to be evil initially. Similarly, at the destination of the walk through the trail, Goodman encounters a flaming alter that is also reminiscent of biblical stories. In his dream, the flaming alter probably represents a complete indoctrination into evil ways.
The most important conflict in the story is represented by Goodman's decision about whether or not to forsake all that is good and his Faith (and faith) for what he knows is evil. The fact that he takes hold of a staff (although not the one that he witnessed transform into a serpent) suggests that Goodman was very close to embracing evil.
The man offers Goodman Brown the staff, saying that it might help him walk faster, but Goodman Brown refuses. He says that he showed up for their meeting because he promised to do so but does not…… [Read More]
Young Goodman Brown
Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown" is a strange and unsettling story of a young man who travels through a wood overnight and allows his experience to change him forever. There are many themes in this short story, including the age-old theme of good and evil, but a close reading of the work can make the reader thing Brown's journey is a symbolic acting out of his own sinful nature and his secret inclination toward evil, and many critics feel that way too. Brown very well could have dreamed the entire sequence in the woods, because there is a fantasy and dreamlike quality to it, but under it all was his own guilt at the evil that dwelt inside him.
Young Goodman Brown is not an inherently evil character, but each person has some evil or hatred that lives within him or her. Many never allow it to…… [Read More]
Young Goodman Brown
The short story by Nathaniel Hawthorne has been a saga of great interest to scholars, students, writers and ordinary readers, over the many years since it was published. The story stands out as classic example of Hawthorne's talent at his craft, and the characters, the setting and the theme are extraordinarily interesting from many perspectives, and Hawthorne wrote it in such a way that it becomes a ghoulish nightmare, a devilish trek into the past. The ironies are powerful and obvious, and they contribute significantly to the themes. For this paper the focus will indeed be the theme and setting, how those elements contribute to the story, and why critics have explained the theme and setting in so many radically different ways.
The Story by Nathaniel Hawthorne
Hawthorne set this short story in Salem, a place that is notorious for weirdness, darkness, hangings, paranoia about witches, and…… [Read More]
Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown (1835) and The Scarlet Letter. It is rather fascinating that the two readings have a number of similarities even though the plots of both stories are rather different. The Young Goodman Brown is all about an inexplicable and mystifying course that is occupied by witches and immoral conduct in the suburbs of a Puritan Village (Moores). Hawthorne has been able to captivate the reader by drawing a fine line between the good and the wicked. At the same time, he has allowed blossoming of creativity by making the reader wonder what truly the heroine of the story wants. These are among the various reasons why Young Goodman Brown is considered as one of the greatest short stories in the American literature. The reader goes through the pages thinking that the work is a parable that focuses on the temptations faced by every human being and…… [Read More]
She does not feel joy or happy. She does not have any hopes about her life. She chooses Hulga as her new name because she believes that is a very ugly name, and fit for her ugly physical appearance.
Joy or Hulga tries to live up with her name. She thinks that it is ugly and that she is ugly, so she just did all the ugly things that she could muster. She always walks noisily as she thinks that her leg is what makes her very ugly. She wears ugly clothes. She is often heard giving ugly remarks to no one in particular. This is the very reason why she had no friends. Because Joy or Hulga is so persistent in making herself look ugly, no body would want to befriend her.
The only thing that Joy could not neglect is her studies. She loves reading and enjoys philosophy.…… [Read More]
Amazing Story of Young Goodman Brown
Nathaniel Hawthorne used the character of Young Goodman Brown to tell the story of his own, personal dark night of the soul. Through the eyes of Young Goodman Brown, an innocent young man of principles who was married to his "Faith," Hawthorne reveals how his own innocence and faith were lost and his life forever changed when Hawthorne learned that his Puritan forefathers participated in unsavory religious persecution as well as the notorious Salem witch trial. He used the innocent, young Goodman to represent himself as witness in the discovery of unfathomable corruption in various Puritans who, in their sanctimoniousness, were blind to their own corruption (165-179).
Say thy prayers... And go to bed at dusk, and no harm will come to thee, (165)" young Goodman says in a statement that is indicative of his simple innocence before learning the disturbing truth. He says…… [Read More]
Quality of Evil in Young Goodman Brown and Ethan Brand
When examining the works of Nathaniel Hawthorne, it is interesting to note the role of evil or indeed perceived evil. Evil appears to distort lives and destroy egoistical souls. One such egoistical soul was Young Goodman Brown (Hawthorne 1937). He leaves his wife Faith in complete trust that her name adequately describes her nature. The end of the story however results in delusion and a confirmation of what Brown has suspected of himself (Leavis 36): all people are inherently evil.
Brown's egoism lies in the fact that he separates himself from the "sinful" and attempts to befriend only those he perceives as pious. He is however shown that the most pious are in reality the most sinful. Even his own family is shown to be composed of people committing evil in the name of good. In this way evil is…… [Read More]
real-life events relating to "Young Goodman Brown," by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
YOUNG GOODMAN BROWN
Young Goodman Brown's journey is a classic tale of good vs. evil. Brown's journey consists of a nocturnal forest visit to resist the temptations of the devil. He must return to his village before sunrise.
Brown is unsure of himself, and fearful of his visit. When he first enters the forest, he's afraid of everything, looking for something evil behind every tree limb and rock. I have often felt the same way when I enter a room full of strangers. I am nervous of how I appear, and how I will sound as I talk with them, and I hope that they do not think badly of me.
When he meets a traveler who seems evil to him, and he resists the traveler's advances. I feel the same way when I do not know someone, and they…… [Read More]
Literature is frequently employed as a device for social and political commentary. This is certainly true in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown," and Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery." Both these stories darkly satirize the rigid social conventions that define small town American life. Even though they wrote about a century apart, Hawthorne and Jackson drew similar conclusions about American religious life and culture. Throughout his career, Nathaniel Hawthorne remained concerned about the hypocritical nature of puritanism. Stories like "Young Goodman Brown" darkly satirize religious fundamentalism and mob mentality. "Young Goodman Brown" is about a man who believes he might have dreamed of a strange pagan ritual set deep in the woods. Even his wife, ironically named Faith, attends the ritual. Faith's presumed faith in Christianity is proven false by her attending a Satanic rite in the woods. atching the ritual shocks Goodman Brown literally to death. In "The Lottery,"…… [Read More]
Hawthorne: My Kinsman, Goodman Brown
The United States experienced great political, social and economic change during the late 1700s and early 1800s. Breaking ties with Great Britain under the Declaration of Independence developed a unique American tradition. The major emphasis was placed on the individual, whose need to succeed would result in the best possible world for everyone concerned. In the two works "My Kinsman, Major Molineux" and "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorn, the main characters obin and Young Goodman Brown go on personal journeys to seek their individual goals. obin seeks a kinsman who can help him establish his future livelihood and Brown searches to restore his faith and the evil in his heart. They both each reach a goal, yet not the one expected.
In "My Kinsman," a naive and inexperienced youth named obin leaves his country home and travels to the city looking for his cousin…… [Read More]
Both Elisa Allen and Goodman Brown suggest that sexual tension might be at the root of their conflict.
Allen arguably deals with her pain more constructively than Brown does. Brown becomes bitter as a result of the conflict he perceives in his heart. Moreover, Brown fails to ground himself in reality. Questioning whether or not the forest vision was real, Brown neglects to contemplate its value even as a dream. Learning that he does have longings to break free from the social conventions tying him down to the rigid and conformist Puritan society would have helped Brown come to terms with the Faith he does genuinely seek. Elisa cries but deep down knows that a simple dinner out with her husband is as much freedom as she can have while still savoring the joy of…… [Read More]
hen first offered the snakelike staff, Young Goodman Brown refuses to accept it although his does later accept a new staff instead. This symbolizes his simultaneous fear of evil and his temptation to embrace it (Miller, 1991). The staff itself likely represents a tool of evil (Miller, 1991). Similarly, the way that Young Goodman Brown takes the first steps toward the evil ceremony also symbolizes the inevitability of the fall of human beings from goodness to evil when the choice is presented to them. In that regard, the flaming alter also symbolism a baptism of fire or formal entrance into the world of evil in much the same way that baptism represents the acceptance of God and all that is good and virtuous (Franklin, 1994).
Young Goodman Brown's response to encountering Goody Cloyse and realizing that she is already acquainted with the Devil is symbolic of his disappointment in realizing…… [Read More]
Come devil! For thee is this world given..." This passage reflected Goodman's surrender to the wilderness, to the state of disorder that made him discover that he is weak and sinful. The presence of Faith in the first part of the story was also the only time that Goodman felt his strong faith in God. However, upon entering the wilderness, Faith his wife had not only disappeared, but Goodman's faith in God (and even himself) as well. Hawthorne made readers realize that human nature is in fact "naturally savage," and it is only fitting that Goodman's inherently savage nature would be discovered and uncovered (by him) in the wilderness.
Even towards the end of the story, Hawthorne continued to haunt his readers with the theme of wilderness inherent in the hearts and minds of humanity. Posing the question, "Had Goodman rown fell asleep in the forest, and only dreamed a…… [Read More]
Listen to Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God preached. Discuss in the discussion group.
Jonathan Edwards gives us a perfect example of the Calvinist beliefs of the Puritan settlers in early New England. Edwards studied theology at Yale University -- where today there is still a dormitory named after him -- but then became a noteworthy preacher in the Great Awakening, which exhorted an entire generation to renew their Christian faith. Edwards' skill in preaching lies in using literary imagery to get across abstract theological concepts. Calvinist theology believes in "total depravity" -- in other words, because of Adam and Eve eating the apple, human beings are fallen, and stained with "original sin." The most memorable image in Edwards' sermon -- the image of the spider being held over a fiery pit -- is meant to be a metaphor to enable the listener to imagine how…… [Read More]
In works of fiction, the hero's journey will always be fraught with danger. He will not only have to overcome his own shortcomings, but will also encounter individuals who hope to impede his journey and prevent him from accomplishing his goals or individuals who will help them overcome their obstacles and succeed. Literature throughout history and literature that transcends cultures exhibit this same proclivity. Each component of the hero's journey, beginning with his quest, his initiation into the situation which will lead to his development, his separation from his origin, and finally his transformation at the end of the story is heavily dictated by the attention and communication he receives from the other male character. The stories "Young Goodman Brown," The Epic of Gilgamesh, Beowulf, and "The Legend of King Arthur" all show pairings of male characters, the protagonist and another male figure who either acts as an…… [Read More]
The plot itself consists of a symbolic journey unto the Puritan heart of darkness, a place of communion with the devil himself, which, as it turns out, is only a dream. Nevertheless, the dream material clearly traumatizes Young Goodman Brown as much as if the evil trip into the forest, where in the dream, he even meets his wife Faith (" My Faith is gone!'" (p. 1269), he cries in despair, into the darkness, seizing one of his wife's symbolic pink ribbons from the branch of a tree) had happened to him in real life.
ithin his frightening dream, Young Goodman Brown, reluctant yet somehow determined, sets out, near sunset, on a journey into the forest, from which his new young wife with pretty pink ribbons in her hair, "My love and my Faith'" (p. 1264) tries in vain to keep him back. This is not just for purposes…… [Read More]
The "contradictory actions" will be strictly limited to the literal statements on the pages authored by Hawthorne in order to avoid evaluation by modern standards perhaps not shared by the Puritans this story discusses
c. Young Goodman Brown seems to come to the conclusion that everyone around him carries the taint of real or potential "sin" or "evil" (Hawthorne 7) which he tries to distance himself from.
3. Considering 2c the working conclusion the character Young Goodman Brown draws given the directly stated evidence that Brown spent the rest of his life "suspicious" and "gloomy" (Hawthorne 8) after the vision related in the story, without interpretation or assignment of value to those terms from modern standpoints,
a. Trying to prevent the Goody Cloyse from corrupting the young girl is not good or bad but inconsistent with a conclusion drawn by Young Goodman Brown (2.c. above)
i. If humans are inherently…… [Read More]
Man of Good?
Nathaniel Hawthorne's "romance," the short story "Young Goodman Brown," is a highly allegorical tale regarding the nature of evil and good. Even a cursory analysis of the title of the principle characters, Goodman Brown (who represents mankind or humanity) and his wife Faith (who represents faith in religious piety) indicates that they are representative of basic fundamental concepts that were at the heart of the Puritan religion that this tale is based upon. Therefore, the conclusion of this story, and the events leading up to it, is symbolic of more than the outcome of the aforementioned characters, but actually represents Hawthorne's view of mankind and its religious fervor. In providing this viewpoint, the author answers critical questions about the stem of evil (where it originates) as well as man's ability to stave it off or to submit to its dictates. A careful look at the diction and…… [Read More]
Author Nathaniel Hawthorne's literary works constantly reference ideas of the supernatural and the religious ideas of the Puritans who colonized the United States. Of particular interest to Hawthorne is how these two things work together in that time period. Many of Nathaniel Hawthorne's works take place in Colonial times, a good century before the author himself was born. His own ancestors were active participants in Puritan society, even serving as judges during the Salem itch Trials. Scholars have argued that Hawthorne's work heavily features this time because of the guilt he felt over the actions of his relatives. Nathaniel Hawthorne used this historical setting to create moral points about Puritanical society and the hypocrisy of those times, as well as the continued hypocrisy of his own time period. This hypocrisy is linked back to the religious zealousness of the Puritan times where the beliefs of the church superseded all…… [Read More]
Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tales
Hawthorne's writings serve as a social commentary on the inherent dangers in blind acceptance of religious teachings.
There is ample scope to interpret all three stories of "Young Goodman Brown," "The Birthmark," and "Ethan Brand," as Hawthorne's commentary on the consequences of allowing religion to mar true recognition of goodness and beauty. All three stories highlight the fact that human kindness and faith are more important than obsession with religious teachings.
Although Hawthorne's writings have often been interpreted as being influenced by the author's Puritan heritage, there is equally a wide acknowledgement that Hawthorne left the interpretation of any moral lesson in his tales to the reader.
Hawthorne's contemporaries have, through their writings, shared several insights into Hawthorne's real-life personality and writings, which indicate that he was a keen observer of human nature and if anything, possessed a deep concern and compassion for the deeper psychology of…… [Read More]
This makes him question "heaven above him" (Hawthorne 594). hile he does decide to take a stand against what he sees in the forest, it is too late because what he has seen has already changed him. Faith's pink ribbon flickering is important because it represents his wife and his faith, which he has seemingly lost in one night. e read that that are simply "gone" (595). Goodman is radically transformed by what he believes took place in the forest and while it was something he thought he could handle and something he thought he wanted to know, he was deadly wrong but there was not way for him to go back and reverse events. Like Louise, he is changed but not in a good way.
Symbolism is significant to each story as well. In "The Story of an Hour," the house and the window are important to Louise's development…… [Read More]
The Different Manifestations of Evil in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Short Stories ("the Minister's lack Veil," "Young Goodman rown," and "My Kinsman, Major Molineux")
Nathaniel Hawthorne, American writer of 19th century American literature, has become well-known for his thought-provoking stories about the lives of Americans during its early history, at the time where there exists a rigid and conservative society motivated by the teachings of Christianity. With his acclaimed novel, "The Scarlet Letter," Hawthorne is also given credit for his literary expertise in writing short stories, which will become the focus of this paper.
Discussing the works of Hawthorne, namely, "The Minister's lack Veil," "Young Goodman rown," and "My Kinsman, Major Molineux," there emerges a dominant theme among these literary works. Each story carries with a message that talks about humanity's fight against evil in pursuit of goodness. However, what differs these stories from each other is the way he…… [Read More]
New England Stories
Tradition in Two New England Stories and in Today
Both "A New England Nun" by Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman and "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne are tales of distinct New England traditions. While "A New England Nun" portrays the marrying customs of old New England, "Young Goodman Brown" depicts the spiritual customs of Puritan New England. But such is not to say that every Puritan was going to midnight meetings with the Devil -- the tale is an allegorical representation of every man's dual nature; nor is Freeman suggesting anything more than that Louisa Ellis prefers her life the way she has grown accustomed to having it -- nice and pretty and free of dirt. Though Goodman Brown and Louisa Ellis are both affected by the traditions of their New England surroundings, both are able to transcend them: Louisa Ellis through the happy chance hearing of…… [Read More]
John Updike & Nathaniel Hawthorne
John Updike and Nathaniel Hawthorne are two of the most well-known writers to have contributed to the body of American Literature. Updike, the more recent writer of the two, has been considered one of America's most prestigious writers, often honored by collegiate bodies and authoritative figures. Likewise, Nathaniel Hawthorne in his time was recognized and respected, having come from a background commanding some respect. Both authors however, during their life struggled with negative issues; Updike for example struggled with separation and health problems that plagued him since he was a child. Hawthorne struggled with his ancestry who embodied a rigid Puritanical belief system, and also struggled with the poverty of his family that he was never quite able to overcome during his lifetime.
The works of both Updike and Hawthorne tend to have some autobiographical notes. Each author draws from experiences within their own lives.…… [Read More]
Nathaniel Hawthorne was an Eighteenth Century American author who through his works explored the subject of human sin, punishment and guilt. In fact, themes of pride, guilt, sin, punishment and evil is evident in all of his works, and the wrongs committed by his ancestors played a particular dominant force in Hawthorne's literary career, such as his most famous piece, "The Scarlet Letter" (Nathaniel Pp). Hawthorne and other writers of the time, Ralph aldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Herman Melville, looked to the Puritan origins of American history and Puritan styles of rhetoric to create a distinctive American literary voice (Nathaniel Pp).
Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts in 1803. His father, who died when Nathaniel was four years old, was a sea captain and direct descendent of John Hathorne, one of the judges in the Salem witchcraft trials of 1692 (Nathaniel Pp). Growing up in seclusion with his…… [Read More]
The pink ribbon fluttering before him is significant because it represents Faith, his wife and faith, his religion - both of which are "gone" (Hawthorne) at this point. He is changed by what he believes is truth and he can trust no one anymore. It is difficult enough that the man looses his faith but he also comes to look upon his faith with disdain. His appreciation for all that once held dear is ruined by what he might or might not have seen in the forest. The Sabbath, once a holy day, is infected to the point that Goodman cannot listen to hymns because an "anthem of sin rushed loudly upon his ear and drowned all the blessed strain" (Hawthorne). Everything and everyone is dirty and, unfortunately, there is no relief for Goodman.
It is important to note that while Goodman never knows the absolute truth about what his…… [Read More]
extend the lines, if necessary, without being wordy.
Three specific instances of irony in "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been" are:
a) ____The title: no one ever asks Connie these questions.
b) ____Connie is the one preyed upon in this tale, but she invites in this demonic provocation.
c) Arnold Friend's remark about holding her so tight she won't try to get away because it will be impossible, is an ironic remark as it represents much of the symbolism at work throughout the story.
In "Young Goodman Brown," a) Brown represents ____The easily corruptible human.
b) the forest represents ____The practice of evil.
c) the peeling, cacophonous sounds represent ____Temptation
3. Explain the mother's attitude towards Emily in "I Stand Here Ironing"; what specific EVIDENCE supports your position? ____The mother's attitude towards Emily in the story is one of distance, rather than motherly attention. She regards Emily as…… [Read More]
Duality of Character in Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe
In Nathaniel Hawthorne's short story, "Young Goodman Brown," and in Edgar Allan Poe's story, "The House of Usher," there are main characters who have several characteristics in common. The main character in Hawthorne's story possesses a duality of character and undergoes a life-changing experience. The title character in Poe's story has a similar duality of character; he, too, undergoes a transformational experience that may be seen as representing duality of character as well. Both stories have a dreamlike quality that adds to the atmosphere of the story; it also leads the reader to question whether the events have actually occurred, or if they were somehow the products of a hallucination or dream state, perhaps even supernatural in nature.
In Nathaniel Hawthorne's story, "Young Goodman Brown," the title character is a young, newly married Christian man who lives in Salem, Massachusetts…… [Read More]
He might have received his wish but that wish cost him 20 years.
In "Young Goodman Brown," Hawthorne allows us to look at the frail nature of man through Brown's curious nature. He wants to know what is happening in the woods and does not stop to think of the unintended consequences. He does not know what to think when he stumbles upon the scene in the forest. The sight of respectable citizens partaking in a satanic ritual makes Brown feel "overburdened with the heavy sickness of his heart" (Hawthorne 594). He looses faith in man and, subsequently, faith in God, wondering if there was a "heaven above him" (594). He vows to "stand firm against the devil" (294) despite everything but the knowledge of his wife in the forest proves to be more than he can bear. Hawthorne utilizes the aspect of change to demonstrate the fragile human psyche.…… [Read More]
In Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado," the setting is of a very different nature, but also concerns life, death, and the irony that often accompanies the interaction between the two. The main character and first-person narrator, Montresor, leads Fortunato to his grave for an unnamed trespass. Under the pretence of wanting his expertise regarding a cask of amontillado, Montresor leads his friend into the recesses of an extensive vault, which also serves as a grave for a centuries-old family. The story is filled with increasingly grim descriptions of damp darkness and "piled bones" belonging to the generations of Montresor's family. The increasing darkness then correlates with the theme of Fortunato's impending doom. At the final turn, Montresor traps him in a crypt and seals him inside. The darkness can then serve to indicate the darkness of Montresor's action as well as the horror of Fortunato's final doom.
In Hawthorne's story,…… [Read More]
Hawthorne clearly stepped away from the Puritan ethic by consistently alluding to the existence of the earthly supernatural. Though this was a fear of the Puritans, clearly it was associated with Satan and possession of the living. In Hawthorne's works the supernatural was associated with less grand sources, such as those seen in Young Goodman Brown. (Hoeltje 39-40) Hawthorne allows his characters to explore concepts that would have been those deemed heretical within the Puritan settings of the works.
In The Birth-Mark, Hawthorne associates the active expulsion of character traits of humanity clearly results in the death of the whole.
The line of divergence in "The Birth Mark" is indicated by its name. e all have our birth-marks, -- traits of character, which may be temporarily suppressed, or relegated to the background, but which cannot be eradicated and are certain to reappear at unguarded moments, or on…… [Read More]
Also, it does not really fit very well with the rest of the syllabus. The other stories on the syllabus have three-dimensional characters that show a mix of good and bad characteristics, and face moral dilemmas. But the 'good man' of the title is suddenly confronted with a vision of hypocrisy, of the good people of the town showing their evil side. He does not come to this encounter with any soul-searching, or because he has done something particularly extraordinary, in terms of the story's plot. The story is heavy-handed and does not make much of a 'case' for the effective use of symbolism or the use of stories with clearly moral tales. Most people in the class have already encountered fables and morality tales in their other reading, even as children, and the more complex modernist works are a better spur towards better writing and…… [Read More]
In Irving's case, he expanded on his background of writing historical works, with his satirical approach individual and distinctive. This developed the genre partly by introducing satire as an effective element. At the same time, it also showed that literature could be expanded to suit any style.
Edgar Allan Poe is the third writer who contributed significantly to the development of American Romanticism. Poe added an element of horror and wrote short stories that were both disturbing and haunting. One of the interesting things about Poe is that the effectiveness of his stories did not rely only on the storyline. For example, the short story "The Fall of the House of Usher" is the narrator's account of his visit to a haunted house and his encounters with the strange brother and sister that live there. In this case, it is not the actual storyline that makes the story effective. Instead,…… [Read More]
nature in American literature, from earliest writings to the Civil War period. It is my purpose to outline the connection between spirituality, freedom and nature and explain how American writers have chosen to reflect and interpret these themes in relation to their historical realities.
At the beginning of the colonization process there were two congruent depictions of nature. Initially, the tribes comprising The Iroquois League lived in close contact with nature and believed in the importance of maintaining a harmonious relationship with it. In this respect, the Iroquois Constitution imposes a devout display of gratitude to all by-human elements of the world before the opening of any council. On the other hand, the early explorers and founders of the United States perceived an immense natural potential in the country. In this sense, Thomas Hariot describes the New World as a land of wealth, his words and images aimed both at…… [Read More]
collective perception, art is one facet of life that is governed more by individual thought and emotional predisposition than by institutional prejudices. It should seem a natural disposition of the artist to look within himself for expression, rather than to the very established conventions from which he may seek to provide asylum. Likewise, it strikes a chord of logic to us that an artist makes his primary appeal to his own imagination, rather than to millennia of intellectual rules. This, however, is a new perspective as compared to the age of humanity. From Enlightenment through the mid eighteenth century, classical rules intended to preserve the integrity and exclusivity of artistic expression were the prime determinant in the nature of societal artistic output. However, a surge in the population of the bourgeoisie, an overall expansion in the international middle class, opened up the possibility for artistry without the condition of aristocracy.…… [Read More]
The only material similarity between Prynne's scarlet "badge" and Faith's pink ribbons is that both are made of cloth and adorn some type of clothing, i.e., Faith's ribbons are part of her cap while Prynne's "badge" is sewn into her dress as needlework.
The reader is first introduced to Prynne's "badge" in Chapter Two of the Scarlet Letter when she emerges from jail -- "On the breast of her gown, in fine red cloth, surrounded with an elaborate embroidery and fantastic flourishes of gold thread, appeared the letter a." Upon being led to her "place of punishment" for committing adultery with Arthur Dimmesdale, all eyes are immediately drawn to the scarlet "A" which "had the effect of a spell, taking (Hester) out of the ordinary relations with humanity and enclosing her in a sphere by herself" (ell, 163-164). Obviously, this scarlet emblem upon Hester's dress seems to emit a life…… [Read More]
Post Colonial Literature
Historical literature is filled with examples of pre- and post-colonialist paradigms. Within each of these models, however, there is a certain part of a larger story that can only be told in the larger view of the historical process. One of the grand themes that help us wade through that process is that of the dehumanization of the individual. For whatever psychotically reasons, humans seem to have the need to change others into less than human in order to subjugate them economically, intellectually, or culturally. We might even think of the process of imperialism as practiced by the European powers as dehumanization of culture and society; begun at the micro level and then evolving into the macro. This dehumanization was particularly exemplified by the manner in which indigenous cultures were decimated, how families were torn apart and scattered all over the Empire, and the manner in which…… [Read More]
Hey-I know this looks long, but it's about 1200 words without the two long quotations from the book.
So it's actually the right length according to the assignment, but you might want to mention that to the instructor.
A selection from Mark Leyner's 1995 work Tooth Imprints on a Corn Dog is included by the editors of the Norton Anthology Postmodern American Fiction, although Leyner himself claims in a note in the anthology that his "work isn't animated by a desire to be experimental or post-modernist or aesthetically subversive or even 'innovative' -- it is animated by a desire to craft a kind of writing that is at every single moment exhilarating for the reader, where each phrase, each sentence is an event." (Geyh, Leebron, & Levy 242). As a result the entirety of Tooth Imprints on a Corn Dog holds up as a kind of aesthetic whole…… [Read More]
Thomas Paine was an earlier conqueror of the special association that was formed between America and France. His part in this association was initiated with his responsibility of the post of American Congress Secretary of Foreign Affairs where he continually used dialogue to make relations between the two better. He retained this post throughout the American evolution. Paine, however, is better noted for his works written throughout the American and French evolutions Eras. In his writings, Paine offered spirited protection of accepted autonomy, human rights, and the republican government. Both Common Sense (1776) ights of Man (1791-1792) stick out as the most broadly read political areas from the era. Paine's distinctive global thought also can serve as the building blocks for liberal cosmopolitanism in worldwide relations. His unrelenting faith in aspects of democratization, free trade, and respect for human rights being the factors that cut back worldwide conflict stands among…… [Read More]
"Well, I'll be. No wonder that tooth still killing him. I going one way and he pulling the other. oy,
don't you know any Catholic prayers?
"I know 'Hail Mary,'" I say.
"Then you better start saying it" (p. 1849).
esides Monsieur ayonne, the other clearly-identified Christian character in the story is the preacher James and his mother observe inside the dentist's waiting room. When an educated-looking young man challenges the preacher's blind faith, encouraging him instead to "Question everything. Every star, every stripe, every word ever spoken. Everything'" (p. 1855), soon afterward, the preacher becomes so uncontrollably angry at the young man that he walks over and hits the young man in the face, to which the non-believing young man says, ironically "You forgot the other cheek" (p. 1856). The preacher, clearly missing the irony, then hits the young man on the other side of his face, and then…… [Read More]
The objective of this work is to examine Nathaniel Hawthorne's works and to conduct a comparison of the life of Hawthorne to his short stories and to examine how his life and his works paralleled one another.
The life of Nathaniel Hawthorne many times was played out in his stories as his life events and experiences bled forth into his works demonstrating the struggles that the writer faced within himself and his own life. unning through the threads of the stories of Hawthorne is the theme of Puritanism and this is clearly perceived as one reads the stories of Hawthorne entitled "The Scarlet Letter," "The Minister's Black Veil and "The Birthmark." In order to understand Hawthorne's view it is necessary that one understand what Puritanism is, believes, and represents.
Puritanism was first presented in the works of William Tyndale (1495-1536) as well as in the work of…… [Read More]
Nathaniel Hawthorne's beliefs concerning ethics, morality, and guilt as made evident in one of these stories. Consider how beliefs affect characterization, setting, plotting, and theme.
In the story of Rappaccini's daughter, the narrator becomes infatuated with a young woman whose life literally has become poisoned, because of her father's influence. Unlike a conventional Christian system of morality, as is typical of most of the author's other tales, the girl is being 'punished' for no real crime, other than being born the daughter of a mad scientist. The European setting is also atypical of the author. It takes place in exotic Italy, where the fantastical narrative seems more appropriate than Puritan New England.
The title character's father is a botanist who has created a beautiful garden, but because of his extensive scientific knowledge, he has hubristically attempted to transcend the laws of nature. He has created a girl whom literally has…… [Read More]
The beauty of Rappaccini's garden vies with that of the paradisiacal beauty. The greatest difference between the two however is that Rappaccini's scientific quest for knowledge is barren and loveless. Nature, as created by God, is filled with the divine love of its creator and this particular quality cannot be copied by the hand of man. The story is pivoted on the love story between Beatrice, Rappaccini's daughter who is imbued with the poison of the garden, and a young man Giovanni Guasconti. Their infatuation turns into hatred though because of the poisonous curse of the garden. Beatrice however is redeemed when she dies in the end, wishing she had known true love and not just the artificial splendor of the garden: "Though my body be nourished with poison, my spirit is God's creature, and craves love as its daily food."(Hawthorne, 67) Thus, the failed romance between the two lovers…… [Read More]
setting of a story can reveal important things about the narrative's larger meaning, because the setting implies certain things about the characters, context, and themes that would otherwise remain implicit or undiscussed. In their short stories "The Lottery" and "The Rocking-Horse inner," Shirley Jackson and DH Lawrence use particular settings in order to comment on the political and socio-economic status of their characters without inserting any explicitly political or socio-economic discussion into the narrative. In the case of "The Lottery," the setting transforms the story from a one of simple horror to a more nuanced critique of American society, and particularly its dedication to arbitrary, destructive beliefs. Lawrence's "The Rocking-Horse inner" makes a similar point, but in this case the setting serves to implicitly critique the consumerism encouraged by capitalist hegemony in England. Comparing and contrasting these two settings allows one to better understand how each story makes an identifiable…… [Read More]
Depression in African-American Adolescents
Etiology of Depression
Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…… [Read More]
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many of the top orchestras," (Yanow 2). Big band orchestras began showing up in all the major Hollywood productions. They featured pre-recorded songs where the musicians lip singed. It is interesting to have such a crucial period on film. The Swing Era "was fortunately captured for feature films and short subjects at the time it was all happening," (Behlmer 1). Big bands became incredibly popular in feature films during the 1930s and 40s. Benny Goodman, "The King of Swing," had a movie- Hollywood Hotel in 1937 "the full orchestra plays an abbreviated version of that quintessential Swing Era arrangement of 'Sing, Sing, Sing' in the film," (Behlmer 1). From big Hollywood productions came popularity on the small screen. As televisions became the…… [Read More]
The music of United States changed significantly during the twentieth century, and each generation went on to develop its own music. These were all immensely popular, had strong rhythmic touch and were very different from the earlier forms which existed. These were used for dancing or just for the purpose of listening. When the twentieth century started it was the time for a variety called Ragtime. After the end of the First World War, Jazz had its origin and it influenced all other forms till it was affected by the stock market crash in 1929. This period was called the roaring twenties. Then it was time for a new form to emerge and this was in the music of the ig ands and led at different stages by Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, Jimmie Lunceford, Glen Gray and Chick Webb in the beginning. They were then followed by…… [Read More]
Likewise, according to Anderson (2004), "War, if good for anything, is great for business. It means more than just the production of weapons and equipment -- sometimes faulty and overpriced. It promises billions in government revenues for increasingly privatized military training, recruiting, laundry and even KP services" (p. 155). These privatized military services all provided courtesy of the friendly folks at Kellogg, Brown & oot - and all at a hefty profit, of course. To be fair, though, the vice president is not the only one involved in this unholy conspiracy to bilk the American taxpayer while bleeding the armed forces dry. In this regard, Achcar (2004) emphasizes that the president is also implicated by virtue of his close ties with the oil and gas industry and the enormous political contributions they have provided to support his administration's prosecution of the war in Iraq. "Besides his own personal and family…… [Read More]