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Ethnic Conflict When Considering the

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 9370457

Hence, his plan here was not even based upon the assumption of ethnic plurality, but simply upon his own hunger for territorial power.

Franjo Tudjman, equally power hungry, was the elected president of Croatia in 1990. His focus was not ethnic plurality. Rather, his aim was to establish a Croatian state for Croatians, without providing any minority rights to other citizens. For this reason, his focus on Bosnia was also to annex the Croatian areas of the country.

The respective nationalistic and dictatorship tendencies of these two leaders, far more than intergroup ethnic conflict, have led to the complete destruction of ethnic plurality in Bosnia. Even in cities, such as Sarajevo, where ethnic groups lived peacefully side by side, political manipulation has caused only destruction. Instead of ethnic pluralism, media such as television has caused rampant nationalism, which fed on the historic fears of ethnic groups to stir them to…… [Read More]

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Life and Times of Josip Broz Tito

Words: 1923 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3384032

Josip Broz (Marshal) Tito

Originally named Josip Broz, Josip Broz Tito was a revolutionary and statesman who was born on May 7, 1892 in Austria-Hungary in what is currently Croatia and died almost 88 years later to the day on May 4, 1980 in Yugoslavia, or what is currently Slovenia (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). During the period from 1939 to 1980, Tito was alternately the secretary-general and then president the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. From 1941 to 1945, he was the supreme commander of Yugoslav partisans and then the Yugoslav People's Army from 1945 to 1953 (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). He assumed the title marshal during the period 1943 to 1980, then premier from 1945 to 1953 and then president of Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1980 (Josip Broz Tito, 2015). Tito was the chief architect of the "second Yugoslavia," a socialist federation that lasted from World War II until…… [Read More]

References

Granville, J. (1998, Spring). Tito and the Nagy affair in 1956. East European Quarterly, 32(1),

23-31 [journal article].

Josip Broz Tito. (2015). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from  http://www.britannica.com/ 

EBchecked/topic/597295/Josip-Broz-Tito [Web].
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Marshal Tito Josip Broz Tito

Words: 856 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24991714

First of all Titoism "included the eventual abandonment of agricultural collectivization, workers councils, and the centralization of economic and administrative controls. Generally Yugoslavs under Tito's rule possessed more freedoms and liberties than most others living in communist regimes" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/yugo-hist2.htm).Another idea of Titoism was national particularity of Communism which meant that Communism in different states had different features which should be taken into consideration by the government. The main point if this statement was multinational structure of Yugoslav society which could not accept Soviet kind of Communism so the main problem of Tito's domestic policy was national issue. It is known that Kosovo and Croatia were the centers of nationalistic separatism in Yugoslavia so communism and federation were not popular among their population. Tito failed establishing ethnic peace and cooperation in these regions because both Albanians and Croats resisted his plans of strengthening the federation. As the matter of fact by…… [Read More]

References

1.Djilas, Milovan Tito: The Story from Inside Phoenix Press 2001

2. Tito's Yugoslavia, Article available at web-resource:  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/yugo-hist2.htm 

3. Sowards, Steven W. Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History Lecture 20: The traditional regimes and the challenge of Communism: Patriotism vs. opportunism available at web-resource:  http://www.lib.msu.edu/sowards/balkan/lect20.htm 

4. Wilson, Duncan. Tito's Yugoslavia, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979
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Ethnic Conflict II How Does

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83959174

Through policies of systematic discrimination and persecution of national minorities, Serb nationalists indirectly strengthened the radical wing of Albanian nationalist movements. The wing was represented by KSA (Kosovo Liberation Army). Most of the KSA leadership, Hedges writes, has formerly been imprisoned for separatist activities, and many were imprisoned by the Tito's communist government. The KSA's ideological base, Hedges writes, comes from a bizarre mixture of fascist and communist factions. Later in the 1990s, KSA began to receive financial and logistical support from Islamist radical groups in the Gulf States as well.

Hedges argues that KSA initially did not have the support of the majority. The radical group began to garner support after the policies pursued by Ibrahim Rugova have allegedly failed. The continuing mistreatment of Kosovo Albanians by the Serbian state and the inability of the international community to resolve the issue (for example, the European Union's recognition of Yugoslavia…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hedges, Chris. "Kosovo's Next Masters?" Foreign Affairs 78.3 (1999): 24-42.

Mertus, Julie. "Slobodan Milosevic: Myth and Responsibility." OpenDemocracy (16 March 2006).
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Ivo Andric The Bridge on

Words: 2227 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95642986

As their power grows, the Serbs begin to express their deep hatred for the empire, through various practices, including rebellious actions. The middle of the Mehmed Pasa Sokolovi? Bridge becomes an interest point, with the Ottomans going through great efforts to guard it and to prevent Serb extremists from crossing it.

As the world changes and Serbia and Montenegro become independent states, individuals in Visegrad (those of Serbian nationality especially) become less willing to accept people coming from different backgrounds. Serbian nationalistic beliefs had grown to be widespread during the nineteenth century and the non-Serbian population in the Balkans had started to suffer as a result.

The Bridge in the Drina does not have a certain individual as its protagonist, with the single element present in the novel from its beginning and until its end being the bridge. The book comprises a chain of short stories incorporated into a larger…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Andric, Ivo. (1977). "The bridge on the Drina." University of Chicago Press.

2. Rakic, Bogdan. "The Proof Is in the Pudding: Ivo Andri? And His Bosniak Critics." Retrieved April 23, 2010, from the Serbian studies Web site: http://www.serbianstudies.org/publications/pdf/Vol14_1_Rakic.pdf

3. West, Rebecca. (1994). "Black lamb and grey falcon: a journey through Yugoslavia." Penguin Classics.

Rakic, Bogdan. "The Proof Is in the Pudding: Ivo Andri? And His Bosniak Critics." Retrieved April 23, 2010, from the Serbian studies Web site: http://www.serbianstudies.org/publications/pdf/Vol14_1_Rakic.pdf
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Ethnic Conflict Why Is Nationalism

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72277979

For example, the conflict in former Yugoslavia is often studied as a case of ethnic conflict, and the Serbian atrocities against Bosnians is usually described as "ethnic cleansing." But Serbs, Croatians, and Bosnians "are all South Slavs, sharing a common ethnic origin and speaking basically the same language: Serbocroatian" (Perlmutter). Serbs and Croatians share the same religion as well (with different denominations), while Bosnians, with the exception of their Muslim identity, have experienced a shared history with the other two. And all three are former Communists. Nevertheless, all three groups have identified themselves as different ethnicities during the conflict in the 1990s.

Dominique Moisi (2007) argues that, in addition to the problem of clash of civilizations, the world today faces a clash of emotions. There is a culture of fear, displayed by the est, of foreign nationals, of losing the identity in a complex world, of losing their economic power,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Moisi, Dominique. "The Clash of Emotions." Foreign Affairs 81.6 (2007).

Psalidas-Perlmutter, Foulie. "The Interplay of Myths and Realities." Orbis 44.2 (2000): 237.
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International Law Assess the Legality

Words: 2295 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 44073436



The case involving Milosevic was has different sub-plots, as he would claim that the actions he took were to prevent the country from being overrun by terrorists. Yet, at the same time, as some of these atrocities were being committed, NATO would attack Serbia in an effort to halt these violations. In this aspect, one could argue that the actions taken by NATO were in violation of international law. As they were not supported by a UN mandate, instead the actions were NATO countries working in concert with one another to go after Serbia. This is despite the fact that Serbia did not attack any of NATO allied nations.

When you look at the situations from the realist perspective, they would argue that the application of different international standards is an attempt to circumvent the power of the nation state over its people. Where, the ICC is unilaterally determining what…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Franck, Thomas. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.

Goldsmith, Jack. "The Limits of Idealism." Daedulus. 132, no. 1. (2003): 47 -- 63.

Higgins, Rosalyn. "Policy and Impartiality." 915 -- 931.

Thomas Franck. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
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Nationalism You Can't Go Home

Words: 1161 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68780811



Because of the laws prohibiting individuals from working anywhere but 'home' and the fact that the war he fought in was supposed to be for a national identity and home, home provides such a potent, gripping force for Halid that he does not leave his own town, even though he knows his 'friends' desire to kill him. The idea of friends is now confusing, as the Christians he once called friends before the war now loathe the sight of him. Thus the skill of Homecoming is that it shows the paradox of national identity. The power that we invest in the concept of home and national self-determination often kills us, and kills our sense of self, even though it is supposed to provide these essential elements of our character. National identity and familial ties are not so powerful that they can erase the memory of wartime atrocities committed on a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

LAmerica." Directed by Gianni Amellio. 1994.

Miss Sarajevo." Directed by Bill Carter. 1993.

Radojcic, Natasha Homecoming. Random House, 2005.
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Global Media

Words: 1874 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45318100

Censorship and Freedom of the Press

In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).

ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ABC News. (2009). Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/ 

Alley, R. (2010). Fiji Under Bainimarama. Journal of Pacific History, 45(1), 145-153. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

Dikotter, Frank. (1996, Winter). Culture, race, and nation: The formulation of national identity in 20th century China. International Affairs, 49(2), 592.

Evans, M. (2011). Exacerbating social cleavages: The media's role in Israel's religious-secular conflict. Middle East Journal, 65(2), 235-251.
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Josip Broz Tito 1892-1980 Few

Words: 1921 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26775993

The organization emphasized strong ties among third world countries and neutrality in relations with the U.S. And the Soviet Union. ("Josip Broz Tito," n.d.) Domestically, Tito introduced a system of decentralized economy, which encouraged workers' self-management. He tackled the strong nationalistic fissures in the country by creating a system of "symmetrical federalism" that ensured 'equality' among the six Yugoslav republics and the two autonomous provinces.

In the end, it is difficult to speculate how different the world would have been if the man called Tito had never lived. It is true that his country of disparate nationalities, which Tito had held together with sheer will and the force of his personality for 35 years, unraveled quickly after his death. But to hold him responsible for the break-up of his beloved country and the tragic events which occurred during the ethnic strife in the Balkans would be doing injustice to the…… [Read More]

References

Josip Broz Tito." (n.d.) CNN.com: Interactive. Retrieved on April 8, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/

MacLean, F. (1957). The Heretic: The Life and Times of Josip Broz-Tito (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers.

Markham, R.H. (1947). Tito's Imperial Communism. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. Of North Carolina Press.

Rezun, M. (1995). Europe and War in the Balkans: Toward a New Yugoslav Identity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
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Independence of Kosovo the Problems

Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13325690



As for Kosovo, its legal status is not the only problem that it has to face. The country's economic situation is still significantly bad and important investments are needed in order to improve the situation on the ground. Despite Serbia no longer being a threat, Kosovo is not necessarily a place where the investors are likely to put their money soon until the political and institutional situation improves.

ibliography

1. David inder. 1 November 1987. "In Yugoslavia, Rising Ethnic Strife rings Fears of Worse Civil Conflict," the New York Times. Late City Final Edition

2. Rogel, Carole. (September 2003). Kosovo: Where it All egan. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1

3. Larry Minear, Ted van aarda, Marc Sommers (2000). "NATO and Humanitarian Action in the Kosovo Crisis. rown University.

4. U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR), April 2000, Reversal of Fortune: Yugoslavia's Refugees Crisis Since the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. David Binder. 1 November 1987. "In Yugoslavia, Rising Ethnic Strife Brings Fears of Worse Civil Conflict," the New York Times. Late City Final Edition

2. Rogel, Carole. (September 2003). Kosovo: Where it All Began. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1

3. Larry Minear, Ted van Baarda, Marc Sommers (2000). "NATO and Humanitarian Action in the Kosovo Crisis. Brown University.

4. U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR), April 2000, Reversal of Fortune: Yugoslavia's Refugees Crisis Since the Ethnic Albanian Return to Kosovo
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Kosovo Seen Through the Eyes

Words: 1413 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34836249

The international community, while supporting greater autonomy, opposed the Kosovar Albanians' demand for independence" (History file: Yugoslavia and the Balkans, 2003, BBC News).

Yet Milosevic reacted with disproportionate levels of aggression. Structural realism makes no allowance for the level of violence with which Serbia carried out its expansionist program, engaging in efforts of ethnic cleansing. Serbia's efforts make even less rationalistic sense, given the international community's previous hostile reaction to Serbia's brutal, genocidal actions in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. "Serb attacks increased after NATO began its bombing campaign, and summary and arbitrary killing spread throughout Kosovo.... Among the worst incidents...were reports of the deliberate killing of children, and of elderly and disabled people being shot or burned alive....children decapitated in front of their parents" (Horrors of Kosovo revealed, 1999, BBC).

The conflict in Kosovo was only stemmed when the United Nations intervened, NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia in March 1999, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Constructivism. (2009). IR Theory. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at  http://www.irtheory.com/know.htm 

History, bloody history. (1999, 24 March). BBC News. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/kosovo2/110492.stm 

History file: Yugoslavia and the Balkans. (2003). BBC News. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/map/yugoslavia/ 

Horrors of Kosovo revealed. (1999, December 6).BBC News. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/551875.stm
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Historical Relationship and Differences Between Western and Eastern Europe From German Perspective

Words: 2655 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86422213

Germany West East

In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…… [Read More]

References

Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar

Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.

"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.

22 Mar 2012.
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Nations Real What Makes Them More or

Words: 1762 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5324013

nations real? What makes them more or less real? Consider two concrete examples of the embodiment of national ideology.

Are nations real?

ecause of their establishment in the political firmament of contemporary society, nations seem or 'feel' so real that we forget most of the nations we take for granted are relatively young constructs. Italy and Germany were fractious, yoked-together provinces well into the 19th century. Even the United States only became united by a civil war, and today many Americans still proclaim the virtues of states' rights. During the end of both global conflicts in the 20th century, there was an international debate amongst the victorious map-drawing nations as to what constituted a 'nation' and what types of ethnic, religious, and cultural claims justified a right to sovereignty. "Nationalist claims are focused upon the non-voluntary community of common origin, language, tradition and culture, so that in the classical view…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Israel. 2011. U.S. Department of State. [10 Dec 2011].

 http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3581.htm 

Miscevic, Nenad. 2010. Nationalism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Accessed:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism  / [10 Dec 2011]
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Global Refugee Regime Seems to Be Veering

Words: 10399 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23350149

Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules

As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.

The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…… [Read More]

Sources

Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114

Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.

Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992

Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
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Post War Iraq a Paradox in the Making Legitimacy vs Legality

Words: 14187 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57694954

Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality

The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1

The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990

Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003

Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.

Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
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Nations Formed Through the Combination

Words: 1254 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29086479



Because most of these intrastate conflicts involve identity issues they become intractable quickly. Identity is central to all human beings. It is part of everyone's self-esteem and affects how one interprets the world. This is why in ethnic conflicts the violence intensifies so quickly and strongly. Everyone involved is concerned with his or her personal security. One's home, family, and way of life are in peril. Needless to say, in these type of situations it can be expected the individuals involved will battle with every ounce of their resolve to insure that the factors that formulate their identity are protected. (egan)

Examining conflicts from a structural viewpoint results in a much different result in that the conflict is looked by examining the forces external to the people involved. Little consideration is afforded the involvement of the citizenry and their interests in the conflict. ather, the conflict is viewed through the…… [Read More]

References

Burg, S. "Ethnic Conflict and the Federation of Socialist Yugoslavia." The Journal of Federalism (1977): pp. 139-144.

Healey, J. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class. Pine Forge Press, 2005.

Regan, P. "Conditions of Successful Third Party Intevention in Intrastate Conflicts." The Journal of Conflict Resolution (1996): pp. 336-359.

Silber, L. & Little, a. Yugoslavia: Death of a Nation. Penguin, 1997.
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Strategy Icty and Ictr Introduction

Words: 5032 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26469442

Yet, according to the article, former Yugoslav republics continue in their failure to arrest and hand over inductees, or to investigate and prosecute the war crimes in question. Clearly the counseling provided by the ICTY has been far from adequate, or the countries involved are simply not yet ready to take over the responsibility of prosecution.

The article also cites Amnesty International in a statement that war crime legislation on the domestic level in these countries are frequently not in line with international legislation, and that victim and witness protection programs are far from adequate. Apparently these issues have not been thoroughly investigated before implementing the phases of the completion strategy.

A further flaw in the completion strategy is consensus, or the lack thereof. According to the ecurity Council Report (2007), the various countries are in disagreement on how to proceed after December 2010. There are also differences regarding the…… [Read More]

Sources

Bellinger, John B. 2008, Nov. 14. U.S. Perspectives on International Criminal Justice.  http://www.state.gov/s/l/rls/111859.htm 

Belczyk, Jaclyn. 2008, Dec. 19. ICTY may have to remain open two more years: prosecutor. Paper Chase Newsburst.  http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2008/12/icty-may-have-to-remain-open-two-more.php 

Citizens for Global Solutions. 2008. International Criminal Court: An Overview.  http://www.globalsolutions.org/issues/international_criminal_court 

Coalition for the International Criminal Court. 2008.  http://www.iccnow.org/
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International Relations Challenges in Approaching

Words: 3079 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4328109

Conciliation seems to be more to the purpose, if opposing bodies are expected to work together to govern a country. Humphrey said in his study on From Victim to Victimhood, "By contrast, trials have played a much smaller role during political transition and thus have addressed far fewer victims. They have, however, been very important in re-establishing the authority of law and the state" (2003 184)

hat division of labor among states, international institutions and non-governmental organizations is likely to prove most effective in meeting the challenges of the post-Cold ar era in the future?

George . Bush, President of the United States of America, appears to believe that the United States must police the world, leading other nations into controlling what he considers dangerous policies in other countries, while taking preemptive action against them on his own. hile Bush knows that the laws of war are different from the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bass, Gary J., "Milosevic in the Hague." Foreign Affairs, 00157120, May/Jun2003, Vol. 82, Issue 3.

Decision on the Establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Official Gazette of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, No. 15/2001. 30 March 2001.

Dickinson, Laura a. "The promise of hybrid courts." The American Journal of International Law, Vol 97(2) April 2003.

Freeman, Mark. "Case Study Series: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Selected Developments in Transitional Justice." International Center for Transitional Justice. Oct 2004.
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Social Casualties of War Whether

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73892984



The result was horrifying, when opposing forces destroyed the region with war weaponry, and slaughtered entire villages where mostly women, young children, and the aged remained in their homes while the young divided themselves into the service of the opposing forces (Friedman, 2004). The violations of human rights were on a wide scale, and widespread, with both sides committing atrocities. However, by the time the United Nations intervened with peacekeeping forces, the impact of the war was obvious in the despair and destruction that the UN forces encountered. Families and friendships were destroyed, senseless loss of lives, economic interruption of work and production resulted in the need for humanitarian aid in the way of food, clothing, and to rebuild the infrastructure of the area (Friedman, 2004)..

Slobodan Milosevi? was arrested, and tried before an international tribunal at the Hague, and found guilty of crimes against humanity. "In response to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Duyvesteyn, Isabelle, and Jan Angstrom, eds. Rethinking the Nature of War. London: Frank Cass, 2005. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109146932 .

Friedman, Francine. Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Polity on the Brink. New York: Routledge, 2004. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108775016 .

Lasker, John. "Genocide Not Enough to Send in Troops? Observers Question Bush's Military Deployment to Oil-Rich Africa." Black Enterprise Oct. 2006: 40. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017455433 .

Peterson, Scott. Me against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda: a Journalist Reports from the Battlefields of Africa. New York: Routledge, 2000. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108063184 .
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Geneva Conventions Enacted After the Horrors of

Words: 5201 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48124855

Geneva Conventions

Enacted after the horrors of World War II demonstrated the limitations of earlier treaties, the Geneva Convention of 1949 have become one of the preeminent international standards dictating the behavior of combatants and the treatment of individuals in the context of international and other conflicts, to the point that it has become a part of generally accepted customary international law. Building upon three earlier treaties signed in Geneva, the Convention of 1949 outlined rigorous standards defining and governing the treatment of civilian and military prisoners, the wounded, and civilians found in and around the war zone. Over the course of the last decade, the centrality of the Geneva Convention to international war and politics has come to the fore as a result of debates surrounding the relevance of the Convention to the United States execution of the War on Terror, especially in regards to the treatment and detainment…… [Read More]

References

(2008). Senior u.s. officials acknowledge waterboarding of three suspected terrorists; administration defends practice. The American Journal of International Law, 102 (2),

359-361.

Bellamhy, A. (2008). Security and the war on terror. New York: Routledge.

Bugnion, F. (2000). The geneva conventions of 12 august 1949: From the 1949 diplomatic conference to the dawn of the new millennium. International Affairs, 76 (1), 41-50.
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Executive Legislative Relations in Post Communist Europe

Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73841987

Executive-Legislative relations in Post-Communist Europe

There are two main methods for appointing the executive, the one used in parliamentary systems, the other one in presidential systems. According to the parliamentary method the people first elects the legislature, which, in turn, appoints the executive. In a pure parliamentary system the executive, furthermore, can remain in office only as long as it enjoys the support, or confidence, of a majority in the legislature. This requirement is often referred to as the parliamentary principle. According to the presidential method separate popular elections are held for appointing a president and, thereby, the rest of the executive. In a presidential country, there are thus two main types of popular elections, those for electing the executive and those for electing the legislature.

As for methods for appointing the members of the legislature there are, again, essentially two types of methods. First there are the majoritarian methods…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1) McCauley, M., Directory of Russian MPs (1992)

2) Jamestown Foundation Monitor www.jamestown.org

3) www.moscowtimes.ru ( Moscow Times)

4) www.insideworld.com ( Reuters)
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Kosovo War

Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27675563

strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…… [Read More]

References

Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web:  http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia  / history.html

Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12

Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)

Need reference for W.U.
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America as a Multinational Society

Words: 3513 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55099431

In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."

Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.

Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.

Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
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Ethics in Software and Copyright Infringements in the Balkans

Words: 2616 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27468554

Ethics in Software and Copyright Infringements in the Balkans

The first point one has to look at is the situation in these countries and their position in terms of development as also the size of the potential market. There are a total of eight countries and most of them have been in political turmoil till about ten years ago. These countries are all breakaway portions of other bigger countries, or the soviet empire. The software market is small but there are already participants in it from United States which means that there is a lot of future potential development. On the side of the governments there are definite efforts to legalize the situation of software, though full achievement will take quite sometime. At the same time, there are a lot of conflicts within the big names in the industry -- Microsoft and Linux -- and this is leading to advantages…… [Read More]

References

A country-by-country looks at the Balkans. (1999) The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from www.csmonitor.com/durable/1999/03/16/p12s2.shtml Accessed on 2 August, 2005

58 items found for Balkans. Retrieved from http://search.ebay.com/Balkans Accessed on 1 August, 2005

Jovanovski, Mirche. (2003) Government Chooses Microsoft, Irritating the Open Source Software Proponents. Retrieved from http://www.realitymacedonia.org.mk/web/news_page.asp?nid=2767 Accessed on 1 August, 2005

Mellon supports expanding subsidiaries with Altitude Software. (2005) Retrieved from  http://www.strategiy.com/inews.asp?id=20050711092211  Accessed on 1 August, 2005
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Cold War it Is True That the

Words: 550 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37691350

Cold War

It is true that the West became more suspicious when the soviets began installing puppet governments in neighboring nations. Going back to the annals of history, Yugoslavia is one such country where the Soviets installed a puppet government. When Yugoslavia was pressured by the German Nazi government in 1941, she formed an alliance with the Axis of Powers. However, the Yugoslav military formed resistance armies. This is when the Partisans organized by Josip Broz Tito came into perspective. The Partisans overthrew the pro-German government. Tito's government was the puppet of the Soviet considering the fact that he was a very close ally of the Soviet. Germany later invaded Yugoslavia and took over power.

In 1943, the Partisans with assistance from United States and other allies freed Belgrade and established communist rule there. These developments coupled with the division of Germany into German Federal Republic and the German Democratic…… [Read More]

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What Determines Success in the FIBA World Championship

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29430390

FIBA orld Championship

History of the FIBA

Factors for Success

Data Driven Approaches

NBA Players

Team Culture

2013 Rankings 15

The FIBA has become the premier international basketball league in the world. Over the course of the last few generations the tournaments have been increasing their viewership and fan base. The level of competition in this league has also increased. Since 1989 the league has opened the doors to NBA players which not only increased the league's competitiveness but elevated the popularity of it as well. There are many different approaches to trying to discern which teams will be successful in the league. This analysis will look at statistical approaches as well as cultural approaches to provide insights into what constitutes a successful team in the FIBA.

History of the FIBA

The International Basketball Federation (French: Federation Internationale de Basketball), more commonly known by the French acronym FIBA, is an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canada, G. Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America. Beacon Press, 2010.

Card, D. And G. Dahl. "Family Violence and Football: The Effect of Unexpected Emotional Cues on Violent Behavior." The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011): 103-143.

Chiari, M. "FIBA Asia 2013: Top Stars to Watch in Basketball World Cup Qualifying Tournament." 3 August 2013. Bleacher Report. Online. 5 December 2013.

Debate.org. "Are the Yankees the best baseball team ever?" N.d. Debate.org. Online. 4 December 2013.
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International Judges the Legal Neutrality

Words: 1151 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65544764

In these instances, a state might claim that the international community has acted beyond its jurisdiction as limited in Article 38 by allowing some action. Such an action is exemplified by the dispute between the NAT and Yugoslavia regarding ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. Here, Yugoslavia filed an application for proceedings through the ICJ against the United States for its use of force in Kosovo, invoking Article 38. Accordingly, the ICJ reports that "as to Article 38, paragraph 5, of the Rules of Court, it provides that when a State files an application against another State which has not accepted the jurisdiction of the Court, the application is transmitted to that other State, but no action is taken in the proceedings unless and until that State has accepted the Court's jurisdiction for the purposes of the case." (ICJ, p. 1) the ICJ rejected this application on the grounds that it lacked…… [Read More]

Online at  http://books.google.com/books?id=TkW0I_sthHsC&pg=PA215&lpg=PA215&dq=palmeter+the+WTO+Legal+System:++Sources+of+Law&source=bl&ots=Ekdnv1cG7I&sig=5vLFKzcHmbYNFuZcYQFHbS5qWes&hl=en&ei=JZIkTeCdJ4X7lwf47Ji6AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false 

Perkins, S.C. (1996). International Human Rights Law and Article 38(1) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice. Institute on Public International Law of the American Association of Law Libraries.

Online at  http://intelligent-internet.info/law/icjart.html
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Political Psychology Has Always Been

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 76136874

A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'

A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…… [Read More]

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History of Albania Is a

Words: 1468 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 98413026

The desperation of its populace has meant that Albania continues to lag more successful former communist nations like Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia in modernization and quality of life, although recently the Albanian government has taken measures to curb violent crime, and instituted fiscal reform packages to reduce corruption, curtail the 'gray' or quasi-illegal activities supporting the economy, and to attract foreign investments. Still, much of Albania's most talented individuals often move abroad, although they often send money home. It is estimated that the Albanian "economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy," which also helps offset the towering trade deficit ("Albania," 2008, CIA Fact Book).

The one bright spot has been Albania's relatively smooth transition to democracy, as it is has not been afflicted by the xenophobic uprisings that characterized the dissolution of neighboring Yugoslavia. Economic corruption has been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albania. (2008). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html 

Albania." (2008). Infoplease. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at  http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107268.html 

Albania under communist rule." (2005, November 7). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at ( http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r-frd/cstdy:@field  (DOCID+al0059)

The Balkan Wars and creation of an independent Albania." (2005, November 7). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at (
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Political Science United States Participation

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71236377



orks Cited

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Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.

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Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.

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Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.

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Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.

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Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.

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Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.

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Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.

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Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

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Talbot, Karen.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

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Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021483873

Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
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Nixon's Policy Toward the U S S R

Words: 898 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95615030

hen a progressive Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the fall of the Soviet Union was immanent and inevitable.

After the fall of the Soviet Union under Reagan's watch, his Vice President Bush inherited the problem of dealing with a fragmented Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Bush Sr.'s foreign policy toward Moscow was largely passive, arguably much more passive than any of his predecessors were because the Cold ar was over and the threat of nuclear war temporarily set aside. Moreover, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was still taking place and Bush Sr. watched while new nation-states emerged out of the Soviet Bloc. However, Bush Sr. negotiated nuclear disarmament treaties with Gorbachev and his successor Boris Yeltsin and willingly recognized the independence of many formerly Soviet republics.

Relations with Russia again grew tense under President Clinton largely because of the conflicts that arose in the Balkans. The Soviet Union…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bill Clinton's War in Yugoslavia." Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at  http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Yugoslavia/BillClintonsWar_Yugo.html 

George Bush Sr. On Foreign Policy." On the Issues. Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at  http://www.ontheissues.org/Celeb/George_Bush_Sr__Foreign_Policy.htm
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Austria Which Influenced Hitler and

Words: 5425 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6458210

During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.

With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.

The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.

Conservative Ascendancy in Austria

The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burant, S.R. Hungary: A Country Study. Washington: Library of Congress, 1989.

Campbell, D.P. The SHADOW of the HABSBURGS: MEMORY and NATIONAL IDENTITY in AUSTRIAN POLITICS and EDUCATION 1918-1955. PhD Thesis, College Park: University of Maryland, 2006.

Grandner, M. Conservative Social Politics in Austria, 1880-1890. Working Papaer 94-2, Vienna: University of Vienna, 1994.

Habe, H. Our Love Affair with Germany. New York: Putnam, 1953.
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U S Sanctions Economic Sanctions Are an Important

Words: 3545 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68199550

U.S. Sanctions

Economic sanctions are an important tool of U.S. foreign policy. They are used for a variety of reasons and often have substantial repercussions for countries on the receiving ends. Sanctions are used as a way to stop objectionable actions of foreign governments such as: to stop military adventures, arms proliferation, support of terrorism and drug trafficking, and human rights abuses among others. (Department of the Treasury website, 2002) "In conjunction with diplomacy and other measures, sanctions seek to demonstrate U.S. resolve and express outrage, change the behavior of the target country, and deter other countries from resorting to similar actions in the future." (Carter, 1988)

"Sanctions provide a middle road response between diplomacy and military action." (Day, 1992) Ineffective sanctions have led to U.S. military intervention in Panama, Haiti, Somalia, and Iraq, just to name a few places, and the consequences have been quite harsh. Not to mention…… [Read More]

References

1. Carter, Barry. International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

2. Clark, Ramsey, The Children are Dying The Impact of Sanctions on Iraq, 1996, WorldView Forum Inc., New York.

3. Day, Erin. Economic Sanctions Imposed by the United States Against Specific Countries: 1979 Through 1992. CRS Report for Congress 92-631 F. Congressional Research Service, August 10, 1992.

4. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control. "Foreign Assets Control Regulations." Available at  http://www.ustreas.gov/ofac . 21 February 2002.
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European Union Member States Relations With Their Overseas Territories

Words: 17554 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 16781713

political framework of EU and OCT

European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]

References

Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5

Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.

Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
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Joshua's Goldstein Book 5th Edition

Words: 7033 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98881068

history of events in the twentieth century, one might surmise that the twenty-first may not be all that different. Why? ecause human nature and the pursuit of self-interest has not changed from one century to the next. To explain what drives international relations, Joshua Goldstein provides a brief history of the world, in addition to information about the geographical features and the consequences of different nation's economies. (Goldstein, 2003) The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by relative peace in the world. The Franco-Prussian wars were at least three decades into the past. Nobody would envision that the worst horrors of a global scale wars were in the near future. In as much as Goldstein avers that the First World War was wholly unnecessary and it was, at least in its inception, a macho exercise (p. 37), one can believe that war is part of human nature.

After the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goldstein, J.S. International Relations. 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2003.

Tacitus, C., and Birley, A.R. Agricola; and Germany. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
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The concept of proportionality in war

Words: 3930 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60461985

Proportionality in War

The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).

Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com.  http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/ .

"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense.  http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .

Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
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Abkhazia Russia and Georgia Ethnic

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36049728

(orster, p. 1) Still, to a much larger extent that we will see applies to Abkhazia, the constitutive view is seen as much more valid and valuable to the international community. Here, we consider the case history offered by the statehood of Croatia and Bosnia/Herzegovina. According to orster, "the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the International Court of Justice's neighbor in the Hague is also supportive of the constitutive theory. In the ?elebi-i case, the I.C.T.Y. held that the conflict within the former Yugoslavia was only of an international nature after international recognition of the independent statehood of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina." (orster, p. 1)

Though there would be dissenting opinion on this stance within the International Courts, it does hold that at present, there is no obligation on the part of Georgia to recognize the statehood of Abkhazia. Moreover, it is clear that an assertion on…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Fabry, M. (2007). Secession and State Recognition in International Relations and Law. American Political Science Association.

Online at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/1/2/0/1/p212013_index.html

Moravcsik, a. (1992). Liberalism and International Relations Theory. Harvard University, Paper No. 92-6.

Online at www.princeton.edu/~amoravcs/library/liberalism_working.pdf
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Theoretical Applications on Why Bill

Words: 1905 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3464459

Therefore Clinton can be said to have generally followed a realist foreign policy program in Kosovo, yet due to changes in the international system which made it problematic to cut too many deals with dictators and war-criminals like Milosevich, a more conflictive approach to the issue was created. National interest, while predominant, was no longer the only consideration.

One of the problems with a constructivist understanding of the war though, is to what extent the international system allows for freedom of choice. If constructivism were true, then there were no "real" constraints on the actions of ill Clinton during the crisis. Yet sending ground troops in for example, would have been politically infeasible, not only due to American public opinion, but because Russia might have seen that as a threat to its interests in the region and moved to act in a provocative way. The point is then, that if…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bacevich, a.J., and Eliot a. Cohen. 2001. War over Kosovo. Columbia University Press.

Morgenthau, Hans J. 1978. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 5th ed. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.

Sell, Louis. 2003. Slobodan Milosevic and the destruction of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press, September 1.

Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization 46, no. 2 (Spring): 391-425.
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UNMIK as Established by UN

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90337779



Gradually, over the eight years since it was first instated, as Kosovo's Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) were established "UNMIK has moved back from an executive role to one of monitoring and support to local institutions. UNMIK, in its present form, is now into its final chapter before status resolution" ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009). Customs, banking regulation, and general governmental functions are some of the other responsibilities assumed by local authorities since the establishment of UN control. However, the UNMIK Department of Justice (DOJ) continues to prosecute serious crimes, "including cases of corruption, terrorism, war crimes and March 2004 riot cases" and other cases that are the fall-out of the type of longstanding ethnic rivalries that precipitated UN intervention and the creation of UNMIK in the first place ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009).

Although the UN has declared UNMIK as success, in recent years, Kosovo state authorities have begun…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Ban Ki-moon: Kosovo wants to discontinue UNMIK mission." New Kosovo Report.

March 19, 2009. March 31, 2009.

 http://www.newkosovareport.com/200903191675/Politics/Ban-Ki-moon-Kosovo-wants-to-discontinue-the-UNMIK-presence.html 

"UNMIK -- at a glance." UN Website. 1999. March 31, 2009.
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The Challenges and Prospects in

Words: 2209 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85036027


And though there are many who will view the Clinton administration's
disruption of ethnic tensions in Kosovo as one of the first examples of the
Marshall Plan template in a post-Cold ar atmosphere, Buchanan (2002)
speaks of the 1999 invasion by noting that "for the first time, NATO, a
defensive alliance, took offensive action against a country putting down an
insurrection inside its own territory." (Buchanan, 29) This description of
the struggle in Kosovo as an 'insurrection,' is one that of course fails to
acknowledge the multitude of Yugoslavia's state level crimes against the
ethnic-Albanians which, in spite of their majority population in Kosovo,
had been reduced to an ethnic-minority with few state rights. The abuses
which had created hundreds of thousands of refugees would have, under
Buchanan's purview, continued unabated as, likely, ethnically driven
responses to aggression on either side would certainly have produced some
level of genocide. Thus,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bass, G. (2003). Milosevic in the Hague. Foreign Affairs, 82(3), 82-96.

Buchanan, Pat. (2002). A Republic, Not An Empire: Reclaiming America's
Destiny. Regnery Publishing, Inc.

Kunz, D. (1997). The Marshall Plan Reconsidered. Foreign Affairs, 76
(3), 162-170.
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United States Accept Reject International Criminal

Words: 2465 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 34035114

"..three asymmetric methods that could be used to exploit the Court: (1) misusing the Court's investigative processes, (2) filing questionable or fraudulent complaints, and (3) manipulating mass media (Austin, W. Chadwick, Kolenc and Anthony Barone, 2006, p. 291)."

Finally, the issue of how the court might deal with the problem of international terrorism is not well understood (Yarnold, Barbara, 1991). The court's authority to extradite and prosecute terrorists from third world countries needs to be better defined Yarnold, p. 1). The United States has not signed on to the ome Statute, and understanding the U.S. role of protecting its own, should the U.S. continue to reject

The ome Statute is becoming clouded by the strength and power of the international community and courts (Dietz, Jeffrey, 2004, p. 137). Under the powers of the ICC, any American prosecuted in the court would be denied the protections guaranteed Americans under the Bill…… [Read More]

References

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Aksar, Y. (2004). Implementing International Humanitarian Law: From the AD Hoc Tribunals to a Permanent International Criminal Court. London: F. Cass. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108538096 

Austin, W.C., & Kolenc, a.B. (2006). Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? The International Criminal Court as a Weapon of Asymmetric Warfare. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(2), 291+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5016812758 

Danner, a.M. (2003). Navigating Law and Politics: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court and the Independent Counsel. Stanford Law Review, 55(5), 1633+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006263
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Political Science Multinational Conflict Management

Words: 1639 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48112331



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Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.

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A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001001232

Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001974296

Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105505822

Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95721506

David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259

Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259

Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023650505

Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
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Cold War and Its Aftermath

Words: 3171 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70876456

That intervention considered, it is fair to say that on the one hand, the fact that the U.S. came out as the winner of the Cold War was obvious, and on the other hand that a certain change had occurred in terms of the rule of the international law.

The following years saw an increase in the intrastate violence, taking into account the Somalia crisis, the situations in South Africa, the genocide in Rwanda, or the war in the former Yugoslavia. All these elements of the international political scene were signs of the power vacuum that was created as a result of the fall of the higher authority in the communist world, the U.S.S.R. More precisely, although the cases in Africa were in fact reminiscences of post colonial revolts, the situations worsened as there was no authority to report to in terms of international situations. However, a certain modification did…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Buzan, Barry et al. European security order recast: scenarios for the post-cold war era. London; Pinter, 1990.

Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.

Graebner, Norman a. "Cold War Origins and the Continuing Debate." The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 13, No. 1., 1969, pp. 123-132.

Guzzini, Stefano. Realism in international relations and international political economy: the continuing story of a death foretold. London: Routledge, 1998.
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Stephen Dorril Did the British

Words: 1675 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3990768

S. would exhibit in this regard. hen it came to capturing "knowledgeable experts and technologically useful materials" that would be useful in rocket technology, the MI6 professionals were "either too gentlemanly or else totally undisciplined" (Dorril 137). And indeed, Britain came in "second" to the U.S. In securing rocket technology, and moreover, "British rocket experts simply handed over to U.S. intelligence officers nearly 90% of their target intelligence and received little in return" (Dorril 137). This was a failure of enormous import.

On page 139, Dorril goes on to discuss the MI6 mission to gather German nuclear intelligence and in April 1945, the British - this time not allowing the Americans to step in ahead of them - smartly brought ten captured German nuclear scientists back to England and placed them in a country house near Cambridge. The house was wired and so all the conversations between the "Uranium Club"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dorril, Stephen. MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service.

London: The Free Press, 2000.

Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service (London: The Free Press, 2000), 10.
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Kosovo and Serbia Conflict of

Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3828098



As NATO plans to "intensify the air campaign," Clinton said the operations are working. "Each day our military campaign takes a toll on Serbia's machinery of repression (Clinton warns Congress not to double Kosovo appropriations request http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/04/28/kosovo/

April 28, 1999 Web posted at: 6:24 P.M. EDT (2224 GMT))."

He believed that ground forces were not needed and that continued air strikes would bring about the desired result of having Serbian forces leave Kosovo.

Clinton assured all involved if he believed ground troops were needed he would seek advice from Congress, to which the House of epresentatives decided to require its authorization if ground troops were requested.

As the conflict continued members of Congress began to assert that Clinton was actually committing acts of war, without the approval of Congress, by calling it something other than war (Albright to Congress: "We cannot fail' in Kosovo (http://www.counterpunch.org/serbia.html).According to Clinton the U.S. was…… [Read More]

References

Clinton warns Congress not to double Kosovo appropriations request http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/04/28/kosovo/

April 28, 1999

Albright to Congress: "We cannot fail' in Kosovo

http://www5.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/04/21/kosovo.congress/
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Institutions Describe the Characteristics of

Words: 2557 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91351476

After the WWII, there was need to bring back peace to Europe in a lasting manner. There was need to bring a halt to international hatred and bring conditions necessary for a lasting peace into being. This was seen to fruition in the 1950s and one of the vehicles towards achieving this was European Union.

The wars that took place un Europe highly ravaged the economy of the country hence there was need to revitalize the economy of the region hence the formation of the EU was not only a political device to forging peace but an economic tool to ensure that the natural resources like coal that are found in abundance in Europe are well utilized to bring the economy of the region to higher levels than even before the war regime (EUOPA, 2011). These were the two major reasons for the formation of the EU apart from the…… [Read More]

References

EUROPA, (2011). Why the European Union. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from  http://europa.eu/abc/12lessons/lesson_1/index_en.htm 

Conjecture Corporation, (2011). What is a Nation-State? Retrieved September 14, 2011 from  http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-nation-state.htm 

Global Policy Forum, (2011). What Is a "Nation"? Retrieved September 16, 2011 from  http://www.globalpolicy.org/nations-a-states/what-is-a-nation.html 

Friedrich Balke, (2007). Restating sovereignty: On America's Regaining the Old Sense of the Political. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from  http://www.parrhesiajournal.org/parrhesia03/parrhesia03_balke.pdf
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Human Costs of World War

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97682137

)

Note that the figure given in the above source corresponds with the figure of Russian military dead in Table one, which further adds validity to that table.

With regard to Germany, there are a number of disparate figures and tables. The figures given from intensive research of actual wartime and administrative documents are as follows:

Total Wehrmacht Losses, September 1, 1939-January 31, 1945: Eastern Front 1,105,987

Scandinavia 16,639 - Southwest 50,481 Southeast 19,235 - West 107,042 - Navy 48,904 - Air Forces 138,596. Total Wehrmacht 1,810,061 in the West Since D-Day (June 6, 1944), German Armed Forces Lost: Army 66,321 Air Force 11,066 Additional Total Deaths 2,001,399.

Using these monthly rates, the total Wehrmacht toll reached 2,150,000, of which 1,960,000 were killed in action.

Sorge 62)

The following extract shows the detailed way in which this information was gathered.

The German army, all through the war, maintained a monthly…… [Read More]

Bibliography www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24355091

Chambers, John Whiteclay and David Culbert, eds. World War II, Film, and History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24132278 

Divine, Robert a., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.

Gregorovich a.

World War II in Ukraine. Accessed November 15, 2004. http://www.infoukes.com/history/ww2/page-29.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37750012
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Albanian Immigrants

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16850199

Albanian Immigrants

According to the New York City Department of City Planning's publication, titled, "The Newest New Yorkers," between 1990 and 1994, some 925 Albanians immigrated to New York City, and between 1995 and 1996, Albanian immigration to New York City increased by 154.9%, largely due to the escalating violence in the region of Kosovo (Gorman pp).

There are many success stories among the Albanian immigrants, such as Haki Krasnigi from Kosovo (Casey pp). . He is the owner of Sal's Pizzeria. Although he comes from a country where pizza is mostly unheard of and dishes such as byrek and grosh are the norm, Krasnigi speaks Albanian in the kitchen and is very passionate concerning the fate of his native country (Casey pp). The 52-year-old immigrant is only one among scores of other Albanian immigrants who have discovered that twirling pizza dough is one way to succeed in America (Casey…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Casey, Michael. "Albanian Immigrants Spin Success."

The Record (Bergen County, NJ). June 12, 2001. Retrieved October 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Fischer, Bernd J. "Albanian refugees seeking political asylum in the United

States: process and problems." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. January 01, 2005. Retrieved October 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
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Cold War Begin After the

Words: 2895 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14271050

On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:

The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…… [Read More]

References

Berkowitz, Bruce D. Richelson, Jeffrey T. The CIA vindicated: the Soviet collapse was predicted. The National Interest, No. 41, Fall 1995

Morewood, Steven Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism History Review, No. 31, 1998

Fleming, D.F. The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960 Vol. 2 Doubleday, 1961

Militant Vol. 61, no. 24. 23 June 1997
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Upstairs Analysis To the One Upstairs God

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 43524541

Upstairs analysis

"to the One Upstairs:" God as Boss

In "To the One Upstairs," Charles Simic personifies God by comparing the deity to a boss at an office or workplace. While Simic's references and analogy may be considered to be somewhat unorthodox, and possibly heretical and blasphemous. There are several aspects of the poem that help to make it unique and discriminate it from other literary works. Some elements that allow "To the One Upstairs" to be engaging and draw the reader in include the poem's theme, the personification of God, and the analogy that Simic is able to draw between a boss and God.

"To the One Upstairs" draws upon Simic's personal background and his beliefs on religion, and God, are reflected in this highly religious poem. Though the poem does not name God as its subject, it is highly religious, a theme that carries through the entire poem.…… [Read More]

References

Charles Simic. (n.d.). Poets.org: From the Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 9 January

2012 from,  http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/27 .

Simic, C. (1999)."To the One Upstairs." From Jackstraws.
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Trafficking in Developing Countries

Words: 3266 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84946528

Dreams Deferred

Trafficking and Prostitution in the Developing orld

The world can be a harsh place, especially if you live in a developing nation, and especially if you are a woman. Lack of food and adequate housing, lack of access to good educational and medical facilities, an oppressive, often male-dominated social system - these are just some of the problems faced by millions of women each and every day of their lives. For most there is no hope of escape. Each new dawn brings with it the same sense of despair; the same feeling that one is a prisoner of one's fate. Change is slow in the developing world. Progress, if it comes at all, comes only very gradually, painfully, and often at a high price. Many of the nations of the Third orld were only recently communist, or colonies of the estern powers. Many still have one foot in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Binder, David. "Country Report: Albania - Country Sends Its Own to Europe and Beyond." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL:  http://www.msnbc.com/news/736680.asp 

2. Binder, David. "Country report: Bosnia - In a Post-War Zone the Sex trade Flourishes." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL:  http://www.msnbc.com/news/736679.asp 

3. Binder, David. "Country Report: Yugoslavia - After Milosevic, Country Still Mired in Crime." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL:  http://www.msnbc.com/news/736678.asp .

4. Binder, David and Mendenhall, Preston. "Sex, Drugs, and Guns in the Balkans." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL:
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Risk That One Needs to Be Concerned

Words: 2127 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43954874

risk that one needs to be concerned with when selling a franchise (and this is a general case, not only the case of Germany) is that the franchiser (that is, the person who buys the franchise) may not fulfill all his contractual obligations. These include a certain quality standard and a brand image of the mother company (the franchisor). This obviously may lead to the fact that the customers will associate with the mother company a certain level of quality that is less than that agreed upon and less that the one the company actually has in the country of origin. This can cause serious prejudice to the brand image. If we think of a classical case of franchising, McDonald's, a level of quality may include a certain degree of organization, in order to avoid long lines, a certain quality of the products (for example, the franchise contract foresees that…… [Read More]

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Democracy and Representative Government Central Inspirations for

Words: 2479 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74626142

democracy and representative government central inspirations for European feminists in the 19th and early 20th centuries? Were there other issues that inspired the feminists?

urning in the heart of each person is the desire to be free and to be recognized as a valuable part of society while at the same time receiving recognition as an individual. This desire is not trained into us by our society, because regardless of the social organization, or culture, all men and women feel this burning desire equally. The desire to be free, independent and recognized as valuable is a part of what separated men and women from animals. We are important, and our contribution to the social order is an important process by which we make carve out our own identify, and self-worth.

However, this desire for identity and recognition should not be confused with, nor forcibly molded into a desire for sameness…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sources of the Western Tradition: From the Renaissance to the Present, 5th edition, Volume 2 - written by Marvin Perry, Joseph R. Peden & Theodore H. Von Laue - 2003

History of World Societies: Since 1500, 6th Edition, Volume 2 - Written by John P. McKay, Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Patricia Buckley Ebrey - 2004
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Religion and Wars

Words: 5869 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87135313

relationship exists between difference of religion and the occurrence of civil wars within societies. The relationship between religious groups to society can be defined against the backdrop of war. Powerful emotions surround both conflict and military conflict (Yinger, 1946). A direct relationship has been recognized for several year regarding religion and violence. Students of organized religion "have frequently pointed out the ease with which most church leaders shift, at the outbreak of war, from an explicit antiwar position to a vigorous pro-war policy" (Yinger, p. 176). However, despite the seemingly strong tie between religion and war, it is critical to also acknowledge that while religion seems a backdrop for many wars, many other factors have contributed as well. Political aspirations and agendas have had as much to do with war as religion. The complex intermingling of these many different factors will be explored in greater detail below.

ecent research suggests…… [Read More]

References

Allen, John L. (N.D.) "As Vatican Calls for Peace, diplomat plans defense of 'preventive war.' {Online} Available:  http://www.natcath.com/NCR/Online/archives/013103/013103j.htm 

Armstrong, K. (1991). "Peace in Palestine." Holy War. New York: Doubleday. p4.

Clausewitz, Carl Von. (1992). "What is War?" On War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976). 75-89; excerpt reprinted in U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, C610 Syllabus/Book of Readings. 205011. Fort Leavenworth: USACGSC, July 1992.

Chandler, D.G. (1996). "The English Civil Wars, 'Islam vs. Christianity'." Atlas of Military Strategy. Boston: Sterline Publishing Company. Pp.30-33., 54-55
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Primordialism Ethnicity Is One of the More

Words: 4088 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54926074

Primordialism

Ethnicity is one of the more fluid concepts in sociology because one's ethnicity is largely defined by membership in a social group. The social group shares a common background, whether through experience or ancestry and they share characteristics that set them apart from other groups. Many times these characteristics are stereotyped, but the stereotypes are derived from a reality where the majority of members of the group do, indeed, share those characteristics. Moreover, one's ethnicity is not limited to a single background. A person can have multiple ethnicities by having a family that derives from multiple different ethnic traditions. However, a person can also have multiple ethnicities because larger ethnic groups can be further subdivided into smaller ethnic groups, sometimes referred to as tribes.

Ethnicity is also intertwined with race, which is an interesting concept. Genetic analysis has revealed that there is greater similarity than difference among humans from…… [Read More]

References

Bayer, M. 2009. "Reconsidering primordialism: An alternative approach to the study of ethnicity." Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1639-1657.

Caliendo, S. & Mcilwain, C. 2011. The Routledge Companion to Race and Ethnicity, London:

Routledge.

Cornell, S. & Hartmann, D. 2007. Ethnicity and Race: Making Identities in a Changing World,
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Rise and Decline of Nationalism

Words: 2708 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76739633

The nationalism furthered by Hamas is a direct salvo against oppression and occupation. Its foundation is premised on blame and hatred of the "other." Again, instability leads the uncertain from away from foreign and in the direction of the known, this being especially powerful, when meshed with the concrete assuagements of religion.

The efficacy of religion as an instrument of nationalist ideology can also be seen in the Islamist movement. hile lacking a state, there is still clearly an Arab nation which coheres to a distaste of foreign influence. The Al-Qaeda organization seems to be premised on exactly this, with Osama Bin Laden's impetus being derived from a scorn of estern presence in Saudi Arabia, and moreover, the Muslim world. Religion, here, is used to offer succor. It is analogous to the comfort provided in pre-ar Germany of through the idea of a superior kultur.

Muslim communities scattered about the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boose, Lynda E. 2002. Crossing the river drina: bosnian rape camps, turkish impalement, and serb cultural memory. Signs 28(1), 71-99.

Brinkman, Richard, L. (2008). Globalization and the nation-state: dead or alive. Journal of Economic Issues, 42(2), 425-434.

Kuzio, Taras. (2008). Democratic breakthroughs and revolutions in five postcommunist countries: comparative perspectives on the fourth wave. Demokratizatsiya, 16(1), 97-109.

Molchanov, Mikhail, A. (2000). Post communist nationalism as a power resource: a russia-ukraine comparison. Nationalities Papers, 28(2), 263-288.