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Calculate Touring Enterprises' weighted average cost of capital (WACC).
Work as follows: first, compute the after-tax cost of debt, then compute the cost of equity.
WACC = E/V x Re + D/V x Rd x (1 - Tc)
Re = cost of equity
Rd = cost of debt
E = market value of the firm's equity
D = market value of the firm's debt
V = E + D = firm value
E/V = percentage of financing that is equity
D/V = percentage of financing that is debt
Tc = corporate tax rate
Cost of equity 5%
Cost of debt 10%
Total Equity- 7 million
Total debt- 18 million
Total 25 million
Determine the weightings of debt and equity in the capital structure.
Equity -28% (7 divided by 25)
Using your answers to the above questions, calculate the WACC
WACC = E/V x Re + D/V x Rd x (1 - Tc )
(7/25) x 5% + (18/25) x 10% x (1- .35)= 6.08%
If Touring Enterprises were to increase the percentage of debt in its capital structure, what would happen to the WACC?
The WACC would decline as debt financing is cheaper overall than equity financing. Furthermore, equity finances a large portion of the company. By increasing the cheaper debt financings, the overall WACC is lower as the equity portion declines.
Identify and explain the benefits and risks of debt financing.
Debt financing allows the business to have more control. The business does not have investors or partners to answer to. The business owns all the profit you make. If the company finances the business using debt, the interest you repay on your loan is tax-deductible. This means that small businesses are shielded, in some respects, from certain taxes and lowers your tax liability every year. Your interest is usually based on the prime interest rate. The lender from whom the company borrows money from does not share in the profits. In the instance of the above example, the company is more than double financed through debt than through equity. The company, although it pays a larger percentage to bond holders, is maintaining the ownership claim to earnings of the business.
Disadvantages of Debt Financing
The disadvantages of borrowing money for a small business may be great. You may have large loan payments at precisely the time you need funds for start-up costs. If you don't make loan payments on time to credit cards or commercial banks, you can ruin your credit rating and make borrowing in the future difficult or impossible. If you don't make your loan payments on time to family and friends you can strain those relationships. For a new business, commercial banks may require you to pledge your personal assets before they will give you a loan. If your business goes under, you will lose your personal assets. Any time you use debt financing, you are running the risk of bankruptcy. The more debt financing you uses, the higher the risk of bankruptcy. Such is the case in the above example. The company is largely financed through debt. In the event of adverse economic situations, the company may be unable to make timely interest payments.
If the Fed decides to raise interest rates next year, what effect would rising rates have upon the following?
Consumer financing for big-ticket items such as autos and homes
Higher interest rates could affect demand for big tick items such as homes and autos. For one, higher interest rates could make borrowing more expensive for consumers. This could potentially allocate consumers as loans are not as affordable. Monthly payments would also increase due to an increase in interest rates. This ultimately will affect how much debt consumers actually take on. This presents interesting challenges for financing companies who must balance the ability of the consumer to pay with the over interest income that would be gained from the loan. With higher interest rates, companies may also need to set aside higher capital reserves in the event that a default occurs. Provisions for loans losses could ultimately hinder company earnings and profit. As such, the increase risk of default could further increase the cost of financing big-ticket items such as homes and autos. For example, the future value…[continue]
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WACC Bender Initial Investment = $450,000 The Present Value = -$457,630 Net Present Value= -$672,409 Payback = $1,130,039 Annual Depreciation costs = $90,000/year It appears that Bender should not go ahead with this expansion as they will appear to lose nearly $130,000 on this investment. The net present value decision suggests that this project does not stand to make any significant amount of money. If the facility could somehow be salvaged at the end of five
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