Additionally, she found that interdisciplinary units proved monumentally successful in helping teach children; for an inclusive colonial times unit, the children could learn about colonial daily life through completion of temporal everyday chores, cooking meals of the day, and involving themselves in the day-to-day activities that affected colonial children. Additionally, through their own student projects, the children might learn to "initiate and manage complex projects" when they are creating student projects.
Like Gardner, Campbell stresses the role of assessments in helping children progress. She guides the development of assessments that are devised to allow students to show what they have learned. According to Campbell, with an accurate understanding of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, teachers, school administrators, and parents can better understand the learners in their midst. They can allow students to safely explore and learn in many ways, and they can help students direct their own learning. Adults can help students understand and appreciate their strengths, and identify real-world activities that will stimulate more learning.
Walter McKenzie's Multiple Intelligences and Instructional Technology also provides a wealth of ideas on the incorporation of Gardner's theory in the classroom setting, including at the Grammar School level. McKenzie brings together theory and tool for a practical implementation that might benefit all students in the class. He provides a detailed rationale for modifying standard lesson plans that exalt the reading, writing, and arithmetic so prevalent in established curriculum, and even helps teachers decide what intelligences are best incorporated into their unique learning environments. He hails the POMAT method in design, the theory of "backward planning" supported by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins. His book is most useful in the actualization of the multiple intelligence theory in the design of the lesson plan, having the teacher define a lesson's procedure by looking at the objective, materials, and assessment to decide an inclusive consistency of purpose. The book is detail oriented, with organization tips and software suggestions that might help the teacher achieve the ultimate goal of a successful, integral, and extensive lesson plan.
At the college level, Barnard College/Columbia University has implemented a strict multi-intelligence systematic approach to history as realized in the nationally acclaimed "Re-acting to the Past" program. In the classroom setting, students present and debate the classic texts of the core curriculum (Locke's social theories, the texts of the Continental Congress, et al.) from the perspective of the writers and those they addressed; each student takes on a historical role, researchers it, and engages in a reenactment of the past that might allow for a better understanding of the roots that gave way to the future. A Colonial times unit presents the same need but at a much lower age, attention, and ability level; the power of the reenactment idea, however, remains. Having children connect with those of the past is a key to understanding that which came before them, and doing so through the multiple intelligence theory is a key to their success.
Armstrong, Thomas. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994.
Armstrong, Thomas. 7 Kinds of Smart: Identifying and Developing Your Many Intelligences. New York: Plume, 1993.
Armstrong, Thomas. In Their Own Way: Discovering and Encouraging Your Child's Personal Learning Style. New York: Tarcher/Putnam, 1987.
Armstrong, Thomas. "Multiple Intelligences: Seven Ways to Approach Curriculum." Educational Leadership, November, 1994. (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Multiple Intelligences CD-ROM, and Multiple Intelligences Video Series; 1250 N. Pitt St., Alexandria, VA 22314-1453).
Carroll, Kelly, and Witherspoon, J.A., M.G., and T.L. NETS*S Curriculum Series: Multidisciplinary Units for Grades 3-5 Eugene, or: International Society for Technology in Education, 2002.
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic, 1983.
Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic, 1993.
Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2000.
National Professional Resources, 25 South Regent St., Port Chester, NY 10573,. Producer of several videos on MI including, Howard Gardner, "How Are Kids Smart?" Jo Gusman, "MI and the Second Language Learner," and Thomas Armstrong, Multiple Intelligences: Discovering the Giftedness in All."
New City School, Celebrating Multiple Intelligences (5209 Waterman Ave., St. Louis, MO 63108).
Skylight Publications, 200 E. Wood St., Suite 250, Palatine, IL 60067 (div. Simon and Schuster). Publisher of many MI materials.
Waterhouse, S. The Power of eLearning: The Essential Guide for Teaching in the Digital Age. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon, 2004.
Wenger, McDermott, and Snyder, E., R., and W.M. Cultivating Communities of Practice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.
Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2000.p. 33.
Gardner, Intelligence Reframed, p. 41-43. Also:
Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in…