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They do produce surpluses, and are more sophisticated in what holds them together (beliefs, etc.). The Hutterites are male-dominated, and have a central leader (Chief) and two assistants. They stratify jobs into expertise (Hog Boss, Corn Boss, etc.), remain rural, and practice a near total community of goods - everything is owned by the group (their interpretation of Acts 2-5). They do have a limit of about 20 families (around 250 individuals) until a daughter colony is produced. Genetically, we know that this number ensures a viability of population, but the Hutterites reasoning is more traditional. They remain together largely because of their belief in pacifism and the literal interpretation of the Bible (History and Information , 2006).
3.What kinds of evidence have been examined to try to determine the time of origin of modern human language? What answer to this question do these suggest?
Comparative anatomy is one of the ways in which anthropologists attempt to determine which of our ancestors were able to speak. The vocal chords do no leave fossil evidence, but the development of the vocal tract in combination with certain areas of the brain that allow for greater cognitive function give us clues to the ability to speak. Primates, for example, make different sounds that we think correlate to emotions (anger, warning, frustration, confusion, etc.). Human language, however, uses something called recursion, meaning that instead of simply pointing at words (nouns, etc.) phrases are used to make meaningful thoughts and ideas. Studies with chimpanzees and bonobos show that they can learn rather complex grammar, but are unable to articulate it because of the position of the tongue and vocal tract. In proto-humans, most scholars believe that it was the development of bipedalism in the australopithecines (about 3.5 million years ago), that allowed for changes to the skull and a more L-shaped vocal tract. Others point to the Neanderthal and believe that the position of the larynx was not suited for voice. Certainly, anatomically modern humans appear about 175-200,000 years ago, but it wasn't until 120,000 years that we see more technological tool building, and not until 50-70,000 that we see me sophisticated constructions (engraving tools, knives, drilling and piercing tools), which many think are proof…[continue]