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However, affirmative action does reveal a rift in American political culture. Equality has always been an endemic American value, touted in the Constitution and branded as a key feature of American life. Yet diversity has recently become a keyword in American political culture. Preserving both equality and diversity has become the most current political challenge in the United States and this challenge is encapsulated in the debate over affirmative action.
Affirmative action suggests that equality has not always been a reality for Americans even if the word is embedded in the Constitution. Historical fact supports the point-of-view that non-white Americans have not experienced equality in the ways that privileged people do. Even though discrimination not as tolerated in American society as it was in the 1950s, some residual effects of racism remain in American culture. Enough residual effects of racism exist to prompt some voters to believe that affirmative action…… [Read More]
The roots of social control theory can be traced back to Emile Durkheim, who in the late 1800s proposed that "The more weakened the groups to which [the individual] belongs, the less he depends on them, the more he consequently depends only on himself and recognizes no other rules of conduct than what are founded on his private interests" (209). Hirschi expanded upon this theory to include the influence of social bonding on antisocial behavior. As described by Tittle (1995), Hirschi's social control theory "contends that everybody is motivated toward deviance, but only those who are relatively free of the bonds of commitment to, and belief in, the conventional order, attachment to others, and involvement with conventional institutions of society actually manifest their deviant motivation in unacceptable behavior" (7).
There is little question that ethnic minorities are the ones most likely fall into this category. This is not because they…… [Read More]
The technological and otherwise evolutions of the 1970s decade are linked to the Cold War "fought" between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist epublics. But by 1980, the vision of an American nation united by the same powerful middle-class values had lost its meaning. The people were each focus on their own benefit and the national wealth took a secondary position in the priorities of the American populations. Due to the politics of liberalization and intensified foreign relations, the U.S. became the house of millions of immigrants, many of whom could not be adequately integrated within the society. It was during the '80s that immigration became a real issue.
Additionally, it as during the 1980s that the social disrupters manifested with most of the intensity. "As the Cold War waned, the belief in a United States united by shared middle-class values also lost its force.…… [Read More]
First, American ideas about freedom have evolved over time, and this might be the natural model for freedom. To believe that an emerging democracy would immediately look like modern day America ignores the fact that freedom continues to evolve in America. Moreover, freedom is guaranteed by certain institutions, such as an independent judiciary, that generally develop over time.
In Presidential address: American freedom in a global age, Eric Foner gives his inaugural speech as the President of the American Historical Association. In doing so, he gives a brief overview of American history over the last century. There is no clear thesis or argument in his statement. He does discuss the spread of American power over the globe over the last century. Moreover, he discusses the fact that there is not agreement over what fueled America's global dominance, economic might or the spread of American culture throughout the globe. He discussed…… [Read More]
American Frontier and American Political Culture: hat if anything has the frontier contributed to creating a distinctive American political culture?
The notion of a vast and limitless space known as the 'frontier' is a particularly unique aspect of our national political culture, a luxury of space and ideology enjoyed by America alone. Unlike the nations of Europe, only America has had a notion of an expansive, ever-stretching and vast territory with virtually elastic boundaries connected to its civilized, original core of thirteen colonies. The historian Frederick Turner once wrote: "Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great est. The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development."(Turner, Chapter 1) America may have began as colonies, but its enrichment and spirit of capitalism is founded on…… [Read More]
American Political Culture and Values
n Hellfire Nation (2003) James Morone described U.S. history as cyclical, with alternating generational cycles of reform and conservatism that can be traced back to the colonial period. n the 20th Century, the reform periods were the Progressive Era, the New Deal and the Great Society of the 1960s, while the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s were eras of conservatism. Religion, culture and sexual morality also follow this cyclical pattern, with the Victorian Era of the late-19th Century and repressive laws of Anthony Comstock, the McCarthyism of the 1950s, and the Moral Majority of the 1980s all following a similar pattern. Since the days of the Puritans in the 17th Century, the great political and moral contests have always centered on the choice between "redeeming 'us' and reforming 'them'," and America has always had a dualistic, Jekyll and Hyde nature (Morone 3). n conservative cycles, politics…… [Read More]
Comparative Analysis, State
The two states that I will be analyzing are Rhode Island and Florida, on the one hand, as compared to my home state of South Carolina. Variables used in the comparative study comprise of political cultures, state judicial systems, structure of state legislatures and partisan balance, geographic areas, local governments, gubernatorial powers, and states’ levels of party competition.
Comparative Analysis: Policy
Laying emphasis explicitly on the policy issue of teacher shortages, the comparison analysis of each state gives rise to imperative information regarding how the following variables impact the policy outcome.
States will propose dissimilar strategies for coping with teacher shortages, reliant on the political culture. For instance, the state of Florida is providing remunerations for teachers who are prepared and ready to accomplish distinctive areas experiencing shortages (Quinton, 2017). Nonetheless, it might be one of the states diminishing the qualifications requited to educate to…… [Read More]
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…… [Read More]
Political History Of Egypt
Examining the History of an Ancient Land:
The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this country now is in light of the recent political events that the country has undergone. Needless to say, Egypt has always been a fodder for change. Without wasting too much time, thus, this paper will undertake one of the changing aspects of the country, namely, its political arena. The paper will begin by examining the development of politics in Egypt, and will continue this political history through to the present, including the recent and important events that have taken place in Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.
In order to truly understand a country and how it functions and develops, it is necessary to examine its history. For this reason, this section is of vital importance…… [Read More]
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…… [Read More]
The United Kingdom and Ireland have both enjoyed geographic separation from the continent of Europe, enabling both to develop unique political cultures and institutions. Ireland has been even more removed from the fray, having never been part of the Roman Empire, and systematically resistant to the same invasions that affected England throughout much of their respective histories. However, the proximity between Ireland and England—and later the United Kingdom—has caused the two countries to be “intertwined politically, economically, and culturally for over 800 years,” (The Republic and Politics of the Republic of Ireland 5). British hegemony has generally meant that Irish identity has been largely oppositional in nature. Divergent trends have emerged in the political cultures and institutions of the United Kingdom and Ireland, especially with regards to the relatively power of the Church. Ireland’s political structures, institutions, and cultures have been inevitably influenced by the British system, but the Catholic…… [Read More]
Krastev (2011) is perplexed by the stability and longevity of authoritarian regimes in the “age of democratication,” (p. 7).
The “new authoritarianism,” or the “user-friendly” version of authoritarianism is compelling and attractive (Krastev, 2011, p. 7). Russia is actually a good springboard for discussing the new authoritarianism because it represents some of its key features, within a historically relevant framework. Russia’s authoritarian regime is also paradoxical in that it has appropriated some of the most salient democratic institutions.
Theories & Concepts
Krastev (2011) relies heavily on Seymour Martin Lipset’s theories of democracy, political culture, and economic development.
The author provides evidence from other political theorists including Jason Brownlee, Steven Levitsky, and Lucan Way (p. 11), and also cites Jeane Kirkpatrick’s 1979 classic “Dictatorships and Double Standards,” (p. 12).
Ideology, or a relative lack thereof, is one of the features of the new authoritarianism. Also,…… [Read More]
Until recently, my political awareness was limited to what I read about or heard around me. Young people are impressionable, and I formed my opinions as amalgamations of what my parents believed, and what I overheard my friends parents say too. The news media, and celebrities I admire also had a strong influence on how I would frame my thinking. All these agents of socialization—my family, the media, my teachers, and my friends—shaped my identity and self-concept, and how I viewed the world. As a young adult, I have deconstructed much of what I learned and realized that I need to carve my own path by thinking critically about what I read, not just by avoiding the pitfalls of fake news, but also by avoiding a sheep-like mentality. Instead of regurgitating what other people say, now I feel more confident in my own ability to articulate my political philosophies as…… [Read More]
President George W. Bush began two new wars during his time of office, and frequently used hyperbolic military rhetoric when giving speeches to the world. By awarding America's first African-American president a peace prize, the Nobel selection rewarded America's election of a more diplomatic president rather than Obama's actual accomplishments. This stamp of foreign 'approval' of American voting behavior caused a great deal of anger amongst Republicans.
Q3. Using conflict theory, discuss why we entered the war in Iraq.
Conflict theory is often associated with Marxism: it views all of human history as a series of conflicts between haves and have-nots, or different social classes. This is also seen on a global scale, whereby the 'haves' of the international community use their power and authority over the have-nots of the world. A conflict theorist would state that America entered Iraq to show its domination over the developing world, and the…… [Read More]
1. Why is the state considered a central institution in comparative politics? What does state power look like, and where does it come from? Towards what ends do states use their power? Give detailed examples from three country-cases.
The state is the central institution in comparative politics because it represents the group of institutions and agencies that exercise authority over the people subordinate to it. The state mediates disputes and serves to unite the individual will and the collective will under one umbrella. The state is recognized as the legitimate authority by the people and thus they comply with the state’s rules without needing to be coerced. To understand comparative politics, one has to understand the central role of the state.
State power can take numerous forms. In America it takes the forms of the courts, the Congress, and the police—for starters. The government has three branches of government—the executive,…… [Read More]
Public opinion it can only exist in the context of a democratic society?
In a democratic society, it is presumed that information flows freely and that all citizens have equal access to information. On the contrary, it is also presumed that in undemocratic societies, the press is restricted. Citizens do not have access to information and therefore, the ability of people to form opinions is limited. Freedom of press is generally restricted in undemocratic societies and at least legally supported in democratic ones. However, democracy is not a prerequisite for public opinion. Public opinion can most certainly exist outside of the context of a democratic society. Moreover, public opinion in the context of a democratic society is often restricted due to issues like media conglomeration and poor educational systems.
A democratic society's political culture depends directly on public opinion, whereas an undemocratic society is structured so that public opinion has…… [Read More]
Culture and Politics
Germany: How Culture and Politics Bring About Social Change
German history and culture are complex, and the country has been through a lot of changes, both in the past and more recently. In order to understand the cultural and political issues today, it is important to see where they have originated from and where they appear to be headed. That can also help foster social change and development, which is needed in every country in order to keep that country moving forward. Here, the political system of Germany will be addressed, followed by a cultural problem that is being seen in the present day. Once those two areas have been discussed, it will be shown how the German culture and political system can come together to create solutions to the problem, including the development of new policies and procedures. Germany has a rich history and there is…… [Read More]
Political and eligious Boundaries
Byzantium historically was the eastern side of the oman Empire that was the result of the religious, political and cultural schism that occurred between East and West in the 2nd Century AD. The city of Byzantium, or Constantinople, was located in a major strategic trading area between the Adriatic, Black and Mediterranean Seas. As the Western oman Empire declined, the "New ome," or Constantinople, became a blend of cultures and viable for about a millennium. Most scholars agree that it was the only long-term stable state in Europe that protected most of Western Europe from the emerging Islamic Empire. It was the most advanced economy in the Mediterranean area until the enaissance, with trading networks that extended through most of Eurasia and North Africa, as well as the beginning of the Silk oad. Without this economic power, it is unlikely that there would have been funding…… [Read More]
Culture's Impact On Healthcare
Culture: Midwestern, (White Female)
The following are the top 5 characteristics of my culture:
Conservative political values. May cause a closed mine and limit the imagination. Political lines are dogmatic and prevent free thinking.
Family orientated. This bias may cause the individual to be too loyal on one's family. It is very difficult to see our families for who they truly are.
Open minded: Too much open-mindedness may lead to foolish mistakes and jumping on any bandwagon that may come along.
Love of the outdoors and social activities. Too much of this behavior, may lead to not refining the indoor skills that are important in life.
Trusting to new experiences. Too many new experiences may lead to becoming ungrounded.
The Midwestern culture is very conservative and many within the culture base their decisions on popular notions and ideas. Health care to Midwestern culture…… [Read More]
In his book, Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Kong, Steve Tsang (1995), discussed the pre-transitional government and history of that government in Hong Kong. For all intents and purposes, the government in China's influence over Hong Kong was virtually non-existent since the UK's presence on the island (271). In fact, the political environment in Hong Kong was one that made it safe for the island to receive political refuges (Ash et al. 199). There was concern that those individuals would be very much at risk in a post hand over environment.
In a study conducted by Lee-In Chen Chiu, Ding Yi, Si Joong Kim, on Bae Kim, Reginald Yin-ang Kwok, Hong Yung Lee, Karen Eggleston Lee, Li uwei, Shelley M. Mark, Manuel F. Montes, Richard Pomfret, Alvin Y. So, Shi Min, Sung Shou ei, Yibo Xu, Zhang Zhongli, Lishui Zhu, Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, Keun Lee;…… [Read More]
Political and Economic Differences
Effects of the financial crisis on the developing world vs. The developed world
The 2008 financial crisis began in the American banking sector but its impact was soon felt around the world. Both the developed and the developing world were affected. However, not all nations were crippled by the drying-up of credit and consumer demand to an equal degree. Some nations were derailed in their attempts to progress economically and politically; other nations, particularly in the Far East, emerged relatively unscathed.
The populations affected in different areas of the world economy also varied from nation to nation. For example, in many regions of the developing world, women often have the status of 'second class citizens' for cultural and political reasons. But the crisis in the U.S. was often called a 'male' recession, because the hardest-hit sectors were traditionally male-dominated fields, in the form of the…… [Read More]
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been…… [Read More]
"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she gets it she is happy, and when it is absent from her kitchen for a long time, she sulks like a child. For Mrs. Sen fish becomes her home, her state, her neighborhood, her friend and her family. Fish gives her a sense of proximity to her people. The arrival of a tasty halibut gives her pleasure as nothing else does" (Choubey 2001). But when Mrs. Sen is rebuked for the smell of her prized fish, even this source of connection with home, however, tenuous, becomes perverted.
Some of the characters of the Interpreter of Maladies learn to negotiate their new identities and cultural terrains and bridge the cultural gaps that exist between themselves and their fellow Indians, as well as with…… [Read More]
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…… [Read More]
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist…… [Read More]
CULTURAL Characteristic FOUR: Hospitality. An essential part of the Uzbek cultural heritage is hospitality. The country is located at the crossroads where trade routes pass through opening up the door to Central Asia. Many villages had oasis facilities and so caravans passing through would stop and use the hospitality of people in small villages where there was water, shade and rest. The "Silk Road" runs right through Uzbekistan. The hospitality that was shown to these caravans was in the form of safety from the dangers of the road, a place to sleep, food and water for the camels, hot tea, food, and graciousness, according to Central Asian Cultures.
The route through Uzbekistan is called the Silk Road because on many of the "complex overland routes gained their name from the most famous of luxury items" to pass through -- and that was silk (www.centralasiacultures.com/silkroad). It was not just silk…… [Read More]
What will that lead to in future politicians? Will they conduct their entire campaigns online, with no need to reach out to real people on the campaign trail? That remains to be seen, but the technology of the Internet, and all it implies, is changing how we view political news and reporting, and it certainly could change the face of actual campaigns in the future, and that has implications for our society in general. Change is not always bad, and it can bring about necessary reform and legislation, and it is quite clear blogging is bringing about great change in how we get our political information. How that affects our society and us in the future remains to be seen, but it is certain that blogging, political campaigns, and the importance of valid information will all continue to be issues in the future.
How can candidates use blogs effectively in…… [Read More]
There was once a time when Greeks, for example, prided themselves over their national identity which was obviously based on the piece of land that Greeks occupied. However with the passage of time, this piece of land is losing its significance. Land is still important for other reasons but it is no longer the factor that sets one group of people apart from another. This is an interesting development and one that explains why geography is gradually becoming history.
Everywhere nation-states are dying and this death has contributed to rapid decline in the significance of geographical demarcations. We can blame the information age as well as globalization for this change. But according to civilization theories postulated by Huntington, this change is grounded in religious and cultural differences/similarities. West is now better known for its identity as westerns rather than as North Americans or Europeans. This is due to the fact…… [Read More]
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…… [Read More]
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]
He commonly regales his backers with strong, repetitive phrases that carry a sermon-like quality of affirmation: "Yes we can." Obama's catchphrase has helped to attract even greater media support in the form of entertainment industry backing of the kind that appeals to the candidate's often young, white base. The musical group, the lack Eyed Peas recorded as song entitled "Yes We Can," that contains words from Obama's speeches as lyrics, and provides a powerful musical beat to his campaign while giving it the cachet of popular culture.
The media's love affair with arack Obama recently became a theme of the Clinton campaign when, beginning at the Texas debate, Hillary Clinton drew attention to a Saturday Night Live skit in which, during a simulated debate, arack Obama was offered a pillow to make him comfortable rather than asked the hardball questions that were hurled at his opponent.
The televised lampoon of…… [Read More]
The phrase that was popular in 1965, when Johnson got his legislation passed, was "Cultural deprivation"; that phrase, and the culture of poverty became what Stein calls "central constructs" around a policy that hopefully would help children that were "shackled by the chains of disadvantage which bind them to a life of hopelessness and misery" (Stein, 2004, xiv).
Schools were a "promising site for government intervention" because the field of education could "…interrupt the otherwise intractable poverty culture," Stein continued, reviewing the federal government's attempt to end poverty. By funding programs to help low income students, the government set out to "…impart middle-class norms, and break the chains of poverty and disadvantage," for poor students, blacks, Latinos, immigrants and others who were seen as "victims of cultural deprivation," Stein continues on page xv. But the problem with the government's intervention was that the "very characterizations of 'disadvantaged youth'…functioned in ways…… [Read More]
Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany.
Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken to entail Toqueville's "associationism," a vibrant public sphere, formal outlets for political dissent, and informed political debate. Such inquiries have provided little insight into the nature of healthy democracies because they are based on a faulty assumption, that culture is a condition or even a determinant in the formation of a society's political structure.
As Berman observed, passionate civic engagement among a nation's citizens, without an adequate institutional foundation to channel such passion, can actually be averse to functional democracy.…… [Read More]
The Mechanical Clock has been invented in Europe in the 13th century, and, despite of the fact that it had been obvious that it would bring benefits to the world, it received little to no recognition from outside of Europe.
Printing has been invented by the Chinese in the ninth century and later perfected by the Europeans, as the Chinese did not seem interested in the act. The Europeans became fond of printing and millions of books had been printed in just a short amount of time. The Islam did not seem to be interested in having the Koran printed, nor did it seem interested in having printing present in their territory. The Asian world also appeared to be reluctant from accepting printing for the important technological advancement that it had been. The Chinese apparently treated every European invention with lack of enthusiasm because of the fact that they did…… [Read More]
Both dissenters and innovators are outsiders -- thinking and acting outside the box. The very qualities that make these individuals annoying (e.g. arrogance, single-mindedness) are also part of the types of qualities (passion, drive, confidence) that are needed to keep ideas alive and vital. A good manager can deal with the package and manage the wheat with the chaff.
Usually impossible to get the type of innovators one wants without getting some of their own negatives (arrogance, inability to compromise, etc.).
Managing means eliciting the needed strengths out of each individual employee, and harkens back to the idea that not all employees are equal.
Managers often have the urge to tame the wild nature of a dissenter; to "bring them into the fold."
There are people who provide dissent because they are simply unhappy -- regardless of the situation. These types of dissenters rarely contribute innovation, but instead…… [Read More]
The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations are hesitant about investing large amounts of money in China (eatherbee & Emmers 42).
The masses no longer express interest in U.S. cultural values because it appears that the U.S. has experienced significant problems consequent to the 9/11 events. This enabled China to step forward and pose into a body that no longer had problems because of its communist background and that was ready to join other international actors in assisting society progress. The fact that China progressed significantly while the U.S.' image suffered meant that things would change significantly in Southeast Asia. Fair play is one of the main points of interest at this point, as "the concern in Southeast Asia is that the United States, rather than accommodating to a…… [Read More]
Yom, Sean L. Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World (2005). MEIA - The Middle East eview of International Affairs. Volume 9, No.4, Article 2. etrieved December 11, 2006 at http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2005/issue4/jv9no4a2.html.
Gilchrist, Alice N. Khalidi discuses Arab world (1991). The Tech. Volume 111, No.21. etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www-tech.mit.edu/V111/N21/mideas.21n.html.
Arab-Israeli Conflict: ole of religion (2006). etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.science.co.il/Arab-Israeli-conflict-2.asp#Intra-Arab.
Schnabel, Albrecht. A rough journey: Nascent democratization in the Middle East. etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/sample-chapters/Democratization-ME.pdf.
Morris, Benny. ighteous Victims (2001). etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.israelipalestinianprocon.org/bin/procon/procon.cgi?database=5-F-Subs-Q02.db&command=viewone&op=t&id=3&rnd=629.2625213895783.
Greenwood, Scott. Jordan, al-Aqsa intifada and America's "war on terror" (2003). etrieved December 12, 2006 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1651/is_200309/ai_n9154518.
Yom, Sean L. Civil Society and Democratization in the Arab World (2005). MEIA - The Middle East eview of International Affairs. Volume 9, No.4, Article 2. etrieved December 11, 2006 at http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2005/issue4/jv9no4a2.html.
Gilchrist, Alice N. Khalidi discusses Arab world (1991).…… [Read More]
Democratization, Culture and Underdeveloped Nations
This paper looks at the issue of culture and democratization in underdeveloped countries. The paper is based on research conducted through a systematic review of the current literature on the subject, from policy documents published by bodies such as the IMF and the World ank, to academic papers written by workers in this field, to online discussion forums (which can be an extremely valuable source for assessing 'grass roots' opinions regarding issues such as this).
The paper begins with a basic introduction to some key topics, through a discussion of questions such as 'What is democracy?', 'What is culture?', 'What is an underdeveloped country', and 'What does democracy mean at the present time for people in the United States, and the rest of the developed world, and for people in underdeveloped countries'?
What do we mean, as a citizen of the United States, when we…… [Read More]
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…… [Read More]
Perhaps had the author appealed to such nuance, the text may have been forced into a discussion that accounts for how a nation of America's diversity might be seen as so culturally cohesive. The idea that the American public has been duped into believing itself committed to certain spiritual, political or philosophical ideals is one which, without prejudice, is insulting to the whole of the American public. A discussion which draws into consideration America's long history of disenfranchising minorities, mistreating immigrants, segregating African-Americans and continuing today to obstruct homosexual lifestyle discussions would seem to suggest that the motive exists, even for what Fiorina condescendingly refers to as the apolitical average American, to take a strong stance on such cultural matters. To suggest that such stances are only influenced by a dedication to political parties and platforms is to reduce the personal, emotional, ethnic, spiritual and cultural individualities that make this…… [Read More]
Global Organization Researching Cultural Issues -- Amnesty International
Cultural relativism is the contention that "…human values, far from being universal, vary a great deal according to different cultural perspectives," and that human rights -- though they must be protected whenever that is possible -- are often difficult to secure in a culturally diverse world (Ayton-Shenker, 1995). Every human being has the right to his or her culture, including, according to Ayton-Shenker, the right to "…enjoy and develop cultural life and identity"; however the right to one's culture is "limited at the point at which it infringes on another human right."
This paper delves into how Amnesty International approaches cultural issues -- the internationally recognized moral right every culture has to practice its political, religious, and social traditions -- through its interactions with many governments and cultures outside the United States.
Amnesty International -- Cultural Issues it Inquires Into
Amnesty International…… [Read More]
The Transitions of Roman Culture (Romanitas) As It Interacted with Christian Culture (Christianitas) And Barbarian Cultures (Germanitas)
Christianity in late antiquity runs from the Christian Roman Empire when Christianity rose under the Emperor Constantine (c. 313) up to the end of the Western Roman Empire (c. 476). The sub-Roman period transition was gradual and occurred at varying times in different places. Therefore, the exact time the period ended is varied. The late ancient Christianity lasted up to the end of the 6th century. On the other hand, Justinian conquests of the Byzantine Empire occurred between 527 and 565. However, in 476, it ended when the last emperor, Romulus Augustus died. Christianity spread from the Roman Judaea without any endorsement or state support. It became Armenia’s state religion in 301 or 314, Georgia in 337 and Ethiopia 325.the The Thessalonica Edict saw it develop into the Roman Empire’s state religion in…… [Read More]
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog
Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters
Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…… [Read More]
The term "culture" originally described aspects of cultivation in agriculture but in the current sense has been used in anthropology to explain the aspects of human behavior that cannot be attributed to genetic influences (Gertz, 1973). Gertz (1973) defines culture as having two aspects: the capacity to act creatively and represent experience through civilization and the distinct differences as to how different groups of people represent their experience.
Culture is a potent force in the survival of people but is also a fragile entity. Culture can constantly change and can be easily lost because culture exists in the minds and thoughts of people. For this reason many anthropologists and sociologists further distinguish culture into material culture, the distinct physical artifacts a society creates and non-material culture which basically consist of all other aspects of culture (Newman, 2011).
The focus in material culture studies is to understand a particular culture…… [Read More]
culture is playing on international business. This is accomplished by comparing cultural traditions of elgium and South Africa using Arcelor Mittal. Once this occurs, is when we are able to understand how the firm is able to utilize these factors to give them an advantage in the global marketplace.
Over the last several years, globalization has been having profound impact on firms. What has been happening is corporations, have been seeking out those areas that can provide them with the lowest costs. This is part of an effort to increase productivity and their overall profit margins. As a result, a variety of different firms have been establishing operations around the world to deal with these underlying challenges. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that 47% of American and European companies are outsourcing some aspect of their operations. (Sears, 2009) This is important, because…… [Read More]
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…… [Read More]
In this way, they differ significantly from the general global tendency to have fewer children in the interest of a sustainable future for humanity. Cultural values are regarded as primarily important in the decision to have and raise children.
When the issue is thoroughly investigated, it is clear that culture is indeed a political issue. There are several and divergent reasons for this, of which the most important is that both politics and culture are inseparable from human life itself. There is no community that does not have some sort of government and some sort of culture. The ways in which culture and politics interact and manifest are as numerous as there are nations on earth. This is what makes it both a complicated and rich field of study.
Bentley, Jerry H. 1996. Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History. The American Historical eview, Vol. 101, no. 3. June…… [Read More]
For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).
In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…… [Read More]
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…… [Read More]
The very notion of 'Asian-American' is a false construction, given the distinctive cultures that exist within the region. Moreover, some recent Asian immigrants, such as those from Cambodia or Vietnam, may have more impoverished economic circumstances than individuals from more affluent Asian nations.
Culture is not a static thing: it is constantly in flux, and fuses with other cultures. A second-generation immigrant may passionately identify with certain aspects of his parent's culture, but may also incorporate elements of America into his identity. Every time there is an encounter with another culture, both representatives from each culture will change. A good example of this can be seen in religion: even though the religion of Christianity was imposed upon African-Americans, African-American religious traditions have reconfigured this religion into something positive and uplifting that can serve as a vehicle of political and spiritual mobilization.
The temptation, when viewing a new culture, is to…… [Read More]
4. Dr. Michael Hanchard. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Hanchard may be the most important contact in academia for any aspects of the study linked to race because Dr. Hanchard has done extensive work in both comparative politics and transnational politics. Furthermore, Dr. Hanchard may be able to provide insight into research methodology because he has done research on black political activists in various locales.
5. Dr. Wesley Skogan. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Skogan concentrates on citizens as consumers and creators of law, therefore he may have valuable insight on political involvement.
6. Dr. Dennis Chong. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Chong wrote Rational Lives: Norms and Values in Politics and Society, in which he examined the interrelationship between how people's individual choices effect their social and economic realms. Because choice of residence may be one of the most basic social choices, Dr.…… [Read More]
Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties
The Major Changes in the Political Structures, Social and Economic Life in the Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties
One leading present-day nation that was home to one of the world's oldest and greatest civilizations and has a rich, 5000-year-old history is China. The Chinese culture can be traced back to an assortment of small, early tribes that grew to become modern-day China (Chafilwa, 2012).
According to Ahmed (2015), after the Han dynasty's disorganized and divided reign came to an end, the country experienced a period of preeminence beginning from 589 C.E. From 589 to 1279 C.E., it underwent reunification, achievement, chaos and renaissance. The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties are credited with being the main chronological contributors to the aforementioned phases.
The Sui Dynasty
This empire ruled over China for a relatively small period of 38 years, between 581 and 618 C.E. Of its…… [Read More]
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…… [Read More]
culture rely Hofstede's measures lead students confuse similarity cultural closeness. It important understand simply cultural values close, country relations optimal. Two greatest Asia economies, Japan China, case.
China vs. Japan
Historically speaking, China and Japan have been enemies. The 'ape of Nanking' during World War II is still remembered by many Chinese as if it happened yesterday. Despite close economic ties between the two nations, China still fought Japan being included in the UN Security Council because of Japan's war crimes against China (Lehmann 2006). In terms of foreign policy, Japan is understandably frightened by a strong North Korea, which China has failed to condemn when it has pursued aggressive foreign policy and violated human rights (Global impact of a China-Japan-South Korea free trade agreement, 2012, China Briefing).
There is also a certain amount of resource jealousy: China is a large nation with an expanding population; Japan is a small…… [Read More]
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.
Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.
Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…… [Read More]
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…… [Read More]
S. today are called African-Americans or Afro-Americans. As Africans had been brought into the U.S. they had been deprived by their traditions, being forced to integrate in the larger, more complex community. In spite of the slave owners and traders' efforts to break them completely from their culture, during their first years on American land, the blacks managed to keep most of their traditions. However, as time passed, black traditions changed into American traditions and African people became Americans.
Black people in Texas have a very rich history and as they've managed to become independent as a minority, their culture has also been revived. Moreover, the black community in Texas has contributed to the Texan history as it has also contributed to the birth of several important Texans.
A large part of the Hispanics residents of the U.S. inhabit the state of Texas and their number has visibly grown during…… [Read More]
This research focuses on the public housing neighborhood of Bezirganbahce. Like the first, this article shows how Turkish society "marks the areas populated by the urban poor as dangerous, a breeding ground for illegal activities, and areas of social decay or social ill," (Candan & Kolluoglu 2008 p 38). Those lower ranking social classes and ethnic subgroups are often excluded from the daily existence of mainstream Turkish culture and forced to life a marginalized life in a segregated area that isolates lower socioeconomic classes from the rest of society. The urban poor that reside in the neighborhood are excluded from an external source, and thus left to fend for themselves. In this marginalized space, the residents of this neighborhood have actually created a culture that is all their own outside of the boundaries of typical Turkish life. Like as shown in Yilmaz (2008), this neighborhood is seen as having to…… [Read More]
culture of omania, a relatively new country and only recently an independent force in the geopolitical sphere. By an examination of omania's history, from its founding in the latter half of the nineteenth century through its participation in the two World Wars, through its Soviet domination and to the merging democracy that the country is today, the notions, values, and perspectives of the people can be ascertained. The use of three different frameworks for developing an understanding and definition of particular cultures and cultural elements will be applied to this study of omanian history in order to better understand this nation's culture in a comprehensive manner.
omania was formed as a nation in 1959 from the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which had been under the dominion of the Ottoman Empire for several hundred years (CIA 2011; USDOS 2011). Two millennia prior, the region had been part of…… [Read More]
culture of a country is likely to affect an individual's business practices including the distribution of its products within the country and outside, the production process and configuration of a product, and other business operations that contribute to the business growth and output. Cultures determine the different ways in which people behave and mostly in business.
'Knowing about the cultural circumstance of your country or foreign country where you wish to transact your business, can either help you prevent making mistakes that will affect your business.' (Hill, 2004) To do this, the paper chooses to focus it's analyzes on China's culture as the country of target and its implications to the business operations.
China has truly emerged as a country with great business opportunities and with a huge potential for economic growth. ith an improved international relations, a robust economy, and increased foreign investment doing business in China is quite…… [Read More]