1000 results for “Political Culture”.
However, affirmative action does reveal a rift in American political culture. Equality has always been an endemic American value, touted in the Constitution and branded as a key feature of American life. Yet diversity has recently become a keyword in American political culture. Preserving both equality and diversity has become the most current political challenge in the United States and this challenge is encapsulated in the debate over affirmative action.
Affirmative action suggests that equality has not always been a reality for Americans even if the word is embedded in the Constitution. Historical fact supports the point-of-view that non-white Americans have not experienced equality in the ways that privileged people do. Even though discrimination not as tolerated in American society as it was in the 1950s, some residual effects of racism remain in American culture. Enough residual effects of racism exist to prompt some voters to believe that affirmative action…
Trouble with Diversity."
The roots of social control theory can be traced back to Emile Durkheim, who in the late 1800s proposed that "The more weakened the groups to which [the individual] belongs, the less he depends on them, the more he consequently depends only on himself and recognizes no other rules of conduct than what are founded on his private interests" (209). Hirschi expanded upon this theory to include the influence of social bonding on antisocial behavior. As described by Tittle (1995), Hirschi's social control theory "contends that everybody is motivated toward deviance, but only those who are relatively free of the bonds of commitment to, and belief in, the conventional order, attachment to others, and involvement with conventional institutions of society actually manifest their deviant motivation in unacceptable behavior" (7).
There is little question that ethnic minorities are the ones most likely fall into this category. This is not because they are…
Apple, Michael, W. And Assen, Peter. The State and the Politics of Knowledge, Routledge, 2003. Print.
Durkheim, Emile. Suicide, transl. By J.A. Spaulding and G. Simpson, New York: Free Press . 1951.
Halsey, Mark. Assembling Recidivism: The Promise And Contingencies Of Post- Release Life, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 2007. 97, pp. 101-53. Print.
Hirschi, Travis. Causes of delinquency. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press. 1969
The technological and otherwise evolutions of the 1970s decade are linked to the Cold War "fought" between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist epublics. But by 1980, the vision of an American nation united by the same powerful middle-class values had lost its meaning. The people were each focus on their own benefit and the national wealth took a secondary position in the priorities of the American populations. Due to the politics of liberalization and intensified foreign relations, the U.S. became the house of millions of immigrants, many of whom could not be adequately integrated within the society. It was during the '80s that immigration became a real issue.
Additionally, it as during the 1980s that the social disrupters manifested with most of the intensity. "As the Cold War waned, the belief in a United States united by shared middle-class values also lost its force. By…
Norton, M.B., Sheriff, C., Blight, D.W.,
Robertson, D.B., 1998, Loss of confidence: politics and policy in the 1970s, Penn State Press, ISBN 0271018453
Peck, D.L., Hollingsworth, J.S., 1996, Demographic and structural change: the effects of the 1980s on American society, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 0313287449
Sagert, 2007, The 1970s, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0313339198
First, American ideas about freedom have evolved over time, and this might be the natural model for freedom. To believe that an emerging democracy would immediately look like modern day America ignores the fact that freedom continues to evolve in America. Moreover, freedom is guaranteed by certain institutions, such as an independent judiciary, that generally develop over time.
In Presidential address: American freedom in a global age, Eric Foner gives his inaugural speech as the President of the American Historical Association. In doing so, he gives a brief overview of American history over the last century. There is no clear thesis or argument in his statement. He does discuss the spread of American power over the globe over the last century. Moreover, he discusses the fact that there is not agreement over what fueled America's global dominance, economic might or the spread of American culture throughout the globe. He discussed…
Chong, D., McClosky, H., & Zaller, J. (1983). Patterns of support for democratic and capitalist values in the United States. British Journal of Political Science, 13(4), 401-440.
Foner, E. (2002). Presidential address: American freedom in a global age.
Foner, E. (2003, April 13). Not all freedom is made in America. New York Times.
Smith, R. (1993). Beyond Tocqueville, Myrdal, and Hartz: The multiple traditions in America.
American Frontier and American Political Culture: hat if anything has the frontier contributed to creating a distinctive American political culture?
The notion of a vast and limitless space known as the 'frontier' is a particularly unique aspect of our national political culture, a luxury of space and ideology enjoyed by America alone. Unlike the nations of Europe, only America has had a notion of an expansive, ever-stretching and vast territory with virtually elastic boundaries connected to its civilized, original core of thirteen colonies. The historian Frederick Turner once wrote: "Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great est. The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development."(Turner, Chapter 1) America may have began as colonies, but its enrichment and spirit of capitalism is founded on…
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. Last Modified 1997. [7 May 2005] http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/TURNER/
American Political Culture and Values
n Hellfire Nation (2003) James Morone described U.S. history as cyclical, with alternating generational cycles of reform and conservatism that can be traced back to the colonial period. n the 20th Century, the reform periods were the Progressive Era, the New Deal and the Great Society of the 1960s, while the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s were eras of conservatism. Religion, culture and sexual morality also follow this cyclical pattern, with the Victorian Era of the late-19th Century and repressive laws of Anthony Comstock, the McCarthyism of the 1950s, and the Moral Majority of the 1980s all following a similar pattern. Since the days of the Puritans in the 17th Century, the great political and moral contests have always centered on the choice between "redeeming 'us' and reforming 'them'," and America has always had a dualistic, Jekyll and Hyde nature (Morone 3). n conservative cycles, politics and…
In the 1960s and early-1970s, Victorian morality and old-time religion were particularly threatened by Supreme Court decisions legalizing birth control and abortion, the civil rights, gay rights, feminist and countercultural movements, the Social Gospel of Martin Luther King, and the anti-Vietnam War protests. All over the world, "young people imagined a new, more democratic, more socially responsible order," although predictably all of these generated a huge Right-wing backlash that lasted for decades (Morone 435). A cyclical theory like Morone's is indeed one of the best theoretical frameworks at explaining the pendulum-like swings between reform and conservative periods in U.S. history, and why change in this country so often appears to be a matter of two steps forward and one step back. It would seem counter-intuitive to progressives and liberals, at least until they reflect on history and realize that they often end up fighting the same battles against conservatives and reactionaries in every generation. Indeed, the same pattern is repeating itself right at this moment, with Barack Obama having passed certain reforms, and the political and cultural Right attempting to block these and turn back the clock on many issues. This has been a familiar pattern in American history for two hundred years or longer.
Michael Rogin's Ronald Reagan, the Movie (1987) actually covered much broader ground than simply that particular president and his faulty memories and political fantasies based on his career in Hollywood. His chapter on westward expansion and Indian removal in the early republic and antebellum period (1790-1860) contains a great deal of information that is well-known to historians. Nothing is easier than finding quotes from George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson and many other white leaders that described the Indians as savage, primitive, backward, living in a child-like state of nature, or standing in way of American progress and civilization. For the U.S. government, and indeed most of the white population, the main policy choice was either to exterminate them or confine them on reservations that turned out to be little better than prisons and ghettoes. Even liberal reformer like Horace Greeley proclaimed "these people must die out -- there is no help for them," and indeed most of them did end up dead, one way or the other (Rogin 144).
None of this is particularly new or surprising to anyone who has even a slight familiarity with American history although for some reason Rogin also felt the need to add a Freudian gloss and theoretical framework to this well-known history. It is not clear whether that nation and all its leaders were fearful of regressing into some kind of oral stage of primitive, magical thinking, violence, savagery and cannibalism, although whites commonly projected all these traits on Indians. Even so, all of this imperialist history can be explained just as well without any reference to concepts like the Indians were regarded as "a pre-oedipal, aggressive threat to the mother-child relationship" (Rogin 151).
Comparative Analysis, State
The two states that I will be analyzing are Rhode Island and Florida, on the one hand, as compared to my home state of South Carolina. Variables used in the comparative study comprise of political cultures, state judicial systems, structure of state legislatures and partisan balance, geographic areas, local governments, gubernatorial powers, and states’ levels of party competition.
Comparative Analysis: Policy
Laying emphasis explicitly on the policy issue of teacher shortages, the comparison analysis of each state gives rise to imperative information regarding how the following variables impact the policy outcome.
States will propose dissimilar strategies for coping with teacher shortages, reliant on the political culture. For instance, the state of Florida is providing remunerations for teachers who are prepared and ready to accomplish distinctive areas experiencing shortages (Quinton, 2017). Nonetheless, it might be one of the states diminishing the qualifications requited to educate to address the shortage. On the…
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…
Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318
Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666 ]
Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]
Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
Political History Of Egypt
Examining the History of an Ancient Land:
The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this country now is in light of the recent political events that the country has undergone. Needless to say, Egypt has always been a fodder for change. Without wasting too much time, thus, this paper will undertake one of the changing aspects of the country, namely, its political arena. The paper will begin by examining the development of politics in Egypt, and will continue this political history through to the present, including the recent and important events that have taken place in Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.
In order to truly understand a country and how it functions and develops, it is necessary to examine its history. For this reason, this section is of vital importance and will be expanded…
"Search Results | The Economist." The Economist - World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
"BBC News - Egypt Profile - Leaders." BBC - Homepage. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
Goodman, Amy. "Arab Spring: A Discussion on Libya, Egypt and the Mideast with Palestinian Writer Rula Jebreal, Author of "Miral" & Journalist Issandr El Amrani." A Daily TV/radio News Program, Hosted by Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez, Airing on over 900 Stations, Pioneering the Largest Community Media Collaboration in the United States. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
The United Kingdom and Ireland have both enjoyed geographic separation from the continent of Europe, enabling both to develop unique political cultures and institutions. Ireland has been even more removed from the fray, having never been part of the Roman Empire, and systematically resistant to the same invasions that affected England throughout much of their respective histories. However, the proximity between Ireland and England—and later the United Kingdom—has caused the two countries to be “intertwined politically, economically, and culturally for over 800 years,” (The Republic and Politics of the Republic of Ireland 5). British hegemony has generally meant that Irish identity has been largely oppositional in nature. Divergent trends have emerged in the political cultures and institutions of the United Kingdom and Ireland, especially with regards to the relatively power of the Church. Ireland’s political structures, institutions, and cultures have been inevitably influenced by the British system, but the Catholic…
Krastev (2011) is perplexed by the stability and longevity of authoritarian regimes in the “age of democratication,” (p. 7).
The “new authoritarianism,” or the “user-friendly” version of authoritarianism is compelling and attractive (Krastev, 2011, p. 7). Russia is actually a good springboard for discussing the new authoritarianism because it represents some of its key features, within a historically relevant framework. Russia’s authoritarian regime is also paradoxical in that it has appropriated some of the most salient democratic institutions.
Theories & Concepts
Krastev (2011) relies heavily on Seymour Martin Lipset’s theories of democracy, political culture, and economic development.
The author provides evidence from other political theorists including Jason Brownlee, Steven Levitsky, and Lucan Way (p. 11), and also cites Jeane Kirkpatrick’s 1979 classic “Dictatorships and Double Standards,” (p. 12).
Ideology, or a relative lack thereof, is one of the features of the new authoritarianism. Also, the new authoritarianism thrives off blending democracy and authoritarian…
President George W. Bush began two new wars during his time of office, and frequently used hyperbolic military rhetoric when giving speeches to the world. By awarding America's first African-American president a peace prize, the Nobel selection rewarded America's election of a more diplomatic president rather than Obama's actual accomplishments. This stamp of foreign 'approval' of American voting behavior caused a great deal of anger amongst Republicans.
Q3. Using conflict theory, discuss why we entered the war in Iraq.
Conflict theory is often associated with Marxism: it views all of human history as a series of conflicts between haves and have-nots, or different social classes. This is also seen on a global scale, whereby the 'haves' of the international community use their power and authority over the have-nots of the world. A conflict theorist would state that America entered Iraq to show its domination over the developing world, and the Arabic…
1. Why is the state considered a central institution in comparative politics? What does state power look like, and where does it come from? Towards what ends do states use their power? Give detailed examples from three country-cases.
The state is the central institution in comparative politics because it represents the group of institutions and agencies that exercise authority over the people subordinate to it. The state mediates disputes and serves to unite the individual will and the collective will under one umbrella. The state is recognized as the legitimate authority by the people and thus they comply with the state’s rules without needing to be coerced. To understand comparative politics, one has to understand the central role of the state.
State power can take numerous forms. In America it takes the forms of the courts, the Congress, and the police—for starters. The government has three branches of government—the executive, the legislative,…
Public opinion it can only exist in the context of a democratic society?
In a democratic society, it is presumed that information flows freely and that all citizens have equal access to information. On the contrary, it is also presumed that in undemocratic societies, the press is restricted. Citizens do not have access to information and therefore, the ability of people to form opinions is limited. Freedom of press is generally restricted in undemocratic societies and at least legally supported in democratic ones. However, democracy is not a prerequisite for public opinion. Public opinion can most certainly exist outside of the context of a democratic society. Moreover, public opinion in the context of a democratic society is often restricted due to issues like media conglomeration and poor educational systems.
A democratic society's political culture depends directly on public opinion, whereas an undemocratic society is structured so that public opinion has little bearing…
Culture and Politics
Germany: How Culture and Politics Bring About Social Change
German history and culture are complex, and the country has been through a lot of changes, both in the past and more recently. In order to understand the cultural and political issues today, it is important to see where they have originated from and where they appear to be headed. That can also help foster social change and development, which is needed in every country in order to keep that country moving forward. Here, the political system of Germany will be addressed, followed by a cultural problem that is being seen in the present day. Once those two areas have been discussed, it will be shown how the German culture and political system can come together to create solutions to the problem, including the development of new policies and procedures. Germany has a rich history and there is a good…
A German Underclass? What Underclass? (2006). Spiegel.
Spiegel's article on the German underclass addresses the issue from the standpoint of German politics. In general, the upper classes are looking the other way and avoiding acknowledging that there is a problem with people in the country who do not have money and who need assistance. Until and unless this issue is acknowledged by the government, nothing will get done that will make things better for those people.
Dempsey, J. (2011). German Politics Faces Grass-Roots Threat. The New York Times.
The political parties in Germany are facing some threats from smaller organizations and coalitions that want to see real change. The multi-party system Germany has is valuable, but there are two parties in power and that can stifle other options for people who want to see change. Because of that, grass-roots threats are starting to appear sporadically as they lobby for changes to the political system.
Political and eligious Boundaries
Byzantium historically was the eastern side of the oman Empire that was the result of the religious, political and cultural schism that occurred between East and West in the 2nd Century AD. The city of Byzantium, or Constantinople, was located in a major strategic trading area between the Adriatic, Black and Mediterranean Seas. As the Western oman Empire declined, the "New ome," or Constantinople, became a blend of cultures and viable for about a millennium. Most scholars agree that it was the only long-term stable state in Europe that protected most of Western Europe from the emerging Islamic Empire. It was the most advanced economy in the Mediterranean area until the enaissance, with trading networks that extended through most of Eurasia and North Africa, as well as the beginning of the Silk oad. Without this economic power, it is unlikely that there would have been funding for…
Dursteler, E. (2006). Venetians in Constantinople: Nation, Identity, and Coexistence in the Early Modern Mediterranean. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Jacoby, D. (2007). Review of Venetians in Constantinople. The Sixteenth Century Journal. 38 (4): 1156-7.
King, M. (2007). Review of Venetians in Constantinople. Renaissance Quarterly. 60 (1): 155-6.
See: Diamond, J. (2011). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed: Revised. New York: Penguin Books; Huntington, S. (2011). Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Culture's Impact On Healthcare
Culture: Midwestern, (White Female)
The following are the top 5 characteristics of my culture:
Conservative political values. May cause a closed mine and limit the imagination. Political lines are dogmatic and prevent free thinking.
Family orientated. This bias may cause the individual to be too loyal on one's family. It is very difficult to see our families for who they truly are.
Open minded: Too much open-mindedness may lead to foolish mistakes and jumping on any bandwagon that may come along.
Love of the outdoors and social activities. Too much of this behavior, may lead to not refining the indoor skills that are important in life.
Trusting to new experiences. Too many new experiences may lead to becoming ungrounded.
The Midwestern culture is very conservative and many within the culture base their decisions on popular notions and ideas. Health care to Midwestern culture is seen as a valued resource and the only barriers…
Arterberry, K. (nd). Cultural Competence. Provided by customer.
Hearnden, M. (2008). Coping with differences in culture and communication in health care. Nursing Standard, 23, 11, 49-57.
In his book, Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Kong, Steve Tsang (1995), discussed the pre-transitional government and history of that government in Hong Kong. For all intents and purposes, the government in China's influence over Hong Kong was virtually non-existent since the UK's presence on the island (271). In fact, the political environment in Hong Kong was one that made it safe for the island to receive political refuges (Ash et al. 199). There was concern that those individuals would be very much at risk in a post hand over environment.
In a study conducted by Lee-In Chen Chiu, Ding Yi, Si Joong Kim, on Bae Kim, Reginald Yin-ang Kwok, Hong Yung Lee, Karen Eggleston Lee, Li uwei, Shelley M. Mark, Manuel F. Montes, Richard Pomfret, Alvin Y. So, Shi Min, Sung Shou ei, Yibo Xu, Zhang Zhongli, Lishui Zhu, Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, Keun Lee; M.E.…
Political and Economic Differences
Effects of the financial crisis on the developing world vs. The developed world
The 2008 financial crisis began in the American banking sector but its impact was soon felt around the world. Both the developed and the developing world were affected. However, not all nations were crippled by the drying-up of credit and consumer demand to an equal degree. Some nations were derailed in their attempts to progress economically and politically; other nations, particularly in the Far East, emerged relatively unscathed.
The populations affected in different areas of the world economy also varied from nation to nation. For example, in many regions of the developing world, women often have the status of 'second class citizens' for cultural and political reasons. But the crisis in the U.S. was often called a 'male' recession, because the hardest-hit sectors were traditionally male-dominated fields, in the form of the construction industry and the…
Bernanke, Ben. (2009). Asia and the global financial crisis. Federal Reserve.
Chia, Siow Yue. (2010). Singapore weathers the crisis and prepares for a better year. East Asia
Forum. Retrieved September 8, 2011 at http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2010/01/12/singapore-weathers-the-crisis-and-prepares-for-a-stronger-year/
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been the lack of…
Khan, Imran. (1999) "The Case for a Reform Government." Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Web site. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.insaf.org.pk/articles/the_case_reform_govt.htm
Samuelson, Robert J. (2002). "Deflation: The Global Economy's Downside." Washington Post, September 4, 2002. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/2002/0904deflation.htm
"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she gets it she is happy, and when it is absent from her kitchen for a long time, she sulks like a child. For Mrs. Sen fish becomes her home, her state, her neighborhood, her friend and her family. Fish gives her a sense of proximity to her people. The arrival of a tasty halibut gives her pleasure as nothing else does" (Choubey 2001). But when Mrs. Sen is rebuked for the smell of her prized fish, even this source of connection with home, however, tenuous, becomes perverted.
Some of the characters of the Interpreter of Maladies learn to negotiate their new identities and cultural terrains and bridge the cultural gaps that exist between themselves and their fellow Indians, as well as with…
Choubey, Asha. "Food as Metaphor in Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies."
The Literature and Culture of the Indian Subcontinent on the Postcolonial Web. Last modified 2001. [8 Dec 2007.]
Lahiri, Jhumpa Interpreter of Maladies and other stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…
Dahlberg, J. (2008). Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research .
Galician, M. (2004). Sex, Love and Romance in the Media: Analysis and criticism of the unrealistic portrayal of women in mass media. Lawrence Elbaum Associates.
Gammel, I. (1999). Confessional politics: Women's self representations in life writing and popular media. Southern Illinios University Press.
Hall, a.C. (1998). Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media. Praeger Publications.
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism can be seen at the root of the other cultural problems discussed in this context; it implies both a lack of understanding about the impacts of the unit's culture on the people of a foreign culture, as well as a lack of appreciation and understanding for that culture (Hoskins 2007).
Culture is strange, in that it is both constant and always changing. The only static culture is a dead one; as the various elements and generations of a culture interact, change is bound to happen. When there is no longer any interaction within a culture or between a given culture and other cultures, there is no longer any point to that culture, and indeed that culture could not realistically exist -- in…
DiMarco, L. (2003). Traditions, changes, and challenges: Military operations and the Middle Eastern city. Diane Publsihing.
Harrison, D.; Light, L. & Rothschild-Boros, M. (2008). Cultural anthropology: Our diverse world. New York: Wadsworth.
Hoskins, B. (2007). "Religion and other cultural variable in modern operational environments." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA470675&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
O'Neil, D. (2007). "Characteristics of Culture." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_2.htm
CULTURAL Characteristic FOUR: Hospitality. An essential part of the Uzbek cultural heritage is hospitality. The country is located at the crossroads where trade routes pass through opening up the door to Central Asia. Many villages had oasis facilities and so caravans passing through would stop and use the hospitality of people in small villages where there was water, shade and rest. The "Silk Road" runs right through Uzbekistan. The hospitality that was shown to these caravans was in the form of safety from the dangers of the road, a place to sleep, food and water for the camels, hot tea, food, and graciousness, according to Central Asian Cultures.
The route through Uzbekistan is called the Silk Road because on many of the "complex overland routes gained their name from the most famous of luxury items" to pass through -- and that was silk (www.centralasiacultures.com/silkroad). It was not just silk that…
Adams, Laura L. (1999). Invention, Institutionalization and Renewal in Uzbekistan's National
Culture. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2(3), 355-373.
Central Asia Cultures. (2010). Uzbekistan -- Uzbek Culture, Customs and Traditions. Retrieved June 4, 2010, from http://www.centralasiacultures.com/uzbekistan .
Djumaev, Alexander. (2005). Musical Heritage and National Identity in Uzbekistan.
What will that lead to in future politicians? Will they conduct their entire campaigns online, with no need to reach out to real people on the campaign trail? That remains to be seen, but the technology of the Internet, and all it implies, is changing how we view political news and reporting, and it certainly could change the face of actual campaigns in the future, and that has implications for our society in general. Change is not always bad, and it can bring about necessary reform and legislation, and it is quite clear blogging is bringing about great change in how we get our political information. How that affects our society and us in the future remains to be seen, but it is certain that blogging, political campaigns, and the importance of valid information will all continue to be issues in the future.
How can candidates use blogs effectively in…
Cornfield, Michael. "Buzz, Blogs, and Beyond: The Internet and the National Discourse in the Fall of 2004." Pew Internet & American Life Project, 2005. 17 Oct. 2007. http://www.nielsenbuzzmetrics.com/files/uploaded/whitepapers/BMwp_BZMPew_BlogsBuzzBynd.pdf
Froomkin, a. Michael. "Chapter 1 Technologies for Democracy." Democracy Online: The Prospects for Political Renewal through the Internet. Ed. Peter M. Shane. New York: Routledge, 2004. 3-20.
Miller, Nora. "Anti-Spin: Using Internet Resources to Unwind Political Claims." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 62.1 (2005): 76+.
McPherson, Miller, and Smith-Lovin, Lynn. "Social Isolation in America: Changes in Core Discussion Networks over Two Decades." American Sociological Review. 2006. 17 Oct. 2007. http://www.asanet.org/galleries/default-file/June06ASRFeature.pdf
There was once a time when Greeks, for example, prided themselves over their national identity which was obviously based on the piece of land that Greeks occupied. However with the passage of time, this piece of land is losing its significance. Land is still important for other reasons but it is no longer the factor that sets one group of people apart from another. This is an interesting development and one that explains why geography is gradually becoming history.
Everywhere nation-states are dying and this death has contributed to rapid decline in the significance of geographical demarcations. We can blame the information age as well as globalization for this change. But according to civilization theories postulated by Huntington, this change is grounded in religious and cultural differences/similarities. West is now better known for its identity as westerns rather than as North Americans or Europeans. This is due to the fact…
Samuel Huntington: Clash of Civilizations. Retrieved online 6th June 2006 at http://www.alamut.com/subj/economics/misc/clash.html
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve…
Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press
Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.
New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and consumed…
He commonly regales his backers with strong, repetitive phrases that carry a sermon-like quality of affirmation: "Yes we can." Obama's catchphrase has helped to attract even greater media support in the form of entertainment industry backing of the kind that appeals to the candidate's often young, white base. The musical group, the lack Eyed Peas recorded as song entitled "Yes We Can," that contains words from Obama's speeches as lyrics, and provides a powerful musical beat to his campaign while giving it the cachet of popular culture.
The media's love affair with arack Obama recently became a theme of the Clinton campaign when, beginning at the Texas debate, Hillary Clinton drew attention to a Saturday Night Live skit in which, during a simulated debate, arack Obama was offered a pillow to make him comfortable rather than asked the hardball questions that were hurled at his opponent.
The televised lampoon of the…
Colmes, Alan and Hannity, Sean.
Discussion of the Media's Treatment of Sen. Hillary Clinton." Hannity & Colmes, 27 February 2008.
Clinton, Obama Trade Jabs on Health Care." Associated Press, 28 February 2008.
The phrase that was popular in 1965, when Johnson got his legislation passed, was "Cultural deprivation"; that phrase, and the culture of poverty became what Stein calls "central constructs" around a policy that hopefully would help children that were "shackled by the chains of disadvantage which bind them to a life of hopelessness and misery" (Stein, 2004, xiv).
Schools were a "promising site for government intervention" because the field of education could "…interrupt the otherwise intractable poverty culture," Stein continued, reviewing the federal government's attempt to end poverty. By funding programs to help low income students, the government set out to "…impart middle-class norms, and break the chains of poverty and disadvantage," for poor students, blacks, Latinos, immigrants and others who were seen as "victims of cultural deprivation," Stein continues on page xv. But the problem with the government's intervention was that the "very characterizations of 'disadvantaged youth'…functioned in ways…
Cuthrell, Kristen, Stapleton, Joy, and Ledford, Carolyn. "Examining the Culture of Poverty:
Promising Practices." Preventing School Failure. 54.2 (104-110).
Harrison, Brigid Callahan. Power and Society: An Introduction to the Social Sciences. Florence,
KY: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany.
Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken to entail Toqueville's "associationism," a vibrant public sphere, formal outlets for political dissent, and informed political debate. Such inquiries have provided little insight into the nature of healthy democracies because they are based on a faulty assumption, that culture is a condition or even a determinant in the formation of a society's political structure.
As Berman observed, passionate civic engagement among a nation's citizens, without an adequate institutional foundation to channel such passion, can actually be averse to functional democracy. Berman…
The Mechanical Clock has been invented in Europe in the 13th century, and, despite of the fact that it had been obvious that it would bring benefits to the world, it received little to no recognition from outside of Europe.
Printing has been invented by the Chinese in the ninth century and later perfected by the Europeans, as the Chinese did not seem interested in the act. The Europeans became fond of printing and millions of books had been printed in just a short amount of time. The Islam did not seem to be interested in having the Koran printed, nor did it seem interested in having printing present in their territory. The Asian world also appeared to be reluctant from accepting printing for the important technological advancement that it had been. The Chinese apparently treated every European invention with lack of enthusiasm because of the fact that they did…
Both dissenters and innovators are outsiders -- thinking and acting outside the box. The very qualities that make these individuals annoying (e.g. arrogance, single-mindedness) are also part of the types of qualities (passion, drive, confidence) that are needed to keep ideas alive and vital. A good manager can deal with the package and manage the wheat with the chaff.
Usually impossible to get the type of innovators one wants without getting some of their own negatives (arrogance, inability to compromise, etc.).
Managing means eliciting the needed strengths out of each individual employee, and harkens back to the idea that not all employees are equal.
Managers often have the urge to tame the wild nature of a dissenter; to "bring them into the fold."
There are people who provide dissent because they are simply unhappy -- regardless of the situation. These types of dissenters rarely contribute innovation, but instead provide a litany of…
Cited in www.fastcompany.com.
Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning
Tichy, N. And a. McGill, eds. (2003). The Ethnical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding
The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations are hesitant about investing large amounts of money in China (eatherbee & Emmers 42).
The masses no longer express interest in U.S. cultural values because it appears that the U.S. has experienced significant problems consequent to the 9/11 events. This enabled China to step forward and pose into a body that no longer had problems because of its communist background and that was ready to join other international actors in assisting society progress. The fact that China progressed significantly while the U.S.' image suffered meant that things would change significantly in Southeast Asia. Fair play is one of the main points of interest at this point, as "the concern in Southeast Asia is that the United States, rather than accommodating to a…
Brook, Daniel, (2005) "Modern Revolution: Social Change and Cultural Continuity in Czechoslovakia and China," University Press of America
Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick, (1966), "The birth of Communist China," Michigan University
Li, Mingjiang, (2009), "Soft Power: China's Emerging Strategy in International Politics," Lexington Books
Tang, Wenfang and Holzner, Burkart (2006) "Social Change in Contemporary China: C.K. Yang and the Concept of Institutional Diffusion" University of Pittsburgh Pre
Democratization, Culture and Underdeveloped Nations
This paper looks at the issue of culture and democratization in underdeveloped countries. The paper is based on research conducted through a systematic review of the current literature on the subject, from policy documents published by bodies such as the IMF and the World ank, to academic papers written by workers in this field, to online discussion forums (which can be an extremely valuable source for assessing 'grass roots' opinions regarding issues such as this).
The paper begins with a basic introduction to some key topics, through a discussion of questions such as 'What is democracy?', 'What is culture?', 'What is an underdeveloped country', and 'What does democracy mean at the present time for people in the United States, and the rest of the developed world, and for people in underdeveloped countries'?
What do we mean, as a citizen of the United States, when we talk about 'democracy'?…
Abizedah, A. (2002). Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments. American Political Science Review 96(3).
Adams, D. And Goldbard, A. (1995). Cultural Democracy: A Brief Introduction. Available at http://www.wwcd.org/cd.html . Accessed 13th January 2003.
Elshtain, JB (1993). Democracy on Trial. Concrod, Ontario: Anansi.
Kasfir (2000) Democracy in Translation: Understanding Politics in an Unfamiliar Culture (Book Review). American Political Science Review September 2000.
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…
Armstrong, C.K. (2015). Korean history and political geography.
Eckert, C.J., Lee, K., et al. (1991). Korea Old and New. Korea Institute, Harvard University Press.
"Hidden Korea," (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/hiddenkorea/history.htm
Nelson, M.N. (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press.
Perhaps had the author appealed to such nuance, the text may have been forced into a discussion that accounts for how a nation of America's diversity might be seen as so culturally cohesive. The idea that the American public has been duped into believing itself committed to certain spiritual, political or philosophical ideals is one which, without prejudice, is insulting to the whole of the American public. A discussion which draws into consideration America's long history of disenfranchising minorities, mistreating immigrants, segregating African-Americans and continuing today to obstruct homosexual lifestyle discussions would seem to suggest that the motive exists, even for what Fiorina condescendingly refers to as the apolitical average American, to take a strong stance on such cultural matters. To suggest that such stances are only influenced by a dedication to political parties and platforms is to reduce the personal, emotional, ethnic, spiritual and cultural individualities that make…
Fiorina, Morris P. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2005.
Global Organization Researching Cultural Issues -- Amnesty International
Cultural relativism is the contention that "…human values, far from being universal, vary a great deal according to different cultural perspectives," and that human rights -- though they must be protected whenever that is possible -- are often difficult to secure in a culturally diverse world (Ayton-Shenker, 1995). Every human being has the right to his or her culture, including, according to Ayton-Shenker, the right to "…enjoy and develop cultural life and identity"; however the right to one's culture is "limited at the point at which it infringes on another human right."
This paper delves into how Amnesty International approaches cultural issues -- the internationally recognized moral right every culture has to practice its political, religious, and social traditions -- through its interactions with many governments and cultures outside the United States.
Amnesty International -- Cultural Issues it Inquires Into
Amnesty International (AI) supports the…
Amnesty International. (2013). A Life Lost in Pursuit of the Truth. Retrieved September 9, 2012,
from http://www.amnestyusa.org .
Amnesty International. (2013). Our Work / Our Mission / About Us. Retrieved September 6,
The Transitions of Roman Culture (Romanitas) As It Interacted with Christian Culture (Christianitas) And Barbarian Cultures (Germanitas)
Christianity in late antiquity runs from the Christian Roman Empire when Christianity rose under the Emperor Constantine (c. 313) up to the end of the Western Roman Empire (c. 476). The sub-Roman period transition was gradual and occurred at varying times in different places. Therefore, the exact time the period ended is varied. The late ancient Christianity lasted up to the end of the 6th century. On the other hand, Justinian conquests of the Byzantine Empire occurred between 527 and 565. However, in 476, it ended when the last emperor, Romulus Augustus died. Christianity spread from the Roman Judaea without any endorsement or state support. It became Armenia’s state religion in 301 or 314, Georgia in 337 and Ethiopia 325.the The Thessalonica Edict saw it develop into the Roman Empire’s state religion in 380
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog
Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters
Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to the lack…
Hendricks, J.A., & Denton, R.E. (2009). Communicator-in-chief: How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the white house. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
Rosenau, J.N., & Singh, J.P. (2002). Information technologies and global politics: The changing scope of power and governance. Albany (N.Y.: State university of New York press.
Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
The term "culture" originally described aspects of cultivation in agriculture but in the current sense has been used in anthropology to explain the aspects of human behavior that cannot be attributed to genetic influences (Gertz, 1973). Gertz (1973) defines culture as having two aspects: the capacity to act creatively and represent experience through civilization and the distinct differences as to how different groups of people represent their experience.
Culture is a potent force in the survival of people but is also a fragile entity. Culture can constantly change and can be easily lost because culture exists in the minds and thoughts of people. For this reason many anthropologists and sociologists further distinguish culture into material culture, the distinct physical artifacts a society creates and non-material culture which basically consist of all other aspects of culture (Newman, 2011).
The focus in material culture studies is to understand a particular culture or society…
Friedel, R. (1993). Some matters of substance. In Lubar, S. & Kingery, W.D. (eds.). History
from things: Essays on material culture (pp. 41 -- 50). Washington, DC: Smithsonian
Gertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
culture is playing on international business. This is accomplished by comparing cultural traditions of elgium and South Africa using Arcelor Mittal. Once this occurs, is when we are able to understand how the firm is able to utilize these factors to give them an advantage in the global marketplace.
Over the last several years, globalization has been having profound impact on firms. What has been happening is corporations, have been seeking out those areas that can provide them with the lowest costs. This is part of an effort to increase productivity and their overall profit margins. As a result, a variety of different firms have been establishing operations around the world to deal with these underlying challenges. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that 47% of American and European companies are outsourcing some aspect of their operations. (Sears, 2009) This is important, because…
About. (2011). Arcelor Mittal. Retrieved from: http://www.arcelormittal.com/index.php?lang=en&page=9
Belgium. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/be.html
Belgium. (2011). KWI Essential. Retrieved from: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/belgium-country-profile.html
Financial Highlights. (2010). Arcelor Mittal. Retrieved from: http://www.arcelormittal.com/rls/data/upl/658-4-0-ARC_FB10.pdf
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…
references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x
Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526
Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.
Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978
Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
In this way, they differ significantly from the general global tendency to have fewer children in the interest of a sustainable future for humanity. Cultural values are regarded as primarily important in the decision to have and raise children.
When the issue is thoroughly investigated, it is clear that culture is indeed a political issue. There are several and divergent reasons for this, of which the most important is that both politics and culture are inseparable from human life itself. There is no community that does not have some sort of government and some sort of culture. The ways in which culture and politics interact and manifest are as numerous as there are nations on earth. This is what makes it both a complicated and rich field of study.
Bentley, Jerry H. 1996. Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History. The American Historical eview, Vol. 101, no. 3. June 1995. http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/support/whatis_reading_2.pdf
Bentley, Jerry H. 1996. Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History. The American Historical Review, Vol. 101, no. 3. June 1995. http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/support/whatis_reading_2.pdf
International association for Conflict Management. 2007. Reciprocating concessions in intercultural and intracultural contexts. 20th Annual Conference: Budapest Hungary, July 1-4. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1100608
Philpott, Daniel. Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion. University of Notre Dame
Sizoo, Edith. 2000. An intercultural and multilingual contribution to the framing of a Charter of the Alliance. Syros Workshop, Greece. October 30 -- November 4.
For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).
In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…
Elliston, D. (2005). Erotic anthropology: "Ritualized homosexuality" in Melanesia and beyond.
In J. Robertson (Ed.), Same sex cultures and sexualities: An anthropological reader (pp.91-115). Malden: Blackwell.
Hunter, M. (2012). Rights amidst wrongs: The paradoxes of gender rights-based approaches towards AIDS in South Africa. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.66-74). London: Routledge.
Mahdavi, P. (2012). 'The personal is political and the political is personal': Sexuality, politics, and social movements in modern Iran. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.34-48). London: Routledge.
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone is…
Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.
Accessed 1 April 2012.
"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
The very notion of 'Asian-American' is a false construction, given the distinctive cultures that exist within the region. Moreover, some recent Asian immigrants, such as those from Cambodia or Vietnam, may have more impoverished economic circumstances than individuals from more affluent Asian nations.
Culture is not a static thing: it is constantly in flux, and fuses with other cultures. A second-generation immigrant may passionately identify with certain aspects of his parent's culture, but may also incorporate elements of America into his identity. Every time there is an encounter with another culture, both representatives from each culture will change. A good example of this can be seen in religion: even though the religion of Christianity was imposed upon African-Americans, African-American religious traditions have reconfigured this religion into something positive and uplifting that can serve as a vehicle of political and spiritual mobilization.
The temptation, when viewing a new culture, is to look…
4. Dr. Michael Hanchard. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Hanchard may be the most important contact in academia for any aspects of the study linked to race because Dr. Hanchard has done extensive work in both comparative politics and transnational politics. Furthermore, Dr. Hanchard may be able to provide insight into research methodology because he has done research on black political activists in various locales.
5. Dr. Wesley Skogan. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Skogan concentrates on citizens as consumers and creators of law, therefore he may have valuable insight on political involvement.
6. Dr. Dennis Chong. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Chong wrote Rational Lives: Norms and Values in Politics and Society, in which he examined the interrelationship between how people's individual choices effect their social and economic realms. Because choice of residence may be one of the most basic social choices, Dr. Chong may…
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…
culture rely Hofstede's measures lead students confuse similarity cultural closeness. It important understand simply cultural values close, country relations optimal. Two greatest Asia economies, Japan China, case.
China vs. Japan
Historically speaking, China and Japan have been enemies. The 'ape of Nanking' during World War II is still remembered by many Chinese as if it happened yesterday. Despite close economic ties between the two nations, China still fought Japan being included in the UN Security Council because of Japan's war crimes against China (Lehmann 2006). In terms of foreign policy, Japan is understandably frightened by a strong North Korea, which China has failed to condemn when it has pursued aggressive foreign policy and violated human rights (Global impact of a China-Japan-South Korea free trade agreement, 2012, China Briefing).
There is also a certain amount of resource jealousy: China is a large nation with an expanding population; Japan is a small island nation…
French, Howard & Norimitusu Onishi. (2005). Economic ties binding Japan to rival China.
The New York Times. Retrieved:
Global impact of a China-Japan-South Korea free trade agreement. (2012). China Briefing.
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.
Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.
Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in which…
references for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy, International Organization, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2004, pp.137-174, Published by Cambridge University Press
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons America…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man
Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence
Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (October 1990)
Swain, Carol. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress
S. today are called African-Americans or Afro-Americans. As Africans had been brought into the U.S. they had been deprived by their traditions, being forced to integrate in the larger, more complex community. In spite of the slave owners and traders' efforts to break them completely from their culture, during their first years on American land, the blacks managed to keep most of their traditions. However, as time passed, black traditions changed into American traditions and African people became Americans.
Black people in Texas have a very rich history and as they've managed to become independent as a minority, their culture has also been revived. Moreover, the black community in Texas has contributed to the Texan history as it has also contributed to the birth of several important Texans.
A large part of the Hispanics residents of the U.S. inhabit the state of Texas and their number has visibly grown during the last…
Clutter, a.W., Nieto, R.D. Understanding the Hispanic Culture. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from the Ohio State University Web site: http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5237.html
Glasrud, a. B, & Smallwood, J. (2007). The African-American Experience in Texas: An Anthology. Texas Tech University Press.
1994-1995). Black-Texans. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from Texas Almanac Web site: http://www.texasalmanac.com/culture/groups/black.html
2000). The Spanish, Mexicans, Tejano. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from UTSA's Institute of Texan cultures Web site: http://www.texancultures.utsa.edu/publications/texansoneandall/tejano.htm
This research focuses on the public housing neighborhood of Bezirganbahce. Like the first, this article shows how Turkish society "marks the areas populated by the urban poor as dangerous, a breeding ground for illegal activities, and areas of social decay or social ill," (Candan & Kolluoglu 2008 p 38). Those lower ranking social classes and ethnic subgroups are often excluded from the daily existence of mainstream Turkish culture and forced to life a marginalized life in a segregated area that isolates lower socioeconomic classes from the rest of society. The urban poor that reside in the neighborhood are excluded from an external source, and thus left to fend for themselves. In this marginalized space, the residents of this neighborhood have actually created a culture that is all their own outside of the boundaries of typical Turkish life. Like as shown in Yilmaz (2008), this neighborhood is seen as having…
Candan, Ayfur Bartu & Kolluoglu, Biray. (2008). Emerging spaces of neoliberalism: A gated town and a public housing project in Istanbul. New Perspectives on Turkey, 39(2008), 4-46.
Yilmaz, Bediz. (2008). Entrapped in multidimensional exclusion: The perpetuation of poverty among conflict-induced migrants in an Istanbul neighborhood. New Perspectives on Turkey, 38(2008), 205-234.
culture of omania, a relatively new country and only recently an independent force in the geopolitical sphere. By an examination of omania's history, from its founding in the latter half of the nineteenth century through its participation in the two World Wars, through its Soviet domination and to the merging democracy that the country is today, the notions, values, and perspectives of the people can be ascertained. The use of three different frameworks for developing an understanding and definition of particular cultures and cultural elements will be applied to this study of omanian history in order to better understand this nation's culture in a comprehensive manner.
omania was formed as a nation in 1959 from the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which had been under the dominion of the Ottoman Empire for several hundred years (CIA 2011; USDOS 2011). Two millennia prior, the region had been part of the…
BBC. (2011). Romania Country Profile. Accessed 9 April 2011.
Changing Minds. (2011). Hall's cultural factors. Accessed 9 April 2011. http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/hall_culture.htm
CIA. (2011). Romania. Accessed 9 April 2011. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ro.html
culture of a country is likely to affect an individual's business practices including the distribution of its products within the country and outside, the production process and configuration of a product, and other business operations that contribute to the business growth and output. Cultures determine the different ways in which people behave and mostly in business.
'Knowing about the cultural circumstance of your country or foreign country where you wish to transact your business, can either help you prevent making mistakes that will affect your business.' (Hill, 2004) To do this, the paper chooses to focus it's analyzes on China's culture as the country of target and its implications to the business operations.
China has truly emerged as a country with great business opportunities and with a huge potential for economic growth. ith an improved international relations, a robust economy, and increased foreign investment doing business in China is quite becoming…
Charles H, & Trompenaars. (2003) F: Riding The Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business: New York. Ivey publisher
Cateora, P.R. (2007). Strategic International Marketing: New York. McGraw-Hill Education
Cannon, M. (2003). Understanding Global Cultures: New York. Sage Publications
Hill, C. (2004). International Business Competing in the Global Market Place: New York. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Other commodities are consumed to derive pleasure or entertainment which explains why one goes for a certain television brand or a type of car. The choice of cars among the youths and the purpose of owning the cars among other gadgets have something to do with what their peers will think of them not the utility part (Scott Atkins, 1995).
Baudrillard, (2012) another individual who studied material culture called it the sociology of consumption. He studied the objects and not the consumer; he asserted that consumption should be taken seriously as an important institution where social class status and prestige are displayed. Certain objects depict a certain class in the society and when one possesses those prestigious objects then there is a message to the society in terms of the social status. The objects therefore have symbolic value as he mentions the objects of the modern consumer, it is implied…
Baudrillard, (2012). The Consumer Society. Retrieved May 31, 2012 from http://www.the-philosophy.com/baudrillard-consumer-society
Geoff Stahl, (1999). Still 'Wining Space?': Updating Subcultural Theory. Retrieved May 31, 2012 from http://www.rochester.edu/in_visible_culture/issue2/stahl.htm
Kyle Grayson, Matt Davies & Simon Philpott, (2009).Pop goes IR? Researching the Popular Culture-World political Continuum. Retrieved may 31, 2012 from http://18.104.22.168/www.gesellschaftswissenschaften.uni-frankfurt.de/uploads/images/1495/Grayson_et_al._2009.pdf
Philip Smith, (2000). Culture and Charisma: Outline of a Theory. Retrieved May 31, 2012 from http://prisme.u-strasbg.fr/sites/10/File/7a_smith_charisma.pdf
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western countries have been…
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its opposite is…
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml
Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
However, affirmative action does reveal a rift in American political culture. Equality has always been an endemic American value, touted in the Constitution and branded as a key…Read Full Paper ❯
The roots of social control theory can be traced back to Emile Durkheim, who in the late 1800s proposed that "The more weakened the groups to which [the individual]…Read Full Paper ❯
The technological and otherwise evolutions of the 1970s decade are linked to the Cold War "fought" between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist epublics.…Read Full Paper ❯
First, American ideas about freedom have evolved over time, and this might be the natural model for freedom. To believe that an emerging democracy would immediately look like…Read Full Paper ❯
American Frontier and American Political Culture: hat if anything has the frontier contributed to creating a distinctive American political culture? The notion of a vast and limitless space known…Read Full Paper ❯
American Political Culture and Values n Hellfire Nation (2003) James Morone described U.S. history as cyclical, with alternating generational cycles of reform and conservatism that can be traced back to…Read Full Paper ❯
Comparative Analysis, State The two states that I will be analyzing are Rhode Island and Florida, on the one hand, as compared to my home state of South Carolina. Variables…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Political History Of Egypt Examining the History of an Ancient Land: The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared…Read Full Paper ❯
Political Science / Politics
The United Kingdom and Ireland have both enjoyed geographic separation from the continent of Europe, enabling both to develop unique political cultures and institutions. Ireland has been even more…Read Full Paper ❯
Political Science / Politics
Problem/Puzzle Krastev (2011) is perplexed by the stability and longevity of authoritarian regimes in the “age of democratication,” (p. 7). Main Argument The “new authoritarianism,” or the “user-friendly” version of authoritarianism is…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
President George W. Bush began two new wars during his time of office, and frequently used hyperbolic military rhetoric when giving speeches to the world. By awarding America's…Read Full Paper ❯
1. Why is the state considered a central institution in comparative politics? What does state power look like, and where does it come from? Towards what ends do states…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Journalism
Public opinion it can only exist in the context of a democratic society? In a democratic society, it is presumed that information flows freely and that all citizens have equal…Read Full Paper ❯
Culture and Politics Germany: How Culture and Politics Bring About Social Change German history and culture are complex, and the country has been through a lot of changes, both in the…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Political and eligious Boundaries Byzantium historically was the eastern side of the oman Empire that was the result of the religious, political and cultural schism that occurred between East and…Read Full Paper ❯
Culture's Impact On Healthcare Culture: Midwestern, (White Female) The following are the top 5 characteristics of my culture: Conservative political values. May cause a closed mine and limit the imagination. Political lines…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
In his book, Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Kong, Steve Tsang (1995), discussed the pre-transitional government and history of that government in Hong Kong. For all intents…Read Full Paper ❯
Political and Economic Differences Consider Effects of the financial crisis on the developing world vs. The developed world The 2008 financial crisis began in the American banking sector but its impact was…Read Full Paper ❯
Political, Social and Economic Plan Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others…Read Full Paper ❯
"Fish becomes the leitmotif in the story. Mrs. Sen's existence as also her survival in an alien land revolves around and depends upon this food item. hen she…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what…Read Full Paper ❯
This also has major implications for military operations, both within a military unit and in the interaction between the military unit and another culture. Essentially, the problem of ethnocentrism…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
366). CULTURAL Characteristic FOUR: Hospitality. An essential part of the Uzbek cultural heritage is hospitality. The country is located at the crossroads where trade routes pass through opening up…Read Full Paper ❯
What will that lead to in future politicians? Will they conduct their entire campaigns online, with no need to reach out to real people on the campaign trail?…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
There was once a time when Greeks, for example, prided themselves over their national identity which was obviously based on the piece of land that Greeks occupied. However…Read Full Paper ❯
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
(Ng, 1994, p. 93) The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos.…Read Full Paper ❯
He commonly regales his backers with strong, repetitive phrases that carry a sermon-like quality of affirmation: "Yes we can." Obama's catchphrase has helped to attract even greater media…Read Full Paper ❯
The phrase that was popular in 1965, when Johnson got his legislation passed, was "Cultural deprivation"; that phrase, and the culture of poverty became what Stein calls "central…Read Full Paper ❯
Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany. Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
The Mechanical Clock has been invented in Europe in the 13th century, and, despite of the fact that it had been obvious that it would bring benefits to…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Both dissenters and innovators are outsiders -- thinking and acting outside the box. The very qualities that make these individuals annoying (e.g. arrogance, single-mindedness) are also part of…Read Full Paper ❯
The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations…Read Full Paper ❯
Democratization, Culture and Underdeveloped Nations This paper looks at the issue of culture and democratization in underdeveloped countries. The paper is based on research conducted through a systematic review of…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become…Read Full Paper ❯
Perhaps had the author appealed to such nuance, the text may have been forced into a discussion that accounts for how a nation of America's diversity might be…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
Global Organization Researching Cultural Issues -- Amnesty International Cultural relativism is the contention that "…human values, far from being universal, vary a great deal according to different cultural perspectives,"…Read Full Paper ❯
The Transitions of Roman Culture (Romanitas) As It Interacted with Christian Culture (Christianitas) And Barbarian Cultures (Germanitas) Christianity in late antiquity runs from the Christian Roman Empire when Christianity rose…Read Full Paper ❯
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a…Read Full Paper ❯
Culture The term "culture" originally described aspects of cultivation in agriculture but in the current sense has been used in anthropology to explain the aspects of human behavior that…Read Full Paper ❯
culture is playing on international business. This is accomplished by comparing cultural traditions of elgium and South Africa using Arcelor Mittal. Once this occurs, is when we are…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since…Read Full Paper ❯
In this way, they differ significantly from the general global tendency to have fewer children in the interest of a sustainable future for humanity. Cultural values are regarded…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and…Read Full Paper ❯
The very notion of 'Asian-American' is a false construction, given the distinctive cultures that exist within the region. Moreover, some recent Asian immigrants, such as those from Cambodia…Read Full Paper ❯
4. Dr. Michael Hanchard. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Hanchard may be the most important contact in academia for any aspects of the study linked to race…Read Full Paper ❯
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.' A balance between history and psychology is needed…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
culture rely Hofstede's measures lead students confuse similarity cultural closeness. It important understand simply cultural values close, country relations optimal. Two greatest Asia economies, Japan China, case. China vs.…Read Full Paper ❯
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles. Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes…Read Full Paper ❯
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
S. today are called African-Americans or Afro-Americans. As Africans had been brought into the U.S. they had been deprived by their traditions, being forced to integrate in the larger,…Read Full Paper ❯
This research focuses on the public housing neighborhood of Bezirganbahce. Like the first, this article shows how Turkish society "marks the areas populated by the urban poor as…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
culture of omania, a relatively new country and only recently an independent force in the geopolitical sphere. By an examination of omania's history, from its founding in the…Read Full Paper ❯
culture of a country is likely to affect an individual's business practices including the distribution of its products within the country and outside, the production process and configuration…Read Full Paper ❯
Other commodities are consumed to derive pleasure or entertainment which explains why one goes for a certain television brand or a type of car. The choice of cars…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Cultural Psychology Review of Saudi Arabia Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as…Read Full Paper ❯
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure: Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect…Read Full Paper ❯