Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
hedging provides to non-financial firms to manage financial risks. Also to analyze how does hedging add to the corporate value if it does.
Hedge can be describes as an investment which is intended to offset the potential losses which the company might have to face in future for the investment made. A hedge can be created by many forms of financial instruments which include insurance, swaps, forward contracts, stocks and many other financial instruments.
In simple words hedging is reducing/controlling the risk of the financial investment. This is done by taking a position (future market) which is opposite to the position taken in the physical market which aims to reduce or limit the risks of the financial investments. This is a two step process. Any loss or gain in a position in the cash because of changes in the price levels are dealt by changes in the value through a future position. For example, a football manufacturer can sell football futures to protect the value of his football prior to the football season. In case there is a dip in the price due to unforeseen circumstances then the loss is recovered through the future positions.
The Research Design includes a simple Questionnaire that has questions which duly identify the benefits and problems caused by hedging for the non-financial players by the commercial banks and forex companies and the mitigating steps that can be inferred by the research and an informal interview with the organization representatives.
The research is aimed at identifying the factors that are required for hedging which can lead to the ultimate profitability.
RESPONDENTS OF STUDY
The research thesis involves gathering first hand information from the professionals in the departments of banks, financial institutions and forex company personnel. The following Institutions, Banks and Exchange Company were contacted:
Fair & Square
Royal Bank OF Scotland
Lloyds Banking Group
SOURCES OF DATA
Bank of England
The following were the research questions of the research:
How hedging is done?
What are its advantages to non-financial firms?
What are its disadvantages to the non-financial firms?
In evaluating a company's use of financial derivatives for hedging, the three most common ways are: 1) Foreign Exchange Risks 2) Interest Rate Risks 3) Commodity Risks
FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET
Exchange rate is the price at which a currency can be bought and sold in terms of another. This price can be the result of supply and demand for the currency in the open market or as fixed by edict of a government or its monetary authority, usually the central bank. Most of the time the value of the currencies is decided by the interaction of the free market forces playing their role - guided by the intervention of the monetary authorities to ensure currencies do not depreciate or appreciate, excessively. The monetary authorities would not be doing their duty if they did not intervene in the market place to smooth out excessive price movements. (Jorian, 2009)
Effects of Exchange Control
Foreign currency operators in countries with rigid exchange controls have little opportunity to exercise their skills. In some countries the authorities fix the exact buying and selling rates periodically, even daily, in which case active foreign exchange dealing is practically non-existent, unless there is a gap in the regulations permitting some arbitrage transactions between different currency bands. (Ali Fatemi & Carl Luft, 2002)
Where there are no (or practically no) exchange controls, the development and depth of the exchange market is a question of the willingness of the domestic banks to take views and to back these up with positions. Naturally, the size and volume of a domestic market in foreign currencies is limited by:
The size of the country,
The state of the economy
The number of participants.
Lack of exchange controls also means that the organizations operating in the foreign exchange market of a country will be responsible to ensure prudent dealing by imposing limits. However, instead of having exchange controls, the central bank or monetary authority may inhibit the freedom by setting capital and other ratios on the positions they are allowed to carry for a limited period. (Nicholas, 2003)
FACTORS AFFECTING EXCHANGE RATES
Following factors affect the exchange rates:
Fundamental / economic factors
This includes balance of payment approach, devaluation of currency, relative inflation rates, relative interest rates, sentiments of both investors and borrowers and the Central bank's intervention. (Mark, 2007)
The factors under the political head that affects the forex rates are the changes in government policies, changes in government and the political instability.
Analysis of the technical factors can be conducted with the help of various types of charts with the chart pattern being reversal or continuation. There are also automated trading techniques that are available for the said purpose.
DEFINITION OF RISK
Financial risk is the possibility that the outcome of an action or event could bring up adverse impacts. Such outcomes could either result in a direct loss of earnings / capital or may result in imposition of constraints on bank's ability to meet its business objectives. Such constraints pose a risk as these could hinder a bank's ability to conduct its ongoing business or to take benefit of opportunities to enhance its business.
Regardless of the sophistication of the measures, banks often distinguish between expected and unexpected losses. Expected losses are those that the bank knows with reasonable certainty will occur (e.g., the expected default rate of corporate loan portfolio or credit card portfolio) and are typically reserved for in some manner. Unexpected losses are those associated with unforeseen events (e.g. losses experienced in the aftermath of nuclear tests, Losses due to a sudden down turn in economy or falling interest rates). Banks rely on their capital as a buffer to absorb such losses but Forex Companies cannot because of low capital and no deposits. (Baily Nicholas, David Browne and Eve Hicks, 2003)
Risks are usually defined by the adverse impact on profitability of several distinct sources of uncertainty. While the types and degree of risks an organization may be exposed to depend upon a number of factors such as its size, complexity business activities, volume etc., it is believed that generally the financial institutions face Credit, Market, Liquidity, Operational, Compliance / legal / regulatory and reputation risks.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE DEALING RISKS
The following two risks in foreign exchange dealing activities, which could result in losses:
Unfavorable movements in market prices caused by unanticipated changes in interest rates, exchange rates or volatility.
The failure (bankruptcy of counter parties) before their dealing commitments are settled
When dealing activities are conducted with full knowledge and authority of the general management of the concerned organization, these risks are controlled by the limits. However, if they are conducted without the full knowledge of general management or beyond their authority, these risks may not be controlled and the potential for loss could be magnified. (Bent Flyvbjerg, Nils Bruzelius, and Werner Rothengatter, 2003)
It is responsibility of market participants not only to ensure that they are dealing with knowledge and authority of their own management but also to warn their management of irregularities in dealing to prevent unwarranted losses to their own institutions and to counter parties. It is presumed that dealers recognize when unauthorized dealing occurs in their own institutions and that procedures are in place for them to inform their management. (Vincent 1988)
Characteristics of dealings that indicate unauthorized transactions are as follows:
A sudden increase in volume to levels considered too large in relation to the size of the organization. This could be questionable warning since the total volume of business that a bank/company can place in the market depends on its reputation, standing and credit-worthiness and it is practically impossible to ascertain the basis of operations of undoubted standing.
An unusual increase in the turnover in banks clearing accounts with central banks/correspondent banks, particularly if overdrafts were to occur frequently. As the turnover on clearing accounts aggregates the counter value of any number of deals, which by themselves might not arouse the suspicion of the counter parties to those deals, this could be a useful warning.
A change in normal pattern of dealing
Failure to receive confirmation of deals
No satisfactory response to requests for verification of outstanding contacts
A willingness or desire to deal at a price which is deliberately pitched outside the market level
Typical Exposure Level
Organizations spend significant dollars monitoring and controlling credit risk exposures. Assessing this risk is crucial to determining the safety and soundness of a financial institution. Capital must be held against credit exposures.
The measurement and control of market risk is evolving. While most banks have…[continue]
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2.3: Theme I: This study's first theme defines hedge funds and presents a synopsis of their history. 2.4: Theme 2: Ways hedge funds compare to mutual funds are noted in this section, this study's second theme. 2.5: Theme 3: segment denotes techniques hedge funds utilise in investing. 2.6: Theme 4: A number of ways rising and falling markets impact hedge funds, this section's theme links to the thesis statement for this thesis/Capstone. 2.7: Analysis:
Vermeulen, Freek. 2001 'Controlling International Expansion.' Business Strategy Review Vol. 12 Issue 3 pp29-36. Reynolds, Scott & Hatfield, Alcinda 1996 'Shanghai's Rising Tide of Consumerism Means Food Export Opportunities' AgExporter. [online] available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_n7_v8/ai_19161841 Gamble, Jos & Huang, Qihai 2007 Multinational Retailers in the Asia Pacific. [online] available at http://www.consume.bbk.ac.uk/research/gamble.html http://www.sucralose.com/uk/index.php Kage, Ben 2006. 'Sugar Industry Claims Splenda Engaged in Deceptive Advertising' NaturalNews [online] available at http://www.naturalnews.com/021026.html The PEST or PESTLE Analysis Rapidbi.com [online] http://www.rapidbi.com/created/the-PESTLE-analysis-tool.html Hoffmann,
Moffett, M.H., Stonehill A.I., & Eitemen, D.K. (2012). Fundamentals of multinational finance (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall. In completing these assignments the university requires that you follow APA guidelines and include (in-text citations) in preparing all works, citations, and references. Each essay question response should be numbered, answered separately, and be at least 200 words (each question) in length but should be submitted as one file. Some information has been added to responses.
As a consequence, investors may suffer. Importance of the Study It is necessary and pertinent to discuss the importance of any study, and this particular study is important to many people across many countries. Not only does it have importance for people who are trusting people with their pension and hedge funds in Germany, but it also has importance for people who are considering a career working with these funds and