Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Downside of Affirmative Action
Affirmative action has increasingly become a popular subject of debate. Not only does the phrase "affirmative action" mean different things to different people, but also there are different arguments for and against it. While many people tout the benefits of affirmative action programs, they have acted as a stumbling block for minorities and have essentially created a starker disparity in the struggle for equal opportunity between white people and other minority groups.
Benefits of Affirmative Action
Affirmative action (AA) refers to the social practice in which members of historically disadvantaged groups are given preferential treatment in an attempt by the United States to compensate for any harm that was caused to their ancestors in the past (Crock, 1995). For example, African-Americans receive special benefits because of the U.S. history of slavery.
President Lyndon B. Johnson originally created affirmative action programs in 1965 to correct discrimination that occurred in the past. At this time, affirmative action aimed to actively select African-American candidates for jobs, education, or promotions, and prevent discrimination in the hiring and promotion processes. Affirmative action was reached its peak in the 1970's as good-faith efforts to hire blacks failed to withstand a Title VII challenge of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As a result, employers were forced to actually hire or admit black applicants to rid themselves of the challenges of racial discrimination (Giraldo, 1995, p. 40-42). When hiring new employees, employers began choosing the best available black candidate even if the best candidate was not suitable for the job.
In many ways, affirmative action programs are beneficial. The United States government justifies affirmative-action programs as "the principal of compensatory justice. (Giraldo, p. 45)" This means that compensation must be awarded to an injured party if an injustice has occurred. Affirmative action requires employees to hire members of groups that were treated unjustly in the past in an effort to compensate for historical injustices. In this light, affirmative action programs create cultural awareness and enrich diversity.
The Downside of Affirmative Action Programs
Opponents of affirmative action programs argue that, in modern society, these programs harm minorities more than they help minorities. Some say it has actually reversed discrimination in the workplace. Opponents also say that affirmative action policies also lead to lower expectations and hiring standards, as employers make an effort to hire minorities, even if they are not qualified for the jobs.
One can also argue that affirmative action increases racial tension between whites and minorities. Racial quotas often create resentment and anger among white males, who are discriminated against in favor of minorities. Racial preferences even create problems for racial minorities, who feel that they are often looked down upon, as they were only hired because of their race. Many minorities may feel they got the job because of their race or gender and that others think the same, when in fact they actually were the best candidates for enrollment or job placement
Affirmative Action as Reverse Discrimination
Affirmative action is best defined as " a policy or program for correcting the effects of discrimination in the employment or education of members of certain groups (Reskin, 1998, p. 114-115)." However, when it was initiated, it was not meant to cause the hiring of unqualified workers, or an increase in problems for groups that it originally set out to help. One of the biggest problems created by affirmative action is reverse discrimination, which has resulted in unfair standards for higher education and the workforce. Opponents of affirmative action argue that it creates equal opportunity for workers and students. However, while it does benefit some individuals, it discriminates against others, mainly white males. Therefore, affirmative action uses reverse discrimination to solve the problem of discrimination.
In addition, it must be noted that quota systems and set-asides violate Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits exclusion from participation in, denial of benefits of, and discrimination under federally assisted programs on ground of race, color, or national origin. In many cases, employers are forced to find the best minority, rather than the best person, for a job or university admission. For example, Duke University requires each department at the university to hire at least one new African-American for a faculty position (Reskin, 1998). However, recent reports reveal that less than 4,000 blacks receive Ph.D.s in the United States…[continue]
"Downside Of Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Has" (2003, April 22) Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/downside-of-affirmative-action-147835
"Downside Of Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Has" 22 April 2003. Web.29 November. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/downside-of-affirmative-action-147835>
"Downside Of Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Has", 22 April 2003, Accessed.29 November. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/downside-of-affirmative-action-147835
Hence, it is important for the proper application of the AA idea that those who make the anti-discrimination and AA policies understand both sides of the story and both the discriminator's and the victim's perspectives. So, in essence those groups of people who disagree on certain ideas or approaches towards justice must try to adopt an unbiased approach to understanding the reason behind the existence of the differences and
7) Ensure that appropriate accommodations are made for disabled applicants. 8) Know your own biases, including what stereotypes you have of people from different groups and how well they may perform on the job, what communication styles you prefer, and acknowledge that what one may consider to be appropriate or desirable qualities in a candidate may reflect more about personal preferences than about the skills needed to perform the
Brazilian Ethnic Issues The racial / ethnic composition of Brazilians is quite different from the racial / ethnic make up of people in the United States, and unique in the world in many respects. How is the government dealing with ethnic and racial relations within their very large and culturally diverse country? This paper will review the literature on the dynamics (and history) of this multi-ethnic, multi-racial South American nation. And
Collective bargaining agreements refer to a document of agreement signed between the management of a firm and its employees prepared by representative labor union that specifies terms of employment such as duration, wages, work conditions etc. In nursing profession, CBA are not something new and while some may oppose it, most still believe that these agreements are for the benefit of nurses and hence must be signed as they offer
Compounding that problem, Massey had also failed to properly vent the mine shaft of methane gas and coal dust. Forensic analysis suggests that methane gas and/or coal dust (both of which are highly combustible) were almost certainly responsible for the explosion. Moreover, the mine had been cited for fifty different MSHA violations in the moths before the explosion, of which no fewer than twelve related directly to the methane
Campaign Finance Ongoing Issues in Campaign Finance Reform: Political Freedom and Recent Supreme Court Rulings The issue of campaign finance reform comes and goes as a focal point of national attention, and though recent economic events have eclipsed attention to this issue in the past two years, recent changes ought to be carefully noted by the voting public. Over the latter half of the twentieth century, various pieces of legislation have been
Motivation in Sport Take a look at the animal world and you will find the proof that game is an inherent feature of the virtually evaluated species. This has an important part in literacy and evolution. We witness many a mock fights between kittens and pups so as to enhance their stamina, speed, tolerance and will. Through such hatred free games, they rub their hands for survival and satisfy their urge