Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Milgram's study illustrates that many who have had the responsibility taken from them are although not happy but content to continue with a procedure as long as they are not directly held responsible, thereby giving rise to an obedience through social bonding and situations (Hayes & Orell PG).
In this situation in a comparison with the Tuskegee experiment and Milgram's experiment it can be argued that the members of the medical team were acting under orders from the government and therefore were blameless in their experiments as were the teachers in theory only following orders, obviously this form of passing blame can be seen be as a paradigm in ethical understanding as we are all cogent beings with the ability to reason and question yet it seems when a person is actively allowing himself to take the blame as such then all reason as to ethical understandings of what is right and what is wrong is emptied from the mind.
The problems of ethics conflicting with getting the required or desired result or interfering with the speed of research and the methodology will always be used. The idea of an established and standardised framework as exists with some other profession may help solve some parts of the problem, but will not eliminate all the difficulties, as they have not done in other areas. Some problems will remain whatever framework is adopted due to the opposing aims and requirements of research and the interpretation of ethics by some people. The arguments over what problems exist and the potential solutions to those problems will continue, however if there is one definitive aspect of these problems it is that there will be no universal agreement on exactly what ethics should be adopted and how they should be applied.
Therefore when understanding how ethics deals with experiments on man, can the scientist close his mind and allow another to take the blame, if every scientist had pangs of a moral issue every time he injected a person with a drug that had been untested on humans then science would still be in the dark ages. However, it must be argued that with out the volunteer guinea pig then science would again be no further unless the unethical solution of using "volunteers" similar to the Tuskegee experiment were to occur.
Ethics does hinder experiments but it must also be taken into consideration that ethics and morals are and do belong to the individual and are only laid down by society to meet what it believes is right.
Brown, Kathleen W.; Cozby, Paul C.; Kee, Daniel W.; Worden, Patricia E (1999) Research methods in human development (2nd ed.). Mountain View, California, Mayfield Publishing Company.
Burley, Kim a., (1995 08-01), Family variables as mediators of the relationship between work-familyconflict and marital adjustment among dual-career men and women.. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 135, pp 483(15).
Crane a (1999 Jul) Are you ethical? Please tick yes or no on researching ethics in business organizations, Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3): 237-248
Journal is published by Kluwer Academic Publishers)
Hayes, N & Orrell, S. (1998) Psychology, an Introduction. Longman, Harlow.
Herndl CG, Nahrwood CA (2000 Apr), Research as social practice: A case study of research on technical and professional communication, Written Communication accessed on https://nclive.lib.unc.edu/cgi-bin/govalidate.pl-subject
King NMP, Churchill LR (2000 Jul), Ethical principles guiding research on child and adolescent subjects, Beverly Hills; Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Kruger, Louis J.; Bernstein, Garret; Botman, Harvey, (1995 04-01), the relationship between team friendships and burnout among residential counsellors.. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 135, pp 191(11).
Payne SL (2000 Aug) Challenges for research ethics and moral knowledge construction in the applied social sciences, Journal of Business Ethics 26(4)p307-318
Ramsay Sarah. (1999 Oct 23), More developments in developing-world research ethics. The Lancet v354 i9188 p1405.
Vandenberg Brian (1999 Jan-Feb) Levinas and the ethical context of human development. Human Development, v42 i1 p31(1)
Woodward Beverly. (1999 Nov 24), Challenges…[continue]
"Ethics In Scientists' Search For" (2002, February 23) Retrieved December 6, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ethics-in-scientists-search-for-55801
"Ethics In Scientists' Search For" 23 February 2002. Web.6 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ethics-in-scientists-search-for-55801>
"Ethics In Scientists' Search For", 23 February 2002, Accessed.6 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ethics-in-scientists-search-for-55801
Ethics Journal In Goldman, Wall Street, and a culture crack up, Ken Makovsky describes an ethical issue in which a mid-level banker at Goldman Sachs, Greg Smith, alleged that the firm relegated client needs to its search for quick profits. What he describes is more behavior that reaffirms the idea of a culture of greed permeating Goldman Sachs prior to the financial meltdown. While Goldman had been the subject of a
Chapter 4: Administrative responsibility: The key to administrative ethics Administrators are responsible for complying with the law -- and also for complying with the administrative responsibilities. Ethics requires a delicate balancing of objective and subjective responsibilities on the part of administrators. All this is easier said than done, of course. The administrator's role is complicated by a network of often conflicting responsibilities -- responsibilities to his or her own ethics, to
Ethics and the Internet As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also
This refers to the National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska (NPR-a), which is situated between the foothills of the Brooks Range and the Arctic coastline, and is about 120 miles from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) (Rosen, 2003). The Bureau of Land Management ( BLM) estimates the area will"… supplement production from the Alpine fields, which hold 429 million barrels and have a daily oil output of about 100,000
Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery. The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs
That is not to suggest that scientific criteria can necessarily pinpoint any specific instant or moment in time when a developing fetus can logically be considered a living human being, but only because such precision is impossible. In principle, there is no doubt that medical science can identify the various stages of fetal development associated with the biological structures and processes that make us human. Likewise, they can identify the
War is, scientists are discovering, not inevitable based on primate social behavior and aggression. Interestingly, research suggests that aggression may cause elevated levels of testosterone, not the other way around. Moreover, aggression is hard-wired and inevitable but so too are traits related to cooperation and conflict resolution. Research among primate populations shows the remarkable capacity for primates to act and live peacefully with each other. However, not all environmental conditions