Ethics in Scientists' Search for Term Paper
- Length: 6 pages
- Subject: Business - Ethics
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #89496912
Excerpt from Term Paper :
Milgram's study illustrates that many who have had the responsibility taken from them are although not happy but content to continue with a procedure as long as they are not directly held responsible, thereby giving rise to an obedience through social bonding and situations (Hayes & Orell PG).
In this situation in a comparison with the Tuskegee experiment and Milgram's experiment it can be argued that the members of the medical team were acting under orders from the government and therefore were blameless in their experiments as were the teachers in theory only following orders, obviously this form of passing blame can be seen be as a paradigm in ethical understanding as we are all cogent beings with the ability to reason and question yet it seems when a person is actively allowing himself to take the blame as such then all reason as to ethical understandings of what is right and what is wrong is emptied from the mind.
The problems of ethics conflicting with getting the required or desired result or interfering with the speed of research and the methodology will always be used. The idea of an established and standardised framework as exists with some other profession may help solve some parts of the problem, but will not eliminate all the difficulties, as they have not done in other areas. Some problems will remain whatever framework is adopted due to the opposing aims and requirements of research and the interpretation of ethics by some people. The arguments over what problems exist and the potential solutions to those problems will continue, however if there is one definitive aspect of these problems it is that there will be no universal agreement on exactly what ethics should be adopted and how they should be applied.
Therefore when understanding how ethics deals with experiments on man, can the scientist close his mind and allow another to take the blame, if every scientist had pangs of a moral issue every time he injected a person with a drug that had been untested on humans then science would still be in the dark ages. However, it must be argued that with out the volunteer guinea pig then science would again be no further unless the unethical solution of using "volunteers" similar to the Tuskegee experiment were to occur.
Ethics does hinder experiments but it must also be taken into consideration that ethics and morals are and do belong to the individual and are only laid down by society to meet what it believes is right.
Brown, Kathleen W.; Cozby, Paul C.; Kee, Daniel W.; Worden, Patricia E (1999) Research methods in human development (2nd ed.). Mountain View, California, Mayfield Publishing Company.
Burley, Kim a., (1995 08-01), Family variables as mediators of the relationship between work-familyconflict and marital adjustment among dual-career men and women.. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 135, pp 483(15).
Crane a (1999 Jul) Are you ethical? Please tick yes or no on researching ethics in business organizations, Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3): 237-248
Journal is published by Kluwer Academic Publishers)
Hayes, N & Orrell, S. (1998) Psychology, an Introduction. Longman, Harlow.
Herndl CG, Nahrwood CA (2000 Apr), Research as social practice: A case study of research on technical and professional communication, Written Communication accessed on https://nclive.lib.unc.edu/cgi-bin/govalidate.pl-subject
King NMP, Churchill LR (2000 Jul), Ethical principles guiding research on child and adolescent subjects, Beverly Hills; Journal of Interpersonal Violence.
Kruger, Louis J.; Bernstein, Garret; Botman, Harvey, (1995 04-01), the relationship between team friendships and burnout among residential counsellors.. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 135, pp 191(11).
Payne SL (2000 Aug) Challenges for research ethics and moral knowledge construction in the applied social sciences, Journal of Business Ethics 26(4)p307-318
Ramsay Sarah. (1999 Oct 23), More developments in developing-world research ethics. The Lancet v354 i9188 p1405.
Vandenberg Brian (1999 Jan-Feb) Levinas and the ethical context of human development. Human Development, v42 i1 p31(1)
Woodward Beverly. (1999 Nov 24), Challenges…