Ethics & Morality
CUT ESPONSE TO STANLEY KUTZ
In the wake of Senator ick Santorum's comments drawing a parallel between legalizing gay marriage and legalizing incest, Contributing Editor Stanley Kurtz offered his analysis of the issue of gay marriage in the April 30, 2003 issue of National eview Online.
According to Kurtz's convoluted logic, "The real danger of gay marriage is that it will undermine the taboo on adultery, thereby destroying the final bastion protecting marriage: the ethos of monogamy." Kurz, who is a research fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, also maintains that gay marriage threatens monogamy in society because "...homosexual couples -- particularly male homosexual couples -- tend to see monogamy as nonessential, even to the most loyal and committed relationship." Finally, Kurtz suggests that legalizing gay marriage will lead society down the proverbial "slippery slope" toward legalized polygamy and polyamory, which he characterizes as undermining…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality:
The concept of morality is a major aspect across every religion and ethical system since its entrenched on similar essential concept of reciprocity. As a result, morality is a significant concept for people because human nature has an intrinsic sense of the way things should be. The essence of every right and wrong is morality, which is also the foundation of all justice. In addition to being the basis of all aptness and moral standards, the sense of right or wrong basically originates from an individual's conscience. However, the identification of suitable moral standards requires a person to examine various questions, issues, and dilemmas of personal and social significance that he/she has experienced.
Essence of Morality:
In determining personal and social significance based on individual experiences, one of the major issues to examine is the essence of morality in light of the necessity of morality in leading…… [Read More]
To be fair and objective, there were in fact many brave and selfless individuals in every European country who did in fact "go against the grain," i.e., speak up against Hitler's treatment of the Jews, but at great risk to themselves. To be a member back then of one of the various resistance movements against Nazism throughout Europe was to clearly practice moral virtue and to speak up against a group hurting another group. But it took enormous courage (emotional courage and the courage of one's convictions). Further, if one were to be caught by the Nazis being a resistance fighter, one would be taken prisoner and hanged. Those who practiced moral and ethical virtues to the greatest extent during the Holocaust, though, did speak out, even at their own potential peril, since this was the moral and ethical thing to do although obviously not the easy thing.
But the…… [Read More]
ut who can tell who will give justice to the donated kidney. The 2-year-old child may grow up to be a smoker, drug user, obese hypertensive adult. The 47-year-old may realize the worth of life and live a clean healthy lifestyle.
There are 92,486 Americans waiting to receive a life-saving kidney. Even with great efforts to increase sources of donors, still kidney shortage remains. In waiting for a donor there are many criteria to put a patient in the priority list.
For our two patients where the only difference between their situations is their age, it is difficult to decide who deserves the kidney more. Given that they will both live a fruitful life after the operation; the younger patient may be of greater "need" of the kidney. he/she will have a greater chance to live more and have more opportunities in life. This may sound unfair, but take into…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality
In ethics egoism demands the individual to either be the encouraging moral force or should be the end of moral action. Egoism is of two; positive and normative ethic. The positive ethic is about real human psychology, where people are motivated by their own interests and desires. The normative ethic says that people should be so motivated.
The positivist egoist theory called the psychological egoism, provides an explanation of human affairs, in relation to human nature, which is considered to be self-centered and self-motivated. This theory suggests that people always see their own interests, although many people disguise their self-interest with acts of helping others or doing their duty.
A problem with egoism is that reason it can force one's own interests to pressurize one's actions. This can cause conflicting issues in a society to be created, leading to impartiality
Ethical egoism theory promotes a person's good…… [Read More]
What impact has Kohlberg's model of cognitive moral development had on ethical decision making?
The three levels of ethical concern found in Kohlberg's Model of Moral Development include Pre-Conventional (Level 1) which includes obedience and punishment orientation including self-interest orientation. Next, interpersonal accord and conformity (Level 2) includes social norms and the definition of authority and social-ordering maintaining orientation. This is often referred to as the law and order morality approach to defining ethics. Social contract orientation (Level 3) includes universal ethical principles and the concept of a principled conscience. This third level contributes to the philosophical approach taken in defining an ethical foundation for decision making. The impacts of the Kohlberg model of moral development are many, as the model itself serves as the basis of a framework for defining how ethical contexts are put into place in addition to defining how a persons' self-interest relates to the broader…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality: Integrity
The purpose of this work is to state what role maturity plays in ethical and integral behavior and to use an ideal husband "Lying Awake" by Mark Salzman and "Integrity" by Stephan Carter as examples. Further this paper will attempt to answer as to whether values are derived and will through use of the subject areas of family, religion and law enter into exploration of this issue. This work will further answer the question of, "hat is the use of integrity and ethics? Finally, this work will give examples from each source to the contemporary world.
In the brief novel entitled "Lying Awake" the author, Mark Salzmann delves into the mind of a mystically minded Christian. This work reveals that which may happen when zealous commitment to religious matters and thus experiences collisions with the tangled, ambiguous reality between real-life and that which is illusionary. In…… [Read More]
His team mates attest to the beating incident as unique and isolated and would rather not dwell in it. It also occurred because no sufficiently open relationship has been established between Victor and Tom, which could have avoided the aggressive act and Tom's insubordination. Nevertheless, Victor realizes his duty to remedy the situation and offers to indemnify Tom for the injury right the next day. Tom realizes his own shortcoming in ignoring stated company rules on safety and accepts the apology and the indemnity from Victor. The other members accept the restitution from both parties and quite naturally restore the original harmony and productivity, which characterized the team before the incident.
Stan and Henk observe foreign values, which place obedience to rules and civility far above loyalty to human relationships. Materialism underlies their culture while relationships underlie Nambunese culture. The rule of civility is violated under both cultures, but the…… [Read More]
However, if I thought there was a good chance that he would follow through I would be both legally and morally obligated to warn someone.
7. The dilemma is whether or not it is okay to kill someone out of mercy to end their suffering. While I would have no problem with an individual choosing to take their own life, I do not feel that it is ethical to kill someone, sick or not.
8. It is not ethical or legal to torture or threaten a man with the torture of his family for any reason, whether or not you intend to follow through, and whether or not lives are at stake. Setting this precedent opens the door for abuse of power and the depletion of all civil rights.
9. The ethical issue here is whether or not you should save someone's life even though it is an inconvenience. I…… [Read More]
; Duquenoy, P. And Whitehouse, D. (1999) Ethics and the Governance of the Internet - to Promote Discussion Inside the IFIP National Societies. IFIP Framework for Ethics of Computing. September 1999. Online available at http://www.info.fundp.ac.be/~jbl/IFIP/Ethics_and_Internet_Governance.pdf
jurstrom, Erling (1994-95:8) Children and Television Advertising. Konsument verket - Swedish Consumer Agency. Online available at http://www.konsumentverket.se/Documents/in_english/children_tv_ads_bjurstrom.pdf
Calvin Klein's Scandalous Advertising - Morality vs. Money (nd) Center for Management Research ICFI. Online available at http://www.icmr.icfai.org/casestudies/catalogue/Marketing/MKTG084.htm. http: / / www.icmr.icfai.org/casestudies/catalogue/Marketing/MKTG084.htm
Ford, Sam (2007) Are Trix for Kids? Will Other Cereal rands Follow the Kellogg's Lead?. Convergence Culture Consortium 18 June 2007. Online available at http://www.convergenceculture.org/weblog/2007/06/are_trix_for_kids_will_other_c.php
Koch, Wendy (2006) School uses in 11 States Tune in to Radio Programming Aimed at Kids USA Today 17 Sept. 2006. Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-09-17-bus-radio_x.htm
Singer, Dorothy G. And Singer, Jerome L. (nd) Creating Critical Viewer - National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences and the Pacific Mountain Network - in…… [Read More]
In other words, people's opinion on accounting companies can be easily distorted by accounting scandals and unethical activities that harm clients.
The importance of ethics in accounting is also revealed by the legal actions that can be taken against individuals or companies in the accounting field that behave in unethical manners. There are several examples that reveal the importance of ethics in the accounting field, and their repercussions (ENotes, 2010). The legal actions in such cases are various.
There are numerous accounting scandals that can be studied in order to understand the phenomenon and its effects. One of the most important accounting scandals that are considered to be partly responsible for the economic and financial crisis is represented by scandal involving Fannie Mae. In this case, senior executives are accused of manipulating accounting in order to collect important sums of money that rook the form of undeserved bonuses and to…… [Read More]
Indeed, Hilts suggests that the conflict of interest between subject well-being and experimental results is often so significant that the system is threatening to escalate beyond the control of its administrators.
The author notes that a conference on conflicts of interest in medical research has yielded evidence of questionable practices between the industry and researchers who test drugs or medical devices. It appears that money in medical research speaks as loudly as it did more than seventy years ago.
Nevertheless, the author also cites an indication by the health department to the effect that it is aware of the mistrust cultivated by its research practices. There is a need for reestablishing the public trust in the medical profession as it relates to research and in the benefits of such research for the general community. This is also something that management officials need to emphasize in their work. Managers need to…… [Read More]
[09 September 2006]. http://www.bartleby.com/63/28/228.html.
Shamoo, Adil E., and David . Resnik. Responsible Conduct of Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Stanford Human Research Protection Program Wins Highest Rating from Accrediting Group.," usiness Wire, March 23, 2006.
UNIVERSITY POLICY." University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, 2006. http://www.umdnj.edu/oppmweb/Policies/HTML/AcademicAff/00-01-2085_00.html.
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Wechsler, Jill. "FDA to modernize IMO activities: agency seeks to calm critics by improving subject protection, while also streamlining research oversight.(View from Washington)," Applied Clinical Trials, August 1, 2006.
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Whitelaw, Kevin. "CLINICAL TRIALS - New oversight.(Office for Human Research Protections)(rief Article)," U.S. News & World Report, June 19, 2000. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000942118
Wynes, David L., Grainne Martin, and David J. Skorton. "Regulatory Challenges in University Research: Federal Regulations Must e Streamlined…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality: Unit Questions
Does Virtue Lead to Happiness?
'Tis popular belief, good character leads to happiness
By doing good, you feel good
Is this always so? I don't think so;
On the rack, happiness and virtuousness are unrelated
Ain't happiness the feeling of pleasantness?
What is pleasant about dying; dying for a virtuous cause in the hands of unfair torturers?
Nothing, not even with the highest degree of mental discipline 'Tis true; virtuousness and happiness coincide;
But only when happiness is derived from virtuousness;
Strokes of bad luck ruin all this sometimes
LC2: To Clone or not to Clone; the Pros and Cons of Cloning
Cloning refers to the technological process of creating a genetic replica of an existing organism by fusing the organism's genetic material with an enucleated egg, and then stimulating the reconstructed egg to undergo cell division (Farnsworth, 2000). The process usually results in…… [Read More]
Colonel Victor Fehrenbach was also discharged after being outted by a third party. Thousands of other equally well qualified and combat-decorated military personnel must hide a fundamental aspect of their personal makeup from their comrades, most of whom could not care less about the sexual orientation of their fellow enlisted personnel.
Fundamental Ethical Issues
In principle, the ethical dilemma involved in the DADT policy issue is simply that, much the same as race, ethnicity, and gender, sexual preference is not a matter of choice and does not have anything at all to do with the relative worth of a person or, for that matter, with whether or not one possesses any of the qualities necessary for military service. The U.S. Constitution affords Equal Protection under the 14th Amendment to all persons and protects minorities from discrimination and from persecution and all other forms of unequal treatment. Prior to the 20th…… [Read More]
Due to the fact that this perspective emphasizes a balance of pleasure over pain, it can approve actions which are commonly considered immoral.
The Perspective of Self-Interest:
The Self-Interest perspective requires the exclusive reflection on the long-term consequences of an action to oneself. According to this perspective, an action is considered right or essential if it maximizes the person's happiness. However, the pursuit of self-interest does not exclude an individual from performing actions which benefit others. It's logical for someone to act in the interest of others provided that what he/she does will also bring happiness to him/her. It must be noted that this perspective does not encourage the performance of selfish actions. As opposed to the self-interest perspective, selfish actions usually encourage the pursuit of self-interest at the expense of others.
The Principled Perspective:
While both the benefit and self-interest perspectives judge rightfulness of an action by its ability…… [Read More]
He appreciates Adam's forthrightness about his being gay and what he intends to do during the planned dinner where he will be honored. He would have heard about it from other employees who already know about it. ut Adam has the courage to inform him about it directly and George appreciates this trait of directness. However, what Adam has the courage to directly to George pits it against moral sexual values and business interests. It creates a burden and a need to change plans for the silver anniversary in order to fulfill two major goals.
George's problem is not the result of poor relationship from his end. He has communicated effectively with Adam with regard to his work. Adam has been adequately motivated and he has achieved impressive results. ut he has kept his gay identity from George who makes the decisions. Instead, Adam has made it known to other…… [Read More]
His approach is antithetical to that of Agronski in that he has studied the Lithians intently, but his output reflects equally simple interpretations. Earlier in the story it is mentioned that Ruiz-Sanchez understands all knowledge to go through stages, from noise into fact and back into noise, the residuum being faith (p. 8). This is precisely the process he has engaged in. Thus, while his opinion was far more considered than that of Agronski, his vote was equally superficial, because after processing all of the knowledge he acquired, it become noise and his faith presided over all. The author at first hints at placing Ruiz-Sanchez against Cleaver, as apt to vote to isolate Lithia out of respect for the Lithians when indeed no such conclusion was reached, pointing to the irrationality of Ruiz-Sanchez' decision. Thus, he becomes the counterpart to Agronski's dull-witted rationality, both view equally irrelevant but given the…… [Read More]
These are some of the opinions and arguments by which I have come to sway my agreement more in the Direction of NRLC.
Ethically speaking, the NARAL provides a strong argument about the rights of women, and I do think there is much to be said for that. However, as NRLC proclaims, someone has to look out for the rights of the children that are being murdered everyday. It would appear that since the NARAL is supposedly so adamant about human rights, they would see the relevance of the rights of the people they are fighting to kill.
The NARAL's arguments are, regardless of my opinions, not substantial enough nor supported enough to validate the terms for which they argue. As compared to the passionate objectives seen through the mission statement and the overall morale concepts held by the NRLC, I believe NRLC depicts a stronger case.
The NARAL could…… [Read More]
Those guidelines must be respected in all instances -- every manager will feel as if his or her current crisis is the one sufficiently dire to contact an employee on vacation. If vacations become extensions of the office, the spiritually enriching aspects of human life will begin to be depleted, and on a practical level, if the company does not compensate workers for working on vacation, this is time theft on the part of the company, of the employee's vacation time and of unpaid labor
Act according to Kant's categorical imperative at all times when setting boundaries between work and home. A natural law according to Kant is "a law….true of all rational agents" (Johnson 2009).A natural law that surely transcends any work policy or need of the moment is that individuals contracted for pay should be paid for all of their work and official employee leisure time should be…… [Read More]
Not only will these countries stop accepting outsourced projects but will have enough capital and knowledge to utilize their manpower for their own good and to their own advantage. This would result in massive competition in which we would emerge as the losing party because by then we would have lost both our expertise in production and pool of manpower.
It is our duty as the more developed and knowledgeable nation to help these third world countries overcome health and pollution problems instead of making it worse for them. This is a sign of imperialism where we try to justify our unethical use of other person's environment and resources. This imperialism was further strengthened by the sinister and utterly cruel theories of Summers who came up with the forgone earning arguments in the first place. Countering his theory, one African writer wonders:
The question this raises is why should the…… [Read More]
Ethical Analysis at Workplace / Ethic Principles Evaluation
Specific situations at job in which decision-making was or was not based on ethical principles
Participation in or response to the situation
Whether or not you think the situation was handled correctly
Suggestions for how the situation could be better addressed in the future
Business ethics deals with a vast range of ethical or moral principles arising in the business context. It entails the actions of company employees in their work setting and positions and actions of companies on ethical issues. While the news is packed with tales of organizational corruption, numerous firms today conduct their operations in an ethical manner, on a daily basis. There are a few good examples of ethical decision-making in businesses that afford us a peek at how we can implement ethical principles in our organizations. I work as a computer analyst in an information technology firm,…… [Read More]
Victor inwardly becomes a monster himself." (Kain, par. 5)
On the other hand, ichard III was written by William Shakespeare. It is the story of ichard who secretly desired the throne of his brother. Although ichard is unattractive and considers himself as such, he is very charismatic. He has a strong personality and he is brilliant with his words and his arguments. In his desire for the thrown of his brother, King Edward IV, ichard was willing to kill anyone just to obtain it. Being intelligent and skillful, he was able to deceive the people around him in order to manipulate them. In order to get married, he manipulated Lady Anne. And then he used his political power by manipulating and deceiving the people around him to have his other brother, Clarence, executed. He used manipulated his older brother, Edward to feel guilty about Clarence's death. This contributed to the…… [Read More]
Sometimes, it is hard to know what will happen, though, and practitioners need to have good reasons -- based on experience -- for choosing a course of action on the basis of what the consequences will be. We cannot really know for sure what will happen if this couple conceives. it's possible with a baby coming that the father will be inspired to quite cocaine and drinking; however, he has an eleven-year-old at home and apparently isn't worried that his drug habits may be making a negative impact on the older child, so it seems to optimistic to think he will be concerned about an impact on the baby.
Sometimes, it may be necessary to choose a course that is not in the best interests of the patient -- someone else's well being may be a consideration -- in this case, the other patient's (the wife) and the unborn child's…… [Read More]
This may involved going around the legal department to the top managers, or back to the human resources manager. The firm would then be informed of the ways in which your work will be compromised by the legal department's stipulations. A request should also include testimony as to the value of having those constraints removed. This alternative demonstrates professionalism, affords you the opportunity to conduct your work they way you want to, and is the only way to gain leverage over the intransigent legal department.
The third alternative is to walk away from the project. This alternative would prevent you from violating your own ethical code. Also, it would prevent you from being forced to turn in substandard work. There would be a small hit to your professional pride about not finishing the work you were hired to do, but ultimately as a consultant you must have control of your…… [Read More]
Although the tobacco Janet would market is not smoked, it is an addictive substance, and thus it could easily lead to smoking nicotine-containing cigarettes later on in life, and cause harm through second-hand smoke to millions of other people. The societal costs to the legal system because of the lawsuits the product has inspired, and the unhappiness the product has caused for the target audience's families are another example of how the sum total happiness of society is reduced, rather than increased, if Janet takes the job. Also, the campaign is in violation of laws that prohibit minors from using tobacco, and by encouraging the violation of the laws of the land, society's total happiness is reduced, as persons (and marketing departments) feel free to behave and market products in a less law-abiding fashion.
Finally, the idea that Janet can help herself and her future career by taking the job…… [Read More]
5. Eating food that falls on ones shirt - if a person is in public, they should use a napkin to remove the food off of their shirt and have a waiter dispose of it (Dining Etiquette, n.d.).
If one is at a meal or at a business acquaintance's residence, and have just been dished up a serving of appetizing stuffed mushrooms and they are allergic to them, they should politely refuse them if they would seriously be harmed. The hard fast rule is as far as feasible. One should not make a commotion and embarrass anyone. If one suffers from food reaction or has a particular partiality, they should tell the host when they agree to the invite. At a buffet or great assembly it is very easy to pass up getting food that one doesn't consume. However, in a number of circumstances it would be extremely uncomfortable if…… [Read More]
Bereavement counseling, for example, is very useful for some people and a waste of time for others. David has no patience for bereavement counseling, despite the fact that some people find it very helpful in times of crisis. In general, good people make an effort to understand the personal preferences and choices of others before criticizing or ridiculing them; they do not look for virtually every possible opportunity to criticize others for meaningless differences between them.
In general, good people make an effort to be positive influences in the lives of their friends and loved ones. Married people, in particular, are uniquely responsible for each other's emotional happiness and well-being. The overall tone of the entire relationship between Katie and David is miserable, even when they are not necessarily arguing. Neither comes across as remotely lovable and the reader is left with no clue as to what either sees in…… [Read More]
f this group thinks that these laws are needed for all the rest of the businesses in the America then they should ethically think that these laws should apply to everyone including them. The fact that Congress is not held to the same standards as everyone else makes them appear untrustworthy and unethical, which undermines the government process as a whole.
4) in your opinion is it necessary to create laws to prevent unethical behavior?
There should be laws put into place in order to stop this type of unethical behavior from going on. There should not be a group of people that have an advantage over others just because of the job that they hold. There was a rule passed in the Senate in 1968 that requires lawmakers and aides to reveal information about their assets. The House of Representatives forced similar necessities at about the same time. The…… [Read More]
Other chapters cover "You Expect it to Suck," "You Say Yes When You Mean No," "You Try to Fix Other People," "You Think You Have to o it All Yourself," "You Keep Trying to Prove Yourself," "You Forget to Enjoy the Ride."
There's a lot of conventional, practical wisdom in Cohen's book and there are, undoubtedly, readers who need to have these very salient points enumerated for them. it's an issue of semantics, but Cohen is clearly saying, take charge of your own life, have a positive attitude, don't be superficial, don't do anything unhealthy, have only yourself to answer to, be clear and say what you mean, learn to delegate when it's essential, realize you cannot control another person, take serious time for yourself, doing what you love, and finally, don't miss out on the many good things that are invariable right before you.
It may very well be…… [Read More]
He has already placed himself under a cloud of suspicion by the community, and while he still possess the same essential rights, he cannot be regarded deserving of the same attention as the boy. Cappa's rights must be respected to the fullest because he, in so far as anyone knows, has always respected the rights of others. Smoot has not. The temporary abridgment of Smoot's rights in order to ensure the Natural Rights of Mickey Cappa would seem to be in accord with an ideal of happiness for all. In this kind of situation, the existence of a predator or abductor in the community represents a threat to everyone's natural rights. It is a threat that should be removed. If indeed, Sylvester Smoot is innocent, his interrogation can be viewed as means both of making sure that Mickey Cappa's rights were protected, as well as away of showing to the…… [Read More]
38); a Prince should also appear to keep at least some of the old ways so the people will readily accept the new ways (Machiavelli, Discourses on the first decade of Titus Livius, 2007, p. 98). hile the circumstances may change, it is clear that a Prince must be willing and able to manipulate appearances in order to convince others to give their power over to him.
Niccolo Machiavelli's ideas on appearance, reality and power stem from his background and place in the political shifts of 16th Century Italy. A career politician who used and was used by the politics of the time, Machiavelli developed certain unvarnished "truths" about gaining and retaining power. It was during his political exile that he wrote the Prince, his most famous work and a book that is still read 500 years after its publication. For Machiavelli, reality was quite different from the…… [Read More]
The bottom line for many - in terms of moral obligation - is the fact that Americans rely on their government to: a) protect them from attacks from terrorists (which the government did not to prior to the attacks on 9/11); b) spend their tax money responsibly without corruption (which neither the Congress or the hite House has done in recent years); c) only wage war when the nation is under direct threat of hostility (which it didn't vis-a-vis the Iraq ar); d) be honest with citizens (which the government has not been - to wit, the executive branch has on numerous occasions over the past few years censored empirical science in the name of political ideology); and e) protect the Constitution (which the executive branch has not done in all cases, i.e., recent memos released by the Justice Department show the executive branch believed it could assume broad and…… [Read More]
The inclusion of deaf persons other than the parents may defuse some of the hostility that they have displayed towards Ms.W. During the meeting, the parents should be given the first opportunity to state their case, with all the reasons for wishing to have a deaf child. I would suggest that Ms.W. bring up the issue of the hearing child by means of questions beginning with phrases such as "Do you think..." Or "How would you feel if..." It is important to open the discussion in a way that will minimize hostility. When Ms.W. feels that the discussion is open and honest, the issue can be discussed at great length and from all angles.
Whatever the conclusion of the discussion, if one is indeed reached, the parents should be allowed time to make a final decision. Furthermore, they need to understand that the final choice is with them. They should…… [Read More]
In "Crime's" conclusion, set at Ben's daughter's wedding, Ben, who is the film's true just and loving man, copes with inevitable blindness, dancing sightless with his daughter the bride, as self-important Judah justifies the "crime" he has committed -- albeit told to Stern at the wedding, in a folkloric way). Judah has literally gotten away with murder. It is bleak, grim and evil triumphs. It is Allen at his darkest and yet, as a film, "Crimes" succeeds. It is entertaining and thought-provoking, yet the audience ultimately identifies with a killer.
And here is where the aforementioned "mis-step" has relevance. Where he so clearly was successful in telling the "Crimes & Misdemeanors'" tale, Allen is less so in "Match." "Match's" Jonathan Rys-Myers' Chris, a social-climbing tennis instructor, is, right from the start, less sympathetic than Landau's Judah. Judah is a healer, he has saved sight, he has done some good; in…… [Read More]
While the actions of Kato are more serious in principle, I would recommend informal reprimand absent specific reason to believe that informal addressing of the matter might be insufficient to achieve the desired result in the future.
Officer Ramos did not violate any ethical or legal standards. His excessive detail in his police report is a routine matter of report writing proficiency common to young officers. Nevertheless, Ramos could be counseled informally as to the need to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant facts, particularly when unnecessary details could potentially expose the department to civil liability or other officers to unnecessary formal departmental scrutiny when informal counseling off the record would suffice to resolve apparent misunderstandings or miscommunications in the field.
Why are cases such as the one described here of importance to the public?
Discuss the competing interests involved in this case.
Cases such as the one described here are…… [Read More]
Despite the fact that full body scanners may be the most technologically advanced equipment we could realistically put in an airport, they still have their shortcomings. Full body scanners can't see inside your body. Generally, the machines also can't find items stashed in a body cavity. This means that a determined terrorist could potentially store bomb materials or weapons inside their body, specifically in their anus. Since such a low dose of electromagnetic energy is beamed inside the people who enter the scanners, the images are only skin deep. So just how drug traffickers smuggle drugs inside their bodies, terrorists could do the same but with far more dangerous materials. As America witnessed with the failed shoe bomber, it does not take a great deal of free space to hide materials that could overthrow or take a plane down. For instance, C4 explosive, which is military grade, can be…… [Read More]
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…… [Read More]
ethics and morality. Provide specific examples for each. In your comparison, include a description of the connection between ethics and morality.
Ethical systems, such as utilitarianism or libertarianism, are formal ethical systems that are explicitly delineated. In the ethics of utilitarianism, there is often a specific, written calculus used to determine who constitutes the majority for whom the ethical actions should serve; in libertarianism, there is an overarching, simple philosophy of government nonintervention. Ethical systems may not 'make sense' to people looking at them from the outside, but to their founders there is an attempt to formally organize their codes into a system. In contrast, morality usually is seen as a "code of conduct that a person or group takes as most important" (Gert 2011). orality is a combination of personal or community ethics, gut instincts, or rules that have been generated over time in an informal and nonsystematic manner.…… [Read More]
I think that “doing the right thing” really summarizes the main essence of what it means to be ethical. However, as you go on to show, it is helpful to explain what the “right thing” actually is. You explain that it means being honest and principled no matter what one’s environment is throwing at you. This indicates that being ethical is not always easy and that sometimes one will come up against an opposite force that wants one to cheat, lie or abandon one’s principles in order to get ahead. To support your rationale, you cite the Ten Commandments, which is an excellent source for ethical beliefs, as it was really the first ethical system given by God to Moses to give to the Israelites. It covers a complete range of human actions and shows what people should do and what they should not do. The principles…… [Read More]
ethics and morality of Paul Taylor's view of the environment
One key ethical issue, contentious amongst environmentalists today as well as those activists who oppose the ethical philosophy of environmentalism, is whether environmentalism should be focused on improving the lot of the human animal on earth, or should attempt to benefit all species upon earth in an equal fashion. The philosopher Paul Taylor argues that environmental ethics should emphasize the interdependent nature all individual members of earth's biological community. He states that environmentalists should embrace the idea that no single species is superior to the others. However, although Paul Taylor's philosophy is commendable in its emotional intensity when he says, "we have a self-evident moral obligation to the individual members of the Earth's biotic community to protect and promote their good for their sake" (518), his philosophy of species equality is fundamentally flawed. Environmentalism is a human ideological construction. No…… [Read More]
ethics and moral fiber have been tested. One of the more salient examples which comes to mind and which I believe is emblematic of my propensity for learning about and conducting business in contemporary society occurred when I was a junior in high school. I have played soccer on a select team ever since I was nine years old, and during that time I had the honor of playing with many of the same group of teammates. By the time we reached high school we had become friends, and had taken helped one another in a multitude of situations (both on and off the field) in overseas tournaments in Japan, Scandinavia, and the California State Cup.
My team had been fortunate to have the same group of coaches with us through the years, a fact which we readily believed attested to our advanced development as both soccer players and as…… [Read More]
LC1: Contribution Margin and Break-Even Point
The contribution margin is the difference between a company's sales and its variable costs (Peavler, 2014). It measures a company's ability to maintain its variable costs at low levels. In other words, it shows the amount of money a company has to pay off its fixed expenses after all variable expenses have been settled. It also measures the amount of sales revenue that, after fixed costs have been deducted, contributes to the net operating loss or profit of the company. Thus:
Contribution margin = sales revenue -- variable costs
The per-unit contribution margin is calculated as;
Per-unit contribution margin = per-unit sales revenue -- variable costs per unit
The business' net operating profit or loss = contribution margin -- fixed costs
The break-even point is the amount of sales at which the sales revenue equals the total fixed and variable expenses, such that…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality: The Theories of Ethics and Morality
The subject in this case faces an ethical dilemma, where she has to choose between reporting an ethical concern and just playing along or doing nothing at all. Both choices have serious consequences -- reporting would mean that i) she loses her job and livelihood because of a confidentiality breach, and ii) she stops her organization from producing the environmentally-friendly hovercraft, and consequently, becomes the reason why the world will never enjoy clean unpolluted air. Playing along, on the other hand, would mean that she watches as 200,000 innocent lives are lost as a result of the hovercraft's incompatibility with existing models.
The subject has a duty to uphold confidentiality in all dealings that have to do with the company. Disclosing such information to the press would amount to breach of this duty. However, as a member of a corporate body,…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morality: The ight to Live and Die
The Ethics of Human Cloning
The topic of human cloning came into the limelight in 1996, when Dolly the lamb was cloned by embryologist Ian Wilmut of oslin Institute, Scotland. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines cloning as the "production of genetically-identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer" (Fornsworth, 2001). Essentially, it is the production of a baby with the same genes as its monozygotic parent, and which basically involves inserting the parent's DNA into a nucleated egg and then chemically stimulating the egg to undergo cell division and become an embryo that is a complete genetic copy of its parent / DNA donor (Fornsworth, 2001).
Despite its inherent benefits, which include helping sterile couples get an offspring complete with either the father's or the mother's genetic make-up, and creating humans who can readily be organ donors for each other; cloning…… [Read More]
What comes to mind when I think of “ethics” and “morality” are the rules and principles that I try to live by in my everyday life. I would define ethics as the set of codes I hold that describe what is right and wrong. I would define morality as the degree to which one abides by an ethical standard. I think that there are all different sorts of ethical standards; for instance, one might have a sense of a natural law, or one might hold an ethical standard that is based on a philosophy, or one might adopt an ethical position based on one’s religious beliefs. Morality, for me, is more focused on actions: one’s actions may appear moral or immoral, but even here, they might appear moral to some but immoral to others because of the different approaches that people take to ethics and what constitutes rightness and wrongness.…… [Read More]
Is it true that the "bottom line" of a business is profit and profit alone? Perhaps it is for some companies, but the idea of the “triple bottom line” has been around for quite some time—and it refers not just to profits but also to people and planet. The triple bottom line has received renewed interest since the rise of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) which refers to a company’s advocacy of and support for the values important to the “social, environmental and economic environment in which” the company operates (Castka, Bamber & Sharp, 2005, p. vii). When companies fail to consider the triple bottom line—the impact of their business operations on people and the planet as well as on profits—then they fall into that group of companies condemned by Feldman (2012) in his Sunday Review letter: such corporations fail to appreciate “how their obsession with the…… [Read More]
Business Ethics and Morality
Many in the business and sociology fields have attempted to separate the ideas of ethics and morality from religious beliefs. Researchers have worked hard at identifying the principles which hold our societies together from the viewpoint which identifies the common good, or the well-being of the individual or organization as the foundation of moral or ethical behavior. However, this humanistic approach to morality voids the central thesis of what makes moral decisions important, and possible. Moral decisions are based on a code of behavior which lies specifically outside ourselves, and is focused on building a common good on the basis of a moral understanding which is defined, and unchanging. Regardless of how broad a sociological perspective one takes, when morality is separated from an unchanging definition of right and wrong, the foundation changes from rock to sand, only waiting for the next sociological revolution to come…… [Read More]
Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).
Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…… [Read More]
Alcohol and usiness Ethics
Introduction moral society is built on the basis of a number of unspoken, but generally agreed upon social issues. A moral society generally applies the maxim "treat others in the way you would like to be treated" and this proverb, although it's heard more frequently in the school play yard than in the corporate boardroom, should affect business decisions which affect the community at large. Some would say that operating a business within legal boundaries is not an accurate measure of an ethical business. Within the past few decades, advertising has become the focus of ethical pressure. The 'Joe Camel' cartoon character developed as a spokesperson - mascot for the camel cigarette was pulled after community outrage that the furry, cute character was likely an attempt by the company to market their addictive and destructive products to children.
A tremendous pressure has been brought to bear…… [Read More]
The second segments of the article discuss access of the press to then Vice President Dick Cheney and the ability of traditional media to constrict dissenting voices. Clearly the ethics of restricting the New Your Times from enough access to the Administration, despite this papers' renowned anti-Republican stance, is unethical. In keeping with the precepts of the Constitution and the ethics of democracy as defined as ideals by the United States, limiting access of dissenting voices just drives up the distrust of the public and the media. All of this tends to make entire branches of the government more insular, and in so doing they become less likely to concentrate on their service to other departments and citizens. It is unethical to limit access of dissenting voices from government-funded jets just for the comfort or convenience of the politician. Authenticity, transparency and trust are supposed to make the life of…… [Read More]
Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.
In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…… [Read More]
Ethics, Morality, Values, And Beliefs
According to "the ethics site," an Internet resource for college instructors regarding the teaching of different ethical systems, ethics may be defined as "the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. The difference between ethics and morality is similar to the difference between musicology and music. Ethics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a conscious reflection on music." ("Glossary," The Ethics Site, 2005) In other words, ethics is the philosophy of what is right and wrong, while morality is the practice of ethics, or virtue in action.
The analogy between a musician and a musicologist proposed by the positioning of ethics vs. morality is interesting, because one might understand music very well, and be able to explain its theory and teaching as a musicologist. However, a great musicologist might be only a middling musician. In contrast, there…… [Read More]
So it has been suggested that social context of care must be examined and to establish limits to the ethics of care. In contrast, constructive evaluation of care ethic indicates that sensitivity as well as emotional response to particular state of affairs such as family discussions with doctor provide significant guides to morally satisfactory actions plus care ethic also seem to favor accepting procedures from Conflict Resolution as well as Dispute Mediation as optional way to approach evident ethical disagreement (Online Guide to Ethics and Moral Philosophy, 1996).
So on the whole, if we think regarding repair as something that should involve tools at least the type of tools found in hardware as well as plumbing supply stores and at construction sites, our cast of fixing characters is frequently going to involve men not for the reason that all men have them or apply them even if they have them…… [Read More]
Moral Theory and Virtue Ethics
How is virtue ethics different from the other theories of ethics that you have studied so far?
The other theories of ethics argue that morality results from an act, thus they tend to focus on the impact. This implies that a moral act will bring the highest level of happiness for the highest number of people. In contrast, virtue ethics considers morality as the result of character or identity of a person and not a reflection of the act. It means that some characteristics are virtues. Individuals with these virtues are moral and their actions only reflect their inner morality (MacKinnon, 2012).
According to Aristotle, what is the difference between intellectual and moral virtues?
Intellectual is the first principle governing human acts. Other laws only exist to obey intellectual in various ways. Those who obey intellectual without any contradiction are body limbs because they are…… [Read More]
Ethics are a number of behavioral guidelines that essentially stipulate what acts are inherently wrong. These acts include murder, rape, fraud, deceit, slavery, genocide, and torture to name a few (Paul 2003). Ethics, as opposed to morals, tend to be the most general rules by which human beings should treat one another. Morals, however, are like the micro version of ethics: they are subject to interpretation by the individual and highly dependent upon circumstances. Whereas a Hindu and Christian may disagree upon the morality of slaughtering a cow, they would be forced to agree upon the ethics of slaughtering a human being. The difference is one of perspective.
This distinction can also be seen depending upon the circumstances (Ruggiero 2004). If one is to accept the ethical premise that it is wrong to kill another human being, they must conclude that killing a single individual to save many other lives…… [Read More]
Ethics & Morality
The author of this response is to be answering several questions as it relates to ethics and morality. There are three major questions that will be answered as part of this assignment. The first is to define and pontificate about what it means to engage in moral reflection. The second questions asks about moral conflicts that center on authority, interest and roles as it relates to moral and ethical dilemmas. Finally, the author of this report will apply Cooper's ethical decision-making model to ethical dilemmas in general. While some ethical and moral questions are quite tough to answer and navigate, there is usually a path forward with such moral quandaries.
The Cortland University website has a good definition and summary of ethical reflection. They generally define ethical reflection as a "means of helping students develop the cognitive side of character" (Cortland, 2015). Further, they say that ethical…… [Read More]
There are several ways that BP could have chosen to respond, all of which were "open" to them (i.e. they had free will), yet those chose to take paths that were less moral. Kant's universal law would have them put their responsibility to humanity as the motivator, however, their motives have not proven to be driven by doing what is genuinely good for humanity.
Blackburn (2009) states that it is tricky to apply the categorical imperative and that the most persuasive examples of it being effective are in cases where there is an institution whose existence depends on sufficient performance by a sufficient number of individuals.
Suppose, as is plausible, that our ability to give and receive promises depends upon general compliance with the principle of keeping promises. Were we to break them sufficiently often, or were promise-breaking to become a 'law of nature,' then there would be no such…… [Read More]
Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social orker -- Paul Adams
Professor Paul Adams of the University of Hawaii's Myron B. Thompson School of Social ork in this peer-reviewed article explores those aspects of social work that "…are not primarily about identifying and resolving dilemmas" (Adams, 2009, p. 83). Adams delves into the "ethical tradition" -- and the potential therein -- that had its roots in "the virtues and character" of social work practitioners from Aristotle and Hippocrates to today's social workers. In other words, how can today's social worker -- and the field of social work -- learn from the past to enhance the field ethically? This paper reviews and critiques Adams' research, which is very interesting and enlightening in the context of values, human interaction, and social work.
Review / Critique of Adams' Article
Ethics, in the view of Strom-Gottfried, refers to the "…embodiment of values into…… [Read More]
Ethics and Morals
Quite frequently, people use the terms ethics, values and morals interchangeably. Although doing so is fine in most situations, there actually are subtle differences in the denotations and connotations of each of these terms. Perhaps the biggest point of distinction between these terms pertains to the term values when this word and its meaning are contrasted with those for morals and ethics. Values are generally extrinsic qualities that a person or an organization considers important. On the contrary, morals and ethics are usually different means of determining what acceptable behavior is and what specific principles make such behavior defensible or not. Values, then, are character traits, ideas, or a "fundamental beliefs" (Navran, 2010) that a person or a collective esteems, whereas morals and ethics are principles upon which behavior and even values are based.
Examples of values include general concepts that can apply to people. Typical values…… [Read More]