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Medical Ethics Essays (Examples)

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Ethics in Medical Experiments
Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20069467
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The Tuskegee syphilis study is one of the studies looked at for ethical violations in health care research. There are a few different violations that were part of this study. As Heintzelman (2003) notes, the study was conducted to see the course of untreated syphilis. They were subject to "spinal taps without anesthesia", and where subject to heavy metals therapy but were not given antibiotics when it became known that penicillin could treat syphilis. The latter in particular would form an egregious ethical violation, because the subjects could have been cured of their ailment, but the study continued anyway, meaning that the best interests of the subjects was not taken into consideration for this study. The subjects were never offered penicillin nor any way of exiting the study.
The ethical concerns also included the issue of informed consent. The true nature of the study was not revealed to the subjects.…

References
CDC (2017). The Tuskegee timeline. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 24, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
Heintzelman, C. (2003) The Tuskegee syphilis study and its implications for the 21st century. The New Social Worker. Retrieved March 24, 2018 from http://www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/ethics-articles/The_Tuskegee_Syphilis_Study_and_Its_Implications_for_the_21st_Century/
NPR (2008). Remembering an infamous New York institution. NPR. Retrieved March 24, 2018 from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=87975196

The Ethics and Legalities of Medication Error Disclosure
Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19920174
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Medication Error Disclosure: Ethical Implications
Although making mistakes may be an inevitable fact of life, when nurses make errors in regards to medications, they have an obligation to report the error. From a deontological ethical perspective, the fact that the consequences of the error were minor or nonexistent is irrelevant. The existence of error is still significant in highlighting some failure, either in the administering advance practice nurse’s preparation and use of standardized operating procedures, or the procedures themselves. From the point-of-view of professional ethics, reporting errors has a vital role in preventing future errors from occurring. This should be at the forefront of the nurse’s mind, not protecting her own reputation or that of the institutions’ reputation.
According to Wolf & Hughes (2008), “reporting potentially harmful errors” should encompass all errors including “that were intercepted before harm was done, errors that did not cause harm, and near-miss errors is…

References
Chamberlain, C., Koniaris, L., Wu, A., & Pawlik T. (2012). Disclosure of “nonharmful” medical errors and other events duty to disclose. Archives of Surgery, 147(3):282–286. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2011.1005
Sorrell, J.M. (2017). Ethics: Ethical issues with medical errors: Shaping a culture of safety in Healthcare. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 22(2). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol22No02EthCol01
Wolf, Z. & Hughes, R. (2008). Error reporting and disclosure. NIH. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2652/

Ethics in a Long-Term Healthcare Business Ethics
Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14438008
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Ethics in a Long-Term Healthcare Business

Ethics in the health care industry spans a wide spectrum of activities and most of the obligations are cast by law on the professionals and the second by the common practice and morals of the profession. Both are important to the progress of the institution and also the health care industry. Compliance of statutes is of primary importance.

Compliance

There are many rules and statutes that must be complied with by all organizations and one such recent legislation is the hospital information access system. The HIPAA rules apply to all personnel in the system and extend to laboratory technicians, and lawyers and insurers. The culpability comes if the information was disclosed to a third party who did not have an association with the entity -- the clinic and was permitted to access the information. In such cases where the physician discloses information to another…

References

Andre, Claire; Velasquez, Manuel. (2013) "Aged-Based Health Care Rationing" Retrieved 8

June, 2013 from  http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v3n3/age.html 

Chaikind, Hinda R. (2004) "The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ACT

(Hipaa): Overview and Analyses" Nova Publishers.

Ethic Responsibilities of the Workplace
Words: 2624 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44352712
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Ethics and Corporate esponsibility

The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.

A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…

References

Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from  http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/ 

Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from  http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/ 

Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from  http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full 

Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from  http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/

Ethics Scenario
Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22531808
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Ethics Scenario

Public health ethics relates to the ethics as it relates to an entire population, in contrast to medical ethics, which relates more to the rights of individuals. osenau and oemer (2013) note that there are often ethical conflicts that emerge when individual rights conflict with the greater good. They highlight the overarching public health principles, that provision of care is regardless of external factors, that there should be equity in the distribution of resources, and that there should be respect for human rights. The case of the burn patient is primarily regarding the human rights dimension.

The human rights dimension results in an ethical dilemma here for a couple of reasons. The first is that the individual in this instance has rights -- or the family members have rights -- and there is question as to whether those rights were respected. The outcome might have been the same…

References

Curtis, J. & Vincent, J. (2010). Ethics and end-of-life care for adults in the intensive care unit. Lancet. Vol. 375 (2010) 1347-53.

Rosenau, P. & Roemer, R. (2013). Chapter 15: Ethical issues in public health and health services. Introduction to Health Services In possession of the author.

Sprung, C., Cohen, S., Sjokvist, P., Baras, M., Bulow, H., Hovilehto, S., Ledoux, D., Lippert, A., Maia, P., Phelan, D., Schobersberger, W., Wennberg, E. & Woodcock, T. (2003). End-of-life practices in European intensive care units. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 290 (6) 790-797.

Ethics Gross National Products Ethics Gross National
Words: 2076 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 83135896
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Ethics, Gross National Products

Ethics

Gross National Product

Tariff barriers

Ethics

Ethics is a branch of Philosophy and deals with the basics questions about right and wrong, virtue and vice, as well as good or bad nature of things human beings do in their daily lives. Thus, ethics is essentially related to the moral aspect of things. A thing, act, or idea of practice might be legally correct but may not be morally sound in given conditions. For instance, the pursuit of profit by firms is legally correct but ignorance to the well being of society in which that firm operates is morally incorrect. Essentials of ethics: The essential elements of ethics are related to the character of actions being taken by the human beings. The topic essentially deals with the behavior and its outcomes with respect to the impact created on fellow human beings and society as a collective…

Stimpert, J.L., & Duhaime, I.M. (1997). SEEING THE BIG PICTURE: THE INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRY, DIVERSIFICATION, AND Business STRATEGY ON PERFORMANCE. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 560-583.

Taylor, A., Chaloupka, F.J., Guindon, E., & Corbett, M. (2000). The impact of trade liberalization on tobacco consumption. Tobacco control in developing countries, 343-64.

Yue, C., Beghin, J., & Jensen, H.H. (2006). Tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade with imperfect substitution and trade costs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(4), 947-960.

Ethics to Practice Analysis of 'End of
Words: 2858 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41901193
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Ethics to Practice: Analysis of 'end of life' decision making

The foregoing discussion is an incursion into nursing ethics. Implication(s) to 'omission' of information as a customary practice within our healthcare institution is reviewed in relation to best practices pertaining to 'informed consent,' and hospital policy is not definitive. Directed at the evolution of ethical decision making, the general query to the study focuses on the parameters of informed consent where individual practice is concerned.

In the nation of Canada where I am a nurse the number of situations where patient informed consent decisions might be subject to our national code of nursing ethics is many. e face critical ethical dilemmas every day, as emergency procedures and critical care interventions are standard practice. Complexity in decision making is furthered in the conduct and approaches made by international colleagues on contract in our institution by way of exchange.

The primacy of…

Works Cited

Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.

Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Canadian Medical Protection Association (CMPA), 2010. Web.

Finlay and Fernandez. Failure to report and provide commentary on research ethics board approval and informed consent in medical journals is discussed Journal of Medical Ethics, 34.10 (2008), 761-764. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023325.

Ethics and Euthanasia the First
Words: 2170 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1934237
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"

The question of death ceases to be a personal experience, a family experience, and becomes a societal decision. It suggests that the values that one inherits through the experience of dying and dearth are without merit, and do not serve to better humanity. It reduces the human body that holds life to a commodity, and the decision of whether or not the body's continued living is profitable to the bottom line.

There are many questions that arise when we talk about death in terms of being better for society as a whole. Questions such as to what extent would a solider feel compelled to fight for the lives of his fellow countrymen if the society in which he lives makes decisions about the value of life being measured by wealth? To what extent would a stranger reach out to save the life of another person if economics becomes the…

Works Cited

Gibbs, David and DeMoss, Bob. Fighting for Dear Life: The Untold Story of Terri

Schiavo and What it Means for All of Us. 2008. New York, Bethany House.

Print.

Humphry, Derek. Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide

Ethics the Dowd Model of Ethical Decision
Words: 2150 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92804836
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Ethics

The Dowd Model of Ethical Decision Making in Medical Imaging: Two Dilemma Scenarios

adiologic Alcoholic

An ethical dilemma is raised in a situation where two "right" courses of action are found to be mutually exclusive of each other; that is, when doing one "right" thing necessarily leads to leaving the other "right" thing undone or even contravening this "right" and doing the opposite (Towsley-Cook & Young, 2007). A scenario in which an employee's rights must be weighed against those of the patient/consumer typifies this type of dilemma, and this is found in the current scenario: a medical imaging professional suspected of having alcohol problems comes to work with the smell of liquor on his breath and shows some trouble walking straight and enunciating clearly. After a confrontation by the supervisor, this employee refuses to take a blood test for drugs and alcohol. The dilemma exists in determining whether this…

References

ADW. (2010). False Positive. Ask Doc Web. Accessed 8 December 2010.  http://www.askdocweb.com/falsepositives.html 

Moeller, K., Lee, K. & Kissack, J. (2008). Urine Drug Screening: Practical Guide for Clinicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83(1): 66-76.

Towsley-Cook, D. & Young, T. (2007). Ethical and Legal Issues for Imaging Professionals. New York: Elsevier.

Van Valkenberg, J., Gurley, L., Lam, R., Martino, S., Paschal, R., Temme, J. & Walker, R. (1998). Survey of alcohol, drug use by radiologic technologists. Radiologic Technology. Accessed 8 December 2010.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3387/is_n4_v69/ai_n28702788/pg_5/?tag=content;col1

Medical Skills Needed to Be
Words: 2203 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74711001
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According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project eport "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)

In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular…

References

Fryer-Edwards, PhD (2005) Tough Talk: Helping Doctors Approach Difficult Conversations - Resources for Teaching- Domains for Small Group Teaching Prelude 3 Department of Medical History and Ethics University of Washington School of Medicine.

Siegler, Mark MD (2001) Lessons from 30 Years of Teaching Clinical Ethics AMA Journal 2001 October.

St. Onge, Joye (1997) Medical Education Must Make Room for Student-Specific Ethical Dilemmas" Canadian Medical Association Journal 15 Apr 1987, 156(8).

Hicks, L. et al. (2001) Understanding the Clinical Dilemmas that Shape Medical Students' Ethical Development: Questionnaire Survey and Focus Group study. BMJ Journal 2001;322-709-71- 24 march 2001.

Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term
Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76858278
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All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.

Ethics and Advance Directives Ethics
Words: 3485 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4217204
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According to this second view, contemporaneous autonomy trumps precedent autonomy because honoring precedent autonomy imposes preferences and values of a different person, the formerly competent self (Buccafumi, p. 14).

The role that patient's families, doctors, health aides, pastors, chaplains and administrators, health educators and others play is crucial. Few people have executed an advanced directive, much less appointed a healthcare power of attorney by the time they enter a hospital with a debilitating condition. An informed consent form only marks the fact that a conversation has taken place in a health facility. The process that needs to or ought to take place concerning a patient's wishes and ensure one's wishes are empowered are part of the process involved as one fills out the advanced directive for themselves. In California the state has consolidated statutes for advanced directives and added some rights and included the best features of past laws. A…

REFERENCES WHICH I DID NOT USE (JUST for YOUR INFO, NOT to BE INCLUDED in THIS PAPER)

American Nurses Association. (1985). American Nurses

Association Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, Section 1.1. Washington, DC:ANA.

Docker, C. (1995). Deciding How We Die. The use Limits of Advance Directives. [Online]. Available:  http://www.finalexit.org/wfn27.3.html .

Fishback, R. (1996). Harvard Medical School Division of Medical Ethics. Care Near the End of Life. [Online]. Available: www.logicnet.com/archives/file2001.php.

Ethics Argument Against Euthanasia Refers
Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81125106
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Possibly the only exception to the immorality of suicide arises as a function of the philosophical impossibility of violating the fundamental right of the individual - both at law and in moral principle - of refusing medical treatment. Adults who are mentally competent to make decisions for themselves cannot be compelled to accept medical treatment unless their illness presents a health risk to others, such as in the case of infectious tuberculosis (Miller 1984). In that case, it is not suicide specifically that is the issue, since it would be conceptually impossible to allow the (competent) refusal of defining medical procedures deemed "necessary for continued life" first, and second, to require an individual to seek unwanted medical care for some conditions but not others.

However, even if the mentally competent individual may refuse life-saving medical care himself, allowing the same decision made for an incapacitated person by another by proxy…

References

Abrams, N., Bruckner, M.D. (1985) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professional. Massachusetts: MIT.

Breitman, R. (1998) Official Secrets: What the Nazis Planned, What the British and Americans Knew. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Garner, B.A. (2001) Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul: West Group.

Ethics Standard
Words: 2130 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33553266
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Ethical Principles

Autonomy

Autonomy (which literally means self-rule) is the capacity to independently think, make decisions, and act on thoughts freely without being hindered or need for permission. As far as action is concerned, it is crucial that distinction be made between on one side, liberty, freedom, license or just doing what a person pleases and on the other side, acting in autonomy, that can be doing whatever one pleases but based on reasoning or thought. Animals, for instance, are not autonomous but can be considered free (or at liberty), what may be referred to as a thin sense of liberty or freedom, when not under constraints of drugs, cages or clipped wings. Autonomy is an aspect of liberty or freedom, but not all liberty or freedom can be considered as autonomy. Gillon1 states that this autonomy concept involves rationality, a particular attribute noted by Aristotle.

The Principle of espect…

References

1.

Gillon, R. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy. British Medical Journal. 1985; Volume 290. 1806-1808. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1415948/pdf/bmjcred00452-0044.pdf 

2.

Beauchamp TL, editor. Prentice-Hall: New Jersey; 1984. Medical ethics: The moral responsibilities of physicians; p. 27.

Ethics of Allowing Anyone to Have Kids
Words: 1523 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76179453
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Biomedical Ethics

The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…

Works Cited

Akerlof, George. "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in The United States." The Brookings Institution. N.p., 1996. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.Fisher, J. (2009). Biomedical ethics. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.

PBS. "American Experience -- The Pill -- People & Events." PBS.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.

Health Administrator Ethics Issue
Words: 1081 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19868719
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Ethics

One ethical dilemma that arises in health care is with respect to quality improvement techniques (Lynn et al., 2007). While it is accepted that quality improvement activities are an intrinsic part of normal health care operations (Ibid), administrators are obligated to ensure that QI activities are conducted in line with ethical guidelines. An ethical dilemma arises, however, when faced with the opportunity to make a quality improvement based on techniques that seem sound but perhaps lack empirical backing. The dilemma would then feature two pathways. The first is to opt to adopt the quality improvement idea before research has shown conclusively that it is effective, and the second pathway is to not adopt the QI tactic until it has been demonstrated effective. A specific example could be a radical new technique for a challenging condition -- it may not be proven but the situation may be so challenging that…

References

Lynn, J., Baily, M., Bottrell, M., Jennings, B., Levine, R., Davidoff, F., Casarett, D., Corrigan, J., Fox, E., Wynia, M., Agich, G., O'Kane, M., Speroff, T., Schyve, P., Batalden, P., Tunis, S., Berlinger, N., Cronenwett, L., Fitzmaurice, M., Dubler, N. & James, B. (2007). The ethics of using quality improvement methods in health care. Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 146 (2007) 666-673.

Rosenau, P. & Roemer, R. (2013). Chapter 15: Ethical issues in public health and health services. Introduction to Health Services. In possession of the author.

Cookson, R. & Dolan, P. (2000). Principles of justice in health care rationing. Journal of Medical Ethics. Vol. 26 (2000) 323-329.

The Ethics of Controlling Disease Spread
Words: 1071 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96833020
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Medical Ethics

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing

MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?

While it is definitely not a good thing that…

References

Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050 

Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428220/ 

Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. About.com Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from  http://std.about.com/od/prevention/f/contacttracing.htm 

McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from  http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323978104578332461533970412

Ethics and the Internet as the Computer
Words: 2727 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52112119
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Ethics and the Internet

As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)

The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…

Bibliography

Ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 11, 2005.  http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/ethics.htm 

Ethics on the Web. 1995, Accessed March 11, 2005,  http://www.echonyc.com/~ysue/ethics.html 

INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY? March 12, 2005.

 http://www.rogerdarlington.co.uk/Internetethics.html

Ethics Self-Assessment
Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83901381
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Ethics in Health Care

The role of ethics within the medical profession is extremely important and it is extremely necessary to abide by a high standard of ethical behavior while working in this industry. The trust that patients and people place within the medical profession dictates this high level of ethical behavior. The purpose of this essay is to examine the influence of individual ethics on decision making the health care industry using the ACHE self-assessment test as a guide to highlight key issues regarding this approach.

The ACHE self-assessment provided some, but not much guidance on the way medical professionals should conduct their business. Many of the questions were quite superficial and did not really hit at the true ethical issues that are present within the medical field. For me, ethics cannot be standardized to the extent where there are automatic responses to challenging situations. ather, the ethical approach…

References

American College of Healthcare Executives. Ethics Self-Assessment.

Ethics the Nursing Profession Perhaps
Words: 3034 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54577196
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107) could also apply here. The confidentiality clause in such a case then only applies insofar as it is estimated that there is no need to disclose confidential information to others. In the case of Mrs. Z, her family deserves to know about her situation, because it affects their lives pertinently.

Because of the increasing cultural diversity throughout the world, cultural values also play an important part in making ethical decisions in the nursing profession. In the case of Mrs. Z, for example, she appears to have no powers of decision making either in her home or in society in general. Inside the home, her mother-in-law runs the household, while her husband is in charge of important decisions. This could have a significant influence upon her decision not to disclose her condition to her family.

According to Karahanne, Evaristo and Srite (2006, p. 34), for example, also note that cultures…

References

Alligood, M.R., Marriner-Tomey, a. (2006). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Elsevier Health Sciences.

DeWolf Bosek, M.S. And Savage, T.A. (2007) the Ethical Component of Nursing Education: Integrating Ethics into Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Goodman, K.W. (2008, Jan) Privacy, Confidentiality, Law and Ethics. Norhteast Florida Medicine Supplement. Retrieved from:  http://www.dcmsonline.org/jax-medicine/2008journals/ethics/privacy.pdf 

Karahanna, E., Evaristo, J.R., and Srite, M. (2006). Levels of Culture and Individual Behavior: An Integtrative Perspective. Advanced Topics in Global Information Management, Vol. 5. Idea Group, Inc.

Ethics
Words: 1440 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61786102
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The ethics of the design research demands that 'the research is valid and that threats to validity have been taken into account', and reporting has been accurate and sufficient details have been listed and supplemented for the clarity and appropriate interpretation of the research content, furthermore 'in qualitative research, it is important to be particularly careful about how to choose direct quotations from the data in the research, and ensure that they are representative' (Ian, 2003).

Many professional associations, government agencies, and universities have developed, adopted and practiced specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics i.e. East Carolina University, National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have developed their own ethical rules related to the design research. Some of the influential ethical policies on design research includes, 'the Uniform equirements (International Committee…

References

David B. Resnik. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2006. Referred from www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources

Deni Elliott, Judy E. Stern. Research Ethics: A Reader. 1997. UPNE Publication. pp. 216

Ian Gregory. Ethics in Research. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2003. pp. 93

Helen Simons, Robin Usher. Situated Ethics in Educational Research. Routledge. 2000. pp. 84

Ethics in Research for Organizations of All
Words: 1204 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 83305104
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Ethics in esearch

For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).

Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…

REFERENCES

Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.

Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.

SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm

Ethics According to the Principles
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We may act according to our personal principles, or we can act according to our common sense. I tend to use my common sense rather than personal prejudice when making ethical decisions.

Question 4:

My ethical reasoning entails that I would carefully consider any ethical issue before making a decision about it. One major limitation involved in this is the fact that others may perceive me as morally weak. A morally strong character tends to be one that is immediate in ethical decisions. I would therefore not be able to make immediate decisions such as those required of judges or surgeons.

It is therefore unlikely that I would thrive in a profession that is very clear and immediate with regard to its need for specific ethical decisions. I would be better in a profession that is not as dependent upon immediate decisions.

I do not believe that my ethical viewpoint…

Ethics Before Resuming My Educational Endeavors at
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Ethics

Before resuming my educational endeavors at the University of Phoenix I was fortunate enough to experience life and many of its travails as a business person and employee. During my tenure in those endeavors I observed a number of events that I considered unethical, and a number of actions taken by individuals that I found both reprehensible and repulsive. I was often amazed at the capabilities of mankind to justify their actions, when it was quite evident that such actions would not be considered ethical in any circumstances, no matter what the justification.

Ethics has always been a concern, whether individuals worked in education, business or even the medical field. One early study determined that there were many young managers that had reported being asked implicitly to do things they personally believed were unethical, and sometimes illegal (Badzek, Mitchell, Marra, Bower,1998). Oftentimes these young managers feel the pressure to…

References

Badzek, L.A., Mitchell, K., Marra, S.E., Bower, M.M., (1998) Administrative Ethics and Confidentiality/Privacy Issues, ANA Periodicals, Vol. 3, No. 3

Chaloner, C.; (2007) An introduction to ethics in nursing, Nursing Standard, Vol. 21, Issue 32, pp. 42 -- 46

Dessoff, A.; (2010) Battling sexual abuse, District Administration, Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 50-56

Rosenkoetter, M.M. & Milstead, J.A.; (2010) A code of ethics for nurse educators: Revised, Nursing Ethics, Vol. 17, Issue 1, pp. 137-139

Ethics Human Research the Nuremberg
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Declaration of Helsinki

In this article the author emphasizes that having a code of ethics is still as important as it has always been but this new code includes the idea of informed consent and how to deal with those that are unable to provide it. The author goes on to address how important human subjects are to the area of medical research but stresses that this importance does not outweigh the adherence to a code of ethics when conducting research.

The Declaration of Helsinki has a lot in common with the Nuremberg Code but really expands the code to include more things in greater detail. The code now contains a section that deals with informed consent. Although the code does not address research on those subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, the code does address such research, asserting the ethical acceptability under certain circumstances of what is…

Ethics of Prisoner Experiments Prisoner Experiments Prior
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Ethics of Prisoner Experiments

Prisoner Experiments

Prior to the medical trial at Nuremberg physicians and scientists were largely free to conduct experiments on unsuspecting persons (Freyhofer, 2004, p. 9-10), including inmates inside America's prisons. When it was discovered that German physicians had been conducting inhumane experiments on death camp and concentration camp prisoners during WWII, the world was shocked that doctors were capable of such behavior. The American Military Tribunal in Nuremberg heard arguments from both the defense and prosecution for twenty three doctors and administrators accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The defense argued that the doctors' conduct was not a significant departure from past practices and any inhumanity was more a function of the ongoing hostilities. The judges on the tribunal saw it differently and created ethical guidelines for medical researchers, because the evidence presented in court revealed the Hippocratic Oath could not protect patients and…

References

Freyhofer, Horst A. (2004). The Nuremberg Medical Trial: The Holocaust and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code: Vol. 53. Studies in Modern European History. New York: Peter Lang.

HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). (2005). The Nuremberg Code. HHS.gov. Retrieved 4 Sep. 2013 from  http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html .

Hornblum, Allen M. (1998). Acres of Skin. Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. A True Story of Abuse and Exploitation in the Name of Medical Science. New York: Rutledge.

Lerner, Barron H. (2007). Subjects or objects? Prisoners and human experimentation. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(18), 1806-1807.

Ethics in Science Do the
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However, according to Trevino and Nelson, diverting the runaway train to an alternative track will result in the death of one person who is standing unawares on the alternative track (95). hat would be the best course of action in such a case? From a teleological perspective, diverting the train to the alternative track would seem most reasonable as it would save the life of five people. The end in this case - saving the lives of five people, effectively justifies the means, i.e. pulling the lever so as to divert the train to an alternative route where it will kill only one person.

To begin with, this kind of reasoning in my view erroneously assumes that there can only be a single means to a definite end. However, this is not always the case. For instance, in the example I have offered above, the person standing by the lever…

Works Cited

Bradburn, Roger. Understanding Business Ethics. London: Thomson Learning, 2001. Print.

Trevino, Linda, and Katherine A. Nelson. Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How To Do It Right. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.

Ethics Case Study Medical Law and Ethics
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Ethics Case Study: Medical Law and Ethics

Jerry McCall is Dr. William's office assistant. He has received professional training as both a medical assistant and an LPN. He is handling all of the phone calls at the office while the receptionist is at lunch. During this period of time, a patient calls and says he must have a prescription refill for Valium, an antidepressant medication, called in right away to his pharmacy, since he is leaving for the airport in thirty minutes. The patient notes that Dr. Williams is a personal friend and always gives him a small supply of Valium when he has to fly. No one except Jerry is in the office at this time.

Does Jerry's Medical Training Qualify Him to efill the Order?

While Jerry's medical training qualifies him to receive a prescription order and transcribe it accurately for other nurses or physicians to implement or…

References

Lloyd, H. (2010). Workers' compensation: a brief history. Florida Department of Financial Services. Web. Retrieved from:  http://www.myfloridacfo.com/wc/history.html  on 1 November 2011.

Minnesota Board of Nursing. (2010). Nurses and prescribing. Web. Retrieved from:

 http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Nursing/NURSES_AND_PRESCRIBING_090904125323_Prescribing%20FAQ2.pdf  on 1 November 2011.

Nowicki, M. And Summers, J. (2004). Reducing your credibility liability. Healthcare Financial Management, 58.4: pp. 94-97. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.

Ethics Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
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Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice

RIGHT FROM WRONG

A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.

. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing

In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from  http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx 

Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2

Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June

15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf

Ethics and Professional Responsibility in
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However, this form of racism rejects racial rights and instead calls for active racial competition among races towards achieving mastery and territorial dominance. This is a form of racial survival for the fittest in which there is no belief of the existence of racial rights (McCulloch 2010, p. 1).

Despite the negative connotation of racism, there is a need to have some form of racism, but in a positive manner. Arguably some form of racism is necessary. For example, there is a need to socially map and define the racial landscape and this cannot be done without the use of some form of racism. This has indeed been a historically compelled action because throughout history, racial lines have naturally existed between men and thus could not be ignored (Pataki & Levine 2004, p. 87-90). Therefore, it can be conclusively stated that the society cannot cast a blind eye to racism;…

In conclusion, the question as to whether all races should be considered equally goes back to considerations of ethical stands on whether there is actually a just preservation of individual rights, life and liberty. Racism is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has been widely understood to be a negative aspect in the society largely due to the manner in which it has been expressed through the Darwinian approach of competition among races; with each race seeking to dominate the other. In the end, this has led to social and economic inequalities as well as injustices throughout time thus giving the strong negative connotation of racism which is hence identified with suppression and denial of basic rights to some races. However, alongside this form of racism, there has always existed a form of racism that has been moral and considerate to the enhancement of justice and equality based on all races.

The Relevance of Ethics in Contexts of Military Conflicts

In basic terms, ethics comprise of all those standards by which an individual or group of individuals is expected to abide based on values. Hence ethical values basically take into consideration what is considered right or wrong and in that regard, such values prevail over values considered unethical when it comes to the ethical decision making process. As Annen and Royl (2010, p. 82) note, the relevance of familiarizing soldiers with the standards of moral behavior at the

Ethics Table Q1 Brief Definitions of
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Consequence-based ethics

c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics

d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics

e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics

f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics

g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics

Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.

Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…

Reference

Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Ethics the Employee Is Faced With Ethical
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Ethics

The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…

References

Brandt-Rauf, S.I., Brabdt-Rauf, E., Gershon, R., Li, Y., & Brandt-Rauf, P.W. (2011). Genes, jobs, and justice: Occupational medicine physicians and the ethical, legal, and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace. Ethics & Medicine, 27(1), 51-55.

Dinkins, C.S. (2011). Ethics: Beyond patient care practicing empathy in the workplace. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), 1-8.

Embse, T.J.V.D., Desai, M.S., & Ofori-Brobbey, K. (2010). A new perspective on ethics safeguards: Where is the clout? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 75(3), 4-13.

Klimek, J., & Wenell, K. (2011). Ethics in accounting: An indispensable course? Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(4), 107-113.

Medical Coding Ethics Ethical Concerns in Health
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Medical Coding Ethics

Ethical Concerns in Health Care Delivery: Focus on Medical Coding and Billing Practices

The objective of this study is to examine ethical concerns medical coding and billing in the physician office. Medical coding and billing has become very complex in light of health care reform. Recently, Christopher Gregory ayne, reported to be "dubbed the Rock Doc" was arrested on a dozen charges of Medicare fraud" when he was accused of fraudulently billing for "physical therapy procedures, such as massages and electrical stimulation, that were not necessary or in some instances had been provided at his prior medical practice in Miami." (eaver, 2013, p.1) It appears that where this doctor failed is billing for physical therapy when his staff was not properly accredited for providing these treatments.

Health Care Coding and Billing Changes

It was reported by Gunderman (2013) that October 1, 2014 is the deadline on implementing…

Works Cited

American Health Information Management Association Standards of Ethical Coding. (2008) AHIMA House of Delegates. "AHIMA Standards of Ethical Coding. Sept 2008. Retrieved from:  http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok2_001166.hcsp?dDocName=bok2_001166 

Know your ethical obligations regarding coding and documentation (2009) Association of Clinical Documentation Improvement Specialists, August 4, 2009 HCPro. Retrieved from:  http://www.hcpro.com/HOM-236942-5728/know-your-ethical-obligations-regarding-coding-and-documentation 

Weaver, J. (2013) Miami Beach's 'Rock Doc' busted on Medicare fraud charges. The Miami Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/09/30/3660611/miami-beachs-rock-doc-busted-on.html#storylink=cpy

Sufficient documentation a major hurdle for ICD-10 (2013) APCs Insider. Retrieved from:  http://www.hcpro.com/HIM-297687-859/Sufficient-documentation-a-major-hurdle-for-ICD10.html

Ethics in Scientists' Search for
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Milgram's study illustrates that many who have had the responsibility taken from them are although not happy but content to continue with a procedure as long as they are not directly held responsible, thereby giving rise to an obedience through social bonding and situations (Hayes & Orell PG).

In this situation in a comparison with the Tuskegee experiment and Milgram's experiment it can be argued that the members of the medical team were acting under orders from the government and therefore were blameless in their experiments as were the teachers in theory only following orders, obviously this form of passing blame can be seen be as a paradigm in ethical understanding as we are all cogent beings with the ability to reason and question yet it seems when a person is actively allowing himself to take the blame as such then all reason as to ethical understandings of what is…

Bibliography

Brown, Kathleen W.; Cozby, Paul C.; Kee, Daniel W.; Worden, Patricia E (1999) Research methods in human development (2nd ed.). Mountain View, California, Mayfield Publishing Company.

Burley, Kim a., (1995 08-01), Family variables as mediators of the relationship between work-familyconflict and marital adjustment among dual-career men and women.. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 135, pp 483(15).

Crane a (1999 Jul) Are you ethical? Please tick yes or no on researching ethics in business organizations, Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3): 237-248

Journal is published by Kluwer Academic Publishers)

Ethics of Privacy Is a
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This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain information private, and to suggest anything else would be an ethical violation of the patient's privacy.

Because computer ethics is such a volatile issue, an entire branch of study has grown up around computer ethics, which proponents who believe the computer age caused these ethical issues, and others who believe these issues would have surfaced anyway. One of the proponents of computer ethics, who actually was the first to teach the concept, Walter Maner, from Old Dominion University, is a proponent of the computer creating brand new ethical issues. An expert quotes Maner, "For all of these issues, there was an essential involvement of computing technology. Except for this technology, these issues would not have arisen, or would not have arisen…

References

Adams, H.R., Bocher, R.F., Gordon, C.A., & Barry-Kessler, E. 2005 Privacy in the 21st Century: Issues for Public, School, and Academic Libraries. Libraries Unlimited, Westbrook, CT.

Bynum, Terryl 2008 Computer and Information Ethics, Stanford University, URL=" http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ "

Fisher, C.B. 2006 Privacy and Ethics in Pediatric Environmental Health Research-Part I: Genetic and Prenatal Testing. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1617+.

Rennie, John 2008 Who's Watching You: The Future of Privacy, Scientific American, URL=" http://www.sciam.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=28825D7D-D772-2192-12177C05B4B2AED7 "

Ethics as a New Graduate of Six
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Ethics

As a new graduate of six months working night shift on a small cancer unit, I am faced with a dilemma. Mr. V has been in and out of the unit several times over the last few months. He has liver cancer and has gone through several episodes of chemotherapy. His wife has been staying with him since his admission. There are two RN's on this unit.

Mr.V recently joined the hospice program. His current admission is for pain control with orders to start a morphine drip to be regulated for pain control.

The only set parameters indicated by hospital policy are to decrease the drip when respirations are less than twelve breaths per minute. Mr. V has requested that the drip be increased several times during my shift. Even though he does not appear to be in any discomfort, I increase the drip. On my final round of…

Bibliography

Strevy, S.S. Myths & facts about pain. RN, 42-45. 1998, February.

C. Junkerman and D. Schiedermayer, Practical Ethics for Students, Interns, and Residents, 2nd Ed, Frederick, MD: University Publishing Group, 1998.

American Nurses Association. Code for Nurses With Interpretive Statements. Kansas City, MO: the Association. 1985.

Strevy, S.S. (1998, February). Myths & facts about pain. RN, 42-45.

Ethics and Decision Making With
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In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.

The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…

References

Barry, W., and Shaw, V. (2006) Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Donaldson, T., and Werhane, P. (2007) Ethical issues in business: a philosophical approach. Englewood-Heights, NJ: Prentice Hall

DesJardins.(2008) an introduction to business ethics. New York: McGraw Hill.

Friedman, M., & Becker, G. On economics. (2008) Chicago: University of Chicago.

Ethics in Technology
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Ethics in Technology

Business - Management

The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.

Ethics in Technology

We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…

References

Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.

Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from  http://www.academia.edu/1044129

Ethics the Case Touches on
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Martha must have been unconscious after she suffered the cardiac episode. She therefore had no intact decision making capacity. However, she had made it clear to her daughter Alice that she never wanted CP, something that Alice intimated to the hospital authorities before she left. This ought to have been respected. Martha's condition could not be cured.

Even if CP was administered, the quality of her life was so poor that meaningful survival was not expected. espect for autonomy requires that the patient and/or their family members be allowed to play a role with regards to Do-Not-esuscitate Order. Written DN Orders must be cosigned by the attending physician (University of Washington School of Medicine, 2008). Alice actually singed the color-coded DN order.

However, we are not told whether the attending physician signed it. It could have been ethically wrong not to subject Martha to CP if the DN order only…

Reference

University of Washington School of Medicine, (2008). Do not Resuscitate Orders. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from  http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/dnr.html

Ethics in Cyberspace
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Ethics in Cyberspace

Summary of the Book- the Ethics of Cyberspace by Cees Hamelink

Cees Hamelink is not new in the field of study of the principles relating to the communicating world and their association with civil liberties of mankind. Hamelink has accumulated his skills and views on all fields of communication and authored a book on the ways that most of the democratic society need to be resorted to in order to systematize the cyberspace. Hamelink, in his previous publications, attempted to evaluate the products, system and institutions of traditional industries vis-a-vis the morality of the people and liberty of mankind with a view to identifying these industries firmly and intentionally amidst as well as accountable to the civil society worldwide. He proved both of them to be essential. The book asserts of the facts that the control of the cyberspace worldwide should be guided by the public necessity…

References

Cerf, Vint; et; al (2003). "Who Rules the Net: Internet Governance and Jurisdiction" Cato

Institute.

Edgar, Stacey L. (1997) "Morality and Machines: Perspectives on Computer Ethics, Jones and Bartlett Publications"

Featherstone, M; Burrows, R (1995) "Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment" London. Sage.

Ethics Issues in Nursing the Quality of
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Ethics Issues in Nursing

he quality of healthcare experienced by patients today is radically impacted by the personal resources that can be accessed by those in need of routine healthcare, preventative healthcare, and medical treatment. Well-to-do patients have always been able to purchase quality medical treatment at a premium, and the opposite has also always been true: patients who are marginalized by society or live in poverty typically forego preventative healthcare and often receive medical treatment for both chronic and acute conditions when it is too late to be effective.

he poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of ropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and…

The poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and the president and director of the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development. Hotez resides in a poor county in Texas where he has observed the link between poverty and a cluster of tropical diseases that are typically considered to be a problem only in developing countries (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In addition, Hotez is clear that fiscal incentives are weak or nonesistant for pharmaceutical companies to develop new vaccines and treatments for these tropical diseases (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In his words,

A key impediment to eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the United States is that they frequently go unrecognized because the disenfranchised people they afflict do not or cannot seek out health care. Even when there is a clinic or community health center in an impoverished area, it often lacks the necessary diagnostic tests, and the staff is rarely trained to recognize and manage neglected tropical diseases. (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4)

With many healthcare fronts today requiring funding and service redesign, tropical diseases may not fare well in the line-up until and unless they impact mainstream populations. But what about those diseases that are common in the overall population, for which treatments do exist, yet the provision of service is inadequate or ineffective? This is the healthcare issue that gets a full-court press from Dr. Aaron Shirley. Dr. Shirley has personal and institutional memory of healthcare in Mississippi: he was the first black resident at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, served as physician at the first community health center in the Mississippi Delta in the 1960s, and is a co-founder of the HealthConnect system in Mississippi (Hansen, 2012). In 1993, Dr. Shirley received a MacArthur Foundation "genius" award as a health care leader. Yet, in 2012, Shirley said, "I've been coming here [the Mississippi Delta] for 40 years and nothing has changed" (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). The issue is that regardless of Medicaid or health insurance, or access to community clinics or home health services, poor people in Mississippi continue to have health problems. "They don't get better, and the diseases borne of poverty and obesity are not prevented; thousands of people frequent emergency rooms for illnesses that could have been tackled by primary care. They need something more." (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). Ironically, the healthcare solution for Mississippi Delta residents may reside in a model based on prerevolutionary Iran. James Miller, healthcare system consultant learned about the Iranian model for primary-healthcare during a meeting in Europe and recognized how well the model could overlay the Mississippi healthcare crisis. Miller noted, "When the