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Ethics is a topic that is nearly as old as the human race. Ethics is sometimes referred to a branch of philosophy called moral philosophy. Ethics is often conceptualized as a code or a system meant to categorize or otherwise classify as well as recommend behavior that is right and behavior that is wrong. Ethical codes often describe what right and wrong is in general as well. The practice or application of ethical codes in medicine is additionally an old concept. Some of the oldest and greatest civilizations called for the practice of ethics in medicine. The paper will explore and demonstrate the necessity of ethics in medicine.
Upon completing the requirements for a medical degree, newly degreed physicians take the Hippocratic oath. The Hippocratic oath was originally composed in the 5th century BC. Hippocrates lived during the ancient Greek civilization and is considered in western cultures as…
Elsayed, D.E.M., & Ahmed, R.E.M. (2009) Medical Ethics: What is it? Why is it important? Sudanese Journal of Public Health, 4(2), 284 -- 287.
Gillon, R. (1994) Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope. British Medical Journal, 309, 184 -- 188.
Moulton, B., & King, J.S. (2010) Aligning Ethics with Medical Decision-Making: The Quest for Informed Patient Choice. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, Spring, 1 -- 13.
Ripley, G.D. (1985) Philosophical medical ethics. British Medical Journal, 290, 1904.
How does the study of medical ethics impact decisions in social services & healthcare? In the peer-reviewed Journal of Sociology & Social elfare, Professor Paul Adams explains that social work ethics "…focuses on the behavior required or expected of members of a profession," and like ethical principles in the medical profession, there are "…rules, obligations, and dilemmas" to confront in social work (Adams, 2009, p. 83). By studying medical ethics -- standards that emphasize practitioner competence, client privacy, confidentiality, potential conflicts of interest, documentation and informed consent -- a social worker can get a strong grasp of the ethical considerations in the social services sector.
For example, in the "Patient's Bill of Rights," the healthcare patient has the right to informed consent, and so too do clients of social workers have the right to informed consent. The social worker's clients also have the right to privacy, confidentiality, practitioner…
Adams, P. (2009). Ethics with Character: Virtues and the Ethical Social Worker. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. XXXVI (3), 83-92.
American Psychological Association. (2007). Sexualization of Girls / Executive Summary.
Retrieved December 11, 2013, from http://www.apa.org.
Chadwick, A. (2002). Remembering Tuskegee. National Public Radio. Retrieved December 11,
In 2004, Arizona's Proposition 200 wanted state and local governments to verify the identity and immigration status of all applicants for certain public benefits, and to require government employees to report violations (ood pp). Attitudes about the problem have hardened in recent years in some states, both out of concern about the economic impact, particularly in a time of slow job growth, and out of concern about the security threat posed since 9/11 (ood pp). The concern over illegal immigration has intensified as the federal government has shifted more of the cost and control of welfare benefits to the states, further burdening state budgets (ood pp). Some anti-immigrant groups say illegal immigrants siphon more than $1 billion a year in social services from the Arizona treasury, roughly $700 per family in the state (ood pp). Ira Mehlman of the Federation for Immigration Reform, says, "Arizona has a serious problem on…
Axtman, Kris. "A new strategy for immigrants' healthcare; An old global concept grows in the U.S. To teach - and demystify - good health." The Christian Science Monitor. April 01, 2004. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Axtman1, Kris. "Aid flows to illegal immigrants: In a controversial move, states make it easier for families to get everything from drivers' licenses to healthcare." The Christian Science Monitor. July 20, 2001. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Benko, Laura B. "Hawaii hospitals hit by charity-care costs."
Modern Healthcare. September 25, 2000. Retrieved August 06, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
This is (still, for the present time, at least), the law on medical procedures to terminate pregnancy, which are available (and eligible for federal funding assistance) to anyone whose personal religious beliefs allow them. Those whose religious beliefs prohibit abortion at any time after conception need never contemplate the procedure, but their religious position is not incorporated into U.S. law. Like abortion, Americans not opposed to stem cell research on religious principle should be permitted to explore its potential fully, without governmental restraint or governmental withholding of research funds available to medical researchers in general.
Before modern scientific methods allowed the more precise understanding of human gestation, both physicians and legal scholars relied on concepts like "quickening" to establish a stage of pregnancy where the fetus was considered to be a living person (Abrams & Bruckner, 1983). Modern medical techniques allow us to generate precise images of developing fetuses, and…
Abrams, N., Buckner, M (1983) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professions. Chicago University Press: Chicago
Kaku, M. (1999) Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century and Beyond. Oxford University Press: New York
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York
Medical Ethics Case Study
Who Can Prescribe Medicine?
Does Jerry's medical training qualify him to issue this refill order? Why or why not?
Generally, LPNs and medical assistants are qualified to dispense medication prescribed by a physician ("Medical assistant, 2011). A medical assistant is a trained medical professional who works under the supervision of a board-certified physician ("Medical assistant, 2011). Typically, a medical assistant's work is administrative, but it may also include clinical duties ("Medical assistant, 2011). The administrative duties performed by a medical assistant might include scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, greeting patients, and such. Clinical duties that may be performed by a medical assistant include taking vital signs, preparing patients for exams, drawing blood, and administering medication ("Medical assistant, 2011)..
In Jerry's case, the medical office includes a receptionist who normally takes telephone calls. This tends to indicate that the office administrative duties may be delegated to the…
Bouvier, J. (1856). Respondeat superior. Let the principal answer. [A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States.] 4 Co. Inst. 114; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1337; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3586. Retrieved http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Respondeat+Superior
Fremgen, B.F. (2009), Medical Law and Ethics (3rd edition), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall
Masters, K. (2009). Role development in professional nursing practice. Jones & Barlett Publishers. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books?id=62pGJbexHHMC&dq=Fremgen , B.F.%282009%29,+Medical+Law+and+Ethics+%283rd+edition%29,Upper+Saddle+River,+NJ:+Pearson+Prentice+Hall&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Medical assistant. Retrieved http://www.ehow.com/facts_5455998_definition-medical-assistant.html#ixzz1ZIBOJuMu
Certainly, there is a period much later in pregnancy where a fetus has developed enough human characteristics and senses to argue in good faith that the fetus is entitled to the same rights as a newborn infant. However, to make that argument on behalf of an undeveloped zygote requires specific logical justification. Instead, the main basis of the concern for the zygote is the religious belief about when human life "begins."
The problem with that belief as the basis for public policy is that it violates the fundamental constitutional principle of (1) separation of church and state and (2) equal protection. The belief that human life begins at conception is perfectly legitimate as a personal of religious belief; but it is not an appropriate factor in American law. Recognizing the religious beliefs or definitions in law is a violation of the constitutional rights of every person who does not share…
How do we balance technological advancements with what is best for humanity?
For all of the problems technology can create, it is important to remember all of the great things that technology has given to us as a species. I would not want to live in a world without antibiotics or vaccines -- and it is worth remembering, too, that many people worried that the population would get too large if there weren't diseases to keep the population contained! However, the opposite tends to be true -- the more technology improves the standard of living and quality of care, the fewer children people choose to have because they have greater resources to limit their family size and more optimism about the present. Today, screening for genetic diseased prenatally has empowered parents with the ability to choose what is right for their families. Even GMOs have produced disease-resistant crops that can…
This was an individual specifically trained in lifesaving techniques for accident and emergency victims, and he should not leave an obviously injured person. His training prepared him for just this situation, and since he was the first person on the scene, he could literally make the difference between life and death. The accident victim with an obvious head injury could be suffering from shock, and the head injury symptoms might not show themselves immediately to the victim, or he might not understand what is happening, and what his symptoms indicate. The paramedic does, and should recognize the danger of leaving a head injury victim alone waiting for other help. There are those who might say that the paramedic had no duty to stop in the first place. This is true, since he was off-duty, and not compelled to respond to the situation. However, he did respond, and therefore, that makes…
Medical Ethics and Decision Making
Do Doctors Need More Guidelines?
New Revolution in Ethics
In 1988, what many called the 'third revolution' in medical care came about (Dunevitz, 1999). The first revolution was after the Second orld ar, and this caused an explosion in the number of hospitals and doctors, as well as the research that went into the field (Dunevitz, 1999). Medicare and Medicaid were created and the field of medicine was growing so rapidly that it was hard to follow it and understand everything that was happening to it (Dunevitz, 1999). In the 1970's, cost and how to contain it became more of an issue than the growth of medicine and not only employers but the government began to work against the costs that were getting out of control (Dunevitz, 1999).
This caused the creation of managed care, among other measures (Dunevitz, 1999). Even though the control of…
AANE News, (1999-2002). Newton, MA: Asperger's Association of New England.
Barker, (1992). Regeneration. New York: Dutton.
Bartle, E.E., Couchonnal, G., Canda, E.R., & Sraker, M.D. (2002). Social Work, 47(1), 32-43.
Bok, S. 1980. "Whistle Blowing and Professional Responsibility." New York University Education Quarterly. (10) pp. 2-10.
Obviously, they wish for Ms. Alexander to live as comfortable as possible for the time she has left and are not concerned about gaining financially from her death.
For this situation, Dr. Culver offers some advice on how the physician should act in the case of Ms. Alexander. First, "a family may be deeply divided about the appropriate treatment for their loved one," which, in the case of Ms. Alexander, is between the family and the physician. Such disagreements "can be exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to resolve in a short time at the bedside of a... patient" (1990, p. 195). Thus, the physician in this case faces one of the most common predicaments associated with medical ethics, that is, whether to override the concerns and disagreements of family members and proceed with an operation that will, in the long run, provide relief to the patient and extend his/her life.…
Culver, Charles M., Ed. (1990). Ethics at the Bedside. Hanover: University Press of New England.
Glanze, Walter M., Ed. (1990). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company.
Haring, Bernard. (1973). Medical Ethics. Notre Dame, IN: Fides Publishers.
Human cloning also provokes tremendous opposition, mostly from people who do not understand what it means. Typically, it suggests images of quasi-human "clones" as second-class citizens or beings created for forcible slavery or scientific exploitation in the manner sometimes depicted by science fiction movies and literature. In truth, clones already live among us, because every identical twin is actually a clone of its twin (Sagan
In reality, cloning simply refers to the process of generating a viable fetus from one set of genes instead of two sets contributed by two parents. At the simplest level, this would allow infertile couples and single women to have children whose genes are exclusively theirs instead of having to combine their genes with those of complete strangers to become pregnant. The first successfully cloned mammal was a sheep named
Dolly" created in 1997, but responsible scientists and medical ethicists do not recommend human…
Park, a. (2007) the Year in Medicine. Time Magazine; Dec. 3/07 (pp. 63-65).
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House
Zuckerman, M. (2005) a Bright Hope to Be Realized. U.S. News & World Report; Dec. 24/04-Jan. 3/05 (p.88).
Terrance Ackerman, in his article Why Doctors Should Intervene, presents some of the complicated affective influences that enter into the doctor -- patient relationship when a patient is facing a life threatening situation. Patient autonomy has been the watchword of the medical community. Serving as the Magna Charta by which doctors have operated in their associations with terminal patients, honoring patient autonomy has been the guidelines by which doctors set limits on their involvement in patients lives. However, Ackerman makes a significant argument regarding conditions under which patient autonomy and a policy of non-interference are not sufficiently broad enough to address the real needs of the patient. The effects of the illness, he says, can create distortions in the patient's ability to make autonomous decisions. In this case, according to Ackerman, the doctor should position himself to actively engage the patient, and influence a different course of action…
The DNR order does not stand in other situations, such as non-life threatening accidents, etc. (such as a broken leg. The patient would be transported in this situation). There are many ethical decisions that will have to made by the emergency department in these situations, and they will literally have to play "God" in some decisions, which may be ethically and morally difficult for some personnel. Some people believe that DNR orders are not legal or moral, and the staff has no authority to act on them. However, the patient's wishes are at the heart of this ethical dilemma, and they should always be discussed and adhered to. It is the patient's life, after all, and not the medical department's life that is on the line. A DNR order is a highly person decision, and no person creates one of these orders lightly. They must understand the ramifications of the…
Healthcare -- Doing as Much Good as Possible
Many healthcare professionals believe that medicine and ethics are integrated. I agree with this concept. To do good medicine, one must also do good ethics, and to do good ethics, one must also do very good medicine. The two simply cannot be removed from each other.
In today's society, the demands of medicine are so great, and the tendency is so real to allow medicine to become routine and to lose sight of the phenomenal value of humanity. Therefore, healthcare professionals must consider how they can sustain a commitment to patients that truly puts their interests above our own. A fundamental aspect of the ethical life in medicine is to somehow be adequately motivated to do what is good and right for patients, especially in a world where, in many cases, no one else will be. This paper will describe why healthcare…
American Nurses Association (ANA) (1985). Code With Interpretive Statements. Kansas City, Missouri.
American Nurses Association (ANA). (1986). Cultural Diversity in Nursing, ANA House of Delegates.
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Bingemann, M. (2000). The Impact of Structured Social Inequalities on Public Health. TakingITGlobal.
Dr. Leon's reputation as a clinical trials clinical investigator and participant was therefore permanently disadvantaged.
Training and Presentation in Medical Conferences
Physicians such as Dr. Smathers participate in colloquia and congresses, and present teaching seminars about the use of medical devices and new pharmaceutical regimens. A concern of some is that this representation of the company can result in an endorsement of the company. A second concern is that the physician may allow his or her judgment to be compromised by their relationship with the company.
On the first concern, there is a pressing need for experienced physicians to teach others how to improve their practice. The rules (as above for clinical trials) are strict about what is presented, and how it is presented. The physician must present all sides, supported by clinical evidence, with a clear indication of side-effects and contraindications.
On the second concern, there may be an…
CDISD. "Clinical Data." CDISD. 2007. http://www.cdisc.org / (Accessed November 21, 2007).
NEJM. "Understanding Financial Conflicts of Interest." New England Journal of Medicine, 1993: 573-576.
Wolfe, S. "Testimony Before FDA Advisory Committee Concerning the Protocol for Biopure's Blood Substitute HBOC-201 (HRG Publication #1795)." Public Citizen. December 14, 2006. http://www.citizen.org/publications/release.cfm?ID=7492 (Accessed November 21, 2007).
Wood, S. "NEJM bars Martin Leon from reviewing research or authoring reviews and editorials post-COURAGE embargo breach." The Heart, April 20, 2007: n.p.
That may be particularly true in contemporary American society where the cumulative costs associated with healthcare could potentially bankrupt the nation (and/or bankrupt many individuals and families) by virtue of the ever-increasing costs generally attributable to the very flawed third-party payer system in which most medical services are furnished through for-profit health insurance companies with much of the remainder funded by the funds and other resources of federal and state budgets.
In that respect, universal healthcare through government-provided healthcare services might be thought of as a right, to the extent it evolves as a means of ensuring that the American economy is not threatened by ever-increasing costs associated with a for-profit third party payer health insurance system.
Ultimately, any right to healthcare in the U.. would be predicated on the principle of equal rights and equal opportunity established by the U.. Constitution and other laws designed to protect the concepts…
Vaughn, Lewis. Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases. Oxford University
Ethics in the medical profession is a topic that has gained in complexity in the past three decades. As patients are able to get more information about medical procedures, as billing becomes more complex, as new healthcare reform takes place, nurses are forced to gain an understanding of more issues with regard to biomedical ethics. The book "Intervention and eflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics" by Munson and Munson (2000) offers assistance to professionals with regard to basic ethical questions in the book's first chapter. Using the text as a starting point, this essay will define concepts central to biomedical ethics, how these concepts apply to the general public, and more importantly, for this essay, how these concepts can be seen in the book "Awakenings."
The book lists six issues -- autonomy, trust, dignity, respect, knowledge, and truth (Munson & Munson, 2000) -- that need to be…
Munson, R. & Munson, M. (2000). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in medical ethics. Ann Arbor, MI: Wadsworth.
O'Neill, O. (2001). Autonomy and trust in bioethics. The Gifford Lectures. Cambridge University, Cambridge, England.
Sacks, O. (1973). Awakenings. New York: Vintage.
Disclosure of errors is an express ethical obligation in the medical profession. “Non-disclosure of medical errors to patients and/or their families is a violation of ethical principles and cannot ever be justified,” (Edwin, 2009, p. 34). The American Medical Association underscores the importance of honesty in the physician-client relationship, and that relationship is tacitly extended to include the healthcare institution’s relationship with the surviving family. In “One Small Cut That Killed,” Dr. Contadina is doing what has actually become normative, common practice in healthcare. As Tabler (2013) points out, “in a subsequent civil suit by the patient, the apology could be admitted into evidence against the physician, and it wouldn’t be excluded on the grounds of hearsay,” (p. 1). Therefore, Dr. Contadina is acting logically, out of self-interest. If the healthcare institution’s ethical standards are patient-centric, ascribing to the basic principles of honesty and integrity, then the hospital administrator needs…
Bohonik, L. (n.d.). One small cut that killed. Center for Practical Bioethics. http://practicalbioethics.org/case-studies-one-small-cut-that-killed
Detsky, A.S., Baerlocher, M.O. & Wu, A.W. (2013). Admitting mistakes: ethics says yes, instincts say no. Canadian Medical Association Journal 185(5): 448.
Edwin, A.K. (2009). Non-disclosure of medical errors an egregious violation of ethical principles. Ghana Medical Journal 43(1): 34-39.
Tabler, N.G. (2013). Dealing with a medical mistake: should physicians apologize to patients? Medical Economics. http://medicaleconomics.modernmedicine.com/medical-economics/content/tags/apology-laws/dealing-medical-mistake-should-physicians-apologize-pati
The Tuskegee syphilis study is one of the studies looked at for ethical violations in health care research. There are a few different violations that were part of this study. As Heintzelman (2003) notes, the study was conducted to see the course of untreated syphilis. They were subject to "spinal taps without anesthesia", and where subject to heavy metals therapy but were not given antibiotics when it became known that penicillin could treat syphilis. The latter in particular would form an egregious ethical violation, because the subjects could have been cured of their ailment, but the study continued anyway, meaning that the best interests of the subjects was not taken into consideration for this study. The subjects were never offered penicillin nor any way of exiting the study.
The ethical concerns also included the issue of informed consent. The true nature of the study was not revealed to the subjects.…
CDC (2017). The Tuskegee timeline. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 24, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
Heintzelman, C. (2003) The Tuskegee syphilis study and its implications for the 21st century. The New Social Worker. Retrieved March 24, 2018 from http://www.socialworker.com/feature-articles/ethics-articles/The_Tuskegee_Syphilis_Study_and_Its_Implications_for_the_21st_Century/
NPR (2008). Remembering an infamous New York institution. NPR. Retrieved March 24, 2018 from https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=87975196
Abe and Mary had an extremely difficult decision to make. The couple did indeed have a child to save the life of Annisa. It could be possible that in the future Marissa-Eve's relationship could be harmed by this truth. Eve may feel as though her sister's life is more important than her own. In many ways Eve was treated as a means to an end because her life was the only way to save Annisa. Her parents had exhausted other possibilities and did not want their child to die. However this does not mean that Abe and Mary don't also love Eve. Just because Eve's life was utilized to save her sister, this does not mean she will not be loved or appreciated within the family unit. This situation is not black and white in that manner. One child saving the life of the other has both positive and…
Turner, L. (2003). 'Bioethics and end-of-life care in multi-ethnic settings: cultural diversity in Canada
and the U.S.A.,' Mortality, 7, 285 -- 302.
Medication Error Disclosure: Ethical Implications
Although making mistakes may be an inevitable fact of life, when nurses make errors in regards to medications, they have an obligation to report the error. From a deontological ethical perspective, the fact that the consequences of the error were minor or nonexistent is irrelevant. The existence of error is still significant in highlighting some failure, either in the administering advance practice nurse’s preparation and use of standardized operating procedures, or the procedures themselves. From the point-of-view of professional ethics, reporting errors has a vital role in preventing future errors from occurring. This should be at the forefront of the nurse’s mind, not protecting her own reputation or that of the institutions’ reputation.
According to Wolf & Hughes (2008), “reporting potentially harmful errors” should encompass all errors including “that were intercepted before harm was done, errors that did not cause harm, and near-miss errors is…
Chamberlain, C., Koniaris, L., Wu, A., & Pawlik T. (2012). Disclosure of “nonharmful” medical errors and other events duty to disclose. Archives of Surgery, 147(3):282–286. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2011.1005
Sorrell, J.M. (2017). Ethics: Ethical issues with medical errors: Shaping a culture of safety in Healthcare. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 22(2). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol22No02EthCol01
Wolf, Z. & Hughes, R. (2008). Error reporting and disclosure. NIH. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2652/
Ethics in a Long-Term Healthcare Business
Ethics in the health care industry spans a wide spectrum of activities and most of the obligations are cast by law on the professionals and the second by the common practice and morals of the profession. Both are important to the progress of the institution and also the health care industry. Compliance of statutes is of primary importance.
There are many rules and statutes that must be complied with by all organizations and one such recent legislation is the hospital information access system. The HIPAA rules apply to all personnel in the system and extend to laboratory technicians, and lawyers and insurers. The culpability comes if the information was disclosed to a third party who did not have an association with the entity -- the clinic and was permitted to access the information. In such cases where the physician discloses information to another…
Andre, Claire; Velasquez, Manuel. (2013) "Aged-Based Health Care Rationing" Retrieved 8
June, 2013 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v3n3/age.html
Chaikind, Hinda R. (2004) "The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ACT
(Hipaa): Overview and Analyses" Nova Publishers.
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…
Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.animal-ethics.org/virtue-ethics-care-ethics/
Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/12/24/obama-reversal-indigenous-peoples-stirs-concern-legal-claims/
Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/366.full
Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-utilitarianism-and-deontology/
Public health ethics relates to the ethics as it relates to an entire population, in contrast to medical ethics, which relates more to the rights of individuals. osenau and oemer (2013) note that there are often ethical conflicts that emerge when individual rights conflict with the greater good. They highlight the overarching public health principles, that provision of care is regardless of external factors, that there should be equity in the distribution of resources, and that there should be respect for human rights. The case of the burn patient is primarily regarding the human rights dimension.
The human rights dimension results in an ethical dilemma here for a couple of reasons. The first is that the individual in this instance has rights -- or the family members have rights -- and there is question as to whether those rights were respected. The outcome might have been the same…
Curtis, J. & Vincent, J. (2010). Ethics and end-of-life care for adults in the intensive care unit. Lancet. Vol. 375 (2010) 1347-53.
Rosenau, P. & Roemer, R. (2013). Chapter 15: Ethical issues in public health and health services. Introduction to Health Services In possession of the author.
Sprung, C., Cohen, S., Sjokvist, P., Baras, M., Bulow, H., Hovilehto, S., Ledoux, D., Lippert, A., Maia, P., Phelan, D., Schobersberger, W., Wennberg, E. & Woodcock, T. (2003). End-of-life practices in European intensive care units. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 290 (6) 790-797.
Ethics, Gross National Products
Gross National Product
Ethics is a branch of Philosophy and deals with the basics questions about right and wrong, virtue and vice, as well as good or bad nature of things human beings do in their daily lives. Thus, ethics is essentially related to the moral aspect of things. A thing, act, or idea of practice might be legally correct but may not be morally sound in given conditions. For instance, the pursuit of profit by firms is legally correct but ignorance to the well being of society in which that firm operates is morally incorrect. Essentials of ethics: The essential elements of ethics are related to the character of actions being taken by the human beings. The topic essentially deals with the behavior and its outcomes with respect to the impact created on fellow human beings and society as a collective…
Stimpert, J.L., & Duhaime, I.M. (1997). SEEING THE BIG PICTURE: THE INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRY, DIVERSIFICATION, AND Business STRATEGY ON PERFORMANCE. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 560-583.
Taylor, A., Chaloupka, F.J., Guindon, E., & Corbett, M. (2000). The impact of trade liberalization on tobacco consumption. Tobacco control in developing countries, 343-64.
Yue, C., Beghin, J., & Jensen, H.H. (2006). Tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade with imperfect substitution and trade costs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(4), 947-960.
Ethics to Practice: Analysis of 'end of life' decision making
The foregoing discussion is an incursion into nursing ethics. Implication(s) to 'omission' of information as a customary practice within our healthcare institution is reviewed in relation to best practices pertaining to 'informed consent,' and hospital policy is not definitive. Directed at the evolution of ethical decision making, the general query to the study focuses on the parameters of informed consent where individual practice is concerned.
In the nation of Canada where I am a nurse the number of situations where patient informed consent decisions might be subject to our national code of nursing ethics is many. e face critical ethical dilemmas every day, as emergency procedures and critical care interventions are standard practice. Complexity in decision making is furthered in the conduct and approaches made by international colleagues on contract in our institution by way of exchange.
The primacy of…
Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.
Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Canadian Medical Protection Association (CMPA), 2010. Web.
Finlay and Fernandez. Failure to report and provide commentary on research ethics board approval and informed consent in medical journals is discussed Journal of Medical Ethics, 34.10 (2008), 761-764. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023325.
The question of death ceases to be a personal experience, a family experience, and becomes a societal decision. It suggests that the values that one inherits through the experience of dying and dearth are without merit, and do not serve to better humanity. It reduces the human body that holds life to a commodity, and the decision of whether or not the body's continued living is profitable to the bottom line.
There are many questions that arise when we talk about death in terms of being better for society as a whole. Questions such as to what extent would a solider feel compelled to fight for the lives of his fellow countrymen if the society in which he lives makes decisions about the value of life being measured by wealth? To what extent would a stranger reach out to save the life of another person if economics becomes the…
Gibbs, David and DeMoss, Bob. Fighting for Dear Life: The Untold Story of Terri
Schiavo and What it Means for All of Us. 2008. New York, Bethany House.
Humphry, Derek. Final Exit: The Practicalities of Self-Deliverance and Assisted Suicide
The Dowd Model of Ethical Decision Making in Medical Imaging: Two Dilemma Scenarios
An ethical dilemma is raised in a situation where two "right" courses of action are found to be mutually exclusive of each other; that is, when doing one "right" thing necessarily leads to leaving the other "right" thing undone or even contravening this "right" and doing the opposite (Towsley-Cook & Young, 2007). A scenario in which an employee's rights must be weighed against those of the patient/consumer typifies this type of dilemma, and this is found in the current scenario: a medical imaging professional suspected of having alcohol problems comes to work with the smell of liquor on his breath and shows some trouble walking straight and enunciating clearly. After a confrontation by the supervisor, this employee refuses to take a blood test for drugs and alcohol. The dilemma exists in determining whether this…
ADW. (2010). False Positive. Ask Doc Web. Accessed 8 December 2010. http://www.askdocweb.com/falsepositives.html
Moeller, K., Lee, K. & Kissack, J. (2008). Urine Drug Screening: Practical Guide for Clinicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83(1): 66-76.
Towsley-Cook, D. & Young, T. (2007). Ethical and Legal Issues for Imaging Professionals. New York: Elsevier.
Van Valkenberg, J., Gurley, L., Lam, R., Martino, S., Paschal, R., Temme, J. & Walker, R. (1998). Survey of alcohol, drug use by radiologic technologists. Radiologic Technology. Accessed 8 December 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3387/is_n4_v69/ai_n28702788/pg_5/?tag=content;col1
According to the work of Fulford (1994) in an Oxford Practice Skills Project eport "Three elements of practice (ethics, law and communication skills) are approached in an integrated teaching programme which aims to address everyday clinical practice. The role of a central value of patient-centered health care in guiding the teaching is described. Although the final aim of the teaching is to improve the actual practice, we have found three 'sub-aims' helpful in the development of the programme. These sub-aims are: increasing students' awareness of ethical issues; enhancing their analytical thinking skills, and teaching specific knowledge. (Hope, 1994)
In the work of Miles, et al. (1989) entitled "Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age it is stated that "medical ethics education is instruction that endeavors to teach the examination of the role of values in the doctor's relationship with patients, colleagues and society. It is one form of a broad curricular…
Fryer-Edwards, PhD (2005) Tough Talk: Helping Doctors Approach Difficult Conversations - Resources for Teaching- Domains for Small Group Teaching Prelude 3 Department of Medical History and Ethics University of Washington School of Medicine.
Siegler, Mark MD (2001) Lessons from 30 Years of Teaching Clinical Ethics AMA Journal 2001 October.
St. Onge, Joye (1997) Medical Education Must Make Room for Student-Specific Ethical Dilemmas" Canadian Medical Association Journal 15 Apr 1987, 156(8).
Hicks, L. et al. (2001) Understanding the Clinical Dilemmas that Shape Medical Students' Ethical Development: Questionnaire Survey and Focus Group study. BMJ Journal 2001;322-709-71- 24 march 2001.
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.
Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.
Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
According to this second view, contemporaneous autonomy trumps precedent autonomy because honoring precedent autonomy imposes preferences and values of a different person, the formerly competent self (Buccafumi, p. 14).
The role that patient's families, doctors, health aides, pastors, chaplains and administrators, health educators and others play is crucial. Few people have executed an advanced directive, much less appointed a healthcare power of attorney by the time they enter a hospital with a debilitating condition. An informed consent form only marks the fact that a conversation has taken place in a health facility. The process that needs to or ought to take place concerning a patient's wishes and ensure one's wishes are empowered are part of the process involved as one fills out the advanced directive for themselves. In California the state has consolidated statutes for advanced directives and added some rights and included the best features of past laws. A…
REFERENCES WHICH I DID NOT USE (JUST for YOUR INFO, NOT to BE INCLUDED in THIS PAPER)
American Nurses Association. (1985). American Nurses
Association Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, Section 1.1. Washington, DC:ANA.
Docker, C. (1995). Deciding How We Die. The use Limits of Advance Directives. [Online]. Available: http://www.finalexit.org/wfn27.3.html .
Fishback, R. (1996). Harvard Medical School Division of Medical Ethics. Care Near the End of Life. [Online]. Available: www.logicnet.com/archives/file2001.php.
Possibly the only exception to the immorality of suicide arises as a function of the philosophical impossibility of violating the fundamental right of the individual - both at law and in moral principle - of refusing medical treatment. Adults who are mentally competent to make decisions for themselves cannot be compelled to accept medical treatment unless their illness presents a health risk to others, such as in the case of infectious tuberculosis (Miller 1984). In that case, it is not suicide specifically that is the issue, since it would be conceptually impossible to allow the (competent) refusal of defining medical procedures deemed "necessary for continued life" first, and second, to require an individual to seek unwanted medical care for some conditions but not others.
However, even if the mentally competent individual may refuse life-saving medical care himself, allowing the same decision made for an incapacitated person by another by proxy…
Abrams, N., Bruckner, M.D. (1985) Medical Ethics: A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professional. Massachusetts: MIT.
Breitman, R. (1998) Official Secrets: What the Nazis Planned, What the British and Americans Knew. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Garner, B.A. (2001) Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul: West Group.
Autonomy (which literally means self-rule) is the capacity to independently think, make decisions, and act on thoughts freely without being hindered or need for permission. As far as action is concerned, it is crucial that distinction be made between on one side, liberty, freedom, license or just doing what a person pleases and on the other side, acting in autonomy, that can be doing whatever one pleases but based on reasoning or thought. Animals, for instance, are not autonomous but can be considered free (or at liberty), what may be referred to as a thin sense of liberty or freedom, when not under constraints of drugs, cages or clipped wings. Autonomy is an aspect of liberty or freedom, but not all liberty or freedom can be considered as autonomy. Gillon1 states that this autonomy concept involves rationality, a particular attribute noted by Aristotle.
The Principle of espect…
Gillon, R. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy. British Medical Journal. 1985; Volume 290. 1806-1808. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1415948/pdf/bmjcred00452-0044.pdf
Beauchamp TL, editor. Prentice-Hall: New Jersey; 1984. Medical ethics: The moral responsibilities of physicians; p. 27.
The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…
Akerlof, George. "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in The United States." The Brookings Institution. N.p., 1996. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.Fisher, J. (2009). Biomedical ethics. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.
PBS. "American Experience -- The Pill -- People & Events." PBS.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
One ethical dilemma that arises in health care is with respect to quality improvement techniques (Lynn et al., 2007). While it is accepted that quality improvement activities are an intrinsic part of normal health care operations (Ibid), administrators are obligated to ensure that QI activities are conducted in line with ethical guidelines. An ethical dilemma arises, however, when faced with the opportunity to make a quality improvement based on techniques that seem sound but perhaps lack empirical backing. The dilemma would then feature two pathways. The first is to opt to adopt the quality improvement idea before research has shown conclusively that it is effective, and the second pathway is to not adopt the QI tactic until it has been demonstrated effective. A specific example could be a radical new technique for a challenging condition -- it may not be proven but the situation may be so challenging that…
Lynn, J., Baily, M., Bottrell, M., Jennings, B., Levine, R., Davidoff, F., Casarett, D., Corrigan, J., Fox, E., Wynia, M., Agich, G., O'Kane, M., Speroff, T., Schyve, P., Batalden, P., Tunis, S., Berlinger, N., Cronenwett, L., Fitzmaurice, M., Dubler, N. & James, B. (2007). The ethics of using quality improvement methods in health care. Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 146 (2007) 666-673.
Rosenau, P. & Roemer, R. (2013). Chapter 15: Ethical issues in public health and health services. Introduction to Health Services. In possession of the author.
Cookson, R. & Dolan, P. (2000). Principles of justice in health care rationing. Journal of Medical Ethics. Vol. 26 (2000) 323-329.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing
MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?
While it is definitely not a good thing that…
Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050
Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428220/
Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. About.com Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://std.about.com/od/prevention/f/contacttracing.htm
McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323978104578332461533970412
Ethics and the Internet
As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)
The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…
Ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 11, 2005. http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/e/ethics.htm
Ethics on the Web. 1995, Accessed March 11, 2005, http://www.echonyc.com/~ysue/ethics.html
INTERNET ETHICS: OXYMORON OR ORTHODOXY? March 12, 2005.
Ethics in Health Care
The role of ethics within the medical profession is extremely important and it is extremely necessary to abide by a high standard of ethical behavior while working in this industry. The trust that patients and people place within the medical profession dictates this high level of ethical behavior. The purpose of this essay is to examine the influence of individual ethics on decision making the health care industry using the ACHE self-assessment test as a guide to highlight key issues regarding this approach.
The ACHE self-assessment provided some, but not much guidance on the way medical professionals should conduct their business. Many of the questions were quite superficial and did not really hit at the true ethical issues that are present within the medical field. For me, ethics cannot be standardized to the extent where there are automatic responses to challenging situations. ather, the ethical approach…
American College of Healthcare Executives. Ethics Self-Assessment.
107) could also apply here. The confidentiality clause in such a case then only applies insofar as it is estimated that there is no need to disclose confidential information to others. In the case of Mrs. Z, her family deserves to know about her situation, because it affects their lives pertinently.
Because of the increasing cultural diversity throughout the world, cultural values also play an important part in making ethical decisions in the nursing profession. In the case of Mrs. Z, for example, she appears to have no powers of decision making either in her home or in society in general. Inside the home, her mother-in-law runs the household, while her husband is in charge of important decisions. This could have a significant influence upon her decision not to disclose her condition to her family.
According to Karahanne, Evaristo and Srite (2006, p. 34), for example, also note that cultures…
Alligood, M.R., Marriner-Tomey, a. (2006). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Elsevier Health Sciences.
DeWolf Bosek, M.S. And Savage, T.A. (2007) the Ethical Component of Nursing Education: Integrating Ethics into Clinical Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Goodman, K.W. (2008, Jan) Privacy, Confidentiality, Law and Ethics. Norhteast Florida Medicine Supplement. Retrieved from: http://www.dcmsonline.org/jax-medicine/2008journals/ethics/privacy.pdf
Karahanna, E., Evaristo, J.R., and Srite, M. (2006). Levels of Culture and Individual Behavior: An Integtrative Perspective. Advanced Topics in Global Information Management, Vol. 5. Idea Group, Inc.
The ethics of the design research demands that 'the research is valid and that threats to validity have been taken into account', and reporting has been accurate and sufficient details have been listed and supplemented for the clarity and appropriate interpretation of the research content, furthermore 'in qualitative research, it is important to be particularly careful about how to choose direct quotations from the data in the research, and ensure that they are representative' (Ian, 2003).
Many professional associations, government agencies, and universities have developed, adopted and practiced specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics i.e. East Carolina University, National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have developed their own ethical rules related to the design research. Some of the influential ethical policies on design research includes, 'the Uniform equirements (International Committee…
David B. Resnik. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. 2006. Referred from www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources
Deni Elliott, Judy E. Stern. Research Ethics: A Reader. 1997. UPNE Publication. pp. 216
Ian Gregory. Ethics in Research. Continuum International Publishing Group. 2003. pp. 93
Helen Simons, Robin Usher. Situated Ethics in Educational Research. Routledge. 2000. pp. 84
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
We may act according to our personal principles, or we can act according to our common sense. I tend to use my common sense rather than personal prejudice when making ethical decisions.
My ethical reasoning entails that I would carefully consider any ethical issue before making a decision about it. One major limitation involved in this is the fact that others may perceive me as morally weak. A morally strong character tends to be one that is immediate in ethical decisions. I would therefore not be able to make immediate decisions such as those required of judges or surgeons.
It is therefore unlikely that I would thrive in a profession that is very clear and immediate with regard to its need for specific ethical decisions. I would be better in a profession that is not as dependent upon immediate decisions.
I do not believe that my ethical viewpoint…
Before resuming my educational endeavors at the University of Phoenix I was fortunate enough to experience life and many of its travails as a business person and employee. During my tenure in those endeavors I observed a number of events that I considered unethical, and a number of actions taken by individuals that I found both reprehensible and repulsive. I was often amazed at the capabilities of mankind to justify their actions, when it was quite evident that such actions would not be considered ethical in any circumstances, no matter what the justification.
Ethics has always been a concern, whether individuals worked in education, business or even the medical field. One early study determined that there were many young managers that had reported being asked implicitly to do things they personally believed were unethical, and sometimes illegal (Badzek, Mitchell, Marra, Bower,1998). Oftentimes these young managers feel the pressure to…
Badzek, L.A., Mitchell, K., Marra, S.E., Bower, M.M., (1998) Administrative Ethics and Confidentiality/Privacy Issues, ANA Periodicals, Vol. 3, No. 3
Chaloner, C.; (2007) An introduction to ethics in nursing, Nursing Standard, Vol. 21, Issue 32, pp. 42 -- 46
Dessoff, A.; (2010) Battling sexual abuse, District Administration, Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 50-56
Rosenkoetter, M.M. & Milstead, J.A.; (2010) A code of ethics for nurse educators: Revised, Nursing Ethics, Vol. 17, Issue 1, pp. 137-139
Declaration of Helsinki
In this article the author emphasizes that having a code of ethics is still as important as it has always been but this new code includes the idea of informed consent and how to deal with those that are unable to provide it. The author goes on to address how important human subjects are to the area of medical research but stresses that this importance does not outweigh the adherence to a code of ethics when conducting research.
The Declaration of Helsinki has a lot in common with the Nuremberg Code but really expands the code to include more things in greater detail. The code now contains a section that deals with informed consent. Although the code does not address research on those subjects who are unable to provide informed consent, the code does address such research, asserting the ethical acceptability under certain circumstances of what is…
Ethics of Prisoner Experiments
Prior to the medical trial at Nuremberg physicians and scientists were largely free to conduct experiments on unsuspecting persons (Freyhofer, 2004, p. 9-10), including inmates inside America's prisons. When it was discovered that German physicians had been conducting inhumane experiments on death camp and concentration camp prisoners during WWII, the world was shocked that doctors were capable of such behavior. The American Military Tribunal in Nuremberg heard arguments from both the defense and prosecution for twenty three doctors and administrators accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The defense argued that the doctors' conduct was not a significant departure from past practices and any inhumanity was more a function of the ongoing hostilities. The judges on the tribunal saw it differently and created ethical guidelines for medical researchers, because the evidence presented in court revealed the Hippocratic Oath could not protect patients and…
Freyhofer, Horst A. (2004). The Nuremberg Medical Trial: The Holocaust and the Origin of the Nuremberg Medical Code: Vol. 53. Studies in Modern European History. New York: Peter Lang.
HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). (2005). The Nuremberg Code. HHS.gov. Retrieved 4 Sep. 2013 from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html .
Hornblum, Allen M. (1998). Acres of Skin. Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison. A True Story of Abuse and Exploitation in the Name of Medical Science. New York: Rutledge.
Lerner, Barron H. (2007). Subjects or objects? Prisoners and human experimentation. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(18), 1806-1807.
However, according to Trevino and Nelson, diverting the runaway train to an alternative track will result in the death of one person who is standing unawares on the alternative track (95). hat would be the best course of action in such a case? From a teleological perspective, diverting the train to the alternative track would seem most reasonable as it would save the life of five people. The end in this case - saving the lives of five people, effectively justifies the means, i.e. pulling the lever so as to divert the train to an alternative route where it will kill only one person.
To begin with, this kind of reasoning in my view erroneously assumes that there can only be a single means to a definite end. However, this is not always the case. For instance, in the example I have offered above, the person standing by the lever…
Bradburn, Roger. Understanding Business Ethics. London: Thomson Learning, 2001. Print.
Trevino, Linda, and Katherine A. Nelson. Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How To Do It Right. 5th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.
Ethics Case Study: Medical Law and Ethics
Jerry McCall is Dr. William's office assistant. He has received professional training as both a medical assistant and an LPN. He is handling all of the phone calls at the office while the receptionist is at lunch. During this period of time, a patient calls and says he must have a prescription refill for Valium, an antidepressant medication, called in right away to his pharmacy, since he is leaving for the airport in thirty minutes. The patient notes that Dr. Williams is a personal friend and always gives him a small supply of Valium when he has to fly. No one except Jerry is in the office at this time.
Does Jerry's Medical Training Qualify Him to efill the Order?
While Jerry's medical training qualifies him to receive a prescription order and transcribe it accurately for other nurses or physicians to implement or…
Lloyd, H. (2010). Workers' compensation: a brief history. Florida Department of Financial Services. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.myfloridacfo.com/wc/history.html on 1 November 2011.
Minnesota Board of Nursing. (2010). Nurses and prescribing. Web. Retrieved from:
http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Nursing/NURSES_AND_PRESCRIBING_090904125323_Prescribing%20FAQ2.pdf on 1 November 2011.
Nowicki, M. And Summers, J. (2004). Reducing your credibility liability. Healthcare Financial Management, 58.4: pp. 94-97. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
However, this form of racism rejects racial rights and instead calls for active racial competition among races towards achieving mastery and territorial dominance. This is a form of racial survival for the fittest in which there is no belief of the existence of racial rights (McCulloch 2010, p. 1).
Despite the negative connotation of racism, there is a need to have some form of racism, but in a positive manner. Arguably some form of racism is necessary. For example, there is a need to socially map and define the racial landscape and this cannot be done without the use of some form of racism. This has indeed been a historically compelled action because throughout history, racial lines have naturally existed between men and thus could not be ignored (Pataki & Levine 2004, p. 87-90). Therefore, it can be conclusively stated that the society cannot cast a blind eye to racism;…
In conclusion, the question as to whether all races should be considered equally goes back to considerations of ethical stands on whether there is actually a just preservation of individual rights, life and liberty. Racism is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has been widely understood to be a negative aspect in the society largely due to the manner in which it has been expressed through the Darwinian approach of competition among races; with each race seeking to dominate the other. In the end, this has led to social and economic inequalities as well as injustices throughout time thus giving the strong negative connotation of racism which is hence identified with suppression and denial of basic rights to some races. However, alongside this form of racism, there has always existed a form of racism that has been moral and considerate to the enhancement of justice and equality based on all races.
The Relevance of Ethics in Contexts of Military Conflicts
In basic terms, ethics comprise of all those standards by which an individual or group of individuals is expected to abide based on values. Hence ethical values basically take into consideration what is considered right or wrong and in that regard, such values prevail over values considered unethical when it comes to the ethical decision making process. As Annen and Royl (2010, p. 82) note, the relevance of familiarizing soldiers with the standards of moral behavior at the
c. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is the right thing to do. Duty-based ethics
d. I believe people should be able to eat sand because it is good for one's health. Virtue ethics
e. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they decide they want to, regardless of whether it is someone else's sand. Entitlement-based ethics
f. I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves. ights-based ethics
g. I believe I will eat sand because it is the standard meal for my community. elativistic ethics
Q4. Duty-based ethics: It is my duty to follow through with instructions my boss gives me, even if I do not agree with the concept. It is my moral obligation to respect authority figures.
Consequence-based ethics: Even though some employees…
Trevino, L.K., & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right (4th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…
Brandt-Rauf, S.I., Brabdt-Rauf, E., Gershon, R., Li, Y., & Brandt-Rauf, P.W. (2011). Genes, jobs, and justice: Occupational medicine physicians and the ethical, legal, and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace. Ethics & Medicine, 27(1), 51-55.
Dinkins, C.S. (2011). Ethics: Beyond patient care practicing empathy in the workplace. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), 1-8.
Embse, T.J.V.D., Desai, M.S., & Ofori-Brobbey, K. (2010). A new perspective on ethics safeguards: Where is the clout? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 75(3), 4-13.
Klimek, J., & Wenell, K. (2011). Ethics in accounting: An indispensable course? Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(4), 107-113.
Milgram's study illustrates that many who have had the responsibility taken from them are although not happy but content to continue with a procedure as long as they are not directly held responsible, thereby giving rise to an obedience through social bonding and situations (Hayes & Orell PG).
In this situation in a comparison with the Tuskegee experiment and Milgram's experiment it can be argued that the members of the medical team were acting under orders from the government and therefore were blameless in their experiments as were the teachers in theory only following orders, obviously this form of passing blame can be seen be as a paradigm in ethical understanding as we are all cogent beings with the ability to reason and question yet it seems when a person is actively allowing himself to take the blame as such then all reason as to ethical understandings of what is…
Brown, Kathleen W.; Cozby, Paul C.; Kee, Daniel W.; Worden, Patricia E (1999) Research methods in human development (2nd ed.). Mountain View, California, Mayfield Publishing Company.
Burley, Kim a., (1995 08-01), Family variables as mediators of the relationship between work-familyconflict and marital adjustment among dual-career men and women.. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 135, pp 483(15).
Crane a (1999 Jul) Are you ethical? Please tick yes or no on researching ethics in business organizations, Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3): 237-248
Journal is published by Kluwer Academic Publishers)
This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain information private, and to suggest anything else would be an ethical violation of the patient's privacy.
Because computer ethics is such a volatile issue, an entire branch of study has grown up around computer ethics, which proponents who believe the computer age caused these ethical issues, and others who believe these issues would have surfaced anyway. One of the proponents of computer ethics, who actually was the first to teach the concept, Walter Maner, from Old Dominion University, is a proponent of the computer creating brand new ethical issues. An expert quotes Maner, "For all of these issues, there was an essential involvement of computing technology. Except for this technology, these issues would not have arisen, or would not have arisen…
Adams, H.R., Bocher, R.F., Gordon, C.A., & Barry-Kessler, E. 2005 Privacy in the 21st Century: Issues for Public, School, and Academic Libraries. Libraries Unlimited, Westbrook, CT.
Bynum, Terryl 2008 Computer and Information Ethics, Stanford University, URL=" http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ "
Fisher, C.B. 2006 Privacy and Ethics in Pediatric Environmental Health Research-Part I: Genetic and Prenatal Testing. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1617+.
Rennie, John 2008 Who's Watching You: The Future of Privacy, Scientific American, URL=" http://www.sciam.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=28825D7D-D772-2192-12177C05B4B2AED7 "
In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.
The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…
Barry, W., and Shaw, V. (2006) Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Donaldson, T., and Werhane, P. (2007) Ethical issues in business: a philosophical approach. Englewood-Heights, NJ: Prentice Hall
DesJardins.(2008) an introduction to business ethics. New York: McGraw Hill.
Friedman, M., & Becker, G. On economics. (2008) Chicago: University of Chicago.
As a new graduate of six months working night shift on a small cancer unit, I am faced with a dilemma. Mr. V has been in and out of the unit several times over the last few months. He has liver cancer and has gone through several episodes of chemotherapy. His wife has been staying with him since his admission. There are two RN's on this unit.
Mr.V recently joined the hospice program. His current admission is for pain control with orders to start a morphine drip to be regulated for pain control.
The only set parameters indicated by hospital policy are to decrease the drip when respirations are less than twelve breaths per minute. Mr. V has requested that the drip be increased several times during my shift. Even though he does not appear to be in any discomfort, I increase the drip. On my final round of…
Strevy, S.S. Myths & facts about pain. RN, 42-45. 1998, February.
C. Junkerman and D. Schiedermayer, Practical Ethics for Students, Interns, and Residents, 2nd Ed, Frederick, MD: University Publishing Group, 1998.
American Nurses Association. Code for Nurses With Interpretive Statements. Kansas City, MO: the Association. 1985.
Strevy, S.S. (1998, February). Myths & facts about pain. RN, 42-45.
Ethics in Technology
Business - Management
The purpose of this paper is to highlight and present the ethical issues that are involved in using modern technology. The paper highlights some of the current ethical issues faced by computer users that are due to unethical practice and lack of proper ethical policies by different businesses. The paper pinpoints the causes and gives recommendation on how the current issues can be minimized. A portion of this paper also consists of lawsuits that have recently occurred due to unethical practices adopted by businesses.
Ethics in Technology
We live in a modern era, the era of modern technology and innovation. Our lives are encircled by modern creations. These technology and advancement have surely brought comfort and ease in our life but unfortunately, the use of modern technology has also given rise to many ethical problems out of which few are a topic of discussion…
Anderman, E.M., & Burton Murdock, E. (2007). Psychology of academic cheating. (p. 1). California, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Morley, D., & Parker, C.S. (2009). Understanding computers: Today and tomorrow, comprehensive. (12th ed., p. 712). Boston, USA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Rogozea, L. (2009). Towards ethical aspects on artificial intelligence. Manuscript submitted for publication, Transylvania University of Brasov, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1044129
Martha must have been unconscious after she suffered the cardiac episode. She therefore had no intact decision making capacity. However, she had made it clear to her daughter Alice that she never wanted CP, something that Alice intimated to the hospital authorities before she left. This ought to have been respected. Martha's condition could not be cured.
Even if CP was administered, the quality of her life was so poor that meaningful survival was not expected. espect for autonomy requires that the patient and/or their family members be allowed to play a role with regards to Do-Not-esuscitate Order. Written DN Orders must be cosigned by the attending physician (University of Washington School of Medicine, 2008). Alice actually singed the color-coded DN order.
However, we are not told whether the attending physician signed it. It could have been ethically wrong not to subject Martha to CP if the DN order only…
University of Washington School of Medicine, (2008). Do not Resuscitate Orders. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/dnr.html
Ethics in Cyberspace
Summary of the Book- the Ethics of Cyberspace by Cees Hamelink
Cees Hamelink is not new in the field of study of the principles relating to the communicating world and their association with civil liberties of mankind. Hamelink has accumulated his skills and views on all fields of communication and authored a book on the ways that most of the democratic society need to be resorted to in order to systematize the cyberspace. Hamelink, in his previous publications, attempted to evaluate the products, system and institutions of traditional industries vis-a-vis the morality of the people and liberty of mankind with a view to identifying these industries firmly and intentionally amidst as well as accountable to the civil society worldwide. He proved both of them to be essential. The book asserts of the facts that the control of the cyberspace worldwide should be guided by the public necessity…
Cerf, Vint; et; al (2003). "Who Rules the Net: Internet Governance and Jurisdiction" Cato
Edgar, Stacey L. (1997) "Morality and Machines: Perspectives on Computer Ethics, Jones and Bartlett Publications"
Featherstone, M; Burrows, R (1995) "Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment" London. Sage.
Ethics Issues in Nursing
he quality of healthcare experienced by patients today is radically impacted by the personal resources that can be accessed by those in need of routine healthcare, preventative healthcare, and medical treatment. Well-to-do patients have always been able to purchase quality medical treatment at a premium, and the opposite has also always been true: patients who are marginalized by society or live in poverty typically forego preventative healthcare and often receive medical treatment for both chronic and acute conditions when it is too late to be effective.
he poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of ropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and…
The poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and the president and director of the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development. Hotez resides in a poor county in Texas where he has observed the link between poverty and a cluster of tropical diseases that are typically considered to be a problem only in developing countries (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In addition, Hotez is clear that fiscal incentives are weak or nonesistant for pharmaceutical companies to develop new vaccines and treatments for these tropical diseases (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In his words,
A key impediment to eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the United States is that they frequently go unrecognized because the disenfranchised people they afflict do not or cannot seek out health care. Even when there is a clinic or community health center in an impoverished area, it often lacks the necessary diagnostic tests, and the staff is rarely trained to recognize and manage neglected tropical diseases. (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4)
With many healthcare fronts today requiring funding and service redesign, tropical diseases may not fare well in the line-up until and unless they impact mainstream populations. But what about those diseases that are common in the overall population, for which treatments do exist, yet the provision of service is inadequate or ineffective? This is the healthcare issue that gets a full-court press from Dr. Aaron Shirley. Dr. Shirley has personal and institutional memory of healthcare in Mississippi: he was the first black resident at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, served as physician at the first community health center in the Mississippi Delta in the 1960s, and is a co-founder of the HealthConnect system in Mississippi (Hansen, 2012). In 1993, Dr. Shirley received a MacArthur Foundation "genius" award as a health care leader. Yet, in 2012, Shirley said, "I've been coming here [the Mississippi Delta] for 40 years and nothing has changed" (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). The issue is that regardless of Medicaid or health insurance, or access to community clinics or home health services, poor people in Mississippi continue to have health problems. "They don't get better, and the diseases borne of poverty and obesity are not prevented; thousands of people frequent emergency rooms for illnesses that could have been tackled by primary care. They need something more." (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). Ironically, the healthcare solution for Mississippi Delta residents may reside in a model based on prerevolutionary Iran. James Miller, healthcare system consultant learned about the Iranian model for primary-healthcare during a meeting in Europe and recognized how well the model could overlay the Mississippi healthcare crisis. Miller noted, "When the
Ethics and Computing in Computer Science
EMPOWERMENT AND RESPONSIILITY
Errors and Hazards and Their Consequences
Despite the best of care and talent, computation is subject to uncertainties, which experts call "errors (Landau, 2008)." Some of these errors are man-made and some are produced by the computer itself. The four classes of errors are blunders or bad theory, random errors, approximation or algorithm errors, and round-off errors. lunders are typographical errors or errors caused by running or using the wrong program or similar errors. Random errors are results of occurrences like fluctuations in electronics or cosmic rays running through the computer. Algorithm or approximation errors include the substitution of finite by infinite figures or variable inputs by constants. And round-off errors are inaccuracies as the finite number of digits for storing floating numbers (Landau). Peter Neumann at the SRI International identified more than 400 incidents of these errors, hazards and other…
Jacky, J. (1989). Safety-critical computing, hazards, practices, standards and regulation.
Vol. 29, # 5, "Programmed for Disaster: Software Errors that Imperil Lives."
Department of Radiation: University of Washington. Retrieved on March 22, 2014