Evidence, Evaluating Evidence, Making Recommendations
Life is a precious aspect of the human nature; the person has only one life to live. Therefore, it is essential for people to protect and guard the life of the individuals jealously. The nurses and other medical personnel do this work. The duty of the nurses is to care for all types of patients. However, the is a group of patients that require extra form of attention; this is the people that suffer from Terminal illnesses (Katz & Johnson 2006). Such people live with the reality of death in their faces. Dealing with such patients is quite difficult, and poses challenge to the nurses and the family of the individual who strive to facilitate the life of that patient. The nurses have difficulties in addressing the stressful nature of such people, as most of such patients lose interest in life. Additionally, the stress is worse for the families of such patients. The family lives with the n adapting to the treatment the patient is getting. Medial propositions such as Euthanasia and Palliative care are some of the options Terminal illnesses people have for treatment.
Question for investigation
The basis of this research, as outlined in the introduction is to identify a possible factor that when improved, can make nursing practice easier in administering care to patients. The question that I will explore is; how does the treatment strategy of palliative care for end life in patients affect the working of the nurses, the reception by patients and the family. This question is qualitative as it aims to identify how family members and patients react to strategies employed in the caring process in preparation of the evident presence of death, and make suggestions that help to create a better environment for the nursing personnel, patient and the family of the patient. Terminal illnesses can affect the perception of self in the patient and the family extremely, as it is difficult for people the people to come to terms with death of a loved one (Katz & Johnson 2006). Every person has a right to high quality and humane healthcare. The WMA outlined principles guiding Terminal illnesses and Euthanasia. These declarations of WMA complement the strategy of End of Life Medical Care.
Search strategy to answer the question
The treatment for terminally ill patients occurs from the palliative care institutions such as the hospitals and the old people care homes. The nurses work from search places. A terminally ill person can have a negative or positive attitude towards life. Therefore, to identify and evaluate the difficulties that the terminally ill persons cause to the nurses and the family members in the process of treatment, the research will adopt a simple analysis of the involved persons. This is through interviews and questionnaires to family members of the patients, and the nurses that attend to them. The sources of data will be the nurses who provide the End OF Life Medical Care, the terminally ill patients and the family members. A review of the records of reactions of patients to the treatment is also useful. The search strategy finds the reactions of the affected persons and thus provides a basis for application of appropriate strategies to address the challenges that emerge.
Summary of the article Assessing intervention effectiveness for reducing stress in student nurses:Quantitative systematic review by Niall D. Galbraith & Katherine E. Brown
The article is about identifying and reviewing the types of stress interventions that work in reducing the stress in student nurses, and consequently make recommendations that will aid in the future research. The sources of data within the article include databases from Medline, CINAHL, Behavioral Sciences Collection, IBSS and Psychinfo (Galbraithn & Brownk, 2011). The method used to evaluate is quantitative, synthesizing the information to present a final report of the various available interventions.
The authors indicate that, there is a significant level of burnout of nurses, which is higher than normal healthcare staff. Additionally, they also indicate that, there is a remarkably high number of job dissatisfaction in the nurses compared to that of a normal worker. The levels of stress in the trained nursing personnel lead to a notable level of dissatisfaction of patients. The article indicates that stress in student nurses is more than 50% of the cohort and at a higher prevalence in the senior medical students, and the general practitioners of medicine (Galbraithn & Brownk, 2011). The report also has findings that indicate the causes of stress, which include pressure from performance demands in academics. Other causes of stress in student nurses include the practical demands in the learning process, and death and suffering of patients.
Among the interventions identified in this article from other literatures base on the regard of problem-solving, skills of self-management, having affective well being, relaxation, interpersonal relation skills and work performance (Galbraithn & Brownk, 2011). Additionally, there are other interventions such as cognitive reappraisal, and strategy to reduce the intensity of the stressors. However, after significantly evaluating the interventions using research and other practical approaches, the article indicates that, the interventions work in combination, as no single approach that addresses a particulate situation or stressor completely. Therefore, the interventions work in categories. For instance, they indicate that, a combination of relaxation, imagery and breathing techniques improve the state of anxiety. Moreover, combining relaxation, cognitive reappraisal and affective well-being improves stress and depression. Therefore, evidence shows that a combination of the interventions helps improve stress. However, they state that, it is imperative to exercise caution, as the interventions do not show complete effectiveness. Additionally, the report is not conclusive because it is subject to methodological errors and other generalization and analytic errors. The article indicates that these interventions require regular follow-ups and testing to sustain the effectiveness of the interventions over time. Moreover, this article concludes that there is little evidence of the efficiency of the stress interventions for nurse students to improve their academic performance.
Evaluation of the article using CASP tool
Did the review ask a clearly focused question?
It is evident that student nurses suffer course-related stress, contributing to high rates of attrition. Therefore, the focus in this article is on the interventions to address the problem. The review asked the relevant questions, which focused on the topic of study. The questions indicate the effectiveness of the stress interventions.
Did the review contain the right study?
The review, in its study, included a comparative approach, getting information from several sources. Additionally, the use of quantitative approach provides a realistic view of the effectiveness of the interventions. Therefore, the review used the right type of study.
Did the reviewers try to identify all pertinent studies?
The reviewers, in the study, examined the various sources of information accordingly, addressing the interventions of stress. They did identify and evaluate several relevant areas of study; however, their sampling includes only specified respondents, hence generalizing. They can add some other relevant studies.
Did the reviewers review the quality of the included studies?
The reviewers selected the articles and sources of data and thus it is true they considered the quality of the studies. Therefore, the article is trustworthy as the source of data in the article is trustworthy.
Combining of the result of the studies and if so, was it reasonable to do so?
The authors of the report combined the results in the article. This is reasonable as the analysis focuses on the interventions without discriminating who developed which intervention. Therefore, combining the results allows for a conclusive assessment of the results.
How the results were presented and what is the main result?
The article presents the results inform of a discussion. They are narrated comparatively, showing the interventions and their effects. Therefore, the main result is a conclusion of the effectiveness of the interventions of stress.
How precise are these results?
The results, from the quantitative analysis and practical example, are considerably precise. They have a possibility of error due to the methodology and the few samples used. Hence, there is some generalization of results. However, the results are acceptable as they are from a real accurate study of the few samples used.
Were all-important outcomes considered?
The report considered several outcomes, but not all as the sample of analysis was small. However, their final finding covers all the significant outcomes. This assures the trustworthiness of the report in the article.
Should policy or practice change because of the evidence contained in this review?
The evidence in the article is applicable in the context of a clinical approach to the issues of stress intervention. The findings indicate a need for a new review of the interventions available, to improve on their effectiveness. Therefore, the evidence calls for change in practice within the nurse training and nurse student development. They evidence recommend that the new interventions should base on theory approach.
Stress is an identified problem in the walls of the nursing profession. Stress occurs to an individual when they face events…