Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC) and Corporate Communication (CC)
The established limitations are severely customized by globalization: the size of the company (where there is not a major link with the area of the performance, delocalization and outsourcing and being dependent on the network), design of the product and sales (where the relation with the competitors may be competitive cooperative) somewhat similar to the frequency of motor industry), competitive relations of space-time, the consumer models (which is focused with a turn down in the analogical media. The increasing significance of digital media and internet is also included. The most important of them is the advertising of television and the television itself); the importance of communication in the competitive environment, less protectionist measures of the economic systems, open spaces of competition, complex differentiation (Walther, 2007).
The incorporation of the global markets struggle to remove the inert environment and change them with the unsteady, active and energetic environments. It is because there will be greater chances of having changes in the corporate communication field particularly when considering the achievement of goals and the usable instruments and forms and also the accessible publics (Brondoni, 2006).
Considering the goals in the static markets, we can define corporate communication as differentiating between commercial and persuasive communication. It aims to achieve the objectives of the company and rotates around the communication flow. The purpose of institutional communication is not to achieve the commercial goals as it is completely informative. The communication flow have an influence on the performance of the company, however, it has no direct link with the core activities of the company. These people include local and national public authorities, financial brokers, stockholders etc. The targeted groups of communication flow are the opinion makers and the opinion leaders. The increased competition in the global markets makes activation of the communication flows impossible with the partial aims. Because of various aims this exploits the synergies between the communication flow (incorporated communication) (Brondoni, 2006).
The Theory of Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC)
Conveying symbolic messages and/or information that is for several groups (co-makers, outer stakeholders, and inner stakeholders) is known as corporate communication. This process is intentional and it aims to achieve those objectives which may be institutional, organizational or commercial. With the help of the communicating flows and channels, corporate communication can take place. The design that has been made which makes communication possible by passing the communication signals from the source of communication to the receiver is studied to see how signals are sent from the transmitter to the receiver. The communication signal that flows from the transmitter to the receiver usually with the help of a channel is called organized communication (Argenti and Forman, 2002).
In order to manage the corporate communication and information it is essential to know the difference between flow and channels. If companies with to be in touch globally with the help of communication then they will have to invest in the making off and taking care of the appropriate channels, for the flow of information to take place (Argenti and Forman, 2002).
Channels of communication and digital information is made by Information & Communication Technology (ICT) (optic fibres, wireless connections and duplex telephone cable have been made with the passage of time) they make digital communication flows which are made in packets containing sounds, films, images, and numerous mixtures of same (Argenti and Forman, 2002).
Markets all over are developing due to digitalization. Along with physical space there is also more personal space which is made of ties, the to and fro of information and the communication taking place. The digital technology helps all this to happen along with flows and channels. Numerous subjects can be in touch with each other at the same without being physical present in any place due to the space that is given (Balmer and Wilson, 1998).
The channels and flows come somewhere between information and communication in markets where there is open competition: the main aim of corporate communication is to maintain the constant flow of information along with giving a message. The interest that the receiver of communication shows in sending one back is the change in push communication to pull communication. There are generally two types of communication (Balmer and Wilson, 1998):
1. Push communication
2. Pull communication
In "push" communication, the message is conveyed by the company to those targeted people who have the passive interest. It means that they are not really concerned in getting known all those matters. This strategy mainly involves the accomplishment of intermediate demands via which corporate communication is conducted and hence the information is conveyed to the final recipients openly. In simpler words, this strategy is employed in that sector of the market where final recipients are not at all interested in carrying out this communication among themselves, those people communicating and the company as well. Conversely, in "pull" communication, the request is made to transfer information from bottom party towards higher authorities. In general words, this strategy involves people having active interest which means they are keen to get involved in all matters and get all information that are of their interest and motivation. This behaviour reveals an important aspect of digital communications technologies. The outcome of this digital communication has two advantages (Balmer and Wilson, 1998):
1. Shows that how far the information being transferred is important.
2. Information is collected about the selected areas of interest. This highlights their behavioural profile (Balmer and Wilson, 1998).
Digital communication just resembles a feed-forward cycle that have both forwarding cycle and feedback cycle going on simultaneously, without affecting each other's performance. Whenever the data or information is transmitted, from source to subject, it all flows independently without influencing each other. The integrity of data can be checked at any moment during the transmission which is one of the advantages of this type of communication. With proper feedback it forms a feedback path. It all owes to the digital technologies that with proper outcome of data, required feedback is collected without any loss or minor cost (Argenti, 2009).
Technology of digital communication comprises of the following features (Argenti, 2009):
Broadcast speed of the message: it links the broadcaster i.e. transmitter and receiver in real time (Argenti, 2009).
No space limitations: there is no restriction of space for circular flow of data. The reason is that the transmitter and receiver might be at large distance from one another. And this does not matter in the transmission of data (Argenti, 2009).
Economic: it is less expensive and hence economical as compared to analogic and media mode of communication of data (Argenti, 2009).
Flexible: it is flexible since it can adapt to any mode of communication based on the requirement. Moreover, it also provides data in real time domain.
Multimedia: it can operate on different frequency ranges and communication media at the same time.
Interactive: it is indifferent to analogic media where there is single receiver for a single transmitter. Digital communication offers two-way flow of data between single transmitter and multiple receivers (Argenti, 2009).
There is another advantage of digital communication which is its profiling nature. Due to no limitation of time or space, it can manage large amount of feedback. This type of data can be helpful in acquiring and developing the skills that are used to figure out various interlocutors (Riel et al., 2007).
Profiling is a very unique feature of digital corporate communication. This process is initiated by first contacting a subject and then developing communication to it via various electronic references, like IP, email, cookie etc. This process properly plans a layout of the required information of each individual. It keeps their record through their electronic contacts which includes their all necessary behavioural profile. Profiling is basically an innovation which was practically absent in the previous analogic communication. It should be employed in every company's strategy. This would sort out the targeted people to whom they want to convey their message (Riel et al., 2007).
The criterion of targeted people is first set theoretically. This procedure involves the study of the historical data of the people on an average scale. Such selected people are not made prominent; rather they are kept hidden and indistinguishable as "black outlines." Contrary to this, the practical approach of that procedure is making of a proper "profile." Its purpose is to create a personalised mass communication. In this strategy, all information of each individual is found and studied thoroughly (Riel et al., 2007).
Digital communication is based on the integrity of several results deduced from the following facts (Gray and Balmer, 1998):
Accomplishment of large number of subjects. It could not have been possible with analogic communication which includes only historical data (Gray and Balmer, 1998).
Character or personality and the peculiar nature of the targeted people that are contacted or are yet to be contacted (Gray and Balmer, 1998).
Rapid response time which is far better than analogic media (Gray and Balmer, 1998).