Communication Barriers Essays (Examples)

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Communication Personal Account Upon Communication Is an

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5994461

Communication

Personal Account upon Communication

Communication is an everyday necessity that is additionally a challenging endeavor. Though most everyone engages in communication, very few people are effective communicators. In reflecting on my on communication skills, I understand the necessity of adapting some of my communication methods to meet another individual's communications needs, wishes, and preferences. In a nursing home, I have had to speak louder or slower than my usual communications with others. I have also had to explain something repeatedly or in several ways because of some of the health conditions of the residents in the facility.

When it is evident that I am having problems in communication, I seek advice about it. I also seek advice about communication when I am about to enter into a new situation, such as beginning college, graduate school, a new job, or a new type of job environment, such as the corporate…… [Read More]

References:

Colon-Emeric, C.S., Ammarell, N., Bailey, D., Corazzini, K., Lekan-Rutledge, D., Piven, M.L., Utley-Smith, Q., & Anderson, R.A. Patterns of Medical and Nursing Staff Communication in Nursing Homes: Implications and Insights From Complexity Science. Qualitative Health Research, 16(2), 173 -- 188, 2006.

Pillember, PhD, K., Suitor, PhD, J., Henderson, Jr., C.R., Meador, R., Schultz, L., Robison, PhD, J., & Hegeman, C. A Cooperative Communication Intervention for Nursing Home Staff and Family Members of Residents. The Gerontologist, 43, Special Issue II, 96 -- 106. 2003.
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Communication Prompt 1 -Transforming Conflict

Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77320262



B: No you didn't.

A: You just weren't listening.

Nonviolent Communication:

A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?

B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.

A: Thank you

Prompt (2) Stereotypes:

Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.

The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.

Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.

We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.

Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…… [Read More]

Reference

Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online:  http://www.cnvc.org/about/marshall-rosenberg.html
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Communication With Patients With No

Words: 1199 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81545646



Impact of the Issue on the Profession of Nursing

As the patient population of America continues to become increasingly diverse, nurses will be forced to find ways to overcome the language barriers that separate them from their ability to provide optimum care. Nurses will not only need to learn how to communicate effectively with non- or limited English speakers, but will need to become comfortable with the use of interpreters.

Suggestions for Addressing the Issue

Hospitals need to devise training and development programs designed to reduce cross-cultural communication barriers. Obviously healthcare personnel cannot be expected to learn to speak every language fluently. However they need to learn the basics of the languages that they encounter most often. Hospitals also need to work more closely with interpreters and have interpreters for every language they may encounter available on-call.

Summary

The population of America is becoming increasingly diverse, with more and more…… [Read More]

References

Dressler, D. & Pils, P. (2009) A qualitative study on cross-cultural communication in post-accident in-patient rehabilitation of migrant and ethnic minority patients in Austria. Disability & Rehabilitation, 31,1181-1190

Flores, G., Milagros, A., Tomany-Korman, S.C. (2005, July/August) Limited English proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters, Public Health Reports, 120, 418-430

Hagman, L.W. (2006) Cultural self-efficacy of licensed registered nurses in New Mexico. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 13, 105-112.

Langlie J.K. (2005). Social networks, health beliefs, and preventive health behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 18, 244-260.
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Communication Plays a Vital Role in Human

Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33041242

Communication plays a vital role in human interaction. Unfortunately, communication is not always as adept as it should be between people. This fact is usually exacerbated when people from disparate cultures are attempting to communicate with one another, particularly when they are not as well informed about one another's culture as they could be (Barna, 68). As a result, there are a number of negative occurrences that people may experience due to complications in intercultural communication. Laay Barna's essay, "Intercultural Communication Stumbling Blocks" addresses several points that may cause difficulty with communication between people of different cultures. Many of these issues are characterized by assumptions and a degree of ignorance on the part of one or both people that result in a decidedly narrow perspective on their parts.

One of the many valid points that Barna raises regarding obstructions between an easy facilitation of cultural communication is the presence and…… [Read More]

References

Barna, L. "Intercultural Communication Stumbling Blocks."
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Barriers to Healthcare

Words: 1845 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68181691

Primary Care

Beard, C., Weisberg, .B., & Primack, J. (2012). Socially anxious primary care patients' attitudes toward cognitive bias modification (CBM): a qualitative study. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, 40(05), 618-633.

This study shows how traditional methods of approaching patients with information can cause confusion and thus create barriers to accessing patient knowledge in primary care settings. The study focused on working with primary care patients suffering from anxiety and how they reacted to cognitive bias modification (CBM) for that anxiety. Upon initial discussion of the treatment, most participants showed that they understood. However, it was clear by the end of the treatment that the program was not clarified enough to patients prior to treatment and that created a knowledge barrier that caused the treatment not to work as successfully as previously tested. Better methods for communicating the treatment within the primary care setting must be developed to bring down these…… [Read More]

References

Beard, C., Weisberg, R.B., & Primack, J. (2012). Socially anxious primary care patients' attitudes toward cognitive bias modification (CBM): a qualitative study. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, 40(05), 618-633.

Beckman, H.B., Wendland, M., Mooney, C., Krasner, M.S., Quill, T.E., Suchman, A.L., & Epstein, R.M. (2012). The impact of a program in mindful communication on primary care physicians. Academic Medicine, 87(6), 815-819.

Cheung, P.T., Wiler, J.L., Lowe, R.A., & Ginde, A.A. (2012). National study of barriers to timely primary care and emergency department utilization among Medicaid beneficiaries. Annals of emergency medicine, 60(1), 4-10.

Crabtree, B.F., Nutting, P.A., Miller, W.L., McDaniel, R.R., Stange, K.C., Jaen, C.R., & Stewart, E. (2011). Primary care practice transformation is hard work: insights from a 15-year developmental program of research. Medical care, 49(Suppl), S28.
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Communication Technologies Assignment 1

Words: 955 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90801931

Communications # Technologies #Organization

Communication Technologies

What is Information Communications and Media Technology (ICMT)

ICMT is derived from two fundamental terminologies -- information communication technology and media technology. Information communication technologies refer to the resources and tools used to create, manage, store, and disseminate information (Gray, 2012). They include telephony, broadcasting technologies (television and radio), computers, and other technological media for communication. Each of these media has its technological limitations -- radio, for instance, could broadcast an event live, but one would only hear the sound and not be able to see the performers; similarly, a television would be able to deliver video and sound, but not text (Croteau, Hoynes & Milan, 2011). Media technologies are platforms of computer networks that allow for the delivery of all media forms; interactive, video, picture, sound, text and live (Croteau et al., 2011). Information communications and media technologies, therefore, refer to the various…… [Read More]

References

Croteau, R., Hoynes, W. D. & Milan, S. (2011). Media/Society: Industries, Images and Audiences (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Gray, D. (2012). The Connected Company. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media Inc.

Townsend-Hall, B. (n.d.). Communications Audit: How can it Help You? The Sideroad. Retrieved December 2, 2015 from  http://www.sideroad.com/Business_Communication/communications-audit.html
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Communication Technology in the Hospitality

Words: 4804 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53984562

In this regard, Higgins (2002) reports that Micros Systems Inc. introduced a custom application specifically for the hospitality industry early on, and despite the lingering effects of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the market, this company and others such as BDM International Inc. are continuing their efforts to provide hotels, restaurants and other organizations competing in the hospitality industry with the information technology they need to become more competitive (Bear 1999). More recently, companies such as Avendra have started offering integrated software applications that are specifically designed for various segments of the hospitality industry. This company's integrated software application provides purchasing support for food and beverage operations, room operations, engineering/building and construction, administrative, professional and financial services; cleaning solutions and sanitizing systems; grounds and agronomy maintenance; as well as gift shop and spa equipment operation and products (Avendra's purchasing programs 2010).

According to icher (201), a trend that…… [Read More]

References

Avendra's purchasing programs, 2010. Avendra. Retrieved from http://www.avendra.com / solutions/PurchasingPrograms/Pages/default.aspx.

Bassoppo-Moyo, T.C., Bassoppo-Moyo, S. & Dube, G., 2002. "Managerial Perceptions in the Application of Information Technology in the Public and Private Sector in Zimbabwe."

International Journal of Instructional Media 29(3): 289-290.

Bear, V., 1999, May 24. "Your Money; Movers & Shakers." The Washington Times: 8.
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Communication Differences Develop a Two-Page

Words: 938 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27189102

However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.

Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).

Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bond, J. (2007, December). Training in a diverse environment. Canadian HR

Reporter, 20(21), 19, 26. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global

through ProQuest (Document ID: 1410548371).

Brett, Jeanne, Kristin Behfar, & Mary C. Kern. (2006, November). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 84-91. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global through ProQuest (Document ID: 1151916931).
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Communication Is Integral and Essential

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2770132

For example, the way a person tells a child about the weather is different than the way that same person would tell a stranger or a mother or a friend about it. Clarity entails clear words, diction, and a non-sarcastic tone of voice. Avoiding hyperbole (exaggeration), bias, and other blocks to clarity will help any health care professional work better with their coworkers and with the patient population.

I will do everything I can to keep my communications clear, open, and honest. Keeping in mind that clear communications are the hallmark of any healthy relationship will remind me to cultivate clarity in all my interactions with patients as well as coworkers. In fact, communications among coworkers can be as important as those between doctors and patients. Types of medications and treatments being used, allergies, and other information needs to be relayed accurately because human lives are at stake. Because patients'…… [Read More]

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Communication Theory Is Described as Any Systematic

Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86864248

Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.

Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a…… [Read More]

References:

Brown, J.M. (n.d.). How Can Cultural Differences Affect Business Communication? Retrieved

December 20, 2011, from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-cultural-differences-affect-business-communication-5093.html 

Dainton. (2004, September 16). Introduction to Communication Theory. Retrieved December

20, 2011, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4983_Dainton_Chapter_1.pdf
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Communication and Perception Processes Communication Models Simplify

Words: 1367 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54468380

Communication and Perception Processes

Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions

Three models:

Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver

Participants- senders and receivers of messages

Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared

Encoding- turning thoughts into communication

Decoding- turning communication into thoughts

Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel

Barriers / Noise

Environmental noise- physical noise

Semantic noise- noise in encoding process

Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages

Participants- senders and receivers of messages

Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared

Encoding- turning thoughts into communication

Decoding- turning communication into thoughts

Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel

Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages

Physical context- environmental factors

Psychological context- mental and emotional factors

Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.

Communicators

Simultaneous…… [Read More]

References

Carey, J. (Unk). "A cultural approach to communication." Communication as culture.

Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Northern Illinois University website: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/gunkel/coms465/carey.html

"Communication and Perception Processes." (Unk.) In, A primer on communication studies, pp.

1-21. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Lardbucket website:  http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/a-primer-on-communication-studies/s01-02-the-communication-process.html
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Communication Experiences Nonverbal vs Verbal

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8980521

He listened attentively to my description, and waited until I had finished talking before responding. We maintained eye contact throughout this exchange. The salesman then showed me the range of what they had within my requirements, demonstrating the traits of each model. He accented these traits with explanatory hand gestures. The CR for both myself as customer and the salesman was complete, and thus I feel that the exchange was successful.

Another exchange that I experienced in my capacity as customer was at a cell phone dealer. As above, I entered, and was approached by a young salesman. This person looked nervous, but nonetheless smiled as he introduced himself. He did not shake my hand, but rather invaded my personal space. I must add that the shop was fairly crowded, which did not help to either ease the salesman's nerves or improve my increasingly irritated disposition. I however tried to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Smeltzer, Larry R., Leonard, Donald J., and Hynes Geraldine E. Managerial Communication: Strategies and Applications. Second Edition. Boston: MacGraw-Hill Higher Education

Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 167

Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 47

Smeltzer, Leonard & Hynes 43
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Communication Techniques Interpersonal Communications Project

Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71086317

This, perhaps, has made me more of an avid listener that is eager to appreciate what others have got to say rather than being a high decibel demagogue that would neither brook any resistance nor would tolerate any dissidence, however mild that may be.

Thus, the very essence of communication, which is nothing but a means of encouraging and stimulating others to share their views while attempting to skillfully shepherd them to veer around towards the speaker's perspectives, and the form it would finally acquire, is heavily influenced by the speaker's personal behavioral traits.

Listening as a Potent Tool for Effective Communication

We must have heard numerous times the exhortation, "Listen carefully, I don't want repeat myself," in some form or the other but in our excessive eagerness to make ourselves heard, we have ignored such requests and pleas and put an unceremonious end to many a potentially enriching communication.…… [Read More]

References

Carbonell, M. (2005). Extreme personality makeover: How to develop a winning Christ-like personality to improve your effectiveness! . Blue Ridge, GA: Uniquely You Resources.

Donahue, M.C. (1996, December 1). How active is your listening? (communication technique; includes advice for managing anger) . Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader Publication, pp. 23-25.

Frisk, B. (2007, May 11). Effective Listening a Forgotten Art That Can Open Many Doors. Daily Herald, p. 12.

Madrigal, D., & McClain, B. (2001, August). The secret of active listening. Tactical Response, pp. 50-52.
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Communication and Safety One of

Words: 1213 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40689722

As a result, major changes have been introduced to the area of communication since it was difficult for junior personnel in aviation to present their opinions in the past. The junior personnel faced the difficulties in voicing their opinions because of fear of embarrassment and being reprimanded by the captain. Due to the change and the increase recognition of the significance of communication in aviation operations, the junior personnel and flight crew are incorporated to ensure that the best safety-related decisions are made.

Safety Program:

Since communication between managers, maintainers, pilots, and other crew is essential in enhancing aviation safety, the development of an efficient safety program that addresses communication problems is crucial. Aircraft accidents can be lessened significantly through efficient and consistent communication between all the stakeholders in the aviation industry and the parties in aviation operations. The safety program should address the proper encoding and decoding of messages,…… [Read More]

References:

Hill, a.C. (2011, November 5). An Approach to an Aviation Safety Program. Retrieved August

6, 2012, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/87126009/Aviation-Safety-Program

Krivonos, P.D. (2007, June 10). Communication in Aviation Safety: Lessons Learned and Lessons Required. Retrieved August 6, 2012, from  http://www.asasi.org/papers/2007/Communication_in_Aviation_Safety_Paul_Krivonos.pdf 

Madson, L. (n.d.). Human Factors in Aviation Communication. Retrieved August 4, 2012,
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Communication Electronic Communication Has Become One of

Words: 1902 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48597003

Communication

Electronic communication has become one of the most important methods for people to communicate with one another in recent years. Spielberg (1999) noted that patients have sought to utilize electronic communication with their physicians. In the past, he argued, a variety of exchanges were utilized, including in-person visits, telephone, pagers and voicemail, so it was only natural that communication between patients and those within the medical profession would be extended to the realm of electronic communication. Thus, the market has driven the need for health care organizations to begin to explore how they can use electronic communication methods such as email, the Internet, online chats or even SMS messaging to bridge the communication gap with their patients. hile the market may demand new methods of communication be developed, there are risks inherent to the medical profession that present challenges or obstacles to facilitating the market-demanded electronic communication methods.

The…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Spielberg, A. (1999). Online without a net: Physician-patient communication by electronic mail. American Journal of Law & Medicine. Vol. 15 (1999) 267-295.

Hassol, A.; Walker, J.; Kidder, D.; Rokita, K.; Young, D.; Pierdon, S.; Deitz, D.; Kuck, S. & Ortiz, E. (2004). Patient experiences and attitudes about access to a patient electronic health care record and linked web messaging. Journal of the American Medical Information Association. Vol. 11 (6) 505-513.

Winkelman, W.; Leonard, K. & Kossos, P. (2005). Patient-perceived usefulness of electronic medical records: Employing grounded theory in the development of information and communication technologies for use by patients living with chronic illness. Journal of American Medical Information Association. Vol. 12 (3) 306-314.

Wager, K.A., Lee, F.W., & Glaser, J.P. (2009). Health care information systems: A practical approach for health care management (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
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Communication Is a Deceptively Simple

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25875776

Incorrect assumptions regarding the utterances of others often lead to negative interactive elements, such as stress, mismatched expectations and miscommunication. This in turn leads to damaged relationships that could otherwise have functioned well with a simple well-directed question.

According to Walters, self-knowledge is as important as self-management in conversation. This can also be accomplished by questioning. Asking oneself questions leads to a greater knowledge of oneself, as well as the ability to better understand others. When understanding oneself by means of targeted questioning, it is easier to understand others through targeted questioning in conversation. The effect of this is often that the speaker feels understood, that the listener is interested in what he or she is saying.

usan RoAne suggests becoming what she calls a "talk target," or a person to whom it is particularly easy to talk. As a talk target, communicate with difficult conversationalists become easy by means…… [Read More]

Sources

Fenson, Sarah. "A Crash Course in Communication." Inc. magazine. August, 2000.  http://www.inc.com/articles/2000/08/20000.html 

RoAne, Susan. "Talk Targets: Becoming a magnet." Inc.magazine. April, 2001.  http://www.inc.com/articles/2001/09/23385.html 

Walters, Jamie. "Powerful Questions can have a Powerful Effect." Inc.magazine. September, 2001.  http://www.inc.com/articles/2001/04/22457.html
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Communication Diversity This Is the

Words: 1935 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83120658



17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.

I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.

18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?

The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…… [Read More]

References

Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at  http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/ 

Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/

Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
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Communication Nurse to Doctor

Words: 1938 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19907074

Communications

Effective communications between doctors and nurses has always been a high priority in the medical field, especially in an arena such as a hospital, health clinic or hospice. Communicating effectively between the nurses and the doctors is especially important in a hospice setting due to the fact that the patient is usually suffering the most; both with the physical and the emotional pain and suffering that is being experienced as the patient nears death.

One recent study determined that "doctors and nurses have different but complementary roles in what, when and how treatment choices are negotiated with patients" (Mccullough, Mckinlay, Barthow, Moss, Wise, 2010, p. 482) and the treatment choices when facing death are decisions that should not be taken lightly, either by the involved nurses or the doctors. The decisions taking place in the hospice setting will often determine how much pain and suffering the patient will endure…… [Read More]

References

Basch, E.; (2010) The missing voice of patients in drug-safety reporting, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 362, Issue 10, pp. 865-869

Bezzina, A.J.; (2009) Prevalence of advance care directives in aged care facilities of the Northern Illawarra, Emergency Medicine Australia, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 379 -- 385

Byrnes, J.; Braden, J.; James, G.; Broadus, T.; Owen, R.; (2011) Implementing an electronic medical record (EMR) in an integrated delivery system Sharp Healthcare (SHC) San Diego, California, accessed on September 25, 2011 at http://proceedings.amia.org/1alo2n/

David, S.E.; Ahmed, Z.; Salek, M.S.; Finlay, A.Y.; (2005) Does enough quality of life related discussion occur during dermatology outpatient consultations? The Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 153, pp. 997 -- 1000
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Communication Within the Context of

Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9483844



Additionally, the very peculiar relationship between modern information technologies and the business must somehow be conceptualized if a proper model of knowledge transfer is to be attained. So, while in some cases, technology may serve as an obvious way to optimize the transfer of knowledge and overcome the barriers of routines, these same technologies, in different settings or with different individuals, will create more barriers and less effective routines. The fundamental concern must be attaining an applicable model of knowledge transfer, and perhaps the willingness to employ the idea of replication wherever it can be straightforwardly implemented.

Traditionally, many careers have been subject to gender specific designations. Obviously, numerous broad fields of work like medicine and law have historically been dominated by men, while women have been relegated to secretarial, nursing, or other subordinate positions. In recent decades this trend has come under fire and gender is no-longer widely accepted…… [Read More]

Reference:

Cohen, M.D. et al. (1996). "Routines and Other Recurring Action Patterns of Organizations." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3.

Woods, Bob. (2001). "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive, July.

Cohen, M.D. et al. "Routines and Other Recurring Action Patterns of Organizations." Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1996. Page 683.

Woods, Bob. "Sharing the Intellectual Wealth." Chief Executive, July 2001. Page 20.
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Communication in Organizations Analysis of

Words: 2818 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92885059

From the experiences, I have had in organizations that work to combine autonomy, mastery and purpose, the level of performance goes up and becomes the new norm of corporate performance. The many studies of motivation underscore that when autonomy, mastery and purpose are combined, long-term learning and motivation occur (amsey, 2010). The communication networks and channels within organizations are accentuated and made more effective when these three attributes become the foundation of long-term learning and growth over time.

In conclusion, the culture, incentive, and leadership within a given organization have a major impact on the effectiveness of communication networks and channels within organizations. When there is a transformational mindset about aggregating content, data and information then transforming it from a system of record to competitive advantage, companies can use their expertise to compete more effectively. In many respects, this ability to compete more effectively based on better use of information…… [Read More]

References

Andriole, S. (2010). Business Impact of Web 2.0 Technologies. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(12), 67.

Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.

Billington, C., & Davidson, R.. (2010). Using knowledge brokering to improve business processes. The McKinsey Quarterly,(2), 110.

Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
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Communication Gap Overcoming Identified Communication

Words: 975 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57605982

Often, in fact, there can be an overabundance of communication without any effective organization or leveraging of the information thus obtained, which can lead to serious detriments to any organization or endeavor (Lager 2006). It is bad enough when one arm of an organization doesn't seem to know what the other is doing, but the problem seems somehow conceptually worse when the various arms have information regarding the rest of the organization, but don't utilize it. This is, unfortunately, partly occurring in my organization, and is also an issue I need to deal with personally as I incorporate the organization's goals and actions into my own thinking and methods.

This concept of the correct processing and utilization of information goes further than simply making the organization run more efficiently on an internal level. Especially as new regions of the world are becoming increasingly important for business, the use of communication…… [Read More]

References

Fitzgerald, Neil. (2006). "Mind the gap." Information week 28 August, pp. 8.

Friedrich, N. (2008). "Disparate solutions work to fill communications gap." Microwaves & RF 47(6), pp. 44.

Lager, M. (2006). "Overcoming a bear of a communications gap." Customer relations management 10(7), pp. 51.
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Communication Management and Change

Words: 2369 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81928406

Communication Management and Organizational Change

Communication management in the organization and most specifically in the organizational change environment is critically important. The work of Heathfield entitled "Communication in Change Management" state that it is impossible to "over-communicate when you are asking your organization to change." (2011, p.1) According to Heathfield, there are four critical components of effective communication as follows:

(1) The person sending the message must ensure that the message is presented clearly with great detail and that the message be perceived as containing integrity and that the message be authentic;

(2) The individual reading the message must make the decision to listen and to ask questions to ensure clarity and finally must trust the message's sender;

(3) The method of delivery must be chosen as appropriate for the context and for the needs of the sender and receiver of the message;

(4) The message content must resonate and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albrecht, Karl G. The Northbound Train. N.Y.: AMACON, 1994.

Blake, R. And Mouton J. Corporate Excellence Through Grid Organizational Development. Houston, 1968 Gulf Publishing Co.

Cohen, Eli and Tichy, Noel. "How Leaders Develop Leaders" in Training in Development. May 1997 pp. 58-73

DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resources Management, 37, 295-303. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from the LIRN, ProQuest database.
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Communication There Is Only'so Far Google

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62252844

Communication

There is only so far Google Translate can take a person hoping to achieve social harmony across cultures. Language barriers are enhanced, and exacerbated, by the differences in non-verbal communication across cultures. Whether for business or personal interactions, non-verbal communications characterize a culture's values and social norms. This is why places like Sweden feel completely different from places like Saudi Arabia; and places are dramatically different in terms of how the society is structured, who is in power, and what norms govern behavior. Understanding the complex facets of cross-cultural communication can greatly enhance a travel experience, or a business interaction.

Of the innumerable sociological and anthropological frameworks used to understand and explain cross-cultural differences in communication, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions are among the most useful and well used. Power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and indulgence vs. restraint are important and…… [Read More]

In a travel article about Stockholm, Alford (2012) relates tales that reveal the unique communication styles of Sweden. These styles can be conceptualized in terms of Hoftstede's cultural dimensions. For example, Swedish society has quite a low power distance; its culture is not hierarchical and is self-defined as being "socialist" in spirit (Alford, 2012, p. 2). Moreover, as Alford (2012) points out, most people in Stockholm also have a cabin in the woods or on an island -- highlighting the relatively flat social structure that has a low distance between haves and have-nots (p. 2). The power distance factor in Sweden can be readily compared to more hierarchical societies, such as India, in which the haves and the have-nots are separated by wide and usually insurmountable chasms. Even the United States has a higher power distance factor than does Sweden, as many Americans are fundamentally opposed to social institutions and structures that generate equality such as free higher education for all citizens, and free healthcare funded by taxpayer dollars. As American onlooker Alford (2012) describes it, " New parents get 480 days of parental leave?! Everyone I talk to seems to have a summer house on an island?!" (p. 2).

As Allwood (1999) points out, Sweden shares many communication traits in common with other Nordic countries like Finland. However, there are a few culture-specific variables that should be taken into account to better understand non-verbal communication patterns. One is specific to social gatherings in which alcohol is involved. Allwood (1999) notes that in Sweden, it is customary for each guest to bring and drink his or her own alcoholic beverages rather than expect the host to provide it. Moreover, the guests will not start drinking until a communal toast has been proposed (Allwood, 1999). This is somewhat similar to the Jamaican custom of not starting to eat at a party until the host makes an invitation to do so; which is ironic given the informal nature of Jamaican communication styles in general ("Jamaica: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette," n.d.). Swedes appreciate informality, but do not appreciate superficiality in terms of conversation topics and styles ("Sweden: Conversation," 2009).

Allwood (1999) also notes that Swedish teaching styles are noticeably different from those in other cultures including other Nordic cultures. There is less authoritarian teaching styles in
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Communication Is an Essential Part

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7738379

This became a major roadblock for the project with opposing views on the problem.

Finally, the manager spoke to the client and explained the situation. They agreed to extend the due date by a couple of months and the developers and testers felt that time was good enough to make the changes. So, communication helped to clear this stand-off between the team members.

Leadership style of the manager

The manager followed a democratic style of leadership. According to Daft (2007, p.44), "A democratic leader delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates' knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on subordinate respect for influence." This is the exact approach that was followed by my manager and it proved to be effective. He could manage the entire project and could communicate easily with those located in different parts of the world.

Such a style of leadership was comfortable for all…… [Read More]

References

Daft, Richard. L. (2007). The Leadership Experience. Publication: Cengage Learning.

Hartley, Peter. Bruckmann, Clive. G. (2002). Business Communication. Publication: Psychology Press.
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Communication Crucial Conversations

Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67983689

Communication in Healthcare: Crucial Conversations

A crucial conversation which I was a part of recently involved an experience which concerned a patient going through end of life care. During this conversation I had to bring to the other nurse's attention the fact that some of her actions were offending the patient and the patient's family and that during this difficult time that really was not acceptable. For example, during the conversation I explained to the nurse that eye contact with this middle eastern ethnic group was supposed to be avoided, as was pointing as both were considered extremely offensive. The other nurse also tried to prevent candles from being lit and folk dishes from being eaten in the room. I explained to her that within this culture it was an inherent and important part of the ritual of death and a way to honor the dying. It was apparent that…… [Read More]

References

Crib, A. View in a new window. (2011). Integrity at work: Managing routine moral stress in professional roles. Nursing Philosophy. 12, 119-127.

Grossman, S., & Valiga, T. (2009). The new leadership challenge: Creating the future of nursing

(4th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.

Maxfield, D; Grenny, J. (2012) The Silent Treatment. Retrieved from AORN & ACCN:
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Communication Human Resource Management Human

Words: 1628 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61922444



Promotion of Diversity: Is it Really Effective?

The effectiveness of diversity in an organization can be seen in the ability of every employee to recognize the differences that others have from them, and the ability of each to consider such differences as a challenge that can build them with success. Many human resource managements promote diversity because they see the advantages that it can bring to their organization. That is, if they will be able to properly manage the uniqueness of every individual and give attention to their talents, skills, and needs. With the right promotion to diversity, an organization can have the potential of achieving success despite of diverse backgrounds of its employees.

In today's continuous advancements especially in the industry of technology, it can be deducted that diversity at workplace is effective. These days, it is very rare that we see a company composed of people that belong…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Managing Diversity in the Workplace.

A ttp:/ / www.sbaonline.sba.gov/gopher/Business-Development/Success-Series/Vol8/diversty.txt

Chapter 12: Managing Diversity in the Workplace.

2003. UCSF Human Resource Online. http://ucsfhr.ucsf.edu/pubs/managingHR/?x=679
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Communication for Information and Systems

Words: 457 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72308491



3. What can be done to alleviate the difficulty in maintaining both text-based and 'normal' web sites?

It is important to provide websites that are accessible to all individuals and at times this involves creating a text-based version of a graphical website. Often designers fall behind on updating these alternate versions of their websites, thus leaving disabled individuals with inadequate access to the information they are searching. There are, however, many ways that designers can make this job easier for themselves, including the use of database driven websites where they need only update the information in one place, but all versions of the site draw their information from the same site, and thus present the same information to all users. Other solutions suggested by the authors (Gregorr, et al., 2005) involve the use of style sheets that allow Internet users to select the specific features of a site to suit…… [Read More]

References

Gregor, P., Sloan, D., & Newell, a.F., 2005. Disability and Technology: Building Barriers or Creating Opportunities? Advances in Computers, 64, pp. 283-347.

Lay, M. et al., 2000. Technical Communication. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Schement, J.R.. ed., 2002. Economics of Information. In J.R. Schement, ed. 2002. Encyclopedia of Communication and Information, vol. 1. USA: Macmillan Reference. 271-272.
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Communications Dilemmas Post Response 1

Words: 1305 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40642866



Suggested Approach for Reconciliation and Resolution

The suggested approach to reconciliation and resolution would, as in the cases of Donnie and Mika also rely primarily on the process of educating the individuals involved to better understand certain information that they would need to understand to achieve their common objective. More specifically, Tyrrell should attempt to develop a method of helping the Bishops understand the positive elements of modern communications and information media and to overcome their existing reluctance based on ignorance and fear of something new.

Post Response #4 -- Cleveland

Dilemmas and Most Prominent Dimensions at Issue

The dilemma presented by this situation is that, on one hand, the United States Navy promotes, supports, and encourages all enlisted individuals to respect cultural diversity and individuality of all persons; but on the other hand, the U.S. Navy also maintains an extremely rigid set of formal organizational values and standards that…… [Read More]

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Golden Rule of Cross-Cultural Communications

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85513855



Finally, it should be noted that anxiety and language can hamper communication between people of the identical culture if the context is not mutually understood. Anecdotally, this author once requested a copy of a Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess from an elderly man behind a counter in a small-town used bookstore who appeared to be the husband of the full-time owner, who was away. The kindly man squirmed a bit, stared blankly into space and repeated the words one at a time: "A" -- "clockwork" -- "orange?" he asked. It was clear he understood the mother tongue and the meanings of the individual words, but taken together, he did not understand them in their context as being a reference to a book and motion picture by the same name, highlighting the universal need for context in day-to-day communications with anyone from any culture.

Conclusion

As the globalization process continues to…… [Read More]

References

Chu, Y., Strong, W., Ma, J. & Greene, W.E. (2005). Silent messages in negotiations: The role of nonverbal communication in cross-cultural business negotiations. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 9(2), 97-98.

Henderson, G.. (1999). Cultural diversity in the workplace: Issues and strategies. Westport, CT:

Praeger Publishers.

Pederson, P.B. & Ivey, a. (1999). Culture-centered counseling and interviewing skills. Westport,
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Integrated Corporate Communication ICC and Corporate Communication

Words: 7925 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18099641

Integrated Corporate Communication (ICC) and Corporate Communication (CC)

The established limitations are severely customized by globalization: the size of the company (where there is not a major link with the area of the performance, delocalization and outsourcing and being dependent on the network), design of the product and sales (where the relation with the competitors may be competitive cooperative) somewhat similar to the frequency of motor industry), competitive relations of space-time, the consumer models (which is focused with a turn down in the analogical media. The increasing significance of digital media and internet is also included. The most important of them is the advertising of television and the television itself); the importance of communication in the competitive environment, less protectionist measures of the economic systems, open spaces of competition, complex differentiation (Walther, 2007).

The incorporation of the global markets struggle to remove the inert environment and change them with the…… [Read More]

References

Argenti, P. And Forman, J. (2002) The Power of Corporate Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Argenti, P.A. (2009) Corporate Communication, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Argenti, P.A. (2009). Corporate communication. Singapore: McGraw-Hill

Argenti, P.A., Barnes, C.M. (2009). Digital strategies for powerful corporate communications. New York: McGraw-Hill
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Innovation of L3 Communications

Words: 2508 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45751522

Communications

Innovation at L3 Communications

Company Background

Innovation Strategy

Planning for Innovation

Management Systems and Innovation Metrics

Rewards and Incentives

Organizational Learning

Leadership's Commitment to Innovation

Leadership's Innovation Strategy Involvement

Ethics in Innovation

Company Background

L-3 is a prime contractor in Command, Control, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C3ISR) systems, platform and logistics solutions, and national security solutions; L-3 is also a leading provider of a broad range of electronic systems used on military and commercial platforms (L-3, N.d.). The company's client base includes an array of different organizations such as the U.S. Department of Defense and its prime contractors, U.S. government intelligence agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Justice, allied foreign governments, domestic and foreign commercial customers and select other U.S. federal, state and local government agencies.

The L-3 concept was developed along three different central components that constitute the organization's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alipour, F., K., I., & Karimi, R. (2011). Knowledge Creation and Transfer: Role of Learning Organization. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), 61-67.

Halliday, S., & Beddie, F. (2009). Informal Learning. At a Glance. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, 12(1), 1-12.

Hooley, G., Greenley, G., Fahy, J., & Cadogan, J. (2010). Market-focused Resources, Competitive Positioning and Firm Performance. Journal of Marketing Management, 17(5-6), 503-520.

IMT. (N.d.). Innovative Micro Technology Receives Equity Investment From L-3 Communications to Partner on MEMS-based Strategic Technologies for Defense Applications. Retrieved from IMT: http://www.imtmems.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89:innovative-micro-technology-receives-equity-investment-from-l-3-communications-to-partner-on-mems-based-strategic-technologies-for-defense-applications&catid=13:press-releases&Itemid=7
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Understanding the Importance of Communication in Law Enforcement

Words: 2389 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70928944

Communication in the criminal justice system

The process of communication entails the passage of information between individuals. This flow of communication, however, has its principles. The principles include the need of effective channel of communication, message, and the sender. It is also vital for receivers to comprehend the message. In organizations, communication takes a formal and informal approach. Formal approaches to communication in organizations include the use of business memos, letters, and newsletters. On the other hand, an informal channel of communication relates to those channels of communication, not under management's control. This mode of communication refers to grapevines and other unregulated channels of communication in organizations. Successful criminal justice system organizations should have good communication structures. Flow of information in such organizations need to flow from up down and down- up.

However, current workload and tasks at the judicial justice systems have negative implications on communication channels. For centuries,…… [Read More]

References

Stohr, M.K and Collins, P.A. 2013. Criminal Justice Management. Theory and practice in Justice- centered organizations. New York: Routledge

Eaton, D.K. (2009). Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Surveilance summaries, 58 (10), 2- 21.
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Stress Communication and Motivation Stress Communication and

Words: 1404 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33130061

Stress, Communication, And Motivation

Stress, Communication and Motivation

Job Description- Unilever

Research and Development Executive

Reports to: Research and Development Department Head

ased at: Unilever, Canada

Job Purpose: To carry out the research and developments of the latest innovations in the field of marketing and production as well as ways in which to produce new and customer friendly products.

Key Responsibilities and Accountabilities:

The maintenance of a separate record and data base for the various business clients and their respective products,

Carry out research into the latest technologies and innovations around the globe and how those can be applied to the products of the firm,

Devise strategies and evaluate the scientific aspects of the new ideas and implementations,

Co-ordinate with the other departments in the company as well as the client heads to gather more ideas and what other ways there are to improve on the products,

Carrying out market…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Knippen, J.T. (1999). Breaking the barriers to upward communication: strategies and skills for employees, managers and HR specialists. Quorum Books.

Maxwell, S. (2005). Global knowledge networks and international development: bridges against boundaries. Routledge Publications.

Schuler, R.S. (2004). International Human Resource Management: Policy and Practice for Global Enterprise. Routledge Publications.
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Creating Effective Communications in a

Words: 2098 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45842473



When instituting organizational change, emphasizing the need for that change is vital to increase the chance of acceptance of the new alterations in approach. It must be communicated that an organization cannot succeed in a global environment if it is not diverse. Multinational departments and a diversity of employees, with a wide range of skills and knowledge spheres make the organization more flexible and responsive. If employees are aware of this fact, they will be more accepting. Transmitting examples of intercultural success stories is particularly essential as an organization adjusts to its multinational status.

Conclusions: Improvements in the current environment

Diverse organizations are stronger, after the initial adjustment period, and also are able to more effectively communicate to a wide range of consumers, internationally. And common language of virtual communication may eventually be established, reducing the chances of offense in coming eras. The new global era of business has also…… [Read More]

References

Berger, Bruce K. (2008). Employee/organizational communications. Institute for Public

Relations Online Journal. Retrieved on December 8, 2010 at http://www.instituteforpr.org/essential_knowledge/detail/employee_organizational_communications/

Describe a cultural miscommunication that you experienced and how you would handle it differently now. (2007). Communication World. Retrieved from FindArticles.com on December 8, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4422/is_1_24/ai_n17093570/

Effective organizational communication: a competitive advantage. (December 2008). HR.
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Male & Female Communication General

Words: 905 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17908922

For example, women are taught to collaborate, and affirm rather than subvert other people in conversation. But women can recognize that the need to speak up when provoked, if they are conscious of their conversational tendency. A woman whose idea is stolen by a male co-worker in an aggressive, male-dominated firm that praises competition cannot simply complain to her boss after the meeting where the co-worker claimed 'their' idea was 'his,' or assume that the truth will eventually be revealed about the theft. Likewise, a male who wishes to maintain a good relationship with a female boss can benefit from engaging in conversation that is not stereotypically 'facts' related (like baseball scores) but is more relational, such as inquiring about how the boss' day is going (Simon & Pedersen, 2005).

Again, stereotyping is never valid, and if you meet someone who differs from these generalizations, or if you yourself do…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buchanan, Holly. "Male vs. female: Communication Styles." Marketing to Women.

2006. 8 Nov 2007.  http://marketingtowomenonline.typepad.com/blog/2006/02/male_vs_female_.html 

Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand. New York: Quill, 2007.

Simon, Victoria & Holly Pedersen. "Communicating with Men at Work: Bridging the Gap with Male Co-Workers and Employees." Male / Female Communication Newsletter. March 2005. 8 Nov 2007.  http://www.itstime.com/print/mar2005p.htm
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This Paper Is About All Aspects of Business Communication

Words: 2575 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78807500

Business Communication

Communication Norms

There are a number of norms for business communication . Business communications serves to perform a number of tasks, ultimately leading to improving the performance of the business. It can inform, motivate, explain or clarify, and business communication can also help to build a team. Within these roles, however, there are some norms for communication in the business setting. Business communication has a higher degree of formality than casual conversation. This is the same no matter by what means the communication occurs, but it also means that communication is more frequently in writing. That allows for better choice of words, for accurate recording of the communication and for communicating the message to many respondents. A more formal style also helps with broadcasting a message to a larger audience, because the formal style focuses the communication strictly on the issues at hand (Ingram, 2015).

The fact that…… [Read More]

References

Baack. (no date). Chapter 3: Management communications: Verbal and non-verbal channels.

Hopkins, L. (2015). The five key elements to nonverbal communication in business. Frugal Marketing. Retrieved December 5, 2015 from  http://www.frugalmarketing.com/dtb/nonverbal.shtml 

Ingram, D. (2015). Communication etiquette in business. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 5, 2015 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/communication-etiquette-business-2827.html 

MSG (2014). Overcoming communication barriers. Management Study Guide. Retrieved December 5, 2015 from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/overcoming-communication-barriers.htm
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Reflection on Two Articles About Intercultural Communication

Words: 1302 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93664333

Intercultural Communication

The Ivey business case Collision Course -- Selling High Performance Motorcycles in Japan outlines the case of the Japanese importer and marketer of an Italian line of motorcycles, Tommasi. In this case, there are several issues raised. First, there are communication barriers between the different people involved in marketing the motorcycles -- Japanese dealers who speak little English and Western expats on the marketing side who speak little Japanese. Second, there are issues with the product, and the way that the product is being marketed. The protagonist in the case is the intermediary between the dealers and the Italian company, and therefore has to work with these conflicting marketing tactics daily. The dealers feel that their expertise in the Japanese market has not been reflected adequately in the company's strategy. Conversely, the company would prefer to see its strategy implemented as it desires. So there are intercultural communication…… [Read More]

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Specific EMS Communications Issues at Hajj

Words: 1729 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26741207

Hajj is the largest gathering in the world, attracting millions of Muslims each year. As the Muslim community worldwide grows to well over one billion, the number of pilgrims to Makkah (Mecca) also grows. In 2012, there were more than 3.5 million men and women in attendance but those numbers are expected to climb to as many as 10 million by the year 2020 (D'Alessandro, Edd & Al Mubarek, 2013). The mass gathering presents a number of concerns for EMS professionals, from acute injuries related to crowd swells to the spread of infectious diseases to cardiac arrests. Effective communication is critical for the success of all EMS efforts at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

As the number of pilgrims increase each year, and as the local infrastructure shifts in response to those increases, EMS professionals face ongoing challenges related to communication. These challenges can be loosely grouped into five categories including…… [Read More]

References

Alanazi, A.F. (2012). Emergency medical services in Saudi Arabia: A study on the significance of paramedics and their experiences on barriers as inhibitors of their efficiency. International Journal of Applied Medical Research, 2(1), 34-37. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3657988/

D'Alessandro, K., Edd, W.L. & Al Mubarek, H. (2013). Muslim Mass Pilgrimage Poses Logistical and Planning Challenges. Journal of Emergency Medical Services. Retrieved from http://www.jems.com/articles/print/volume-38/issue-9/major-incidents/muslim-mass-pilgrimage-poses-logistical.html

Dees, L. (2007). Culturally competent care in the emergency medical services. Texas EMS Magazine. July/Aug 2007.

Eltahir, A. H. (2000). Development of Health Services in Hajj Seasons. Journal of Family and Community Medicine 7(1): 13-14.
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Leadership Training and Its Relationship to Communication

Words: 3299 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 887032

Leadership Training and Its elationship to Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, and Problem Solving Skills among Youth

Transformational leadership remains a critical phenomenon as described through behavioral components such as inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. Idealized influence is the first element and is reflected based on the conceptualization by transformational leaders who behave in a manner that allows them appear as role models among their followers. Such individuals are respected, trusted, and admired (Olive, Gottfried, Guerin, Gottfried & eichard, 2011). Followers relate with the leaders with the aim of emulating them.

Children's attachment style is normally attributed to parental factors or parenting style. Attachment styles are well formed at early ages even though they are predictive of outcomes for future leadership. Early life shows that bonds developed by infants with caregivers vary between from an insecure to secure attachment styles. The relationship identifies diverse infant attachment styles which…… [Read More]

References

Day, D.V. (2011) Integrative perspectives on longitudinal investigations of leader development: From childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly 22-561 -- 571.

Gottfried, A.E., Gottfried, A.W., Reichard, R.J., Guerin, D.W., Oliver, P.H., & Riggio, R.E. (2011). Motivational roots of leadership: A longitudinal study from childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(3), 510 -- 519.

Mortensen, J., Lichty, L., Foster-Fishman, P., & Warsinske, K. (2014). Leadership through a Youth Lens: Understanding Youth Conceptualizations of Leadership. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 447 -- 462

Murphy, S.E., & Johnson, S.K. (2011) The benefits of a long-lens approach to leader development: Understanding the seeds of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 22. 459 -- 470.
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Communications Style

Words: 1591 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87734752

Bridging the Gap

(Between Communication Styles)

In Management in Two Cultures, author Eva S. Kras discusses many differences between Mexican and U.S. cultures and their effects on business dealings. She describes differences in cultural values, customs, and attitudes that lead to misunderstandings when the two countries meet in the workplace. Perhaps most significant are communication styles, which are learned by socialization in childhood and so habitual to both cultures that they almost go unnoticed. The work of Deborah Tannen (1995) on feminine and masculine communication styles is helpful as a way to look at differences in the communication styles of Mexicans and Americans.

Tannen argues that American girls and boys are socialized so differently, they almost grow up in two different cultures. Socialization begins at birth. For example, when we hold baby girls, we position them so that they can see directly into our faces as we talk to them.…… [Read More]

References

Kras, E.S. (1995). Management in two cultures: Bridging the gap between U.S. And Mexican managers. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Tannen, D. (1995). Talking from 9 to 5. New York: HarperCollins.
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Communication In General Communication Refers to the

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41257015

communication?

In general, communication refers to the sharing of ideas by transmitting those ideas from at least one individual to at least one other individual. Communication can involve several different mediums: it includes verbal transmission of ideas, visual transmission of ideas, and it can involve both deliberate and unintentional or even unconscious transmission of ideas. Communication is not necessarily limited to same species either: individuals from different species often communicate using postures, mannerisms, and sounds that are universally associated with particular concepts, such as aggression and dominance or submission and fear, among many others.

What is the purpose of communication?

Communication has many different purposes. Most generally, it is intended to allow another individual to understand the state of mind of another individual. That state of mind may include myriad different ideas such as aggression, non-aggression, interest, non-interest, possessiveness over resources, and even deception, such as in the case of…… [Read More]

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Communication of Criminal Justice

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17517660

effective communication in the criminal justice profession. Good verbal and nonverbal communication is essential in every area of the criminal justice system, and developing good communications techniques is essential for criminal justice professionals. These skills can be used with other professionals, in interrogations, and in just about every aspect of a criminal justice career.

The process of effective verbal and nonverbal communication between criminal justice professionals entails everything from writing case decisions in the judicial setting, to writing police reports, internal communications, public relations material, and communications regarding cases, interviews of suspects, and much more. All of these communications between professionals follow a process of information being found, verified, and used to advance the field or the case in some way. It also uses primary and secondary sources for the information, and the process also entails several stages in the information flow. These stages are informal discussion, formal reports, exchange…… [Read More]

References

Heilman, K., & Lawson, K.M. (2000, December). Facilitating communication. Corrections Today, 62, 84.

Shadow, M. (2008). Improving nonverbal communication in criminal justice. Retrieved 1 Oct. 2009 from the Socyberty.com Web site: http://socyberty.com/law/improving-nonverbal-communication-in-criminal-justice/.
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Communication Systems Put Wheels on Projects Facilitation

Words: 1956 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86726025

Communication Systems Put Wheels on Projects

Facilitation participation. Development Support Communication (DSC) is a system that facilitates the sharing of information about development agenda and associated actions (Adesida, 2001). The purpose of development support communication is the effective linking of the stakeholders in a development process (Adesida, 2001). The range of stakeholders who benefit from a development support communication system is broad, including the planners, the implementers, the donor community, and the beneficiaries of the development (Adesida, 2001). Good communication is critical to effective development planning and implementation (Adesida, 2001). By adhering to development communication system, planners and implementers can greatly enhance the quality of their communication, providing explicit and interpretable data (Adesida, 2001). The objective is provide clarity about the goals and objectives, to articulate the development roles, including the opportunities afforded beneficiaries to help shape the eventual development outcomes (Adesida, 2001). Beyond its impact on the quality and…… [Read More]

References

Adesida, O. (2001). Health Futures, WHO Africa region, Harare. Retrieved  http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4338e/y4338e07.htm 

Communication Planning for Development: An Operational Framework. Paris, France: UNESCO.

Hancock, A. (1981). Retrieved http://cpj.org/2012/02/attacks-on-the-press-in-2011-in-africa-a-return-of.php

Hancock, A. (1992). Communication Planning Revisited, A. Hancock. Paris, France: UNESCO.
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Communication the Author Defines Communication

Words: 1149 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76138224

c) I would avoid something obviously inappropriate like wearing pyjamas to K-Mart or things like that. I would also avoid wearing ill-fitting clothes or clothes that are inappropriate for the environment. I would not wear my jogging sweats to a church function, for example. At the same time, I would not wear my Sunday best simply to go out for some KFC and fries. Wearing wildly inappropriate clothes in any situation would create the impression that I do not care enough about myself or what I am doing to think about what I wear.

3.

Cornelius LaPide appears to be saying that all a person is in his or her heart can be seen in the face and eyes; even those who deceive others about this cannot hide the truth consistently from appearing on their faces. I agree with this. The mouth and eyes are, for me, the most expressive…… [Read More]

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Communication Is More Than Talking and Listening

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19607083

Administrative Leadership in Education -- My Philosophy

Assuming that the leader has integrity, is morally upright, and is in the public school system in order to make a difference (a positive impact on learning), among the most important things that a leader in a public school -- a principal or vice principal, or a board member or counselor -- should concentrate on is his or her ability to communicate. That's my overriding philosophy. And by communicate I am not just talking about speaking or sending emails, writing reports or talking to students during lunch period or recess. Nor am I referring to a phone conversation with a concerned parent whose child has been bullied in school.

The raw basic definition of communication means the act of imparting information, or transmitting information. But communication is a two-way street and if the person in an administrative position isn't listening to what is…… [Read More]

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Barriers and Gateways to Management Cooperation and

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22857048

Barriers and Gateways to Management Cooperation and Teamwork

Competitive advantage is that which is sought by "Organizational America" according to the work under current review and the subject matter of this work entitled, "Barriers and Gateways to Management Cooperation and Teamwork." It seems that the focus is on improving, planning, devising and the implementation of specific ways of doing tasks that propel toward constant bettering the method or approach within the organization of the work environment. A manager will generally spend the largest part of the workday seeking methods of bringing graduation upward in terms of the employee job performance while being in the position, more often than not, of needing to gain more work for less resources and all under the heading of "maximizing competitive advantage." The part played by low, mid, and top-level managers is discussed by this work as well and particularly as it relates to 'teamwork'.…… [Read More]

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Communication in Healthcare

Words: 2779 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31768195

Healthcare Service Delivery

Interpersonal communication in delivery of health communication

Interpersonal communication is the form of communication that exists between two people and it is the type of communication that is deemed universal in many measures. Interpersonal communication involves the daily exchange which could be informal or formal in nature depending on the purpose and surrounding, it can take the form of facial expression, sounds, gestures, written words, spoken words and postures (MBA Knowledge base, 2011).

Interpersonal communication, involves dissemination and reception of objective message or information between two or more people/groups with an aim of getting the desired effect on the receiving individual or groups (Ally & Bacon, 1999). Some professional however contend that for a communication to qualify to be considered interpersonal communication then the two parties involved must be at close proximity and must be familiar with each other or share something in common. The health sector…… [Read More]

References

Ally & Bacon, 1999. Interpersonal Communication: Definition of Interpersonal Communication.

Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/interpersonal/indefinition.html

Education Resources Information Center, (2008). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ818590&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ818590

Health Promotion at EACH, (2014). Planning: Needs assessment: what issue should your program address? Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.each.com.au/health-promotion/health-promotion-at-each/what-is-health-promotion/planning/
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Communication Issues of Interracial Friendships

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18451896

Popular culture differs from what was once referred to as "high" culture ("Popular Culture" 2000). High culture distinguished and continues to distinguish itself from popular culture by subordinating the latter. However, a tremendous shift in academia has led to the critique of both "high" and "low" culture and a subsequent merging of the two ("Popular Culture" 2000).

Also known as "mass" culture, popular culture can be considered crude even as it shapes politics and policy ("Popular Culture" 2000). According to Chito Childs & Laudone (2004), popular culture is uniquely responsible for the shaping of values, beliefs and norms surrounding interracial friendships, interracial relationships, and race relations in general. Films that depict interracial couples "tend to reinforce the existing racial hierarchy, rendering interracial relationships problematic," (Chito Childs & Laudone 2004, p. 1). Popular culture is part mirror for social realities and part shaper of those realities.

One exception to the generally…… [Read More]

References

Question 1

Chito Childs, E. (2009). Fade to Black and White: Interracial Images in Popular Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Chito Childs, E. & Laudone, S. 2004-08-14 "Interracial Images: Popular Cuture Depictions of Black-White Couples" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA, Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p108369_index.html

Dolby, N. (2001). Constructing Race: Youth, Identity, and Popular Culture in South Africa. Albany: SUNY Press.
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Communication and Language for Teaching and Learning Math in English in Hong Kong

Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74992214

English in Teaching and Learning Math in Hong Kong

With the intermingling of cultures, business, and globalization in general, it is difficult to imagine that English would not be spoken or at least understood in some form in any part of the world. If nothing else, Internet communication has opened up myriad opportunities for people to learn about any amount of cultures and languages they wish. In terms of business, as mentioned, the world has also become increasingly globalized. Businesses that can expand globally tend to be stronger financially and have greater longevity than those who cannot. Often, an ability to communicate internationally is at the heart of business success. For this reason, the medium of instruction in schools, and especially non-English speaking countries, have come to the forefront of educational attention. In Hong Kong, social and political changes have given a unique dynamic to whether or not English should…… [Read More]

References

Education Commission (2005, Dec.). Report on Review of Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools and Secondary School Places Allocation. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of The People's Republic of China. Retrieved from: http://www.e-c.edu.hk/tc/reform/resources/MOI&SSPA_report_Eng.pdf

Poon, A.Y.K., Lau, C.M.Y. And Chu, D.H.W. (2013, March). Impact of the Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy on Learning: Some Preliminary Findings. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, Vol. 4, Iss.1. Retrieved from: http://infonomics-society.org/LICEJ/ImpactoftheFineTuningMediumofInstructionPolicyonLearningSomePreliminaryFindings.pdf

Tsui, A.B.M. (2008). Medium of Instruction in Hong Kong: One Country, Two Systems, Whose Language? Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Edited by James. W. Ollofson and Amy B.M. Tsui. Taylor & Francis e-Library.

Zeng, W. (2007). Medium of Instruction in Secondary Education in Post-Colonial Hong Kong:
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Communication and Collaboration Among Stakeholders

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4040987

Principal

Paraprofessionals

General Education eacher

Parents

Special Education eacher

Student with disabilities

Agencies

Related Service Specialists

School Psychologist

Community

All Interested Stakeholders

All Required Stakeholders

Parent-eacher

Meetings

IEP Meetings

How would your program be designed? Be sure to identify the roles and responsibilities of the various stakeholders.

he special education program in the charter school would be designed as an inclusive model with students with special needs receiving as much of their education as possible in the general education classrooms. his model would be configured in accordance with the federal laws and regulations (Public Law 94-142 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (subsequently amended to Public Law governing the education of students with special needs.

Educators in the charter school are responsible for ensuring that the individual education plans (IEPs) of the students are met and that they receive a quality education that is commensurate with the education that students…… [Read More]

The role of the community is primarily to serve as a resource for social opportunities for the students with disabilities, and to ensure that their organizations provide equitable program models. Moreover, the role of the community will vary across the lifespan of the children with disabilities, just as it does with everyone else. For children with special needs, this means that the community will need to be compliant with federal and state laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, which requires physical and/or structural accommodations in public facilities to ensure access by people with disabilities, and also Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which addresses the provision of accommodations in the workplace. Various agencies provide services to students and the families of students with disabilities. Each agency has its own purpose from which the duties, roles, and responsibilities of its workers are derived. As children with disabilities age, they and their families engage with different agencies depending on the needs and objectives associated with particular phases of their life. The agencies may be educational, regulatory, supportive, or transitional in the way they function. Furthermore, agencies play a strong role in the compliance and quality assurance of educational programs for children and students with disabilities.

2) Reflect on the barriers that you might encounter when collaborating with stakeholders. How would you address these barriers?

A wide variety of perspectives greet the special education teacher who strives to ensure that students with special needs receive their education according to FAPE. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation is n Act of 1973 was enacted to ensure that students with special needs would receive a free and appropriate education (FAPE). It is important to differentiate between barriers that are grounded in ignorance and barriers that represent informed resistance on ideological or practical bases. Stakeholders may resent the idea of supporting students with special needs because of false beliefs they may have or simply because they are not knowledgeable about special education or students with disabilities. Barriers may also be raised when people believe that the effort required of them will simply be too great, or that the students will not be successful regardless of the amount of effort that is provided to them. Barriers of this type are often associated with students who exhibit behavior problems or have severe disabilities. The primary means of dealing with all three of these types of barriers are through education and communication. It is often possible to reduce barriers by encouraging people to give something a trial run rather than making what may seem to be a commitment written in stone.
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Communications Technologies Have Led to

Words: 467 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85069258



Definitions

Training: the act of acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors to accomplish a task or set of tasks often comprising an occupation or profession, usually through the direct or indirect instruction of the knowledge/skills/behaviors acquirer or "trainee" by a supervisor, instructor, or other knowledgeable and practiced entity or "trainer." Can also refer to the act of imparting this knowledge, i.e. The actions taken by the trainer to ensure the trainee's abilities and proficiency in the trained-for task(s) and activities.

Computer-based training: Training that takes place with the assistance of a computer and specific software programs as the primary means of instruction, either as a standalone (i.e. without other training methods or media being employed) or as part of a larger curriculum that includes more traditional methods of instruction as well. Typically implies some level of automation and personal adaptability in the exact subject matter and method of instruction.…… [Read More]

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Communication in the Telecommuting Workforce

Words: 3276 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24025789

Telecommuting is the act of periodically working out of the main office, one or more days a week either at home, or at a telework center. (Avery and Zabel 2000, 82) The concept of telecommuting was created by Jack Niles as a result of the oil crisis of the 1970's. Niles felt that telecommuting would be a good way of eliminating the daily commute and preserving energy. Nile eventually found that telecommuting could be beneficial to workers and employees.

The research found that the benefits of telecommuting include increased productivity, improved familial relationships and decreases in absenteeism. Increased productivity is derivative of the fact that workers have fewer distractions and are able to complete tasks on their own time. We also found that telecommuters had increased job satisfaction and increased motivation.

A major hindrance to the implementation of a successful telecommuting strategy is the lack of effective communication technology. In…… [Read More]

References

Avery C. And Zabel D. (2000) The Flexible Workplace: A Sourcebook of Information and Research. Quorum Books: Westport, CT.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001143449

Burn, T. (2000, January 31). Telecommuting Fits Right at Home. The Washington Times, p. 10.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=51260124
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Communication and the Law

Words: 2457 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72726205

Legal Memoranda

Statement of Facts

The prospective plaintiff wrote a novel a year ago on her home computer. She then distributed 100 copies to acquaintances and agents, but without a copyright notice attached. Yesterday she discovered a recently published novel that appeared to have plagiarized her work and is considering a lawsuit.

For a writing to be eligible for copyright protection the work must be original, which the courts and the U.S. Copyright Office have interpreted to mean an independent work that did not rely on the work of others to create. For example, students who complete an essay exam own the copyright to their answer if the work is original. Copyright protection is in effect as soon as the page is inked or the keystrokes captured by the software program. Based on the facts of this case the plaintiff wrote a novel and the work is therefore assumed to…… [Read More]

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E-Mail vs Oral Communication

Words: 503 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91761313

Communication

Effective Communication in the Age of Technology: The Importance of Oral Communication in the Business Environment

The role that communication plays in the business environment is vital, since it keeps an organization knowledgeable about each member and/or department's activities and accomplishments. Furthermore, it allows members to become aware of other members of the company, although interaction may not be possible for all members and the organization's departments. Indeed, Henri Fayol has elucidated on the important function of communication in business: "In dealing with a business matter or giving an order which requires explanation to complete it, usually it is simpler and quicker to do so verbally than in writing. Besides, it is well-known that differences and misunderstandings which a conversation could clear up grow more bitter in writing. Thence it follows that, whenever possible, contacts should be verbal; there is a gain in speed, clarity and harmony."

In the…… [Read More]

Work cited:

Kreitner, R. (1995). Organizational Behavior. Chicago: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
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How Social Media Is Changing Communications

Words: 1030 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91166617

Communication

"Don't Be a Stranger"

Adrian Chen's article "Don't Be a Stranger" looks at the way in which social relationships mediated by the internet have evolved. The author argues that the way the internet is used has changed. In 2006 it is recalled as a medium that made it possible for strangers to make friends using online forums. It is observed that today strangers on the internet are viewed with more caution and suspicion, and as the use of online forums decline users tend to communicate mainly with 'real life friends' using applications such as Facebook. This creates a scenario where, with the exception of the dating web sites, strangers are unlikely to meet. The reluctance of people to make friends with online strangers lies partly with the demise on online forums were people could bet to know each other, and partly influenced by the ongoing fear of strangers. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chen, Adrian, (2013, Feb 13), Don't Be a Stranger, The New Inquiry, ; 13 Feb 2013

Fuchs, C, Social Media: A Critical Introduction, Sage; 2013

Palfrey, J. Gasser, U, Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives, Basic Books; 2008
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Ineffective Communication Within a Specific

Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80843936



According the text the communication process is a loop where information is propelled in motion by the use of written, nonverbal and verbal means. In this case the important information was never even brought up during the shift change and the situation could have been worse if my friend was dying or in need of more immediate care.

It appears that the shift changing operating procedures overlooked us waiting in the room demonstrating how it failed at all levels. An effective change would have seen the medical personnel in the E know about each thing that is going on. This information should have been written down and verbally conveyed to the new shift that took over, but did not.

A better strategy to help prevent this happening would require the E to reexamine their policies on shift changes. Explicit communication needs to be incorporated in any procedure that helps relay…… [Read More]

References

Adams, S. (2010). Social and Behavioral Influences on Team Process. Project Management Journal, Sep 2010.
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Strategic Communication Leading Through Strategic

Words: 1278 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90472850

" (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that this "incessant interaction and conversion in turn results in joint creation of knowledge by individuals and organizations." (Chennameni, 2006) Organizations are reported to play a key role in activating the "explicit and tacit dimensions of knowledge and in providing a forum for the knowledge spiral through four modes of knowledge creation" (Chennameni, 2006) Those four modes are stated to include: (1) socialization; (2) externalization; (3) combination; and (4) internalization. (Chennameni, 2006)

Socialization speaks of the exchanging of "tacit knowledge among members through the social interactions and shared experiences." (Chennameni, 2006) Externalization refers to the translation of tacit knowledge into from explicit knowledge." (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that each of the modes of conversion are both "interdependent and tangled." (Chennameni, 2006)

B. Diffusion of Innovation

ogers Diffusion of Innovations explains change via Social Networks. The Diffusion of innovations theory explains the process of…… [Read More]

References

Chennamaneni, a. (2006) Determinants of Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: Developing and Testing an Integrated Theoretical Model. The University of Texas at Arlington. Dec 2006. Retrieved from: http://dspace.uta.edu/bitstream/handle/10106/305/uta-etd-1428.pdf?sequence=1

Darnton, a. (2008) Reference Report: An overview of behavior change models and their uses. GSR Behavior Change Knowledge Review. Jul 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Behaviour_change_reference_report_tcm6-9697.pdf

O'Malley, P. (2006) Strategic Communications Planning. A Presentation to IABC Ottawa. Retrieved from:  http://www.omalco.com/iabc.htm 

Planned Behaviour: A Meta-Analysis," (22:3),2003.