investment management in the financial sector. The paper highlights the world's present macroeconomic situation. It further details the macro economic situation and the way it affects investment decisions in several investors. In addition, the paper describes a sample investment programme and provides critical decisions to investors as well as investment vehicles used by the investment moguls. The paper summarises practical exercises in compound investment management growth and the use of capital investment.
Investment management is an important part of the global financial sector, which is key in financing vast business empires. Investment management is incorporated under state laws employing several individuals and creating revenue to key players in the financial market. It is the management of several securities and assets to meet specific objectives for the benefit of the investors. The products used known as investment vehicles can be of minimal risks such as government bonds; carry high risks such as stocks trades and other equities as well as mutual funds. Investment management services include financial statements analysis, asset and stock selection and monitoring of investments.
Macroeconomic Situation in the World
The current world macro-economic growth started to slow down at the beginning of the 2008 and is approximated to have decreased by 2.8 per cent in 2012. This macro-economic deceleration is expected to continue until 2014. The world gross product is estimated to be 2.6 per cent in 2012 and 3.2 per cent in 2013, which is still below rate before the crisis. Currently, the macroeconomic condition of developing countries is estimated to go on growing averagely by 5.4 per cent in 2012 and 5.8 per cent in 2013. ( Development Policies and Anaysis Division, 2012).
Developing countries are experiencing minor slowdown in per capita income growth. It decelerates from 3.8 per cent in 2010 to 3.5 per cent in 2011 and, in spite of this, these countries may experience minimal income growth above this rate in 2012 and 2013. Liberalization of the foreign exchange market has also steadily taken place. In these countries, holding foreign currency is no longer an offense, but dealing in foreign currency can pose legal problems. In addition, private companies have no authority to retrieve foreign currency except when they source it from the export proceeding market. This has resulted in difficulties to companies that accommodate domestic market, particularly when the export proceedings market has a lower exchange rate exercisable for imports.
Issues relating to business and trade remain complicated and uncertain; this creates many determents, problems and creates incentives to continue through informal channels where possible. Nevertheless, the process of liberalization procedure has not proceeded at a steady pace. Private investment has been depending on the short-range inducements given by the investment law and not on long-term growth expectations based on a stable set of rules of the game.
World's Macroeconomic Situation Outlook
Lack of secured employment trend is probably the weakest link in the recovery of macro-economic growth. This is so because between 2010 and 2012, approximately 40 million jobs were lost because of global financial problems. Even this number is undervalued; the true dept of the jobs predicaments depends on authoritative labour statistics, which in many developing countries only account for prescribed sector employment in urban areas. For this reason, it may not involve those pressed into insecure recruitment in informal sector or underemployment in low-productivity rural economic activities. In most developing countries unemployment rate may increase to 10% in mid-2012, as opposed to 9.6% in the year 2011. According to World Of Wallstreet (2010), all these predictions indicate that it will take more years for unemployment rates to fall below the current level.
Continuing high unemployment in the world and low remuneration growth are dragging back aggregate demand, this together with the expectations of long-term dishearten prices, has raised risks of a new wave of home foreclosures. The intensification in the euro zone has reduced especially since the beginning of 2011.
The prolonged recovery in the world's macro-economy should allow the downtrend in insolvencies to continue in many countries of the world. On the other hand, the slowing rate predicted over 2012, with GDP rising by 5% for the coming year. This threatens to minimize the tempo of downtrend. Most countries will be exempted from this, mainly because of their particular economic surroundings or due to their low levels of insolvencies already posted in 2012 as in the case with Asia. In other words, worldwide insolvencies for 2013 will linger at a high level.
The persistence of economic revival in 2012 should consolidate the process of recovery in business profits and be associated with further drop in the number of business insolvencies. The drop is, however, likely to be still modest overall (-6%), given relative weakness in household consumption, and with continuing difficulties, particularly in those sectors that are greatly depending on real estate and construction
Effect of Current Economic Situation on Investment
Financial operations take a long time to stimulate an economy in contrary to a fiscal stimulus because the investments heavily depend on private sector sentiments. The recommended initiative is to work out policies that would promote both growth recoveries in the short-term and sufficient debt reduction in the medium term. This would require a credible debt reduction plan that would take care of major budgetary areas and allow for some spending in the short-term. Without such combination of policies, a mix of growth reduction and debt reduction will not be sufficient to reduce the risk which may be encountered during investment.
Investment Programme and Objectives
According to Personal Finance (2012), the key financial planning in after other personal goals is the personal investment plan. This investment plan is important as it creates the framework for investment activities to be carried out. The important aspect of the financial programme is that it gives the guidelines for investment capital and acquires additional returns. The investment plan is the detailed description of the major component of the investment strategy. The investment program when properly implemented will affect the financial position of the investor and lead to great returns. The investment program elaborates personal investment needs such as financial constraints, risk tolerance and on ways the investment program relates to asset allocation and objectives of the investor. The objectives of the investment program is to provide investment framework an guidelines for making investment choices, achieve capital growths, increase incomes to the investor and minimize taxation in addition to safe money investments.
The investment management objectives give the required decisions to and frameworks to help the investor pick put the best decision that would affect future financial position of the investor. The objectives when strictly followed will avoid poor investment decisions that would lead to greater financial constraints to the investing person. The investment objectives are guided by incorporating the best strategy to ensure financial prosperity by the investor. The achievement of the under mentioned objectives comes with foregoing of other irresponsible and financially misleading investment plans and selecting the best financial program for the future. Incorporating a single investment objective and giving weightings to other objectives depends on factors such as the financial position of the investor. Giving priority to achievement of the objectives depends on studying and deciding on the opportunities that match your objectives.
Investment Management Instruments
Investment Management's primary objective is to secure reasonable returns to fund invested assets while avoiding potential risks associated with the investment. To ensure successful investment management, parameters such as investment quality and return rates are give considerations to minimise risk associated with investments. Successful investment management decisions are to be in compliance with stipulated county laws and regulations as well as investment policies. Investment instruments are necessary investment options which investors use to store in interest paying checking accounts. There are several investment instruments including saving account, stock investments, and hedge funds among others to ensure investment success for investors (Markowitz, 2009).
The first possible investment instruments such as bank savings accounts are the simplest investment instruments available for small scale investors. A savings account guarantees the account holder interest accruing after given timeframes usually calculated annual or after two to three years. The total accrued interest payments earned from the saving account depends on the offered interest rates of the banking agency and the total amount in the depositors account. These savings accounts give the depositors insurance in cases of financial constraints and breaches of banking rules.
The other investment instrument is private and public equities. Private equities including insurance companies, pension funds and endowments raise increased revenues of investors in the financial market. In his book, Swensen (2000), states that long-term equity management investments such as real estates and share equities should not be given first priority in the investment vehicles to reduce risks associate with big investments. The appreciation of real estate values takes a long time span and an earlier liquidation of the investments may result into great losses for the investors. Investment in common shares and real estate have no limited time frame which is…