life of a non-Profit employee course number & name: Human Resources Management (BAL1127A)
The research paper will be exploring 'How new learning dimensions of human resource studies can be applied for expanding the HR role in optimizing and shaping organizational and employee behavior in non-profit organization'. This is the thesis statement upon which the whole research will be build upon using number of authors review, recommendations, journals, academic reading and statistical data on the subject matter concerned.
Today, organizations are faced with number of human resource challenges among which some of them are developing leaders for the next generation along with fundamental staff required, succession planning, motivating volunteers and staff with the diversified work and managing work style and work environment in nonprofit organizations. Due to the growing need of nonprofit institutions in an economy, universities have started nonprofit courses and programs, yet it doesn't guarantee to establish a link to the career in the nonprofit sector. Under such scenarios effective management and development of diverse human resource is critically important for the growth and sustainability of nonprofit organizations. For the development of human resource in nonprofit organizations, social capital like trust, principles of reciprocity and social networks are important.
The major difference between nonprofits and business in human resource and stakeholder management is that of the relationship management maintained internal and external to the organization (Drucker, 1990). Nonprofit organizations are responsible for creating social capital in the community (Frumkin, 2002). In the nonprofit organization the application of social capital is used in recruitment and board members appointments, and in sharing vision and mission with the staff (King, 2004). Thus the new learning dimension of building human resource development in nonprofit organization is also through the consideration of establishing and utilizing social capital and social networks.
human resource functions in non-profit workplace
It is not surprising that the role of HR management is also changing to help nonprofit organizations achieve structural and cultural changes. However from the very beginning HR has gone through several changes. In the early 1900s personnel people first were responsible to oversee the hiring and firing from supervisors, looked after payroll department and administered benefit plans. The job mainly consisted of ensuring that procedures are being followed. With the advancement of technology and global changes, the personnel department began to play a magnified role in employee selection, training and promotion (Berliner & McCkarney, 1974).
The progression in the HR practices has taken place with the introduction of different laws, regulations and legislation in the field of Human resource planning and development. The surfacing of union legislation in the 1930s led to a second phase in personnel management and importance was given on protecting the firm in its interaction with unions. The discrimination legislation of the 1960s and 1970s provoked a third phase. Since there companies were now strictly bound with the laws and legislation they have started implementing stronger and effective HR management policies and procedures.
EEO and Affirmative Action
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was instituted that enriched the federal government's ability to enforce equal employment opportunity laws. The commission required executives to take affirmative action plans to make sure equal employment opportunity prevails in the organizations. Affirmative action plans are basically the steps taken for the purpose of eliminating the present effects of past discrimination. Some of the areas which is guided under this law are:
a) Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures: Descriptive guidelines should be used by the employers of the nonprofit organizations approved by the EEOC, Civil Service Commission, Department of Labor and Department of Justice (Dhanens, 1979).
b) Discrimination made on disability: American with Disability Act was introduced that required employers to make reasonable accommodations for disabled employees; it prohibits discrimination against disabled persons.
c) Discrimination based on physical characteristics: It was sought to be unlawful when employers asking for certain type of physical attributes like height and weight as a necessary element for hiring which causes discrimination among men and women groups. These were taken as strict lawful consideration until and unless it is requirement of the job.
d) Gender, racial and social discrimination: Discrimination made on the basis of certain type of groups, racial groups or social elements were strictly prohibited in the work place.
Human resources planning, recruitment, and selection
Recruiting candidates are among the major role of the nonprofit organization. It is similar to the corporate profit seeking firms that they require best people for their organization that can seek to achieve the organization goals and objectives within the corporate framework and help it to be sustainable for long-term. Similarly nonprofit organizations are also faced with these challenges of keeping the best people in their workforce to ensure the sustainability of their firm. The fundamental steps taken under the recruitment and placement procedure are listed below:
a) Conducting job analysis- this defines the roles and responsibilities of the workforce and needs of more human resource in the specified functional areas. The main instrument of this step is job description and job specification.
b) Personnel planning - in this phase organization goes through the assessment of turnover rate in the organization, quality and skills of the current workforce, decision over other major upcoming projects, external and internal environmental changes and the financial resources available with the firm.
c) Screening, selecting and recruiting the personnel- after the lengthy procedure of attracting the candidate, screening the best one, testing and interview them this phase comes to its end.
d) Compensation decision- is actually a phase between the employee planning and recruiting because it's the best possible choice among the budgeted figure and the market demand. Sometimes nonprofit organization to have best people has to compromise on budget due to fewer options available.
e) New workforce orientation- giving the brief introduction about the company policies, mission, goals and objectives to the newly hired is important because it will create a sense of responsibility and focus for the company. The level of commitment is also build in which is the most important trait or workforce for nonprofit firms.
Human resources development
Progression of the professional development is equally important in the profit and nonprofit organization because beside the personal commitment of employees in the firm they also seek their career to grow. Therefore, organization irrespective of their nature must seek to develop the career oriented approach in employee development. The following table shows the role of employee development and how it can be brought into an organization of nonprofit nature.
Table 1: HR Traditional Vs Career Development Focus
Adds information about individual interest, preferences and the like to data
Training and Development
Provide opportunities for learning skills, information, and attitudes related to job.
Provide career oath information. Adds individual growth orientation.
Rating and rewarding workforce
Adds development plans and individual goal setting
Recruitment and Placement
Matching organization needs with qualified individuals
Matches individual and jobs based on number of variables including employee's career interest.
Compensation and Benefits
Rewards for time, productivity, talent and so on Adds non-job related activities to be rewarded like United way leadership position
Source: Adapted from Fred L. Otte and Peggy G. Hutcheson (1992) Helping Employees Manage Careers.
Compensation and benefits
Nonprofit organizations can develop the program of fringe benefits in their firms. The beneficiary of this program is not limited to the staff members but also executives and board members (Nicholas, 1993). For the purpose of looking after the employee life after employment the organization can also workout for employee pension and retirement income plan. Benefits like sick paid leaves and vocational pay can also be introduced to me work environment more conducive. Organization can also arrange for group life, accidents and health insurance coverage for its employees. Employee medical expenses can also be borne by the firm to support their income.
In our society there is the common perception to expect employee to work for nonprofit organization on the pay rates lower than the market. For this reason there are many nonprofit organizations that indeed due to budgetary constraints may lose out quality of workforce due to low compensation package as compared to the market rates. Nonprofit organization in such cases must seek to establish certain level of complementary benefits to employees working for the nonprofit firms on the low rates (Hopkins, 1993). These complementary benefits can be in shape of increased recognition of employee efforts through social publications, recognition, name printing on the walls and notice boards of the organization showing special thanks to their efforts and giving gratitude to their work more then what corporate organizations are doing.
Safety and Health, and Employee and labor relations
Occupational Safety and Health Act was also passed by Congress in 1970 to making organizations responsible to ensure the proper working conditions for the employees. Nonprofit organizations sometimes due to the nature of project under consideration must work in the areas where it's risky with…