Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Online Transaction Empowered by E-Currency Exchange without credit card
The growth of the internet on a public scale, since its arrival in the eighties has allowed businesses to expand internationally. User interactions are no longer restricted to the local level. Easy to use web interfaces allow voice, message and video-based conversations. Entrepreneurship is much easier than before as individuals can place their product catalogues on websites without much set up costs. Country specific currencies (such as the American dollar, Euro, Rupee etc.) tend to cause problems if users need to purchase something unavailable in their location. This led to the concept of 'E-Currency' which is geared towards online transactions as it removes usage limitations based on country or nationality. The popularity of this industry grew as a way of handling the restrictions imposed on global businesses. Privacy is a major concern in this regard since there are multiple web-based transactions involved. Security features for such financial operations have had their shortfalls in the past but managed to become pretty stable. The existence of E-Currencies primarily depends on factors such as the improved privacy features, the need to generalize fund formats throughout the world and the execution time for such transactions ("Understanding the E-Currency," 2002)
Background of study
E-Currency is different from traditional forms of money, approved and issued by the government, such as Yen or Dollar. Their purchasing power and values are maintained and updated by the respective financial departments. One cannot go and ask for E-Currency bills (for example iGold, Liberty Reserve etc.) from banks or public currency conversion centers. They can regarded as specific units which have some value based on real money (in Dollars, Euros etc.). They are like digital widgets (or poker chips which can be used online) applicable in different countries. The development of such means of money which are not under direct government control does bring forth legal concerns. E-Gold is one of leading E-Currency provider which has been in existence since 1996 and has millions of customers worldwide. They have never been had to suffer any legal prosecutions or assigned an illegal status. Neither have they been blamed of breaking international laws by global organizations such as the United Nations ("Understanding the E-Currency," 2002)
A large section of E-Currencies are backed up by metal. The money deposited by customers is converted into metal bullion, which can have its ownership conveyed onto his or her associate. This form of ownership transfer can be repeated multiple times. This can be compared to 'warehouse banks' and started gaining popularity in the eighties as a result of domestic left wing extremists. They needed to conceal their assets as they went forth in abusing the financial system and extort money. While logs of transactions conducted by E-Currency companies can usually be attained by court orders, deals with a turnover of over 10 grand requires appropriate reporting. This was introduced on account of Secret service agents and economists articulating their concerns over chances of illegal money laundering via E-Currency exchanges. The history of E-Currency in the past few decades has demonstrated how easily it can be implemented in pyramid scams. Potential internet thieves insist on having their payments done via E-Currency instead of credit cards or checks. This allows charges to be placed and cleared instantly. As most of these are irreversible, fraudulent activities become easy to commit. It has been estimated that nearly half of the transactions involving E-Currencies are associated with online games or scams.
E-Currency exchange functionalities
E-currency exchange is a tool (usually exempted from government interest but exceptions do subsist) which exists for an international audience. The E-currencies applicable for transactions are listed on the website for users to choose. A payment involves transporting money (in its traditional or electronic form) to the payee account from the payer. The payment method needs to be selected before any money gets sent. The basic functionalities of such exchange websites include buying and selling of E-currency to and from the user. The participating users need to ensure that the funds they use are from trusted sources and do not fall under the jurisdiction of any restrictions (local or international).
Registered users have the authority to move their funds around by varying their transactions. Users create accounts in order to get registered and partake in transactions. The personal information disclosed by them before proceeding with an order is not revealed to external sources. Exceptions do come forth if federal law requires the disclosure of user details to relevant authorities. E-currency websites, which co-ordinate these transactions, usually have the right to ask users to authenticate their identity, in order to avoid fraud. Failure to act in accordance with these rules might exempt them using their services ("Terms of service," 2011)
Some of the services available in such websites have been described:
This happens to be one of the most popular E-Currency services, based in Florida. It is run on gold and silver resources and is expected to have over 5 million accounts holding around $14 million. A study in January 2002 demonstrated how its customers made around 8,600 transactions on a daily basis. Nearly half of its physical reserves exist in Dubai, due to easier financial regulations. It also helps in promoting E-Dinar ("E-Currency Fact Sheet," 2011). It is run by the Gold & Silver Reserve Inc. registered under e-gold Ltd. Its operations were stopped in 2009 as the U.S. department of justice found flaws in its licenses. As of December 2010, its refund policy had been approved which let users with VAP (Value Access Plan) qualified accounts to have their equivalent dollar share of e-metals paid back to them.
This is an E-Currency company set up on the private sector with Islamic Mint. It is devoted to restoring currencies made from gold and silver as mentioned in the Muslim holy book, Quran. Islamic Mint representatives (from countries like Spain, Switzerland, Germany and Malaysia) are affiliated to Murabitun movement (a western subsidiary of the Islamic sufi movement established by a scottish who converted to the Muslim faith). This faction is strongly against the Al-Qaeda line of thought and is not related to the Taliban. They aim at instituting the global Muslim image as way of possible changes in world finance which support the 'Quranic' mode of using gold and silver currencies ("E-Currency Fact Sheet," 2011).
This is a payment method established along the lines of Paypal. Users can process payments, receive funds and set it up in online stores. They can use Euros, U.S. dollars, Roubles etc. To retrieve Webmoney equivalents. A bank transfer is the easiest way to fill up one's Webmoney account. They have a CashU card option as well. E-Currency exchange websites are a lucrative way to use funds stored in disparate sources ("What is webmoney," 2007)
Liberty Reserve (L.R.) is an online payment processor which allows money to be sent or received anywhere in the world. L.R. payments follow a 100% irreversible transaction policy which cannot be negated. They have their main servers established outside the United States, in Holland. It does not support direct funding from bank accounts. This makes E-Currency exchange websites the only option. It is geared towards smaller webmasters for advertising or promoting their web-based services ("Liberty Reserve reviewed," 2007)
This is different from how the others operate. It is linked to the market rate of gold. Money deposited here will vary based on the rise or fall of gold prices. If a user locks or reverse locks their personal funds at a particular time, they can profit considerably. Like Liberty Reserve, national currency such as dollars or euros cannot be used. Exchange websites are the fastest way to enable their iGolds processor and make necessary payments ("igolds.net," 2010).
This is a financial services organization, with its headquarters located in the United States. It deals with one on one money transfers, commercial financing and money orders. It is spread over 200 countries and draws in annual revenues of $5 billion. It gained a lot of popularity as a telegram exchange service before its termination ("About us," 2011).
This is a service founded by Canadian capitalists using their technical knowhow. Their mechanism simplifies online payment services through two account types -- personal and businesss. Users need to verify their accounts to use direct debit and withdraw money to a selected bank account. Business accounts have additional processing fees in order to ensure a protected seller profile and reliable administration ("Account types," 2011).
This has one of the difficult registration processes among E-Currency websites. One needs to make sure that their selected password follows the necessary regulations. Users are given their personal identification key or PIK. This is a 16 digit number which must always be kept at hand. A three party system safeguards the E-Currency stored in Pecunix from any hindrances or responsibilities. The company is protected from both their client and user base. The Pecunix foundation operates exclusively for the resources it stores, rather than for the assistance…[continue]
"Online Transaction Empowered By E-Currency Exchange Without" (2011, March 06) Retrieved October 23, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/online-transaction-empowered-by-e-currency-49977
"Online Transaction Empowered By E-Currency Exchange Without" 06 March 2011. Web.23 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/online-transaction-empowered-by-e-currency-49977>
"Online Transaction Empowered By E-Currency Exchange Without", 06 March 2011, Accessed.23 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/online-transaction-empowered-by-e-currency-49977
Banking and financial services includes such firms as investment banks, commercial banks, brokerage firms, and credit card institutions. The common it pulse throughout the daily operations of these organizations involves utilizing systems to communicate between branches and subsidiaries, establishing operations throughout the world, communicating with the end customer in order to facilitate transactions, and analyzing customer and market attributes in order to reduce uncertainties in such aspects as pricing
Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight
Steps were also taken to organize a stock market in Lahore (Burki, 1999, pp.127-128). Also organized during this period were the Pakistan Industrial and Credit Investment Corporation (PICIC) and the Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDBP), both of which were important to industrial development, obtaining "large amounts of capital from the World Bank, the former for investment in large industries, the latter in relatively smaller enterprises" (Burki, 1999, p. 128). This
Consequently, his observations concerning the business climate in Saudi Arabia with respect to the significance of religion in the Kingdom can be considered authentic. According to Indris, with respect to the perception of performance and contractual obligations among Saudis, "It should be noted that the issue is not with the belief itself but rather with people's misguided interpretations of the belief and Islam teachings. While Islam teaches that ultimate
The proliferation of the internet has threatened to undermine the capacity of real estate agents and brokers to control the dissemination of information in the real estate market. Prior to the inception of the internet and the adoption of its use by the real estate industry, details relative to real property was largely within the exclusive province of the agents and brokers. Multiple listing services, property transfer information, existing
Video Tape and Disc Rental Rentals Catalog/Mail Order Retailing Health and Personal Care Stores Retailing Table 2: Comparisons of Most Risky Small Business (BizStats.com, cited by Telberg, 2003) An Engine of Economic Growth More and more, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) argue, policymakers perceive the small business sector "as a potential engine of economic growth. Policies to promote small businesses include tax relief, direct subsidies, and indirect subsidies through government lending programs." These authors stress that encouraging lending
Organized Crime has been witnessed to prosper with the infiltration on legitimate businesses in a way that they associate themselves in order to steal from the host. Organized crime organizations execute such activities in order to generate income, sweep profits, achieve more power, and launder wealth (Abadinsky, 2009). The crimes that are committed by the individuals that are employed in the legitimate corporations are particularly known as white collar crimes.