Resocialization is a process in which the identity and personality of the individual is radically changed by placing that individual in an environment or institution, which is controlled and monitored strictly. Total institutions are such institutions that utilize resocialization process in order to bring significant changes in the personality of individuals living there. The goal of these institutions is to eradicate personal identity of the individual and then, create a new identity through reward and punishment system.
Resocialization and Total Institutions
Resocialization is a process in which the identity and personality of the individual is radically changed by placing that individual in an environment or institution, which is controlled and monitored strictly. Total institutions are such institutions that utilize resocialization process in order to bring significant changes in the personality of individuals living there. The goal of these institutions is to eradicate personal identity of the individual and then, create a new identity through reward and punishment system. This research paper has selected the topic of resocialization and for this purpose; two journal articles have been collected, regarding Indian Residential Schools as total institutions and their impact on Native Indian Children. The paper would present summaries of each journal article. Next, comparisons would be made between the journal articles in order to understand the topic of resocialization and were residential schools total institutions. What was their impact on native Indian children? Finally, how does total institution and process of resocialization can benefit student nurses in their personal and professional life would be discussed in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Summary of Resources
Sociology 7th Canadian Edition by John J. Macionis and Linda. M. Gerber (2011)
Total institutions concentrated on changing the personalities and personal outlooks, perceptions and nature of the individual by adopting the technique of manipulation within the environment. The process of resocialization starts with the staffs, who concentrate on completely removing the personal identity, freedom and independence of the resident. The methods used by these institutions concentrate on ensuring that all the personal possessions are confiscated (Macionis & Gerber, 2011). Furthermore, individuals in these institutions have to wear standardized clothes or uniforms and have a specific haircut, which is applied on all individuals. In order to restrict freedom and autonomy, degrading methods are used to humiliate the members of the institutions. Staff is responsible for monitoring the individuals residing in the institution in order to control and monitor their activities. Furthermore, formal rules have been formulated, which these individuals must strictly follow and abide by.
The goal of total institutions is to bring a radical change in the individual. Prisons as well as mental asylums or institutions utilize barred fences, locked doors and windows and ensure that they have limited access to communicate with the outside world. The institution itself becomes the world for the members in order to ensure that they are obedient and can be controlled by the staff.
The process of resocialization is considered to be a two-way procedure (Macionis & Gerber, 2011). The first part revolves around confiscating of personal belongings. Furthermore, all individuals must wear same clothes or uniforms with the same hairstyle. The second part concentrates on creating a new personality of the individuals. For this purpose, the system of reward or punishment is used. Reading books, watching television, communicating with the outside world, etc. are the rewards, which are used to motivate the individuals to abide by the rules of the institutions. If the individual cooperates with the staff, the rewards are given and demonstrate that they are being influenced by the environment of the institution. The impact of total institutions on individuals can vary from one individual to another. Some individuals may end up being changed in the process. In other cases, individuals may become aggressive and hostile (Macionis & Gerber, 2011).
Project Turnaround was a project that was boot camp. Staff members belonged to military and are expected to show respect to cadets. In the same manner, cadets are required to call their in charge either maim or sir. They are also required to perform pushups. However, it should be noted that the cadets are not physically abused or punished. They received their military training and are expected to make their beds as well as they have to tie up their shoe laces in a standardized format. They get up at 6 am and sleep at 10 pm. They are given the freedom to play video games and select their own food. Furthermore, they are involved in marching and physical activities such as playing basketball and volleyball. They also have to attend school with their homework. They also build cedar canoes and are taken outdoors by staff members (Macionis & Gerber, 2011). The goal of this program is to ensure that these members are disciplined and respect themselves so that they do not return to the life of crime. However, this project was cancelled in the year 2003.
Dealing with the Legacy of Native Residential School Abuse in Canada: Litigation, ADR and Restorative Justice by Jennifer J. Llewellyn
According to Llewellyn (2002), residential schools were developed to provide education to Indian children and were established during the 1800s. These schools were run by members of Churches, by Protestants as well as Roman Catholics. The goal of these schools was to ensure that the children of the Native Americans are assimilated within the Canadian society with non-native Canadians. For this purpose, the British government established residential schools in order to avoid conflict with the Natives and to produce a class of Indian children, who would speak English and to follow the British way of life and thus, would end the Indian Problem.
Abuse in Residential Schools
Residential Schools were total institutions, which concentrated on changing the identity of Native Indians children in order to assimilate them into the British culture. Abuse was used to ensure that these children are changed in every way (Llewellyn, 2002). Sexual, verbal, emotional and spiritual abuse, were the four types of abuses, which the children had to endure. Furthermore, if children spoke their native language, they would receive harsh corporal punishment. Even though these schools provided education to children and some of the children, had a positive experience, yet these schools had completely changed the culture, identity and spirituality of these children and thus, in a way, these children had experienced abuse (Llewellyn, 2002).
Scapegoating the Indian Residential Schools by Ottawa Cover Story
Apologies had been made by the Chretain government because of the mistreatment of Native Indians in Residential Schools at the hands of Christian missionaries. This mistreatment had been labeled as brutal and inhumane, as Indians were abused physically, sexually and emotionally for being Indians and having different culture, traditions, religion and language. Residential schools had been designed and had made a negative impact on children on Native Indians and their future generations, as the school system concentrated on "campaign to obliterate Aboriginal languages, traditions, and beliefs was compounded by mismanagement and the woeful mistreatment, neglect, and abuse of many children... The memory has persisted, festered and become a sorrowful monument, still casting a deep shadow over the lives of many Aboriginal people and over the possibility of a new relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians" (Donnelly, 2013).
Legacy of Residential Schools
The legacy of the Residential or Indian schools had been positive according to the article. The evidence that these schools were engaged in sexually abusing children is vague and ambiguous. Some of the Indians had positive memories regarding the girl and liked it, as it had plenty of food for everyone to eat and daily, they were provided with bread, stew, peanut butter and porridge. Even though residential schools did not allow to talk in native languages, children were not punished for speaking their native languages (Donnelly, 2013). Daily routine for boys included looking after the garden, chopping woods and looking after the cows, whereas for girls, they learnt the art of sewing. According to Rufus Goodstriker, who attended St. Paul's residential school, daily routine comprised of reading, writing and learning farm chores. Communicating in native language was also not an issue (Donnelly, 2013). Children were also allowed to meet their parents on weekends. Furthermore, these schools also had sports program, where students would play soccer and softball, as well as hockey. Another anonymous person asserted that staffs were supportive and provided support to students who were lonely. The coordinator of National Catholic Working Group on Native Residential Schools asserted that Indians themselves acknowledged the significance of Schools and therefore, Residential schools were provided to education to native people. After the Second World War, a movement was started in order to close residential schools.
Comparison of Articles
Sociology vs. dealing with the Legacy of Native Residential School Abuse in Canada: Litigation, ADR and Restorative Justice
Macionis and Gerber (2011) assert that resocialization is the process in which personal…