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Those against school uniforms mainly argue that they violate a student's freedom of expression and may interfere with religious clothing preferences (Kelly). However, evidence suggests that the benefits far outweigh these disadvantages. Educators, students and parents alike should view school uniforms as a good thing for a variety of reasons.
Isaacson (1998) compared two middle schools in Charleston County, S.C., one with a uniform policy, the other without. The researcher found that mandatory uniforms made schools safer by reducing gang influences by preventing gang members from wearing particular types of clothing to signify their association in a gang. Discipline referrals from the uniformed school were down 51% from the previous year without uniforms. Yet other schools have discovered that uniforms decreased violence and theft because of clothing and shoes and helped staff quickly recognize those who do not belong on school grounds. In Long each, officials found that…
Isaacson, L. (1998). Student dress policies. The American School Board Journal, 183(5), 32-35.
Kelly, M. School uniforms. Retrieved May 31, 2005 from Web site: http://712educators.about.com/cs/schoolviolence/a/uniforms.htm
School uniforms: What's so good about them? Retrieved May 31, 2005 from Web site: http://www.edgerton.k12.wi.us/ms/Writing_for_the_Web_Student_Work/Benefits%20of%20School%20Uniforms.htm
There is less peer pressure among the students
School uniforms for students are becoming more and more popular across the country. esearch suggest that schools with a mandatory school-wide uniform policy have better attendance, better behavior, fewer discipline referrals, and more school spirit. Children seem to become more focused on academics. They are also easily identified on campus, in the community, and on field trips, making general safety another benefit of wearing uniforms.
It is hypothesized that behavior in schools which require their students to wear uniforms will be better than those schools which do not with respect to discipline and behavior.
This study will use existing empirical research. The independent variable is wearing school uniforms. There are two levels of independent variables, with school uniforms and without school uniforms. The dependent variable is student behavior. Existing empirical research will provide proof that wearing school uniforms has a positive effect on student behavior.
Mandated Uniforms in School: A…
Brown, T. (1998). Legal issues and the trend towards school uniforms. Education and California leads nation in public school uniform use.(1997,March 31). California School News, p. 4.
Caruso, P. (1996). Individuality vs. conformity: The issue behind school uniforms. NASSP Bulletin, 581, 83-88.
Dowling-Sendor, B. (2002). School uniforms redux. American School Board Journal, 47, 38-39.
DSN Retailing Today. (May 3, 2004). School uniformity yields high marks. DSN Retailing Today.
School uniforms in public school has been a subject of national debate. Private and Parochial schools have a long history of school uniforms. Its implementation in public schools has been met with sharp criticism, it came to gain momentum in the late 1980's and it has been increasing steadily throughout the years. In some past few years the subject has gotten various boosts. The biggest boost was when in January President Clinton endorsed the use of school uniforms while addressing the Union. From his statement he said that if it means that the teenagers were going to stop killing each other because of a de-signer jacket then there is need for the public schools to wear uniforms. He also emphasized this across the country when he was emphasizing about the need to get violence out of schools and the need to instill discipline and learning back in schools. Another support…
Anderson Wendell. (2002) School Dress Codes and Uniform Policies. Retrieved May 2, from http//:www.eric.uoregon.org
Brunsma, D.L. & Rockquemore, K.A. (1998).Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behaviour Problems, Substance Abuse, and Academic Achievements. The Journal of Educational Research 92 (1): 53-63.
Caruso Peter (1996). Individuality vs. Conformity: The Issue Behind School Uniforms. Retrieved May 2, from http://www.eric.uoregon.edu
Isaacson & Lynne, (1998).Student Dress Codes. Retrieved May 2, from http://eric.uoregon.edu
There are many reasons why school uniforms are common in countries outside of the United States, and are becoming more important in the United States. In other countries, it is believed that wearing a school uniform creates a "uniform" learning environment, meaning that the students are focused on the same things and there is order in the classroom. hen the students do not think about what they look like or what they wear, they are thinking more about what is going on in the classroom. Another reason for using school uniforms in other countries is that it is believed that they reduce the differences between the poor and rich students. The importance of this aspect is that poor students could get bullied or their teachers might be prejudiced against them. The uniform makes everyone equal because the uniform disguises the person's socio-economic class background. Similarly, the wearing of…
Gentile, Elisabetta and Imberman, Scott A. "Dressed for Success: Do School Uniforms Improve Student Behavior, Attendance, and Achievement?" Retrieved online: http://www.uh.edu/class/economics/news-research/working-papers/docs/2009-03.pdf
Murray, Richard K. "The Impact of School Uniforms on School Climate." NASSP Bulletin, v81 n593 p106-12 Dec 1997.
Park, Judy. "Do School Uniforms Lead to Uniform Minds?: School Uniforms and Appearance Restrictions in Korean Middle Schools and High Schools." Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture, Volume 17, Number 2, April 2013, pp. 159-178(20).
Stanley, M. Sue. "School Uniforms and Safety." Education and Urban Society, v28 n4 p424-35 Aug 1996
The researchers omitted the public sector data which had a positive correlation, and drew their conclusion from only the Catholic and private school sectors which had a negative correlation. Including the omitted data would have changed the overall conclusions. The authors warn against citing and using research that has methodological flaws.
School Uniform elation to Attendance
A school uniform policy has been strongly suggested as a way to curb school violence and gang activity as way of dress is a common distinguishing characteristic of gang members. This sometimes has very tragic consequences. The uniformity in dress is thought to act as an equalizer and reduce the competition and its distracting effects especially for minority children (Lopez, 2003). The data on effect of school uniforms on student behavior is also not conclusive. The Long Beach Unified School District was one of the early initiatives in school uniforms in public schools. In…
Mitchell, H.W. & Kechtle, J.C. (2003). Uniforms in public school and the First
Amendment: A constitutional analysis. The Journal of Negro Education 72 (4); 487-
Lopez, R.A. The Long Beach Unified School District Initiative: A prevention-intervention Strategy for Urban school. The Journal of Negro Education 72 (4); 396-
Yeung, R. (2009). Are school uniforms a good fit? Results from the ECLS-K and the NELS. Education Policy 23 (6); 847-874
If school uniforms are implemented, universally the culture of the school becomes visibly white washed and some would argue that such a change does not prepare students for "real" life nor stress the value of individuality in such a way that students feel or respond to real social situations they may face as adults that include diverse appearances. Many also argue that though some students may benefit from structures that include strict adherence to school uniform policies, such as problem students who lack discipline in other areas of their life or are prone to violent actions such solutions are a small part of the total package needed in these cases and real mutual earned respect between students, teacher and peers is the real challenge for any student or school culture as such is the basis for curtailed behavior and responsible behaviors, as apposed to everything from mild verbal inappropriateness to…
Daugherty, R.F. (2002). Leadership in Action: Piloting a School Uniform Program. Education, 123(2), 390+. Retrieved January 20, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001509477 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001639496
Evans, D.L. (1996). School Uniforms: An 'Unfashionable' Dissent. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(2), 139. Retrieved January 20, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001639496 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000830160
Hoge, J., Foster, S.J., Nickell, P., & Field, S.L. (2002). Mandatory School Uniforms: A Debate for Students. Social Education, 66(5), 284+. Retrieved January 20, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000830160 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001303927
Additional arguments against school uniforms are the violation of free expression and students' rights and the stifling of student individuality (Schachter 48-49; ilkins 22). These arguments for and against school uniforms do not have enough sway to decide the point alone. If research implied a link to academic or behavioral changes one way or the other, it is likely that such minor matters would fall in line or become only an undercurrent caused by a few students or families (Schachter 49).
Reports and what limited research has been done do imply a partial link to positive results from uniforms. However, these positive results are not worth the amount of time and effort needed to institute and support a uniform program. This is especially true where many American schools are currently under supported and understaffed in libraries, computers, music, drama, and art (Rockney 16). It simply cannot be justified that schools…
Rockney, Randy. "Should school uniforms be mandated in elementary schools?." Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter 21.5 (2005): 8. MasterFILE Premier. 11 December 2006. http://search.ebscohost.com .
Schachter, Ron. "Do Clothes Make the Student?." District Administration 41.5 (2005): 46-49.
Student uniforms are a good idea." American School Board Journal 193.10 (2006): 16.
Wilkins, Julia. "School Uniforms." Humanist 59.2 (1999): 19. Academic Search Premier. 11 December 2006.
Albeit there is not direct link between improvement in students' behavior and academic performance and the use of uniforms, there had been many anecdotes to support this claim. Having students wear uniforms conjures perceptions of order, safety and security as uniforms are viewed as "concrete and visible means of restoring order to the classroom" (Anderson 3).
Uniforms may also lessen incidences of violence and crime against students, as many acts of violence are caused by the association of a certain color or cap with a particular gang (qtd in Anderson 7). Other than gang-related violence, requirement of uniforms may also lower rates of violence against students who are considered "outsiders" or "freaks" who dress "strangely," and are clad in all black and wear black shadow or black lipstick, or even those students that are unfortunate enough just to be wearing "the wrong jacket" (Anderson 7-8). Moreover, because everyone is wearing…
Anderson, Wendell. "School Dress Code and Uniform Policies." Policy Report. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Oregan, 2002.
Johnson, Gregory. "School Uniforms Level Playing Field, Build Students' Characters." USA Today. 13 August 2007: News, Pg. 12a.
Kizis, Sarah. "School Uniforms and Dress Codes: The Pros and Cons." Writing. 23.1
(2000): 18- 20.
In the most serious examples, street gangs and high school fraternities use colors and specific styles of clothing to proclaim allegiances. On occasion, individuals are even assaulted and violently attacked on or in the vicinity of school grounds merely for wearing the wrong colored clothes (Harvard Crimson, 2008). Mandatory school uniforms would solve all three problems. The principal objection to the idea arises in connection with First Amendment concerns and the constitutional right to free expression. However, as in the case with other aspects of constitutional arguments in the educational environment, privacy and free expression principles on the part of students are, to a large degree, suspended on school property (Friedman, 2005). Free expression issues in school necessarily take a backseat to educational concerns, particularly to the extent they relate to the security of the campus environment and the safety of students. Conclusion: Mandatory school uniforms serve three valuable purposes…
Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Harvard Crimson (2008) Uniformly Effective: Troubled Public Schools Should Consider Uniforms to Improve the Classroom Environment. Retrieved October 8, 2008, from the Harvard Crimson Online, at http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=524472
Schools are legally allowed to mandate uniforms for sports as well as protective gear. The ACLU notes that school administrators can make students "wear special stuff like the gym uniforms or goggles if they are needed to protect" them. Although schools cannot restrict hairstyles, certain they can ban certain types of clothing ranging from low-rise jeans that show panties to trench coats that might conceal weapons. The courts can and do balance public safety needs with First Amendment rights. School uniforms are not necessary to improve school safety, even if dress codes might be.
Legal precedent proves that school uniforms pose a genuine threat to student freedoms and constitutional rights: those protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution. School uniforms are unconstitutional because they prevent students from expressing their allegiance with social organizations or with their religious and cultural heritage. Clothing can become means of self-expression and identity formation…
American Civil Liberties Union ACLU (ND). Student freedom of expression. Retrieved Feb 12, 2009 at http://www.aclu-il.org/legal/highschool/teachers/freedomexpression.shtml
Booth, M. (2007). Federal Judge: First Amendment Bars School's Ban on 'Hitler Youth' Badges. New Jersey Law Journal. Retrieved Feb 12, 2009 at http://www.law.com/jsp/article.jsp?id=1190278978670 deMitchell, T.A., Fossey, R., and Cobb, C. (2000). Dress codes in the public schools: principals, policies, and precepts. Retrieved Feb 12, 2009 at http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=info:jPVgHos_DKwJ:scholar.google.com/&output=viewport&pg=1
Felch, R.F. (nd). "School Uniforms: Prevention or Suppression?" Retrieved Feb 12, 2009 at http://www.gate.net/~rwms/UniformRay.html
Hudson, D.L. (2009). Clothing, dress codes, and uniforms. First Amendment Center. Retrieved Feb 12, 2009 at http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/speech/studentexpression/topic.aspx?topic=clothing_dress_codes_uniforms
To complete a comprehensive analysis of the thesis that the proposed study will seek to answer, certain methodologies will be employed. A quantitative study of the data will be initiated in order to ascertain any statistical improvement in educational objectives.
Methods employed by the study will be to use focus groups and questionnaires to gather necessary data. The study will observe two groups in order to provide the data necessary to come to a conclusion. The population of the two groups will be a set number of students from two separate schools. One school will have in place a uniform policy that requires the students to wear appropriate and standardized clothing during school hours. The other school will not have such a policy and will allow the students free rein in their choice of school attire. Each population will hail from a high school with similar demographics, and will…
Ackerman, B.; (2005) White tops, grey bottoms: What are public schools really hoping to accomplish with dress codes?, Macleans, Vol. 118, No. 10, pg. 57
Boutelle, M.; (2008) Uniforms: Are they a good fit?, the Education Digest, Vol. 73, No. 6, pp. 34-37
Barber v. Colo. Indep. Sch. Dist., 901 S."W:2d 447 (Tex. 1995).
Duncan, E.; (2008) Teaching democracy in Iraq, American Teacher, Vol. 92, No. 4, pg. 18
There are also voices who oppose the uniform policy. Their strongest argument is that standardized clothing leads to conformity which hinders individuality and creativity. They argue that by wearing uniforms, students would all be forced into one mold when in fact schools should support diversity, and encourage each child to express his/her creativity including through clothing.
As far as the economic argument, reality tends to disagree with the supporters of uniforms since children would still need clothing for outside school. Also, the problem of peer pressure remains as children have friends and are subjected to the same pressure to conform to certain standards as far as fashion trends and outfits.
Most importantly, violence cannot be reduced by introducing mandatory uniforms. The contrary effect might be achieved in the sense that gangs would still exist, and would probably benefit from standardized clothing since they would be harder to identify by parents…
Knowles, Bryan. "Should School Uniforms be Mandatory?" January 20, 2000 http://speakout.com/activism/issue_briefs/1080b-1.html ?
Wilkins, Julia. "School Uniforms." The Humanist Mar. 1999.
White, Kerry a. "Do School Uniforms Fit?" School Administrator 57 (2000)
Uniforms in School: A Benefit for Students and Educators Alike
In recent years educators, administrators, government officials and even parents and community members have been divided over the issues of school uniforms. While many still violently oppose the notion of mandated uniforms in educational institutions, there is a growing population of people that support uniforms for a variety of reasons.
There have been several studies of late that have examined the potential pros and cons of mandated uniforms at the elementary, middle and high school level. While some of the studies surrounding the issue have revealed little correlation between uniform wear and performance, others have suggested that there are many benefits students and educators have to reap from wearing uniforms. Perhaps the single most advantageous benefit of mandated uniforms is an increased level of safety within the nation's school district. These ideas are examined in greater detail below.
Bodine, A. (2003). "School uniforms, academic achievement and uses of research." The
Journal of Educational Research, 97(2): 67
Cohn, C.A. (1996). Mandatory school uniforms. School Administrator, 53(2): 22
Evans, D.L. (1996). "School uniforms: An unfashionable dissent." Phi Delta Kappan,
School uniform policies have been enforced in many schools over the past few decades. These policies are enforced based on school administrators beliefs that students are ready to learn when they arrive dressed for success (Adams, 2007). However, school uniform policies have become controversial in relation to their potential benefits and impact on student achievement. On one hand, school uniforms are said to impact school safety and academic success through establishing a positive, beneficial learning environment. On the other hand, student achievement is viewed as a construct influenced by various factors including behavioral issues and class attendance/participation rather than how a student dresses. While school uniform policies have become relatively controversial in the recent past, many schools have established dress codes that guide acceptable and unacceptable dress attires in the learning environment. This study examines the benefits of school uniforms on student learning and whether establishing such policies would lessen…
School Uniforms Beneficial?
The topic of whether or not school uniforms are beneficial is timely, since nowadays more and more public schools are opting for such uniforms, in lieu of allowing students to select school wardrobes. Administrators, teachers, parents, and even other students often believe that students in schools that do not require uniforms spend excessive time and energy focusing on their own, and each others', wardrobes, and not focusing enough on becoming educated. The topic is interesting because it calls into question students' freedom of choice, and the freedom of expression wardrobe selection arguably gives them, versus students' responsibility to take school seriously and to learn as much as possible while there. The topic is significant to the field of instruction because it bears on the possibility that students' not wearing school uniforms interferes with teaching and learning; and with classroom attitudes and atmospheres. It also bears on such…
On Wearing School Uniforms
One of the biggest problems that teens face in school is the problem of peer pressure. As Bandura (2018) notes, the pressure to adapt one’s behavior in order to fit in or stand out comes from media, peers and groups—and in a school, peers are the biggest factor. One way to alleviate that pressure is to create an environment in which everyone fits in ipso facto—and that can easily be achieved by obliging all students to wear a school uniform. One is used to seeing students of private schools wear uniforms, but in public schools this idea is typically shunned. There are good arguments to be made, however, for uniforms to be mandated by public schools. First off, research has shown that school uniforms actually promote good conduct among students and more formal adherence to the rules and regulations of the school. Second, parents and teachers…
A school uniforms essay outline will want to follow a basic outline structure, with an introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction should provide the argument. Will the paper be pro school uniforms or against them? Why? Give some hint of the reasons in the introduction. For the body, the outline should focus on each of those reasons, dedicating at least a paragraph to each one. In the conclusion, reiterate the main points of the paper and wrap it up with a final thought. Take a look at our template and example below.
School Uniforms Essay Outline Template
a. The intro needs a hook—something to get the reader’s interest.
b. Follow the hook up with your argument and support it with a few brief ideas.
c. State your thesis—your main point and how you will prove it.
II. First Supporting Paragraph
a. This is where you can put…
Bodine, A. (2003). School uniforms, academic achievement, and uses of research. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(2), 67-71.
Caruso, P. (1996). Individuality vs. conformity: The issue behind school uniforms. NASSP Bulletin, 80(581), 83-88.
Murray, R. K. (1997). The impact of school uniforms on school climate. NASSP Bulletin, 81(593), 106-112.
The Benefits of School Uniforms
Statement of Cause
In a time when the academic status quo is coming into question throughout America, educators, civic leaders, parents, students, and legislatures are left cycling through a myriad of standardized options to ameliorate the system. From gender-segregated classrooms to the implementation of national standard tests grading both students and teachers, suggestions abound on ways the American public might make its school system a better functioning environment for the socialization and academic study of its children. Among many other suggested and sometimes implemented deviations is the option of school uniforms as a mandatory part of American schools. Already a part of many school environments, usually private, parochial, or urban, uniforms come with a heady line of debate to the forefront of systematic discussion. Those in support of uniforms in both primary and secondary school environments stand in staunch opposition to those who…
Uniforms in Public Schools
School uniforms in public schools is becoming more and more of a popular topic, particularly as students head back to class in the coming month or so. The popularity of this topic is in part because more public schools appear to be adopting this policy. "Nearly one in five public schools required uniforms in 2010, up from just one in eight a decade earlier, according to the most recent findings from the U.S. Department of Education. The 60% growth in uniform requirements at school comes despite the fact that research on their effectiveness for safety and school climate is inconclusive" (Loehrke & Murphy, 2013). School uniforms were first envisioned in the 1980s by Marion Barry who felt that a more standardized code of dress in public schools would help these students succeed as adequately as private school students along with minimizing clothing costs and pressures on…
Evans, D., Kremer, M., & Ngatia, M. (2009). The Impact of Distributing School
Uniforms in Kenya. Retrieved from poverty-action.org: http://www.poverty-
Kraft, J. (2003). Society's Attitudes and Perceptions Towards School Uniforms. Retrieved from uw.edu: [HIDDEN]
Pro) School Uniforms
During the last decade, the issue of school uniforms in public schools has become a topic of debate in communities across the country. hile some feel it is an invasion of rights, most parents and school officials believe it is a practical solution to dress code policies as well as a deterrent to school gangs and peer pressure and helps to establish a learning environment.
1991 study found that the main interests in uniform dress code included financial savings for the family, the need to teach children that a person should not be defined by his clothing, and parent concerns that children may commit a crime in order to get the money for designer clothing (Thomas pg). According to 1996 statistics provided by the U.S. Department of Justice, roughly fifty percent of high school students reported weapons in their schools, forty percent reported gangs, seventy-five percent were…
Buckley, William F., Jr. "School uniforms?" National Review. Volume 48.
February 26, 1996; pp.71.
Clinton, Bill President. "Memorandum on the school uniforms manual." Transcript:
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Volume 32. March 04, 1996; pp 368.
" (Bodine et al., 67) the balanced method of investigation strengthens the likely veracity of this finding.
Murray, R. (1997). The Impact of School Uniforms on School Climate. Bulletin, 81(593), 106-112.
With respect to attendance, the study approaches school uniforms as a function of the school's overall environment. The so-called 'climate' of the school will impact student experience, learning desire and the degree to which comfort and productivity are fostered. Murray leads with a point that echoes that expressed in the study by Bodine, indicating that many educators and schools have made policy decisions based on scarce and unreliable research. To this end, the article finds that "despite this lack of research, school districts have implemented school uniforms hoping to improve student attendance, maintain student discipline, ensure student achievement, promote student self-esteem and enhance school climate." (Murray, 106) All indications are that though schools anecdotally report these outcomes, there is…
Examining the "claims that uniforms correlate negatively with academic achievement," published in a prior study, Bodine reexamines the prior study's statistical approach and resolves to the contrary that in most instances, the correlation between the two was actually a positive one. Bodine finds a much stronger support to the claim that there is no actual connection between the imposition of uniforms and the academic achievement thereby produced. As the Bodine study tells, "examination of structure of argument reveals that the erroneous claim results from misleading use of sector analysis. Simultaneous with the JER article, and on the basis of the same National Education Longitudinal Study: 1988 database, an Educational Testing Service article reported that no correlation exists between uniforms and achievement." (Bodine et al., 67) the balanced method of investigation strengthens the likely veracity of this finding.
Murray, R. (1997). The Impact of School Uniforms on School Climate. Bulletin, 81(593), 106-112.
With respect to attendance, the study approaches school uniforms as a function of the school's overall environment. The so-called 'climate' of the school will impact student experience, learning desire and the degree to which comfort and productivity are fostered. Murray leads with a point that echoes that expressed in the study by Bodine, indicating that many educators and schools have made policy decisions based on scarce and unreliable research. To this end, the article finds that "despite this lack of research, school districts have implemented school uniforms hoping to improve student attendance, maintain student discipline, ensure student achievement, promote student self-esteem and enhance school climate." (Murray, 106) All indications are that though schools anecdotally report these outcomes, there is both limited empirical research to confirm this and it is simultaneously given a counterpoint by the loss of individuality and creativity which some individuals have reported.
To insure purity of study results controls were placed on elements including student track placement and other divisional programs.
The dependant variables included absenteeism, behavior problems, substance abuse and achievement,
This particular study did not support the idea that school uniforms will reduce behavior problems and attendance problems.
A significant negative effects of uniforms on achievement, an outcome of much concerns to educators and policy makers.
While the study did not indicate improvements in behavior and attendance it is important to note that the study was performed in a Catholic education setting, which could have had other contributing factors to the rate of behavior issues or lack of them. In the public school setting the majority of administrators report that there is in fact a significant and statistically measurable change for the better with regards to behavior issues and attendance. In addition the research has shown that there…
Scherer, M. (1991). School snapshot: Focus on African-American culture. Educational Leadership, 49, 17-19.
Stover, D. (1990). The dress mess. American School Board Journal. 177, 26-29.
Thomas, S. (1994, October 20). Uniforms in the schools: Proponents say it cuts competition: Others are not so sure. Black Issues in Higher Education, 11, 44-47.
Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. hile school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have…
Brunsma, David and Kerry A. Rockquemore. "The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement." 92(1): 53-62. The Journal of Educational Research (1998).
Court Orders School to Enroll Honors Student Who Protested Mandatory Uniform Policy. Retrieved on November 17, 2002 from web site http://www.aclu.org/StudentsRights/StudentsRights.cfm?ID=8077&c=156
Emert Suggests Mandatory School Uniforms. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from web site http://www.morningsun.net/stories/092099/kan_0920990017.shtml
Holmquist, Micah. "Uniformed Public Schools." Retrieved on November 15, 2002 from web site http://www.stormpages.com/micahth/youth/su.html
students what they think about school uniforms, they're likely to dismiss them with a summary: They're ugly.
If you ask school administrators and teachers what they think, you're likely to get only slightly more nuanced responses. Some school officials believe that uniforms are a godsend in terms of reducing discipline problems - including violence - and in instilling a sense of pride and mission in the student. Others - in the minority - believe that they stifle individuality.
And if you ask parents what they think, they usually approve of uniforms because they are cheaper and prevent fights in the morning with children who want to wear plunging necklines or dragging cuffs.
Is there a single truth about school uniforms that lies somewhere in the middle of all of these differing opinions? Or is it simply a ashoman-like tale, with differing reports from all of those concerned?
This research project…
Uniform Computer Information Transaction Act
The prevailing decade has been significantly marked as a decade of high technology and advancements. The most technological nations across the world have drifted from conventional and traditional brick and mortars business to the online rather the dot com era of advancements.
Either of the two generations of the dot com business advancement, accessibility and understandability remained the core issues. The very ideology that forms the mainstream of the e-commerce business is the exchange of goods and services for an equivalent amount of cash payment. The e-commerce business completes its phase of existence by means of the common modes that include
Business to business transaction
Business to consumer transactions
Consumer to consumer transaction
Business to government transaction
Government to business transaction
Consumer to government transaction
Government to consumer transaction
Because the basic condition to satisfy the online transaction involves the exchange of goods and services…
Alboukrek, K. (2003). Adapting to a New World of E-commerce: the Need for Uniform Consumer Protection in the International Electronic Marketplace. The George Washington International Law Review, 35(2), 425+. from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036117158
Bouchoux, D.E. (2001). Protecting Your Company's Intellectual Property: A Practical Guide to rademarks, Copyrights, Patents and Trade Secrets. New York: AMACOM. from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111445265
Koslow, S.H. & Huerta, M.E. (Eds.). (2000). Electronic Collaboration in Science. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15472216
Mahdi, S.A. (2001). Gateway to Arbitration: Issues of Contract Formation under the U.c.c. And the Enforceability of Arbitration Clauses Included in Standard Form Contracts Shipped with Goods. Northwestern University Law Review, 96(1), 403+. from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035784172
school uniforms within a school system. Ideas such as school discipline, student behavior, and academic achievement are discussed along with examples of why different schools have implemented student use of uniforms. Various viewpoints are presented, along with proponents and opponents concerns for the actual implementation of uniforms.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ITHIN A SCHOOL SYSTEM: AFFECTS ON DISCIPLINE AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Many schools across the United States have adopted school uniforms to meet the needs for a mandatory dress code. There are many opposing arguments on the issue of whether public school students in the United States should be required to wear uniforms or obey dress codes. Improvement of discipline and academic performance, reduction of fashion competition among students are a few of the reasons given in support of implementing school uniforms. However, the opposing viewpoints maintain that requiring school uniforms are a violation of students' First Amendment right to…
Brunsma, David. "Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use and Academic Achievement." Journal of Educational Research 92 (1998) 53-63.
Clinton, William J. Text of Presidential Memo to Secretary of Education on School Uniforms Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
Clinton, William J. Transcript of Presidential Radio Address to the Nation.
Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
This debate does not include the fact that peer pressure in many public schools causes families to spend much more on "street clothes" so that their kids are not embarrassed or bullied because they do not have the latest fashions. (a single pair of the least expensive GAP girl's jeans can run $30 -- two to three times the cost of uniform pants or skirt). It seems clear that the argument that public school uniforms are more expensive may be difficult to prove.
The second, and most often used, argument against school uniforms is that they stifle self-expression and inhibit individuality. These are normally arguments from parents of children who have not yet participated in a school uniform policy. Most parents, in my research, who have a child who goes to a public school with a uniform policy say that their child expresses their individuality and self-expression in many other…
Educationbug.org. "Public SChool Uniform Statistics." 2010. educationbug.org. 17 March 2010 .
LBUSD. "School Uniform Fact Sheet." 2010. Long Beach Unified School District (LBUSD). 17 March 2010 .
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. hile the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms,…
Access Control & Security Systems Integration Facility Systems Staff. "Devising an effective school security plan." Access Control & Security Systems Integration (1 July 2000).
Bowman, Darcia Harris. "Federal Study Stresses Warning Signs of School Violence."
Education Week 21(15)(12 Dec 2001), 12.
Clinton, Bill. "Memorandum on the School Uniforms Manual." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (March 4, 1996), 368-369.
Moseley, chair of the Coalition advisory board and president and CEO of the Academy for Educational Development. "It is not a luxury that can be addressed at some point in the future, but rather it provides people with the tools to survive and improve their lives" (Basic Education Coalition 2004). There is no one magical, quick fix solution to Bermuda's dropout problem. The problem is complex and requires a complex array of solutions. It is the intent of this paper to study the scope of this hidden crisis, the poor dropout and graduation rates of Bermuda's Public High School System, by reviewing the most recent and accurate data on graduation and dropout rates, exploring the reasons that young people drop out of school, and presenting the most promising models for helping high school students graduate with their peers.
CHAPTER TO: LITERATURE REVIE
This chapter provides a review of the…
Winters, K.C.; Rubenstein, M.; and Winters, R.A. An Investigation of Education Options for Youth-at-Risk, Ages 9 to 15: Demographics, Legislation, and Model Programs. Research Report No. 88-10. Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), May 1988.
Wood, G.D., & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-62.
Wood, L.A. "An Unitended Impact of One Grading Practice." Urban Education 29/2 (1994): 188-201.
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
Student isolation and teacher autonomy have been perpetuated, where there is a basic lack of collaboration in the learning process.
Although student collaboration in the teaching process is not necessarily a novel idea, integrating teachers in this process is. In all learning and teaching models, the role of the teacher has always been one of superiority in terms of knowledge. Students are regarded as subordinate, deferring to the teacher for their learning process. In Carroll's model, teachers truly become collaborators with students, working together to gain new knowledge, making an enriching experience for everyone involved. Central to this model is the sense of community.
On major challenge here is that Carroll's proposed model is so radically different from all education models developed thus far, that it is likely to meet significant resistance in educational circles. At the heart of this resistance is not necessarily only the pride of leaders and…
Caine, R.N. And Caine, G. Understanding why Education Must Change. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved from: http://home.avvanta.com/~building/trans/caine_change.htm
Carroll, T.G. If we didn't have schools today, would we create the schools we have today?
Kokinos, P. (2010). Changing the Schools can Change the World. Retrieved from: http://changetheschools.com/
Violence in American Schools
(a & b) Columbine High School is in Jefferson County in Littleton, Colorado. In the spring of 1999, two male senior students executed a plan to commit a brutal series of violent acts against their fellow students, teachers, and staff. In essence, they took the school by siege and they took every person within the school hostage. There were several aspects to the plan. These domestic terrorists definitely premeditated this attack, which included specific activities to block or hinder the fire department that was bound to arrive on scene. They ignited explosions in the school (such as the cafeteria and parking lot), but what people mostly remember are the shootings. They killed 12 students and 1 teacher. Dozens of other students were injured because they tried to flee the scene to save their lives. Eventually, the two attackers turned their guns upon themselves and committed…
NBC News. (2007). Worst U.S. shooting ever kills 33 on Va. campus. NBC News, Web, Available from: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/18134671/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/worst-us-shooting-ever-kills-va-campus/ . 2013 June 25.
Shen, A. (2012). A Timeline of Mass Shooting in the U.S. since Columbine. Think Progress, Web, Available from: http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/12/14/1337221/a-timeline-of-mass-shootings-in-the-us-since-columbine/?mobile=nc . 2013 June 25.
Toppo, G. (2009). 10 years later, the real story behind Columbine. USA Today, Web, Available from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-04-13-columbine-myths_N.htm?POE=click-refer . 2013 June 25.
The environment at School1, were I am employed revolves around the many different standards of behavior and conduct. While much of this conduct is derived by local customs and habits, the imposing of law and order also significantly contributes to what is and what is not allowed. The purpose of this essay is to explore the relationship with both state and federal laws and School 1. This essay will explore the law and its applications to my school by examining key points and relevant issues related to these interactions.
Background Of Trenton School District
It is important to understand the starting point of this discussion in order to see the bigger influences that state and local governments have on the school district. According to the districts website, the mission of this school district is " All students will graduate with a vision for their futures, motivated to learn…
These sheets contain information regarding a substances hazard class and steps an employee or organization should take if any person is exposed to the hazardous substance in question. Also provided is detailed information regarding the handling and care of hazardous materials.
HAZMAT Training equirements
It is absolutely essential to the livelihood and well being of employees and organizations that anyone involved in transporting hazmat is adequately tested, trained and certified. Training can mean the difference between life and death for individuals working with hazardous materials. Fortunately there are federal and state regulations that currently govern the types of training employers must offer with respect to hazmat. This training is standardized to ensure that ell people handling hazardous materials are adequately informed and trained regarding transportation, handling and any problems they might encounter during daily operations with hazmat materials.
HAZMAT training is any training for employees that operate a motor vehicle…
CDL. (2005). DOL - CDL FAQs." CDL Department of Licensing. 25, Sept 2005:
EHS. (2005). "DOT definition of hazardous material." 26, Sept 2005:
Uniforms in Catholic Schools
This topic has increased in relevance during this particular time frame since St. Cyril's was recently allowed in the athletic league known as the East Bay Athletic Association (EBAA), in which it regularly encounters other Catholic school teams in friendly sports competition. This fact, and others, has contributed to the stark contrast between St. Cyril's and other Catholic schools which largely takes the form of the fact that the former is one of the only Catholic schools in the East Bay (and certainly within the aforementioned league) to not mandate the wearing of uniforms for its students. Traditionally, the two partisan sides related to this argument are that most of the students want to preserve the status quo and not wear school uniforms, while certain administrators -- including faculty, staff, and a growing number of parents -- are voicing their concern that uniforms should be required.…
Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.
Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…
Ansari, Asim, Skander Essegaier, and Rajeev Kohli. "Internet Recommendation Systems." Journal of Marketing Research 37.3 (2000).
Bannan, Karen J. "Clean It Up." PC Magazine 20.16 (2001).
Beguette, Glenda, et al. Internet Content Filtering and Cipa Legislation. 2002. Available: http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/tsullivl/469Sp02/filtering.html. June 26, 2005.
Bell, Bernard W. "Filth, Filtering, and the First Amendment: Ruminations on Public Libraries' Use of Internet Filtering Software." Federal Communications Law Journal 53.2 (2001): 191-238.
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
John Keatings and the prep school in Dead Poet's Society: Where do they fit in the philosophies of education?
John Keatings is, if not anything else, an original thinker and teacher in Dead Poet's Society. The film does not at all bother to hide this fact even in the opening sequences: Keatings is shown as different from the other teachers even by virtue of his grimaces and squeamishness.
John Locke wrote of education, "Virtue is harder to be got than knowledge of the world; and, if lost in a young man, is seldom recovered." John Keatings believes in this Lockian principle, but only to a certain degree. In his classroom, Keatings stressed virtue: He taught his students how to live and feel and treat one another as much as he taught them to classics. In fact, he deliberately skips the theoretical works in the class -- even having his students…
Johnson, Tony & Reed, Ronald. "Philosophical Documents in Education." Second Edition.
Proposed Products and Services
Market Industry Position
ole of Information Systems
Information Systems Structure
Eagle Flight School and Shop will be a flight school for future pilots and a store where pilots and students can purchase everything from clothing (apparel) to flight bags to headsets. The Flight School will provide classes that will allow students to acquire a pilot's license in accordance with government rules associated with the minimum number of flight hours and the government approved curriculum. The mission of Eagle flight school is to provide pilots with the proper instruction as it pertains to all aspects of air travel and to provide both students and professionals with the equipment needed to carry out their duties as pilots. The flight school will provide a…
Balasubramanian, S., Konana P.and Menon N. M, (2003)"Customer Satisfaction in Virtual Environments: A Study of Online Investing," Management Science, 49, 7,, 871-889.
Bhatnagar R., A.K. Srivastava+,A. (2010) An Implementation Approach for Intrusion
Detection System in Wireless sensor Network. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, 2(7), 2453-2456
"Data Resources." Retrieved from http://www.learn.geekinterview.com/data-warehouse/data-management/what-is-data-resource.html
In order to shed some preliminary light on the problem being investigated two female freshman students having come from an all girls' school high school environment were selected for observation and interviewing. On the basis of the data retrieved from this preliminary step the research investigator will form a focus group of 10 similar situational freshman students for an in-depth qualitative assessment and analysis. The interview questions and observation format used for the preliminary sample will be applied to the focus group as well. As such compliance to the principle of standardization of data being retrieved will be maintained as well as its integrity.
Guiding Interview Questions. The uniqueness of qualitative research endeavors lies in the accepted principle that interviews can be expanded upon so long as the bottom line intent remains the same, namely uniform data in support of the research question. In order to garner the necessary information…
financially supplementing a federally funded program for special needs students? Why are these significant?
The most significant concerns when financially supplementing a federally funded program for special needs students are a) that funds are not depleting accounts designated for general students, as Baker and amsey (2010) have indicated; and b) that funds are evenly dispersed among schools and not concentrated only in certain areas of a state while other areas/school districts are ignored.
These two main issues are significant because they highlight potential risks that are concomitant with the issue of federal funding programs for special needs students. Because funds are allocated in a general manner and left up to the state and/or district to divvy out, the potential for abuse or for misallocation is prevalent and requires a strong risk management solution on both a state and local level in order for the concerns to be properly addressed. If…
Baker, B. & Ramsey, M. (2010). What We Don't Know Can't Hurt Us? Equity
Consequences of Financing Special Education on the Untested Assumption of Uniform Needs. Journal of Education Finance, 35(3): 245-275.
Verstegen, D. (2011)Public Education Finance Systems in the United States and Funding
Policies for Populations with Special Educational Needs. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 19(21): 21-34.
Anytown, New York 10200
District Senior Management
Director, Curriculum Development
Strategic Game Plan for Change: School Uniforms
Description of the need, purpose, and focus of the change initiative
Following the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, there have been increased calls for accountability among educators who provide the educational services for the country's young learners. In response, across the country, a growing number of school districts have implemented school uniforms as part of their larger efforts to improve student discipline and morale as well as better academic outcomes (Walmsley, 2011). For example, one educator emphasizes that, "The presence of school uniforms brings a sense of duty to the students and respect for the school and teachers. School uniforms help students focus on school and not each other's clothes. Because students dress in uniforms, they're reminded that their 'job' is to be a student"…
Forcey, L.R., & Harris, I.M. (1999). Peacebuilding for adolescents: Strategies for educators and community leaders. New York: Peter Lang.
Kaplan, R.S. & Norton, D.P. (1992, January-February). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review, 71-79.
-. (2001). Transforming the balanced scorecard from performance measurement to s strategic management: Parts I and II. Accounting Horizons, 15(1), 87.
Mclean, R. (2006). Alignment: Using the balanced scorecard to create corporate synergies.
My notable contributions in this capacity include obtaining investment funding and sponsorships, securing a co-production partnership with Storm 360, a leading West African entertainment company, and forging media partnerships with HiTV, Silverbird TV, NN24, and BusinessDay among others. In addition, I established and implemented overall business objectives of becoming a world-class production and broadcast company offering international broadcast content to strengthen the spirit of enterprise and human development throughout Africa and across the globe. Furthermore, I played an integral role in representing company in key business negotiations.
Further, I also played a pivotal leadership role in winning various team-based tasks, including developing and marketing a new fast-food chicken entree for Chicken Republic, planning and executing a hotel redecoration project at Eko Hotel & Suites, presenting a route to market's strategy for West Africa's largest cell phone provider, Celtel, and formulating a marketing strategy for a new energy drink for Nigeria's…
esponding to hate crimes
Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
eference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. etrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Black's law dictionary. (1990).…
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. Retrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
American economy was growing at an exponential rate with unlimited job opportunities available in almost every industry. With the stock market breaking record highs, new upstart "dot.com" companies making millions in their first year and doubling of jobs in the service sector, a bright and stable future seemed almost a guarantee for many high school students who would soon be entering the job markets. This growth, however short lived, is now in a downhill progression with the plummeting stock market, many computer companies in bankruptcy, and American companies laying people off in record numbers and downsizing nationally. Combine this recession with globalization and American high school students are now facing fierce competition nationally and internationally for jobs. The question is whether or not your average American high school graduate is scholastically prepared to compete for these sought-after jobs? Unfortunately, I don't think so and I hope to provide valid evidence…
"Korea, North," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001
http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2000 Microsoft Corporation 17 Feb 2002
"Education," Life in Korea. (LIK) http://www.lifeinkorea.com/Informatino/education.cfm 17 Feb 2002
"Korean School System," Korean Family Living. http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Ginza/7978/school.html 17 Feb 2002
attainment of a desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward the situation, event, occurrence, or phenomenon being investigated. As such no research question can be answered by way of gathering and analyzing data if first investigative issue is not stated in testable terms or form. Once a research investigator has established and properly formatted the specific research design to be used to investigate and test a desired phenomenon attention can be given to the required method of data collection. On the basis of the method chosen the researcher will be permitted to draw the necessary conclusions from the data statistically analyzed. Should a research investigator not choose the best-fit method of data collection then any inferences drawn from the data analysis are subject to a tremendous amount of error and inaccuracy. In order to avoid data error and inaccuracy the research investigator must give particular attention to…
Furguson, George A. (1966). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
Kerlinger, Fred (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best-Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs.
Part I Research Process
Using the Internet Explorer search engine, "ergen County Passaic County" was typed in. It returned no results for any gang issues. The search terms, "ergen county Passaic County gang issues in local community" was entered. It returned the results on an article, "State police survey shows gang activity in all N.J. counties" (Fabiano, 2011). The article named ergen County as one in nine counties with higher than average gang presence. The article also talked about law enforcement officials questioning the results of the survey based on the results not adding up to the number of arrests that were gang related. And, another problem of a significant population of illegal immigrants staying isolated from police and being a breeding ground for gangs.
The search terms, "New Jersey gang statistics" was entered. It returned the 2007 State police survey that compared data to the 2004 survey…
New Jersey Announces Gang Suppression Initiative Through Stepped Up Enforcement and Awareness Efforts. (2001, Nov 16). Retrieved from New Jersey's Online Gang Free Community: http://www.njgangfree.org/gang-news/launch1116.htm
Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal Law Enforcement Response to 2007 NJSP Gang Survey. (2007). Retrieved from New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety: http://www.state.nj.us/njsp/info/pdf/njgangsurvey-2007.pdf
Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal Law Enforcement Response to the 2010 NJSP Gang Survey. (2010). Retrieved from New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety: http://www.njsp.org/infor/pdf./gangs_in_nj_2010.pdf
Fabiano, G. & . (2011, Jan 28). State police survey shows gang activity in all N.J. counties. Retrieved from NewJersey.com: http://www.northjersey.com/news/012811_State_police_survey_shows_gang_activity_in_all_NJ_counties.html
Like Jesus, the Buddha was a teacher who cared about the poor and desired to liberate others from all of the suffering in the world. I learned that Buddha was born a wealthy man, but one day, when he had left his fine home, he saw men who were sick, old, and dying, and was instantly struck by the injustice of the world. He resolved to leave his comfortable life and to find Enlightenment as a result. For many years, he embarked upon a spiritual journey of extreme asceticism. Then, one day, while on a long and terrible fast, a young girl offered him a bowl of milk and rice. The Buddha was so moved by her gestures and the simplicity of her kindness he was able to achieve Enlightenment, or an understanding and acceptance of the impermanence of all things.
Although some people find Buddhism depressing, Buddhism's teaching about…
Boys and Girls Learn Differently! -- Michael Gurian and Patricia Henley
Michael Gurian's book has been a best seller and a much-discussed, respected handbook on the topic of boys vs. girls in a learning milieu since it was published in 2001. But more than its popularity and success in the market, Gurian's book has made a positive impact on parents, teachers, counselors and others interested in education and human development because it delves into the neurological, chemical and hormonal disparities between boys and girls. Gurian's book is a well-presented narrative and moreover it is based on the author's vast experience as a teacher, family therapist and researcher -- and his ability to relate those experiences well.
There are many significant points in the book that make it valuable in today's educational setting. For one, the author offers believable, reader-friendly narrative on why boys and girls process information differently. For another,…
Gurian, Michael, Henley, Patricia, and Trueman, Terry. (2001). Boys and Girls Learn
Differently! San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
drastic changes in the last few decades is the availability of information from electronic sources. This information tends to be global, and is so pervasive that it is often difficult to manage and analyze sources and material. Media, by its very nature, is biased. egardless of the intent, what is shown, told, or pictured is important; but what is also important is what is not shown, not told, or not pictured. In the context of organizational behavior, it is important to remember that one must be an informed consumer of information when reading or viewing sources. Evaluating sources should become second nature if only a few sets of cognitive tools are used: who is the author? What are their credentials and what is their bias and point-of-view (even academics have bias)? What is being said or pictured? How does it relate to past knowledge? Where may I go to verify…
Evaluating Internet Resources. (2002). Illinois State University Millner Library. Retrieved from: http://www.mlb.ilstu.edu/ressubj/subject/intrnt/evaluate.htm
Helm, T. And Busby, E. (2011). School Uniform Costs 'break the bank" for Poorer Families. The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2011/sep/03/school-uniform-costs-break-bank
Scott, W.R. (2007). Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural and Open Systmes. New York: Prentice Hall.
Non-Governmental Organization Placement: Examination of the Experience of Students In NGO Placement
The objective of this work is to examine the experience of students on the NGO placement in Nigeria. The NGO at focus is that of St. Joseph Orphanage and Women Development Center. The writer of this work was provided with an excellent opportunity to exam the organization chart and policy of the non-governmental and non-profit organization. In addition, the writer of this work was provided with insight on how the organization raises money to finance and sustain its diverse projects in Nigeria. During the course of job placement of this researcher with this NGO organization, and specifically St. Joseph Women Development and orphanage center it was amazing to realize that Media and Communication organizations play a significant role in the promotion and creation of community awareness and awareness on the national level. Consideration of the barriers…
Anderson, P., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R., & Hubbard, A. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 457-469.
Artz, L. (2001). Critical ethnography for communication studies: Dialogue and social justice. The Southern Communication Journal, 66(3), 239-250.
Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory of higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(4), 297-308.
Backhouse, Judy Pamela (2009) Doctoral Education in South Africa: Models, Pedagogies and Stucent Experiences. February 2009.
Unlike the other series, the 21 Up is unfocused and rambling. Its content is pretty complex. This paper seeks to explicate on the changes that have taken place in the lives of the 21-year olds in the movie 21-Up series. The dreams they had while young have change for some of them. However, some still hold onto their dreams to become lawyers. They no longer wear school uniforms like in 7 Up Series and hence their personal style is well seen in the 21-Up series. most of the 21- year olds are no longer shy but have high self-esteem.
The 21-Up Series
The thing that surprised me most
My biggest surprise was what most of the 21- year olds had turned out, unlike my prior expectations as from the 14 Up series. The three prep-boys, John, Charles, and Andrew are now in college. Andrew and John are doing law…
The average mission would likely cost only a nominal localized expense and would open previously unattainable achievements to the participants involved, to the community in which they serve and to every future business, personal and social encounter they have. Gaining leadership, management skills, and cultural awareness of diverse international communities and peoples is a necessary goal of most individuals, and yet it is often a someday sort of dream. This programs' most urgent goal is to develop a set of structures that will result in individuals who wish to do so to immediately be able to realize their goals and visions. To realize these objectives the IDSA will continue to foster ideas and develop goals that focus the program to a set of ten or less locals that will be appropriate for international participant involvement. This goal will be achieved by two months after the close of the social awareness…
Most of the victims are innocent and most are poor. Worsening social and economic conditions draw more people into criminality, a vicious circle that reinforces poverty.
Working Capital traps: Micro-entrepreneurs can only afford a tiny inventory, so their sales are so meager that they are unable to purchase a larger inventory the next day, and secondly they do not find any feasible borrowing scheme from government. (Stephen C. Smith. Poverty Traps and Global Development. The Globalist. May 15, 2006)
Poverty trap is more psychological impact as well and can be changed with changes in the culture and advertising, which will attract and turn the people hopeful.
Eighty percent of poor people become poorer when they gamble, but when wining seems the only hope, many poor people are prepared to take that risk, dazzled by the opulence of the rich. Poverty is increased when money-wealth is accumulated by means that do…
United Nation Economic Forum. Population Growth and Economic Development. United Nations. 2004.
Stephen C. Smith. Poverty Traps and Global Development. The Globalist. May 15, 2006.
Costas Azariadis, John Stachurski. Poverty Traps. Handbook of Economic Growth. Department of Economic, the University of Melbourne.
Launches Directly Into Its Central Point:
The HIV / AIDS Prevention and Control Office (HAPCO) has been responsible for the coordination of multi-sectorial HIV / AIDS programming at the national and regional levels in Ethiopia since it's inception in 2000. To date, the HIV / AIDS response across ministries and their regional bureaus has been quite limited. This is due to a number of factors; the varying capacity of HAPCO across the regions and at the national level, the ambiguous role of HAPCO in terms of accountability and reporting (it is not a ministerial level body); limited human, financial and institutional capacity to implement multisectoral programs and a range of competing priorities.
On the other hand, the paper is abstruse and tortuous and therefore there is difficulty in realizing that this is its central point. I had to read the paper several times to work out what this central point…
Davis (2007) stated that baseline testing must be performed at a young age so that children with prosopagnosia do not grow feelings of isolation and depression for now, there is no treatment available with prosopagnosia same with dyslexia or autism, however once parents become familiar with their child who have this condition, parents will be able to adjust with the situation, although it can be difficult emotionally, specifically if their child cannot identify them as his/her parents; on the contrary, it is not as good as when parents reprimand their child for something that can not be managed and for the children who have prosopagnosia, it can be reassuring to be acquainted with why their parent can be at times appear unaware to them.
Duchaine and Garrido (2008) said that the results are constant with face-specific processes, but it is also consistent with other accounts of face recognition, cases illustrating…
ABC News (2007, July). Faceblindness: Forgetting Familiar Faces, People With the Disorder Have Normal Vision Otherwise. Retrieved on March 21, 2009 at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=3361813&page=1&CMP=OTC-RSSFeeds0312 .
Burman, C. (2002). Prosopagnosia (Face Blindness). Retrieved on March 21, 2009 at http://www.prosopagnosia.com/main/pa/.
Choisser, B. (2002). Face Blind! Retrieved on March 21, 2009 at http://www.choisser.com/faceblind/ .
Davis, J. (2007, March). Face Blind. Wired Magazine. Retrieved on March 21, 2009 at http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~ptrapnel/stories/FaceBlind.html.
These other Gap, Inc. stores have more of a core brand image, even if their clothing is more expensive.
Step 3 - Determine MC Objectives
Convey the uniqueness of the Old Navy brand. It is fun, gives the consumer value for his or her dollar, and has insight into youthful 'hip' trends.
Step 4 - Develop Strategies and Tactics
Old Navy is making use of Twitter and YouTube with its SuperModelquins campaign, which uses interactive as well as old media to sell its clothing with plastic, created dolls, all with unique lives and personalities the consumer can follow online (Anderson 2009). The approach is edgy, yet will not alienate mothers who shop at Old Navy for their children.
Step 5 - Set the Budget
The use of new media can act as a method of cost-containment, given that advertising through such sources will reach more of the target audience. More…
Anderson, Mae. (2009, February 29). Old Navy's new ad campaign heavy on 'quirky'
Money AOL. Retrieved July 4, 2009 at http://money.aol.com/news/articles/_a/bbdp/old-navys-new-ad-campaign-heavy-on/359240
Duncan, T. (2004). Principles of advertising & IMC. New York: McGraw-Hill.
' However, ill-tempered is a somewhat subjective judgment, given that the protestors of the civil rights era were likely to be judged as similarly 'ill tempered' by those who opposed African-American legal parity with whites. King's claim of lovingly breaking the law did not mean that he joyously accepted his punishment of jail time for exercising his rights in the segregated south: King may have embraced his punishment because of his hopes for change, not out of some sort of self-abnegating humility. The civil rights movement was about self-assertion of one's rights. The love in his heart came from his hope for the possibility of change. This did not mean, just like contemporary groups, that he was not outraged by his jailing and the violent actions of the police against civil rights demonstrators.
But James J. Lopach and Jean A. Luckowski seem to have another agenda: their distaste for the…
An Internal Analysis of the al-Mart Corporation
The al-Mart Corporation is among the most successful, recognizable and notorious brand names. The chain of retail stores is associated with low prices, convenient one-stop shopping and geographically permeating accessibility. However, the retail chain is also frequently associated with a poor record on labor rights, negative performance in environmental categories, destructive community orientation, abuse of human rights in its developing sphere production operations, distribution of low-grade products and a general strategy of stifling local business enterprises and devastating local economies. The result is a relative mixed outlook for al-Mart, which will certainly continue to enjoy some level of dominance in the U.S. And global retail markets but which must also work to make internal organizational changes that can improve its reputation and its compliance with expectations regarding the environment, human rights, labor and community citizenship. The internal analysis conducted here below…
Banker, S. (2010). The Walmart Sustainability Value Chain. Logistics Viewpoints.
Blanchard, C. (2008). Adding Value to Service Providers: Benchmarking Wal-Mart. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 15(2), 166-177.
Chandran, P.M. (2003). Wal-Mart's Supply Chain Management Practices. ICFAI Center for Management Research.
Gogoi, P. (2008). Wal-Mart Supplier Accused of Sweatshop Conditions. BusinessWeek.