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With the research conducted between the years 1997 and 1998 in the United States and Europe shows that the rate of crime was high and the culprits were never given any chance to defend themselves whenever they appeared before the court of law. This made the courts to be full and the prisons to be overcrowded as criminals saw that there was no justice in their rulings. It is through this that the judges, probation officers, prosecutors, lawyers, advocates and the police sat down and came up with a program that would enable the culprits to defend themselves and to feel that justice has been practiced.
The adopted measures have been considered under the restorative justice dialogue, which has become a common practice. While there are four forms of restorative justice, the emphasis of these programs has been to always involve victims and offenders in dialogue. Most of…… [Read More]
Individual restorative justice paper: Case study
Traditionally, the debate about the purpose of the justice system has revolved around the question of whether punishment should be retributive or rehabilitative in nature. Those who favor a retributive model stress the need for criminals to pay their debts to society and view the purpose of the justice system as primarily to punish convicts through confinement and forcing them to work. Those who advocate a rehabilitative model stress the need to reform prisoners, through measures such as education and counseling. They believe that imprisonment alone merely embitters prisoners and reinforces convict's sense of membership in an ostracized, criminal class. Also the desire for revenge, while understandable on the part of the victim, is not a base emotion that should necessarily be acknowledge by the justice system
The restorative model attempts to provide a different perspective of how to deal with criminals…… [Read More]
Variations of the area court model, such as teen courts, medicine courts, and household physical violence courts, focus on specific concerns in order to establish even more extensive options. The underlying presumption of neighborhood courts is that neighborhoods are deeply damaged by the sentencing procedure yet are seldom spoken with and associated with judicial results.
Community justice has actually been slowest to show up in the correctional industry. Maybe this is since the existing term, "community corrections," provides the impression of community justice. Under conventional techniques to this industry, corrections get in the neighborhood; however the neighborhood never ever makes it into corrections. However, numerous brand-new tasks have actually arisen that look for correctional outcomes that recover sufferers and offenders (Van Ness and Strong 1997; Galaway and Hudson 1996), while likewise including locals in setting sanctions and examining correctional concerns. An earlier publication by the American Probation and Parole…… [Read More]
According to ichards (2004), however, the history of restorative justice outside of the specifically named restorative justice procedures that are littered throughout U.S. criminal justice history is difficult to determine. Although she cites work that suggests restorative justice has been around since the dawn of time, she argues that some histories are used as a means to convince others of the importance of restorative justice and, therefore, often exaggerate it to appear like a process that occurs naturally with little work (ichards, 2004). Thus, the history of restorative justice as a whole can be described as lengthy, but murky.
It is precisely for this reason that interdisciplinary study and research in pubic safety must focus on this topic. Although much is known as restorative justice and its supposed benefits, it is necessary to further establish its history, along with its effectiveness in certain situations. Through this continued research, it will…… [Read More]
However the law demands that the course of action should be experimented, and evaluated on the grounds that if they are reasonable, restorative, and respectful. The offenders should comply by the standards of safety, values, ethics, responsibility, accountability and civility. The offenders should be exposed to the same nature of crime experienced by the victims, and should be provided with the chance of learning empathy. Such an offender should be provided with opportunities to be productive member of society. The participation of the offender into social and community affairs should be well received and acknowledged. The offender should be equipped with the values and fundamentals required to be productive member of the society.
There are certain provisions in the law to implement follow-up and accountability structures, with the coordination of community. The law supports the notion of keeping agreement and parity with the community for creating trusting community. The role…… [Read More]
Ruth-Heffelbauer, D. (2006). Restorative Justice FAQ. Victim Offender Mediation Association. Online at http://www.voma.org/rjfaq.shtml
The source composed for the Victim Offender Mediation Association is a fact sheet and statement of purpose for the organization, detailing its efforts to bring about a greater acceptance of this methodology in mainstream legal contexts. Based in the United States, VOMA assembles legal experts and criminal justice advocates who view the benefits of restorative justice as tantamount to better preventing criminal recidivism and promoting a sense of redemption for the victim.
A contribution to the field is VOMA's service as a forum for restorative justice processes. The FAQ here provided would indicate that "Victim Offender Mediation is usually a face-to-face meeting, in the presence of a trained mediator, between the victim of a crime and the person who committed that crime. The practice is also called victim-offender dialogue, victim-offender conferencing, victim-offender reconciliation, or restorative justice dialogue.…… [Read More]
Instead, Hadley (2001) argues that an understanding of the role of spirituality in restorative justice today can encourage peaceful communities both domestically and internationally. In fact, the spiritual component of restorative justice left lingering from its formation impacts today's attempts to practice restorative justice at the individual, communal, and international levels. In each scenario, components of spirituality remaining from the spiritual roots of restorative justice can help bring healing to a set of offenders and victims, in addition to fostering community cohesion.
On the individual level, the goal of restorative justice focuses on the individual who offended and his or her victim, although the entire community involved in the conflict can be brought in to the attempt to restore justice are often included. On the other hand, the community goal of restorative justice is bringing the community together in order to form a better functioning society. In her article, "The…… [Read More]
Marian told a group of incarcerated rapists that her sister had been gagged before being killed, and so she, Marian, wished to hear their truths. "One of the prisoners who had committed multiple rape said, '...Until you spoke I was just play at victim empathy,' and it clearly helped him to understand what he'd done." And moreover, Marian is planning to write a letter to one of the two persons (now in prison) responsible for the mass murders (and Lucy's murder). "Those who know her [the convicted co-murderer] have advised me that it is not yet time to suggest..." A meeting between the two. "Meanwhile, I am content to continue sending her compassion," Marian concluded.
Cavanagh, Tom. "Restorative Justice: Healing the Effects of Crime." (2006): Retrieved 22 Nov. 2006 at http://www.restorativejustice.com.
Madsen, Karin Sten. "Mediation as a way of empowering women exposed to sexual coercion."
Centre for Victims…… [Read More]
M6D2: estorative Justice
The criminal justice system not only seeks justice to the victims and criminals, but restorative justice. As much as the victim benefits from the process, the criminals too ought to learn something from the entire process. According to Hancock and Sharp, 2004, several strategies have been devised in determining a convenient approach of providing justice to the direct victim, since the state does not pose as the primary victim. As a mayor, the strategies that could be of most value are ensuring community safety and enhancing competency development as accounts of restorative justice. Community safety determines the progression of a society. Through restorative justice, societal members are expected to build working relationships whose empowerment will depict the responsibility of the community. It is through such a program that past criminal offenders comprehend of their role in ensuring community protection, and hence playing an important role in maintaining…… [Read More]
Restorative justice is not necessarily conservative in orientation, although this definition may make it seem so. It also focuses on transforming the traditional relationship between communities and their governments in responding to crime. It focuses on victim mediation and conferencing between convicted criminals and victims, and stresses the need to create opportunities for victims, offenders and community members to meet to discuss the crime and its aftermath, and the need for offenders to take active and constructive steps to repair the harm they have caused by making amends. Such steps may help heal the offenders as well as the victims, but ultimately restorative justice seeks to correct what advocates see as an imbalance in the system's emphasis and allocation of resources. Not only criminals but also victims must be made 'whole' again and helped to become contributing members of society. Victims have rights and needs too, and a stake…… [Read More]
Juvenile Justice System
Describe the Juvenile Justice System
The juvenile justice system is not just one department or building in a government facilities part of town. The juvenile justice system (JJS) is a "network of agencies that deal with juveniles whose conduct has brought them in conflict with the law" (3rd judicial district). In fact the JJS is composed of these components: police, prosecutor, detention, court, probation, and juvenile corrections facilities.
hen police arrest a juvenile after determining that a law has been broken, they actually have options (based on the juvenile's age and the crime); to return the adolescent to his parents; to refer him to the prosecutor's office; or to detain him in a juvenile detention center (3rd judicial district). In the event the juvenile committed a minor offense, the person could be handled informally through the probation department; but if the person had repeated previous offenses, he…… [Read More]
Applied Research on Restorative Practice
Problem background and context
Many schools across the globe are currently applying restorative practice. According to Calhoun (2013), there has been much success since the schools introduced this practice. Some of the successful schools have even proceeded to train other schools and institutions. Restorative practice constitutes diverse aspects, whose impact can influence a number of fields in the education sector such as conflict resolution, truancy, behavioral management and mediation (Hemphill et al., 2014). Restorative practice calls for ownership by everyone involved. This promotes mutual responsibility and this creates such an atmosphere in which resolution can occur.
Bolitho (2012) states that managing student misbehavior is one of the most crucial issues facing most schools across the world. The current approach in discipline is quite punitive, so to say. Many schools tend to apply zero tolerance policies. Though well intended, such policies have not yielded good results.…… [Read More]
Does Restorative Justice Reduce Recidivism?
Though restorative justice has become an increasingly popular practice in the criminal justice field, there is still no concise, universally acceptable definition of the concept. There is often confusion over what actually constitutes restorative justice, with the concept usually being used interchangeably with terms such as relational justice, peacemaking criminology, transformative justice, and community justice (Latimer, Dowden & Muise, 2005). Even so, restorative justice is essentially an approach to offender rehabilitation where the offender is reconciled with victim(s) and/or the larger community (Wenzel et al., 2008). In other words, all stakeholders in a certain offense jointly resolve how to deal with the consequences of the offense.
The fundamental idea behind restorative justice is that an offense constitutes a violation of not only the law, but also individuals and relationships (Stamatakis & Vandeviver, 2013). Restorative justice, therefore, seeks to mend this violation. It provides an opportunity…… [Read More]
2. Interventions for teens and wayward youths are such appealing programs because no one wants to assume that children and youths are born with deviant minds. Most agree that children and youths commit criminal acts because something has gone wrong in their lives. Most suggest that these things that go wrong have to do with parents, schools, and most often deviant peer groups. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that deviant peer groups are some of the largest contributions to youth delinquency. Most want to assume that, if the cause of juvenile delinquency could be found, an intervention could cure the cause and cure the teen. Thus, the innocent child would not be faced with a criminal's life, but would instead be able to be put on the right path to self-development. An exploration of intervention programs will allow students of criminology to understand why the rehabilitation program is…… [Read More]
Restorative Justice in Education." In other words, how effective does the use of critical theory prove to be when applied to restorative justice in education? Author Dorothy Vaandering uses a logic and flow-driven narrative, which is informative and leaves a distinct impression that she has provided a worthwhile study for examination.
hat is restorative justice? Vaandering explains that restorative justice (RJ) is a process that eschews "punitive, managerial structures" in education -- that is, the "old school" system of hard core discipline that promises punishment if instructions are not followed -- and replaces those strategies with policies that "emphasize the building and repairing of relationships" (Vaandering, 2010, p. 145). Basically, RJ is a policy that allows the perpetrator of a wrongdoing to meet and interact with (and apologize to) the person harmed by those actions; and in the case of educational environments, the rather than just punish and isolate the…… [Read More]
Future of estorative Justice
The most common form of criminal justice is retributive justice, which is based on an adversarial system that pits the offender against the victim (reviewed in Brownlee, 2010). In retributive justice, it is the offender's job, so to speak, to proclaim their innocence or diminish the seriousness of the offence. The state on behalf of the victim seeks to severely punish the victim through monetary penalties and prison terms. Both offender and victim are separated physically and emotionally from the very beginning of this process, once the offender has been identified and arrested. etributive justice ignores the Aristotelian principle of responsible agency, because the offender is expected to combat any and all criminal charges.
In contrast, restorative justice seeks to mend the harm caused by the commission of a crime by encouraging the offender to accept responsibility for his or her actions (Brownlee, 2010).…… [Read More]
Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Offending
Restorative justice is a new paradigm within the criminal justice, particularly in the context of youth offenders. The philosophy behind restorative justice is to consider the juvenile's interests to develop them into beneficial citizens, and it augments the principle behind juvenile justice and corrections. Restorative justice approaches provide the juvenile justice system with leniency when approaching youth offenders while at the same time holding the offenders accountable through rehabilitative approaches. The core elements of restorative justice include rehabilitating and restoring the youth offender, restoring and making restitution to the victim, and restoring the entire society. Programs employed in the restorative approaches can apply in both community correction centers and institutional treatment programs. Juvenile court and statutes aim to protect the child and not to punish them (Latimer, Dowden, & Muise, 2005).
However, juvenile justice has evolved over the centuries, and this has seen to…… [Read More]
Introduction: Overview of the Relevant Facts
One of the problems of criminal justice today is the challenge of systemic racism that has been leveled by critics such as Angela Davis (2012) and numerous others. The charge is that the criminal justice system is inherently racist for a number of reasons (Lentin, 2020). These reasons include the existence of a for-profit private prison industrial complex that represents a clear conflict of interest to the system since the complex profits off incarcerations and businesses exploit the labor of the prisoners by paying them pennies on the dollar (Pelaez, 2019); and the fact that 37% of America’s prison population is black, yet blacks are only 12% of the total US population (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2014). On top of all this is the practice plea bargaining, which is pushed on those charged with a crime by prosecutors, essentially robbing the accused of due…… [Read More]
Three different approaches and philosophies to the problem of crime
The three philosophical cornerstones of the corrections system are retribution, rehabilitation, and restoration. However, while most modern theorists of criminal justice believe that there must be some proportion of these elements in all forms of punishment, not all believe that they must be present to the same degree. This paper will advance the idea that ultimately the concepts of rehabilitation and restoration must be more present within the judicial system today while retribution should be deemphasized.
The concept of retribution in the justice system dates back to the classical theory of crime, which stressed that the punishment for a crime must exceed its likely rewards. "For a rational system of criminal justice to work, punishment must be certain, swift, and proportional. The ultimate goal was to insure that the benefits of crime never outweighed the potential pain from…… [Read More]
The purpose of this article was to show that restorative justice is significantly more satisfying as compared to courts for both offenders and victims. This was achieved with a randomized experimental design known as eintergrative Shaming Experiments ISE. This project is used to compare the effects of standard court processing with those of restorative justice intervention known as conferencing. In the article, the ISE data is used to examine whether conferences are equally beneficial for juvenile victims and adult victims as well (Gal, T & Moyal, 201).
The research method that was used in this article is a stratified randomized experimental design that was used to compare the outcomes of court and conference cases that were held in Canberra, Australia between 1995 and 2000. Shoplifting, drinking, property crimes and violent crimes were assigned within each other randomly to the estorative Justice Conferences or traditional courts using a computer…… [Read More]
(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame'
In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where he introduced his idea of restorative shaming (Braithwaite, 1997). The conventional criminal justice stigmatizes the individual in that it not only makes him a pariah of society thereby making it harder to reform himself, but also crushes his esteem, causing others to deride and shun him, accordingly often making him react in a reinforcing manner. Seeing himself as 'offender' and finding it extremely difficult to readjust and gain acceptance in society, the offender may be compelled to return to crime as way of livelihood to support himself and as a way of gaining the prestige and status that he m ay need and that he may, otherwise, not gain.
estorative justice, on the other hand, helps offender atone for his…… [Read More]
What do you Think
Paradigm of Laws
Paradigm of Laws
• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons
Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.
The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…… [Read More]
S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).
Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…… [Read More]
This section of the study describes the frequency distribution of the data collected during this study and idea of "central tendency, associated mean, median and mode." Various measures of dispersion are also reviewed, with an explanation of whether the research supports or disproves the hypotheses explored.
Variables - Independent and Dependent
The data collected reflects the independent and dependent variables explored for purposes of this study. The independent variables explored include: sex and gender of study participants, ethnicity of participants, socioeconomic status and religious or moral practices. The dependent variables explored include: participants age, the type of justice used (restorative model or correctional models).
The statistical analysis measures the frequency distribution for "numeric" discrete variables and "categorical variables" labeled (e.g. A_AGE) (USF, 2001:3). All variables are un-weighted for purposes of this study. Table 1.1 below provides the statistical analysis and distributions for the independent and dependent…… [Read More]
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…… [Read More]
criminal justice system by providing the essential definition of terms like Antidotal, Qualitative, and Quantitative Evidence. 'Justice' in the context criminal justice is also defined. The definitions in this study extend to include endnotes, footnotes, crime control, rehabilitative, due process, and nonintervention. The aspect of racial profiling like racism, bias, prejudice, bigotry, and discrimination in criminal justice is also addressed in detail.
Anecdotal evidence defines evidence established through anecdotes. The small sample allows for larger probabilities in realizing unreliable information due to non-representative or otherwise cherry-picked samples for typical cases. An example of anecdotal statement is 'There is proof that water can cure cancer. I read of a man suffering from cancer and was cured after drinking'. Qualitative evidence is sourced from methods of inquiry engaged in different academic disciplines and traditional forms of social sciences. However, it also includes further contexts and market research. Qualitative research aims at gathering…… [Read More]
Christian Worldview of Law Enforcement
Forgiveness is a critical component of Christianity: humans are all imperfect and living in an imperfect, yet God-created world. Because of that, it is essential to view others with compassion and tolerance. Increasingly, the perspective of restorative rather than retributive justice has been infused into the philosophy of law enforcement today. "estorative justice is an idea that says, at its core, justice has to be about repairing or addressing the harm caused to social relationships when wrongdoing happens," ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). It often involves community service by the offender to mitigate the harm done to the wider environment or members of the law enforcement community facilitating dialogue between the aggrieved party and the offender in a constructive manner ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). The idea is to heal both perpetrator and victim through forgiveness and humanization.
Law officers themselves often find solace through scripture. According…… [Read More]
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.
Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.
ed Cross society
Nonprofit organizations have to be…… [Read More]
Organizational change in any sector implies moving away from the present state and "toward some desired future state" in order to increase the effectiveness of the organization (Lunenburg, 2010, p. 1). Change is typically driven by internal and/or external factors. The impetus for change could be a crisis or, in the case of criminal justice agencies, policy change. Changes to technology or financial resources are other examples of external forces of change that could impact a criminal justice agency. Criminal justice agencies also respond to internal forces of change, including demands to change organizational culture, policy, or procedure. The primary approaches to manage organizational change in criminal justice agencies include recognizing the need for change and the forces instigating it, planning effectively for change, and implementing change strategies that coincide with organizational goals and values.
When change has become inevitable in a criminal justice agency, it may also be helpful…… [Read More]
estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…… [Read More]
Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States
Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…… [Read More]
5: Evaluating a research article.
In the study by Corsaro, Brunson and McGarrell (2009), the researchers use mixed-methodology of quantitative hierarchical growth curve models and qualitative interviews to measure whether problem-oriented policing strategies are effective. The researchers hypothesize that pulling levers can be an effective strategy for reducing drug-related crime. The researchers are able to evaluate the program of problem-oriented policing using quantitative models and qualitative interviews to combine data types in their study.
Ethical issues salient to the study were not explicitly identified and thus did not appear to make any impact on the study itself or its directives. However, one ethical principle that appears to be followed in the study is that identified by Llewellyn, Archibald, Clairmont and Crocker (2013): “the inclusion of dignity requires attention and respect for the diversity of ways of being that become clear when one approaches individuals in all their embedded and relational…… [Read More]
"Anything goes" is an interesting way to describe the current state of the nation's approach to punishment. Do you feel it is accurate? If yes, why? If not, why not? What other aspects of our nation's current approach to sanctions -- besides those listed and discussed by Blomberg and Lucken -- do you feel bolsters your position?
I do not feel that the "Anything goes" penal strategy is accurate for the nation's approach punishment. It is not a perfect way of ensuring that there is justification especially after punishment. The main aim of punishment in the society is to promote justification, which will then lead to harmony within the people. However, the "anything goes" penal strategy involves the prisoners undergoing any type of punishment as regarded by the states (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010). The option of the punishment does not always involve the input of the citizens and other…… [Read More]
Goals of Corrections
The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who deliberately break the established rules of society (Schmalleger, 2009). Its purpose is nothing more than to satisfy those impulses, particularly on the part of the victims of criminal acts. The types of penal sentences that reflect pure retribution are long terms of incarceration and even hard labor and other forms of punishment that are expressly designed to be unpleasant for the offender. The types of crime control strategies dictated by this philosophy are those that make penal sentences as long and as unpleasant for offenders as is constitutionally permissible (Schmalleger, 2009). In many respects, this was the approach taken in American criminal justice prior to the revolutionary ideas first introduced by William Penn (Schmalleger, 2009). The only "advantages" of this…… [Read More]
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…… [Read More]
Criminal Court System
estorative justice is the application a theory that puts emphasis on making amendments on the harm that has been caused by unjust behavior. This approach is practical and biblical when it comes to dealing with problems of punishment and crime to the society.it is based on simple principles whereby it recognizes that any crime committed caused harm to people meaning that it is not basically about breaking the law. The aim of the restorative justice system is therefore to amend injuries that result from crimes that are committed. The system also believes that crime is not just a matter between the individual offenders and the government rather it affects other members of the society as well. Since the victims of a crime and the entire community bear the burden of a crime they all have to actively take part in the this criminal justice processes (New Zealand…… [Read More]
Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).
Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?
The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are…… [Read More]
Xander, an Illinois Juvenile Criminal Justice Case Study
The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA, 2012) operates under a statutory mandate to improve the administration of the criminal justice system in the State of Illinois. In order to perform this function the agency must be aware of all the operational details related to the Illinois juvenile criminal justice system (ICJIA, n.d.). The Illinois juvenile criminal justice system consists of 102 county systems that operate semi-independently from state agency oversight; therefore, the procedures of probation, detention, and corrections are the responsibility of the county juvenile systems. A distinct juvenile criminal justice system (JCS) in Illinois is relatively new, having been created in 2005 by the state legislature to separate adults from juvenile offenders within prisons and jails. A few years earlier (1998), legislation was passed that mandated a criminal justice policy of balanced and restorative justice.
According to the…… [Read More]
They began to outline an issue of the journal which they tentatively called Contemporary Criminology: A Journal of Ideas Predisposed Toward Radical Democratization. It was hoped that the first issue might arrive during the Fall of 1996.
About the same time, Sullivan and Tifft also spoke about creating a new association for scholars, activists, and practitioners that would serve as an alternative to the conventional academic criminology and criminal justice organizations. It was suggested that the members of this association might come together each year and share their ideas and discuss their current work in mostly plenary sessions. Great emphasis would be put on the participation of everyone present through extensive discussions. An invitation would be extended to all those associated with the restorative justice community who, though they met periodically around the globe, had no permanent home or community with which to share their ideas and find support.
It…… [Read More]
Secondly, the victim, being more involved with the crime and understanding of the situation as well as more intimate with it than the legislators is better able to articulate his opinion than they. Thirdly, it is only logical that the victim be involved and heard. After all he was the one who was hurt. And finally, victim advocates work towards the objective that victim's rights be granted constitutional protection so that average citizens will be aware that not only do offenders have rights but that victims have rights too and that these are equally as strong. For all these reasons, groups such as the Victims Constitutional Amendment Network is seeking to grant victims rights constitutional protection in order to increase the strength, enforceability, and permanence of victims' rights
Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame,…… [Read More]
New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do with the corrections part of the criminal justice system are having prisons that are clearly overcrowded and not having enough in the budget to make some adjustments. If these concerns and issues are not talked about or even looked into, it is a strong possibility that they will continue to have some kind of an effect on operations in the near future of corrections. Community and restorative justice programs are options being looked at when it comes to the future of corrections as legislators, activists and administrators, debate philosophies to speak about these concerns and issues brought about from past and present trends.
The "get tough" approach against crime, long ago, was once preferred by the national political climate. It was…… [Read More]
role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.
A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).
The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…… [Read More]
criminal procedure and the idiosyncrasies of criminal practice vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction" (Jaros, 2010, p. 445). If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably true as well that evaluating the different circumstances surrounding the commission of crime is also widely diverse in its practice. There are a number of methodologies that are used in various research including studies relating to the study of criminal justice and different aspects of that arena; two of the more commonly used methodologies employ quantitative and qualitative methods of research.
The quantitative methodology is used by researchers who are seeking to quantify certain areas of study or the results of such studies. Quantifying involves numbers, percentages and numerically evaluated data. One of the benefits that can be derived when using quantitative evaluation is that such a method provides numerical data for comparative studies. Comparative studies show specific numbers calculated from participant…… [Read More]
Schools of Criminology
Schools of Thought
Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will look after their own self-interest first. In other words, if a person is penniless and hungry, he will steal food because it is in his own self-interest to eat and stay alive, notwithstanding his crime
Classical School summary: In the 18th century philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that existing theories of crime (God or the devil determine what humans will do) were not relevant. They put forth the alternative idea that because humans have free will, they choose which behavior they will follow. Most humans respond to pleasure and pain, and if crime brings a person pleasure, that's what he will do; but being hungry can bring pain so a person will commit a crime to…… [Read More]
Jails and Prisons
The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place…… [Read More]
Golden Age of the Victim
Golden Age Victim
An overview of the Golden Age of the Victim, including a comparison of victim mentalities of the 1960s era compared with the victim mentality of today's "victim" of crime. Synopsis of victim's assistance programs and victim advocates, including the methods they use to help victims and the laws enacted to provide victims with ongoing support within states and federal governing bodies.
Historically crime ran rampant throughout the nation. There wasn't much a person could do if they became a "victim" of crime. Many people took up arms and attempted to reconcile criminal activity on their own, helpless and subject to repeat offenses. During times of old, or the "Golden Age" of the victim, there was no help for someone defined as a victim, or burdened by crime. Crime was just as costly for many families as it is today, and with no…… [Read More]
As a conclusion I must state that I agree with the philosophies of the ARJ method. I believe that all people must receive equal chances. I am sure that the children usually do not intend to act in a criminal way. I believe that those who adopt this type of conduct are either doing it because of the bad conditions within the family or because of the other influential factors (like the group of friends). However, no matter of the influence, the important fact is for the child to recover. ARJ offers him the change to gain certain skills and to be able to use them in the future, in the process of his professional development. In addition to that, by reestablishing the order inside the community and by letting the child do some community work, the court is making sure that there will be fewer chances for him to…… [Read More]
Marianta undergoes rehabilitation. Punishment is not going to help her. It will only stigmatize her and make her more likely repeat her crimes in the future, as well as reinforcing her impression that she is an addict and has a psychopathic personality; that that is a part of her and cannot be helped.
Rehabilitation -- or restorative judgment, on the other hand, believes that one should make a distinction between crimes perpetrated against society and crimes perpetrated against people. Zehr, for instance, claims that conventional criminal justice system views crime and justice through a retributive perspective where crime is seen as violating laws and justice is seen as condemning the other and demanding retribution (Zehr, 1990). In his own words, he describes "crime" as a "wound in human relationships," that "creates an obligation to restore and repair" (Zehr, 1990, 181) Restorative justice, on the other hand, according to Zehr, is…… [Read More]
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…… [Read More]
Dugan: Should be on its own page.
Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]
Japanese Correctional System as Compared to the American Corrections System
The Japanese correctional system places a strong emphasis on rehabilitation and preparing the prisoner for being released once again into society. The Japanese correctional system "is intended to resocialize, reform, and rehabilitate offenders" rather than enforce a system of retributive justice along the lines of the American model (Coutsoukis, 2004). This is why most sociologists state that the restorative philosophy of corrections is the predominant approach practiced in Japan, that is, the main aim of the system is to restore the pre-existing social order rather than enact retribution against a particular individual, or even to protect victim's rights, or to punish an offender in a fair manner (Hosoi & Nishimura 1999: 4).
Much like the American system, Japanese prisoners after conviction are classified "according to gender, nationality, kind of penalty, length of sentence, degree of criminality, and state of physical…… [Read More]
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.
The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]
.....criminal justice system protects the public from criminals and criminal activity by investigating, catching, and thwarting crime. Although some countries have similar methods of punishing criminals and preventing crime, many countries have different methods and strategies. Norway has its own way of handling criminals and criminal investigations that often involves a decentralized police and investigative force. The United States operates via tiered system: federal, state, and local (Cole, Smith, & DeJong, 2013). England offers a tiered system as well, with most investigative efforts occurring in London. This essay will highlight the differences and similarities of the criminal justice system in England/Wales, the United States, and Norway.
The United States has only been a country for a few centuries. It operates with peace and justice in mind. Operating under three branches of government, the judiciary branch allows for the government to arrest, prosecute, and imprison criminals and criminal suspects. Other…… [Read More]
Offender Reentry Program Proposal
The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)
It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of…… [Read More]
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…… [Read More]
History Of Corrections
Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…… [Read More]
Proponents of victim compensation have philosophical bases for believing that the government has the obligation to provide victim compensation. Choose two of these reasons and briefly discuss.
Victim compensation programs entail giving payments to the victims of violent crimes (Doerner & Lab 2014: 20). The intention behind them is to create a system which enforces justice and restores the victim as much as possible to his or her original state. Also, the victims of many violent crimes such as domestic violence and child abuse often suffer a profound psychological impact for which they need additional support, just to feel normal again. "The rationale for victim compensation rests on a moral concern for the welfare of the injured citizen, and the current lack of any effective compensation provisions results in punishment for crime victims" (Schultz 1975). Simply incarcerating the perpetrator does not undo the often irreparable harm to the…… [Read More]
humans have been concerned with the most expedient and effective means of punishment for a crime committed. ecently, the United States has turned more to a correctional than a rehabilitative approach to punishing offenders. Studies conflict as to the success of this approach, although numbers of crimes have declined moderately. In addition, such incarceration leads to other problems such as considerably higher costs and increasing numbers of offenders having chronic diseases such as AIDS.
According to Gould and Sitren in "Crime and Punishment: Punishment Philosophies and Ethical Dilemmas," there are three major frameworks that address the purpose of punishment -- utilitarianism, deontology and peacemaking.
Utilitarianism recognizes the purpose of punishment in terms of the end result. For utilitarians, punishment is justifiable because it creates a greater balance of happiness vs. unhappiness. For Bentham, punishment should be utilized to maximize the total pleasure or minimize the total pain of all parties…… [Read More]
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).
All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Significance of the Study
Every year more than 600,000…… [Read More]