Filter By:

Sort By:

Reset Filters

Restorative Justice Essays (Examples)

Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title?

Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly

Applied Research on Restorative Practices
Words: 1784 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67289992
Read Full Paper  ❯

Applied Research on Restorative Practice
Problem background and context
Many schools across the globe are currently applying restorative practice. According to Calhoun (2013), there has been much success since the schools introduced this practice. Some of the successful schools have even proceeded to train other schools and institutions. Restorative practice constitutes diverse aspects, whose impact can influence a number of fields in the education sector such as conflict resolution, truancy, behavioral management and mediation (Hemphill et al., 2014). Restorative practice calls for ownership by everyone involved. This promotes mutual responsibility and this creates such an atmosphere in which resolution can occur.
Bolitho (2012) states that managing student misbehavior is one of the most crucial issues facing most schools across the world. The current approach in discipline is quite punitive, so to say. Many schools tend to apply zero tolerance policies. Though well intended, such policies have not yielded good results.…

Bolitho, J. (2012). Restorative Justice: The Ideals and Realities of Conferencing for Young People. Critical Criminology, 20 (1), 61-78.
Calhoun, A. (2013). Introducing Restorative Justice: Re-Visioning Responses to Wrongdoing. Prevention Researcher, 20 (1), 3-6.
Hemphill, S. A., Plenty, S. M., Herrenkohl, T. I., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2014). Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States. Children and Youth Review, 36, 187-194.
Kalimeris, G., & Borrelli, A. (2013). School Suspensions- from Crisis to Opportunity. Relational Child and Youth Care Practice, 26 (4), 77-79.
Perry, B. L., & Morris, E. W. (2014). Suspending Progress: Collateral Consequences of Exclusionary Punishment in Public Schools. American Sociological Review, 79(6), 1067-1087.
Skiba, R. J. (2013). Reaching a Critical Juncture for Our Kids: The Need to Reassess School Justice Practices. Family Court Review, 51 (3), 380-387.

Justice of Restoration
Words: 1214 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49023831
Read Full Paper  ❯

estorative Justice

The purpose of this article was to show that restorative justice is significantly more satisfying as compared to courts for both offenders and victims. This was achieved with a randomized experimental design known as eintergrative Shaming Experiments ISE. This project is used to compare the effects of standard court processing with those of restorative justice intervention known as conferencing. In the article, the ISE data is used to examine whether conferences are equally beneficial for juvenile victims and adult victims as well (Gal, T & Moyal, 201).

The research method that was used in this article is a stratified randomized experimental design that was used to compare the outcomes of court and conference cases that were held in Canberra, Australia between 1995 and 2000. Shoplifting, drinking, property crimes and violent crimes were assigned within each other randomly to the estorative Justice Conferences or traditional courts using a computer…


Gal, T. & Moyal, S. (2011). Juvenile victims in restorative justice: Findings from the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments

Change About the Criminal Justice
Words: 2999 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36936272
Read Full Paper  ❯

(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame'

In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where he introduced his idea of restorative shaming (Braithwaite, 1997). The conventional criminal justice stigmatizes the individual in that it not only makes him a pariah of society thereby making it harder to reform himself, but also crushes his esteem, causing others to deride and shun him, accordingly often making him react in a reinforcing manner. Seeing himself as 'offender' and finding it extremely difficult to readjust and gain acceptance in society, the offender may be compelled to return to crime as way of livelihood to support himself and as a way of gaining the prestige and status that he m ay need and that he may, otherwise, not gain.

estorative justice, on the other hand, helps offender atone for his…


Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame, and Reintegration New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Christie, N. (1977), Conflicts as Property, British Journal of Criminology, 17: 1-15.

Correctional Service of Canada. [Online] Retrieved from:

Criminal Justice What Do You Think Paradigm
Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59365994
Read Full Paper  ❯

Criminal Justice

What do you Think

Paradigm of Laws

Paradigm of Laws

• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons

Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.

The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…


Jensen, O.C., (1934), "Kant's Ethical Formalism," Philosophy, 9(34), 195-208

Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, (2009), Retrieved from:

Christian Worldview of Criminal Justice
Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14332235
Read Full Paper  ❯

S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).

Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…


Bottoms, A. And J. Tankebe. (2012). "Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice." The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 1.

McCrudden, C. (2008). "Human dignity and judicial interpretation of human rights." The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4.

"Responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration: a Catholic perspective on crime and criminal justice." United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: 

Biblical quotes/verses. Open Bible Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at:

Articles Published on Criminal Justice
Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53577316
Read Full Paper  ❯



This section of the study describes the frequency distribution of the data collected during this study and idea of "central tendency, associated mean, median and mode." Various measures of dispersion are also reviewed, with an explanation of whether the research supports or disproves the hypotheses explored.

Variables - Independent and Dependent

The data collected reflects the independent and dependent variables explored for purposes of this study. The independent variables explored include: sex and gender of study participants, ethnicity of participants, socioeconomic status and religious or moral practices. The dependent variables explored include: participants age, the type of justice used (restorative model or correctional models).

Statistical Analysis/Means/Mode/Median

The statistical analysis measures the frequency distribution for "numeric" discrete variables and "categorical variables" labeled (e.g. A_AGE) (USF, 2001:3). All variables are un-weighted for purposes of this study. Table 1.1 below provides the statistical analysis and distributions for the independent and dependent…


Hopkins, B. (2004, March). Just schools: A whole school approach to restorative justice.

Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 200.

Nilsson, J.E., Love, K.M, Taylor, K.J., & Slusher, a.L. (2007). "A content and sample analysis of quantitative articles published in the Journal of Counseling & Development between 1991 and 2000." Journal of Counseling & Development, 85(3):357.

Smith, M.E. (2001, June). "What future for 'public safety' and 'restorative justice' in community corrections. U.S. Department of Justice, Sentencing and Corrections. 11(1): 1-8. Available:

Criminal Justice Systemic Malignity Racial
Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 3292173
Read Full Paper  ❯

aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).

Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…


American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?

Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013


Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage

Understanding Key Terminologies in Criminal Justice
Words: 1356 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33595424
Read Full Paper  ❯

criminal justice system by providing the essential definition of terms like Antidotal, Qualitative, and Quantitative Evidence. 'Justice' in the context criminal justice is also defined. The definitions in this study extend to include endnotes, footnotes, crime control, rehabilitative, due process, and nonintervention. The aspect of racial profiling like racism, bias, prejudice, bigotry, and discrimination in criminal justice is also addressed in detail.

Anecdotal evidence defines evidence established through anecdotes. The small sample allows for larger probabilities in realizing unreliable information due to non-representative or otherwise cherry-picked samples for typical cases. An example of anecdotal statement is 'There is proof that water can cure cancer. I read of a man suffering from cancer and was cured after drinking'. Qualitative evidence is sourced from methods of inquiry engaged in different academic disciplines and traditional forms of social sciences. However, it also includes further contexts and market research. Qualitative research aims at gathering…

Works Cited

Inciardi, James. Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2009. Print

Maxfield, Michael. And Babbie, Earl. Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print

Neubauer, David. And Fradella, Henry. America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print

Stojkovic, Stan, Kalinich, David, and John Klofas Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print

Christianity and Criminal Justice
Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72323711
Read Full Paper  ❯

Christian Worldview of Law Enforcement

Forgiveness is a critical component of Christianity: humans are all imperfect and living in an imperfect, yet God-created world. Because of that, it is essential to view others with compassion and tolerance. Increasingly, the perspective of restorative rather than retributive justice has been infused into the philosophy of law enforcement today. "estorative justice is an idea that says, at its core, justice has to be about repairing or addressing the harm caused to social relationships when wrongdoing happens," ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). It often involves community service by the offender to mitigate the harm done to the wider environment or members of the law enforcement community facilitating dialogue between the aggrieved party and the offender in a constructive manner ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). The idea is to heal both perpetrator and victim through forgiveness and humanization.

Law officers themselves often find solace through scripture. According…


Defining restorative justice. (2015). Restorative Justice. Retrieved from: 

Hall, G. (2013). Can a cop be a Christian? Law Enforcement Today. Retrieved from:

Ethical or Social Justice
Words: 3148 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8427475
Read Full Paper  ❯

Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.

Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.

ed Cross society

Nonprofit organizations have to be…


Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.

Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.

Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.

Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.

Organizational Change in Criminal Justice
Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82995190
Read Full Paper  ❯

Organizational change in any sector implies moving away from the present state and "toward some desired future state" in order to increase the effectiveness of the organization (Lunenburg, 2010, p. 1). Change is typically driven by internal and/or external factors. The impetus for change could be a crisis or, in the case of criminal justice agencies, policy change. Changes to technology or financial resources are other examples of external forces of change that could impact a criminal justice agency. Criminal justice agencies also respond to internal forces of change, including demands to change organizational culture, policy, or procedure. The primary approaches to manage organizational change in criminal justice agencies include recognizing the need for change and the forces instigating it, planning effectively for change, and implementing change strategies that coincide with organizational goals and values.

When change has become inevitable in a criminal justice agency, it may also be helpful…


Bodor, T., Thompson, F. & DemirAivi, F. (2004). Criminal justice cultures in the United States. Retrieved online: 

Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Forces for and resistance to organizational change. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 27(4).

Stojkovic, S., Kalinch, D. & Klofas, J. (n.d.). Criminal Justice Organizations. Fifth Edition.

Umbreit, M.S. (2007). Restorative justice: Implications for organizational change. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved online:

The reforming of young offenders
Words: 3171 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 36662551
Read Full Paper  ❯

estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…


Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.


Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:

School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,

Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States

Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…


Alridge, D.P. (2005, Summer). Introduction: Hip hop in history: Past, present, and future. The Journal of African-American History, 90(3), 190-193.

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Boyd, T. (2002). The new H.N.I.C.: The death of civil rights and the reign of hip hop. New York:

Brookins, G.K. & Hirsch, J.A. (2002, Summer). Innocence lost: Case studies of children in the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 205-210.

Criminal Justice Study
Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82480313
Read Full Paper  ❯

5: Evaluating a research article.
In the study by Corsaro, Brunson and McGarrell (2009), the researchers use mixed-methodology of quantitative hierarchical growth curve models and qualitative interviews to measure whether problem-oriented policing strategies are effective. The researchers hypothesize that pulling levers can be an effective strategy for reducing drug-related crime. The researchers are able to evaluate the program of problem-oriented policing using quantitative models and qualitative interviews to combine data types in their study.
Ethical issues salient to the study were not explicitly identified and thus did not appear to make any impact on the study itself or its directives. However, one ethical principle that appears to be followed in the study is that identified by Llewellyn, Archibald, Clairmont and Crocker (2013): “the inclusion of dignity requires attention and respect for the diversity of ways of being that become clear when one approaches individuals in all their embedded and relational…

Punishment Anything Goes Is an Interesting Way
Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73113009
Read Full Paper  ❯


"Anything goes" is an interesting way to describe the current state of the nation's approach to punishment. Do you feel it is accurate? If yes, why? If not, why not? What other aspects of our nation's current approach to sanctions -- besides those listed and discussed by Blomberg and Lucken -- do you feel bolsters your position?

I do not feel that the "Anything goes" penal strategy is accurate for the nation's approach punishment. It is not a perfect way of ensuring that there is justification especially after punishment. The main aim of punishment in the society is to promote justification, which will then lead to harmony within the people. However, the "anything goes" penal strategy involves the prisoners undergoing any type of punishment as regarded by the states (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010). The option of the punishment does not always involve the input of the citizens and other…


Blomberg, T.G., & Lucken, K. (2010). American penology: A history of control. New Brunswick [N.J.: AldineTransaction.

Goals of Corrections Retribution the Rationale Behind
Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57439148
Read Full Paper  ❯

Goals of Corrections


The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who deliberately break the established rules of society (Schmalleger, 2009). Its purpose is nothing more than to satisfy those impulses, particularly on the part of the victims of criminal acts. The types of penal sentences that reflect pure retribution are long terms of incarceration and even hard labor and other forms of punishment that are expressly designed to be unpleasant for the offender. The types of crime control strategies dictated by this philosophy are those that make penal sentences as long and as unpleasant for offenders as is constitutionally permissible (Schmalleger, 2009). In many respects, this was the approach taken in American criminal justice prior to the revolutionary ideas first introduced by William Penn (Schmalleger, 2009). The only "advantages" of this…


Lynch, M.J. (1999). "Beating a Dead Horse: Is There Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrence Effect of Imprisonment?" Criminal Law & Social Change, Vol.


Nagin, D.S. (1998). "Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First

Century." Crime and Justice, Vol. 23.

Juvenile Delinquents
Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54718429
Read Full Paper  ❯

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…


Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010.

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,


Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
Words: 850 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array
Read Full Paper  ❯

Criminal Court System

estorative justice is the application a theory that puts emphasis on making amendments on the harm that has been caused by unjust behavior. This approach is practical and biblical when it comes to dealing with problems of punishment and crime to the is based on simple principles whereby it recognizes that any crime committed caused harm to people meaning that it is not basically about breaking the law. The aim of the restorative justice system is therefore to amend injuries that result from crimes that are committed. The system also believes that crime is not just a matter between the individual offenders and the government rather it affects other members of the society as well. Since the victims of a crime and the entire community bear the burden of a crime they all have to actively take part in the this criminal justice processes (New Zealand…


RJcity.(2007). A Story about RJ City's Response to Crime, Victims and Offenders. Retrieved March 10, 2014 from

New Zealand Ministry of Justice, (2014). Pre-sentence restorative justice court Process. Retrieved March 10, 2014 from

Intermediate Sanctions Over the Last Decade There
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63236093
Read Full Paper  ❯

intermediate sanctions?

Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).

Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?

The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are…

Peacemaking Criminology the First Difficulty
Words: 3963 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20599631
Read Full Paper  ❯

They began to outline an issue of the journal which they tentatively called Contemporary Criminology: A Journal of Ideas Predisposed Toward Radical Democratization. It was hoped that the first issue might arrive during the Fall of 1996.

About the same time, Sullivan and Tifft also spoke about creating a new association for scholars, activists, and practitioners that would serve as an alternative to the conventional academic criminology and criminal justice organizations. It was suggested that the members of this association might come together each year and share their ideas and discuss their current work in mostly plenary sessions. Great emphasis would be put on the participation of everyone present through extensive discussions. An invitation would be extended to all those associated with the restorative justice community who, though they met periodically around the globe, had no permanent home or community with which to share their ideas and find support.



Annual Report Fiscal Year 2004. Restorative Justice Program, Prince William County Office of Dispute Resolution. 2004.

Coser, Lewis. (2004). Crime Theories. Retrieved June 28, 2005 at

The Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research and Statistics Division Methodological Series. Department of Justice Canada. 2001.

Gulati, Shruti Gola (1996). Healing the Circle: Exploring the Conjuncture of Peacemaking Criminology and Native Justice Initiatives. M.A. thesis. Department of Criminology. University of Ottawa. Retrieved June 29, 2005 from

Crime Victims Have Begun to
Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62273380
Read Full Paper  ❯

Secondly, the victim, being more involved with the crime and understanding of the situation as well as more intimate with it than the legislators is better able to articulate his opinion than they. Thirdly, it is only logical that the victim be involved and heard. After all he was the one who was hurt. And finally, victim advocates work towards the objective that victim's rights be granted constitutional protection so that average citizens will be aware that not only do offenders have rights but that victims have rights too and that these are equally as strong. For all these reasons, groups such as the Victims Constitutional Amendment Network is seeking to grant victims rights constitutional protection in order to increase the strength, enforceability, and permanence of victims' rights


Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame,…

Dignan, J. (2002) Restorative Justice and the Law: The case for an integrated, systematic approach, Stanford Law Review, 52, 168-190

Dignan, James (2003), Towards a Systemic Model of Restorative Justice, Stanford Law Review, 135-156,

The National Center for Victims of Crime. Rights of victims of crime

New Viewpoints in Regards to Supporting the
Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35469760
Read Full Paper  ❯

New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do with the corrections part of the criminal justice system are having prisons that are clearly overcrowded and not having enough in the budget to make some adjustments. If these concerns and issues are not talked about or even looked into, it is a strong possibility that they will continue to have some kind of an effect on operations in the near future of corrections. Community and restorative justice programs are options being looked at when it comes to the future of corrections as legislators, activists and administrators, debate philosophies to speak about these concerns and issues brought about from past and present trends.

The "get tough" approach against crime, long ago, was once preferred by the national political climate. It was…


Appelbaum, P.S. (2011). Law & psychiatry: Lost in the crowd: Prison mental health care, overcrowding, and the courts. Psychiatric Services, 62(10), 1121-3.

Pearl, N. (2009). A task force to reduce prison overcrowding: Implications for criminal justice policy, planning and research methods courses. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 11(1), 111-121.

Pontell, H.N. (2004). Incarceration as a deviant form of social control: Jail overcrowding in california. Crime and Delinquency, 40(1), 18.

Specter, D. (2010). Everything revolves around overcrowding: The state of california's prisons. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 22(3), 194-199.

Role of Prisons in the Society I
Words: 1988 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37250638
Read Full Paper  ❯

role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.

A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).

The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…


Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.

Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].

Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.

MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].

Types of Evaluation Designs and 2 Types of Methodologies
Words: 2229 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35627993
Read Full Paper  ❯

criminal procedure and the idiosyncrasies of criminal practice vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction" (Jaros, 2010, p. 445). If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably true as well that evaluating the different circumstances surrounding the commission of crime is also widely diverse in its practice. There are a number of methodologies that are used in various research including studies relating to the study of criminal justice and different aspects of that arena; two of the more commonly used methodologies employ quantitative and qualitative methods of research.

The quantitative methodology is used by researchers who are seeking to quantify certain areas of study or the results of such studies. Quantifying involves numbers, percentages and numerically evaluated data. One of the benefits that can be derived when using quantitative evaluation is that such a method provides numerical data for comparative studies. Comparative studies show specific numbers calculated from participant…


Behavioral Sciences and the Law (2006) online accessed at Wiley Inter-Science on November 11, 2010, at

Bhola, H.S. (1990) Evaluating 'literacy for development' projects, programs and campaigns: Evaluation planning, design and implementation, and utilization of evaluation results. UNESCO Institute for Education, xii

Bonta, J.; Wallace-Capretta, S.; Rooney, J.; McAnoy, K.; (2002) An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration, Contemporary Justice Review, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 319-338

Chaiken, J.M. & Chaiken, M.R.; (1982) Varieties of criminal behavior, Santa Monica: Rand Publishers

Law Enforcement and Theories of Crime and Criminals
Words: 1165 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27529104
Read Full Paper  ❯

Schools of Criminology

Schools of Thought

Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will look after their own self-interest first. In other words, if a person is penniless and hungry, he will steal food because it is in his own self-interest to eat and stay alive, notwithstanding his crime

Classical School summary: In the 18th century philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that existing theories of crime (God or the devil determine what humans will do) were not relevant. They put forth the alternative idea that because humans have free will, they choose which behavior they will follow. Most humans respond to pleasure and pain, and if crime brings a person pleasure, that's what he will do; but being hungry can bring pain so a person will commit a crime to…

Works Cited

Gul, S.K. (2009). An Evaluation of the Rational Choice Theory in Criminology. Sociology & Applied Science, 4(8), 36-44.

Tibbetts, S.G., and Hemmens, C. (2009). Criminology Theory: A Text/Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Vito, G., and Maahs, J. (2011). Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy. Burlington, MA:

Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Jails and Prisons the General Characteristics of
Words: 892 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28372795
Read Full Paper  ❯

Jails and Prisons

The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place…


Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:

Belmont, CA.

Davies, C. (1989). "Goffman's concept of the total institution: Criticisms and revisions" Human

Studies, 12(1-2): 77-95.

Golden Age of the Victim Golden Age
Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83571439
Read Full Paper  ❯

Golden Age of the Victim

Golden Age Victim

An overview of the Golden Age of the Victim, including a comparison of victim mentalities of the 1960s era compared with the victim mentality of today's "victim" of crime. Synopsis of victim's assistance programs and victim advocates, including the methods they use to help victims and the laws enacted to provide victims with ongoing support within states and federal governing bodies.

Historically crime ran rampant throughout the nation. There wasn't much a person could do if they became a "victim" of crime. Many people took up arms and attempted to reconcile criminal activity on their own, helpless and subject to repeat offenses. During times of old, or the "Golden Age" of the victim, there was no help for someone defined as a victim, or burdened by crime. Crime was just as costly for many families as it is today, and with no…


Barnes, Gilbert. 2011. Victim services. Office of Community Corrections, State Florida.


Schmalleger, Frank & Armstrong, Gordon. 1997. Crime and the justice system in America.

Greenwood Publishing Group.

Philosophies Procedures of the Balanced
Words: 1815 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5330712
Read Full Paper  ❯

As a conclusion I must state that I agree with the philosophies of the ARJ method. I believe that all people must receive equal chances. I am sure that the children usually do not intend to act in a criminal way. I believe that those who adopt this type of conduct are either doing it because of the bad conditions within the family or because of the other influential factors (like the group of friends). However, no matter of the influence, the important fact is for the child to recover. ARJ offers him the change to gain certain skills and to be able to use them in the future, in the process of his professional development. In addition to that, by reestablishing the order inside the community and by letting the child do some community work, the court is making sure that there will be fewer chances for him to…


Pennsylvania Commission of Crime and Deliquency "Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ)" 25 Aug 2005, 10 Nov 2006 

Juvenile Law Center, Advancing the Rights and Well-being of Children in Jeopardy "Pennsylvania's Juvenile Justice System," 1996, 10 Nov 2006, 

Angeline Spain, Spotlight Pennsylvania, "The Case-Closing Project: an evaluation of BARJ in Pennsylvania," June 2004, 10 Nov 2006, 

Peter Freivals, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet #42, Balanced and Restorative Justice Project (BARJ), July 1996, 11 Nov 2006  

Marianta Undergoes Rehabilitation Punishment Is Not Going
Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12534593
Read Full Paper  ❯

Marianta undergoes rehabilitation. Punishment is not going to help her. It will only stigmatize her and make her more likely repeat her crimes in the future, as well as reinforcing her impression that she is an addict and has a psychopathic personality; that that is a part of her and cannot be helped.

Rehabilitation -- or restorative judgment, on the other hand, believes that one should make a distinction between crimes perpetrated against society and crimes perpetrated against people. Zehr, for instance, claims that conventional criminal justice system views crime and justice through a retributive perspective where crime is seen as violating laws and justice is seen as condemning the other and demanding retribution (Zehr, 1990). In his own words, he describes "crime" as a "wound in human relationships," that "creates an obligation to restore and repair" (Zehr, 1990, 181) Restorative justice, on the other hand, according to Zehr, is…


Patterns and Characteristics of Codependence 

The Twelve Traditions of Co-Dependents Anonymous 

Zehr, H. (1980) Changing lenses. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press

Proactive Policing
Words: 6206 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42132239
Read Full Paper  ❯

Proactive Policing

There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.

Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.

Outline of the Paper

The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…

Works Cited

Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971

Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.

Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political

Activities. Social Problems. 1983.

Goals of Corrections the Objective
Words: 2380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19065395
Read Full Paper  ❯

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.


Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…


MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at 

Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at .

Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at .

Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.

Juvenile Recidivism Rates and Analysis
Words: 12874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 40811758
Read Full Paper  ❯

Dugan: Should be on its own page.

Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.


Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…


Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. 

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. 

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. 

Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.

Japanese Correctional System Compared to American Correctional System
Words: 1452 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78466168
Read Full Paper  ❯

Japanese Correctional System as Compared to the American Corrections System

The Japanese correctional system places a strong emphasis on rehabilitation and preparing the prisoner for being released once again into society. The Japanese correctional system "is intended to resocialize, reform, and rehabilitate offenders" rather than enforce a system of retributive justice along the lines of the American model (Coutsoukis, 2004). This is why most sociologists state that the restorative philosophy of corrections is the predominant approach practiced in Japan, that is, the main aim of the system is to restore the pre-existing social order rather than enact retribution against a particular individual, or even to protect victim's rights, or to punish an offender in a fair manner (Hosoi & Nishimura 1999: 4).

Much like the American system, Japanese prisoners after conviction are classified "according to gender, nationality, kind of penalty, length of sentence, degree of criminality, and state of physical…

Works Cited

Debito, Arudou & Dave Aldwinckle. (2002). "Arrest and Detention Periods of Criminal Suspects Under Japanese Law 

Coutsoukis, Photius. (10 Nov 2004). "Japan: The Penal System." CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at 

Hosoi, Yoko & Haruo Nishimura. (1999). "The Role of Apology in the Japanese

Norway England Wales and the United States
Words: 2576 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19347119
Read Full Paper  ❯

.....criminal justice system protects the public from criminals and criminal activity by investigating, catching, and thwarting crime. Although some countries have similar methods of punishing criminals and preventing crime, many countries have different methods and strategies. Norway has its own way of handling criminals and criminal investigations that often involves a decentralized police and investigative force. The United States operates via tiered system: federal, state, and local (Cole, Smith, & DeJong, 2013). England offers a tiered system as well, with most investigative efforts occurring in London. This essay will highlight the differences and similarities of the criminal justice system in England/Wales, the United States, and Norway.


The United States has only been a country for a few centuries. It operates with peace and justice in mind. Operating under three branches of government, the judiciary branch allows for the government to arrest, prosecute, and imprison criminals and criminal suspects. Other…

Limitations of Crime Database Statistics of the FBi
Words: 3193 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16081026
Read Full Paper  ❯

Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
Methodological Procedures
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…

Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data.  Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.

Offender Re-Entry Program Proposal
Words: 1780 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65355003
Read Full Paper  ❯

Offender Reentry Program Proposal

The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)

It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of…

Wilkinson, R. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisoners using a restorative justice framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.

Wilkinson, R. (2000). Sex offender risk reduction center. In R. Wilkinson (Ed.), Correctional best practices. Directors' perspectives. Middleton, CT: The Association of State Correctional Administrators.

Wilson, D., Gallagher, C., & MacKenzie, D. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347-368.

History of Corrections
Words: 2922 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38581426
Read Full Paper  ❯

History Of Corrections

Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…


Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.

King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at: 

Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Why Victim Compensation
Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70799466
Read Full Paper  ❯

Victim Compensation

Proponents of victim compensation have philosophical bases for believing that the government has the obligation to provide victim compensation. Choose two of these reasons and briefly discuss.

Victim compensation programs entail giving payments to the victims of violent crimes (Doerner & Lab 2014: 20). The intention behind them is to create a system which enforces justice and restores the victim as much as possible to his or her original state. Also, the victims of many violent crimes such as domestic violence and child abuse often suffer a profound psychological impact for which they need additional support, just to feel normal again. "The rationale for victim compensation rests on a moral concern for the welfare of the injured citizen, and the current lack of any effective compensation provisions results in punishment for crime victims" (Schultz 1975). Simply incarcerating the perpetrator does not undo the often irreparable harm to the…


Doerner, W & Lab, S. (2014). Victimology Routledge, 2014

Schultz, L. g. (1975). Violated: A proposal to compensate victims of violent crime. From Considering the Victim. NCJ-27690

Victim compensation fund. (2015). Restorative Justice. Retrieved from: /tutorial-introduction-to-restorative-justice/outcomes/compensation

Reform and Rehabilitation Program to
Words: 6267 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71084368
Read Full Paper  ❯

These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).

All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).

Significance of the Study

Every year more than 600,000…


Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.

Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.

Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.

Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:

John Rhodes Re Community-Based Sanctions & Goals
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 53556791
Read Full Paper  ❯

John Rhodes

RE: Community-Based Sanctions & Goals of Sentencing

Which one of these do you think is the best method of implementing a community sanction program? Any concerns for public safety in any of these programs? Then there is the boot camp quagmire! Do you think the boot camps in Indiana are effective at reducing recidivism or rehabilitation; are the able to be effectively evaluated? I only ask because of the implications noted in our reading for the week.

Sentencing has become considerably more 'creative' in recent decades in a beneficial manner. It has been widely recognized that simply releasing an inmate back into society without a transitional phase can lead to recidivism, which is not beneficial for either the inmate or society. Parole and probation are designed to monitor inmates for safety reasons yet also help the prisoner by giving him or her counseling and education. Although used because…

Charlie What Are the Roles of a
Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12109139
Read Full Paper  ❯


hat are the roles of a juvenile police officer, a judge, and a probation officer in the juvenile system?

The juvenile police officer's role is to arrest those under the age of 18 who commit crimes, and according to an article in the Houston Chronicle, that officer must determine if the offender should be referred to the juvenile court or to an adult court. The juvenile police officer questions the alleged offender, fingerprints the offender, officially books the offender into the juvenile justice facilities and basically handles the case at the start of the process (Bolden-Barrett, 2011).

The statistics show that about 83% of court referrals for juveniles come from police officers; the remaining 17% come from parents, from schools, from the victims of crimes and from probation officers. Federal law requires that the arresting juvenile police officer can keep an under-18 offender in custody "…no more than six…

Works Cited

Bilchik, S. (1999). Focus on Accountability: Best Practices for Juvenile Court and Probation.

Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants Program. U.S. Department of Justice.

Retrieved December 24, 2013, from .

Bolden-Barrett, V. (2011). Police Officer's Roles in the Juvenile Justice System. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 24, 2013, from .

Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal
Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452
Read Full Paper  ❯

Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…


Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved 

Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: 

Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: