Restorative Justice Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Justice of Restoration

Words: 1214 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49023831

estorative Justice

The purpose of this article was to show that restorative justice is significantly more satisfying as compared to courts for both offenders and victims. This was achieved with a randomized experimental design known as eintergrative Shaming Experiments ISE. This project is used to compare the effects of standard court processing with those of restorative justice intervention known as conferencing. In the article, the ISE data is used to examine whether conferences are equally beneficial for juvenile victims and adult victims as well (Gal, T & Moyal, 201).

The research method that was used in this article is a stratified randomized experimental design that was used to compare the outcomes of court and conference cases that were held in Canberra, Australia between 1995 and 2000. Shoplifting, drinking, property crimes and violent crimes were assigned within each other randomly to the estorative Justice Conferences or traditional courts using a computer…… [Read More]

Reference

Gal, T. & Moyal, S. (2011). Juvenile victims in restorative justice: Findings from the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments
View Full Essay

Justice as Retribution

Words: 3724 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50803222

Justice as Retribution

Every individual in the globe has a perception towards crime, justice, criminals, and many other aspects in relation to criminals. On hearing the term "criminal," every individual reacts differently. There are those who feel that a criminal deserves to die, others feel they should rot in prison and many other divergent views. However, does it ever occur that a criminal can be a criminal, through a legal process although they did not take part in the crime? This is a serious issue, which requires critical reasoning before going around judging or calling other people criminals. To the main point, retribution is the main topic or the subject matter for this paper. In the criminal context, the term retribution suggests revenge. This revenge, which the court delivers, is unseen by the common people. However, a critical scrutiny suggests that the legal process is also a tool to deliver…… [Read More]

Works cited

Allen, Rob, "Justice Reinvestment: Making sense of the costs of imprisonment." Criminal

Justice Matters, 71.1 (2008): 41-42.Print

Antony, A Vass. Alternatives to Prison: Punishment, Custody and the Community. London:

Sage, 1990. Print.
View Full Essay

Justice in the Twentieth Century

Words: 1694 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74551873

What was particularly ironic was that soccer had always been a game for whites only: blacks were specifically not included.

Of course, the movie had a happy ending when South Africa won the World Cup. ut the World Cup didn't completely change South Africa. There is still high violence, prompted by economic conditions and a newly released set of citizens. A high percentage of residents also have Aids, another very serious problem. ut Archbishop Tutu points out that the TRC methods of dealing with the violence were not the traditional way to justice, but an older and deeper vision of justice. In South Africa the violators of human rights do not face criminal trials. Instead, perpetrators engage in confessions, and reconciliation between the victims and the victimizers is achieved by means of public hearings of apology and forgiveness. Probably, efforts towards reconciliation have their own side effects -- moral and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www. Desmond Tutu -- Peace Foundation. April 19, 2010.

http://www. Nuremberg Trial.

Yeager, General Chuck. Yeager. New York: Bantam Books, 1906.
View Full Essay

Justice Crime and Ethics

Words: 3434 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16571934

Justice, Crime and Ethics

Prepping the President: Ethical Analysis and Future Policy Initiatives

Suggesting the Use of Rehabilitation in Corrections

The President of the United States has just scheduled a town hall meeting entitled, "Criminal Justice Ethics: Today's News and Tomorrow's Solutions." Many of the country's most interested individuals in the field of criminal justice's present ethical issues are attending the meeting and expect to be informed on the status of some of the most innovative and future-leaning criminal justice policies that the country currently utilizes. In prepping the president on the topic at hand, significant attention must be paid to the use of rehabilitation in corrections, which has proven itself effective in rehabilitating criminal offenders in a way that allows them to regain a productive life for the remainder of their sentence and beyond. In viewing the status of criminal rehabilitation as well as the programs and policy considerations…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Everett, B. (2010 May 23). "Realistic rehabilitation: 12 points for future success; thoughts on reforming rehabilitation built by looking at past failures." Corrections One. Web. Retrieved from:  http://www.correctionsone.com/jail-management/articles/2026042-Realistic-Rehabilitation-12-points-for-future-success/ . [Accessed on 15 November 2012].

Gehrig, T. And Warner, K. (2007 June). "Against the narrowing perspectives: how do we see learning, prisons, and prisoners." Journal of Correctional Education: 58(2), pp. 170-184. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 15 November 2012].

Grover, A., Lane, J. And Santos, S. (2012). "Former prison and jail inmates' perceptions of informal methods of control utilized by correctional officers." Southern Criminal Justice Association, January 2012: 1(1). Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 15 November 2012].

Latessa, E., Lowekamp, C., Pratt, T., and Wright, K. (2012). "The importance of ecological context for correctional rehabilitation programs: understanding the micro and macro level dimensions of successful offender treatment." Justice Quarterly: 29(6), pp. 775. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database. [Accessed on 15 November 2012].
View Full Essay

Change About the Criminal Justice

Words: 2999 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36936272



(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame'

In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where he introduced his idea of restorative shaming (Braithwaite, 1997). The conventional criminal justice stigmatizes the individual in that it not only makes him a pariah of society thereby making it harder to reform himself, but also crushes his esteem, causing others to deride and shun him, accordingly often making him react in a reinforcing manner. Seeing himself as 'offender' and finding it extremely difficult to readjust and gain acceptance in society, the offender may be compelled to return to crime as way of livelihood to support himself and as a way of gaining the prestige and status that he m ay need and that he may, otherwise, not gain.

estorative justice, on the other hand, helps offender atone for his…… [Read More]

References

Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame, and Reintegration New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Christie, N. (1977), Conflicts as Property, British Journal of Criminology, 17: 1-15.

Correctional Service of Canada. [Online] Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice What Do You Think Paradigm

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59365994

Criminal Justice

What do you Think

Paradigm of Laws

Paradigm of Laws

• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons

Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.

The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…… [Read More]

References

Jensen, O.C., (1934), "Kant's Ethical Formalism," Philosophy, 9(34), 195-208

Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, (2009), Retrieved from:

 http://www.cscsb.org/restorative_justice/retribution_vs_restoration.html
View Full Essay

Christian Worldview of Criminal Justice

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14332235

S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).

Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…… [Read More]

References

Bottoms, A. And J. Tankebe. (2012). "Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice." The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 1.

McCrudden, C. (2008). "Human dignity and judicial interpretation of human rights." The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4.

"Responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration: a Catholic perspective on crime and criminal justice." United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at:  http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/human-life-and-dignity/criminal-justice-restorative-justice/crime-and-criminal-justice.cfm 

Biblical quotes/verses. Open Bible Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at:  http://www.openbible.info/
View Full Essay

Society's View of Criminal Justice System Society's

Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30977252

Society's View Of Criminal Justice System

Society's Perception of the Criminal Justice System

Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. For the most part, Americans understand that our criminal justice system is designed to prevent criminal behavior, punish offenders and make society safer for all. However, there are still those times when the system fails -- convictions can be overturned by DNA evidence, those accused may be coerced into confessions, and vulnerable people such as those with mental illness or handicaps may be taken advantage of (Cox, 2013). Such incidents make it difficult to have full trust that the criminal justice system is truly functioning as originally intended.

Perceptions about the criminal justice system begin with perceptions of…… [Read More]

References

Cox, A. (2013). New visions of social control? Young people's perceptions of community penalties. Journal of Youth Studies, 16(1), 135-150. doi:10.1080/13676261.2012.697136.

Hurwitz, J., & Peffley, M. (2005). Explaining the Great Racial Divide: Perceptions of Fairness in the U.S. Criminal Justice System. Journal of Politics, 67(3), 762-783. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2508.2005.00338.x.

Unnever, J.D., Gabbidon, S.L., & Higgins, G.E. (2011). The Election of Barack Obama and Perceptions of Criminal Injustice. JQ: Justice Quarterly, 28(1), 23-45. doi:10.1080/07418825.2010.493525.
View Full Essay

Articles Published on Criminal Justice

Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53577316



esults

Method

This section of the study describes the frequency distribution of the data collected during this study and idea of "central tendency, associated mean, median and mode." Various measures of dispersion are also reviewed, with an explanation of whether the research supports or disproves the hypotheses explored.

Variables - Independent and Dependent

The data collected reflects the independent and dependent variables explored for purposes of this study. The independent variables explored include: sex and gender of study participants, ethnicity of participants, socioeconomic status and religious or moral practices. The dependent variables explored include: participants age, the type of justice used (restorative model or correctional models).

Statistical Analysis/Means/Mode/Median

The statistical analysis measures the frequency distribution for "numeric" discrete variables and "categorical variables" labeled (e.g. A_AGE) (USF, 2001:3). All variables are un-weighted for purposes of this study. Table 1.1 below provides the statistical analysis and distributions for the independent and dependent…… [Read More]

References

Hopkins, B. (2004, March). Just schools: A whole school approach to restorative justice.

Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 200.

Nilsson, J.E., Love, K.M, Taylor, K.J., & Slusher, a.L. (2007). "A content and sample analysis of quantitative articles published in the Journal of Counseling & Development between 1991 and 2000." Journal of Counseling & Development, 85(3):357.

Smith, M.E. (2001, June). "What future for 'public safety' and 'restorative justice' in community corrections. U.S. Department of Justice, Sentencing and Corrections. 11(1): 1-8. Available:
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Systemic Malignity Racial

Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3292173

aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).

Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?

Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013

from  http://law.jrank.org/pages/9628/Racial-Profiling.html 

Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
View Full Essay

Understanding Key Terminologies in Criminal Justice

Words: 1356 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33595424

criminal justice system by providing the essential definition of terms like Antidotal, Qualitative, and Quantitative Evidence. 'Justice' in the context criminal justice is also defined. The definitions in this study extend to include endnotes, footnotes, crime control, rehabilitative, due process, and nonintervention. The aspect of racial profiling like racism, bias, prejudice, bigotry, and discrimination in criminal justice is also addressed in detail.

Anecdotal evidence defines evidence established through anecdotes. The small sample allows for larger probabilities in realizing unreliable information due to non-representative or otherwise cherry-picked samples for typical cases. An example of anecdotal statement is 'There is proof that water can cure cancer. I read of a man suffering from cancer and was cured after drinking'. Qualitative evidence is sourced from methods of inquiry engaged in different academic disciplines and traditional forms of social sciences. However, it also includes further contexts and market research. Qualitative research aims at gathering…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Inciardi, James. Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2009. Print

Maxfield, Michael. And Babbie, Earl. Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print

Neubauer, David. And Fradella, Henry. America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print

Stojkovic, Stan, Kalinich, David, and John Klofas Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print
View Full Essay

Christianity and Criminal Justice

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72323711

Christian Worldview of Law Enforcement

Forgiveness is a critical component of Christianity: humans are all imperfect and living in an imperfect, yet God-created world. Because of that, it is essential to view others with compassion and tolerance. Increasingly, the perspective of restorative rather than retributive justice has been infused into the philosophy of law enforcement today. "estorative justice is an idea that says, at its core, justice has to be about repairing or addressing the harm caused to social relationships when wrongdoing happens," ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). It often involves community service by the offender to mitigate the harm done to the wider environment or members of the law enforcement community facilitating dialogue between the aggrieved party and the offender in a constructive manner ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). The idea is to heal both perpetrator and victim through forgiveness and humanization.

Law officers themselves often find solace through scripture. According…… [Read More]

References

Defining restorative justice. (2015). Restorative Justice. Retrieved from:

http://www.restorativejustice.org/university-classroom/04restorative%20justice%20theory/defining

Hall, G. (2013). Can a cop be a Christian? Law Enforcement Today. Retrieved from:

http://www.lawenforcementtoday.com/2013/10/14/can-a-cop-be-a-christian/
View Full Essay

Ethical or Social Justice

Words: 3148 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8427475

Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.

Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.

ed Cross society

Nonprofit organizations have to be…… [Read More]

References

Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.

Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.

Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.

Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.
View Full Essay

Organizational Change in Criminal Justice

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82995190

Organizational change in any sector implies moving away from the present state and "toward some desired future state" in order to increase the effectiveness of the organization (Lunenburg, 2010, p. 1). Change is typically driven by internal and/or external factors. The impetus for change could be a crisis or, in the case of criminal justice agencies, policy change. Changes to technology or financial resources are other examples of external forces of change that could impact a criminal justice agency. Criminal justice agencies also respond to internal forces of change, including demands to change organizational culture, policy, or procedure. The primary approaches to manage organizational change in criminal justice agencies include recognizing the need for change and the forces instigating it, planning effectively for change, and implementing change strategies that coincide with organizational goals and values.

When change has become inevitable in a criminal justice agency, it may also be helpful…… [Read More]

References

Bodor, T., Thompson, F. & DemirAivi, F. (2004). Criminal justice cultures in the United States. Retrieved online: https://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/journals/hpa_2004_criminal/hpa_2004_criminal.pdf

Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Forces for and resistance to organizational change. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 27(4).

Stojkovic, S., Kalinch, D. & Klofas, J. (n.d.). Criminal Justice Organizations. Fifth Edition.

Umbreit, M.S. (2007). Restorative justice: Implications for organizational change. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved online: http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/restorative-justice/organizational-change/pages/implications.aspx
View Full Essay

American Psychological Association in Criminal Justice American

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85043152

American Psychological Association in Criminal Justice

American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association, or APA, according to its own website, is a scientific and professional organization for the field of psychology in the United States with over 154,000 members, and it is the largest alliance of psychologists in the world (APA (a), 2011). The APA is a governing organization as well as a hub for connecting psychologists and psychological professionals to one another and to a wealth of resources (APA (a), 2011). It governs in the sense that it exists, in part, to ensure that professional psychologists are well qualified and effective to the highest degree in their practice, with the highest standards of integrity, ethics, training, and experience (APA (a), 2011). Perhaps most significantly, the APA holds responsibility for establishing and upholding these high standards within its membership body through the "Ethics Code" (APA, 2010).

As an organization is…… [Read More]

References

APA. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved on May 8, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx.

APA (1). (2011). About APA. Retrieved on May 8, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/about/index.aspx.

APA (2). (2011). Criminal Justice Section: Division 18 of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved on May 8, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/divisions/div18/cjpsych/.

Boothby, Jennifer. (2010). Division 18 Business meeting. Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. San Diego, CA: August 2010.
View Full Essay

The reforming of young offenders

Words: 3171 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36662551

estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…… [Read More]

References

Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.

doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.05.006

Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:

School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,
View Full Essay

Broad Judicial Discretion Regarding Juvenile Delinquency With Focus on the Future of Juvenile Justice

Words: 3688 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20953314

Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States

Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…… [Read More]

References

Alridge, D.P. (2005, Summer). Introduction: Hip hop in history: Past, present, and future. The Journal of African-American History, 90(3), 190-193.

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Boyd, T. (2002). The new H.N.I.C.: The death of civil rights and the reign of hip hop. New York:

Brookins, G.K. & Hirsch, J.A. (2002, Summer). Innocence lost: Case studies of children in the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 205-210.
View Full Essay

Punishment Anything Goes Is an Interesting Way

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73113009

Punishment

"Anything goes" is an interesting way to describe the current state of the nation's approach to punishment. Do you feel it is accurate? If yes, why? If not, why not? What other aspects of our nation's current approach to sanctions -- besides those listed and discussed by Blomberg and Lucken -- do you feel bolsters your position?

I do not feel that the "Anything goes" penal strategy is accurate for the nation's approach punishment. It is not a perfect way of ensuring that there is justification especially after punishment. The main aim of punishment in the society is to promote justification, which will then lead to harmony within the people. However, the "anything goes" penal strategy involves the prisoners undergoing any type of punishment as regarded by the states (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010). The option of the punishment does not always involve the input of the citizens and other…… [Read More]

Reference

Blomberg, T.G., & Lucken, K. (2010). American penology: A history of control. New Brunswick [N.J.: AldineTransaction.
View Full Essay

Goals of Corrections Retribution the Rationale Behind

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57439148

Goals of Corrections

etribution

The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who deliberately break the established rules of society (Schmalleger, 2009). Its purpose is nothing more than to satisfy those impulses, particularly on the part of the victims of criminal acts. The types of penal sentences that reflect pure retribution are long terms of incarceration and even hard labor and other forms of punishment that are expressly designed to be unpleasant for the offender. The types of crime control strategies dictated by this philosophy are those that make penal sentences as long and as unpleasant for offenders as is constitutionally permissible (Schmalleger, 2009). In many respects, this was the approach taken in American criminal justice prior to the revolutionary ideas first introduced by William Penn (Schmalleger, 2009). The only "advantages" of this…… [Read More]

References

Lynch, M.J. (1999). "Beating a Dead Horse: Is There Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrence Effect of Imprisonment?" Criminal Law & Social Change, Vol.

31.

Nagin, D.S. (1998). "Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First

Century." Crime and Justice, Vol. 23.
View Full Essay

Juvenile Delinquents

Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54718429

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…… [Read More]

References

Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,

2010. http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/strickland205.htm
View Full Essay

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 850 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Criminal Court System

estorative justice is the application a theory that puts emphasis on making amendments on the harm that has been caused by unjust behavior. This approach is practical and biblical when it comes to dealing with problems of punishment and crime to the society.it is based on simple principles whereby it recognizes that any crime committed caused harm to people meaning that it is not basically about breaking the law. The aim of the restorative justice system is therefore to amend injuries that result from crimes that are committed. The system also believes that crime is not just a matter between the individual offenders and the government rather it affects other members of the society as well. Since the victims of a crime and the entire community bear the burden of a crime they all have to actively take part in the this criminal justice processes (New Zealand…… [Read More]

References

RJcity.(2007). A Story about RJ City's Response to Crime, Victims and Offenders. Retrieved March 10, 2014 from  http://www.rjcity.org/the-project/documents/Case%20Study%2030-10-09.pdf 

New Zealand Ministry of Justice, (2014). Pre-sentence restorative justice court Process. Retrieved March 10, 2014 from  http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/criminal-justice/restorative-justice/restorative-justice-process-pre-sentence
View Full Essay

New Zealand and the United

Words: 3004 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 254181

Furthermore, there have been very few cases of police corruption. New Zealand police officers are also known for their involvement in various community and youth outreach programs. (the New Zealand Police)

7. General comparison of New Zealand and the United States.

Both the United States and New Zealand have many fundamental similarities in their historical, religious, social and legal development. In the first instance, both countries were formed through colonization - which implies that they both encountered in their history different but comparable problems with regard to diversity and cultural inequalities. However, this is much less pronounced than in the larger United States.

The religious structure and composition of the two countries are also relatively similar, with a preponderance of the Christian denomination. The United States is, according to the PE Foundation, approximately seventy percent Protestant and just over twenty percent Catholic, with the balance divided over a variety of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

History of Youth Justice in New Zealand. Oct 3, 2008. http://www.justice.govt.nz/youth/history/part1.html

Census snapshot: cultural diversity. Oct 3, 2008. http://www.stats.govt.nz/products-and-services/Articles/census-snpsht-cult-diversity-Mar02.htm

Crime and Justice in the United States of America. Oct 3, 2008. http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2003/December/articlesdb/articles/3500

Criminal Justice System in Action: The Adversarial System. Oct 3, 2008. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/31690/criminal_justice_system_in_action_the.html?cat=17
View Full Essay

Intermediate Sanctions Over the Last Decade There

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63236093

intermediate sanctions?

Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).

Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?

The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Disposing of Repeat Juvenile Offenders in Cook County

Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95097854

Juvenile Justice

Xander, an Illinois Juvenile Criminal Justice Case Study

The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA, 2012) operates under a statutory mandate to improve the administration of the criminal justice system in the State of Illinois. In order to perform this function the agency must be aware of all the operational details related to the Illinois juvenile criminal justice system (ICJIA, n.d.). The Illinois juvenile criminal justice system consists of 102 county systems that operate semi-independently from state agency oversight; therefore, the procedures of probation, detention, and corrections are the responsibility of the county juvenile systems. A distinct juvenile criminal justice system (JCS) in Illinois is relatively new, having been created in 2005 by the state legislature to separate adults from juvenile offenders within prisons and jails. A few years earlier (1998), legislation was passed that mandated a criminal justice policy of balanced and restorative justice.

According to the…… [Read More]

References

Bostwick, L. (2010). Policies and Procedures of the Illinois Juvenile Justice System. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from  http://www.bwla.org/Uploads/1/docs/1-17%20Roundtable%20Policies%20and%20Procedures%20of%20the%20Juvenile%20Justice%20System_2010.pdf .

Cook County Juvenile Court. (2009). Juvenile Justice in Cook County. Report of the Cook County Juvenile Court. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from  http://www.cookcountyjustice.org/sites/www.cookcountyjustice.org/files/assets/JJ%20Annual%20Report_Final_Printer.pdf .

ICJIA. (n.d.). Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/pdf/TI%202008/Juvenile%20justice.pdf.

ICJIA. (2012). Welcome to the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/.
View Full Essay

Peacemaking Criminology the First Difficulty

Words: 3963 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20599631

They began to outline an issue of the journal which they tentatively called Contemporary Criminology: A Journal of Ideas Predisposed Toward Radical Democratization. It was hoped that the first issue might arrive during the Fall of 1996.

About the same time, Sullivan and Tifft also spoke about creating a new association for scholars, activists, and practitioners that would serve as an alternative to the conventional academic criminology and criminal justice organizations. It was suggested that the members of this association might come together each year and share their ideas and discuss their current work in mostly plenary sessions. Great emphasis would be put on the participation of everyone present through extensive discussions. An invitation would be extended to all those associated with the restorative justice community who, though they met periodically around the globe, had no permanent home or community with which to share their ideas and find support.

It…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Annual Report Fiscal Year 2004. Restorative Justice Program, Prince William County Office of Dispute Resolution. 2004.

Coser, Lewis. (2004). Crime Theories. Retrieved June 28, 2005 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm.

The Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research and Statistics Division Methodological Series. Department of Justice Canada. 2001.

Gulati, Shruti Gola (1996). Healing the Circle: Exploring the Conjuncture of Peacemaking Criminology and Native Justice Initiatives. M.A. thesis. Department of Criminology. University of Ottawa. Retrieved June 29, 2005 from www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk3/ftp05/mq20919.pdf.
View Full Essay

Crime Victims Have Begun to

Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62273380

Secondly, the victim, being more involved with the crime and understanding of the situation as well as more intimate with it than the legislators is better able to articulate his opinion than they. Thirdly, it is only logical that the victim be involved and heard. After all he was the one who was hurt. And finally, victim advocates work towards the objective that victim's rights be granted constitutional protection so that average citizens will be aware that not only do offenders have rights but that victims have rights too and that these are equally as strong. For all these reasons, groups such as the Victims Constitutional Amendment Network is seeking to grant victims rights constitutional protection in order to increase the strength, enforceability, and permanence of victims' rights

Source

Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame,…… [Read More]

Dignan, J. (2002) Restorative Justice and the Law: The case for an integrated, systematic approach, Stanford Law Review, 52, 168-190

Dignan, James (2003), Towards a Systemic Model of Restorative Justice, Stanford Law Review, 135-156,

The National Center for Victims of Crime. Rights of victims of crime http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32463
View Full Essay

New Viewpoints in Regards to Supporting the

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35469760

New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do with the corrections part of the criminal justice system are having prisons that are clearly overcrowded and not having enough in the budget to make some adjustments. If these concerns and issues are not talked about or even looked into, it is a strong possibility that they will continue to have some kind of an effect on operations in the near future of corrections. Community and restorative justice programs are options being looked at when it comes to the future of corrections as legislators, activists and administrators, debate philosophies to speak about these concerns and issues brought about from past and present trends.

The "get tough" approach against crime, long ago, was once preferred by the national political climate. It was…… [Read More]

References:

Appelbaum, P.S. (2011). Law & psychiatry: Lost in the crowd: Prison mental health care, overcrowding, and the courts. Psychiatric Services, 62(10), 1121-3.

Pearl, N. (2009). A task force to reduce prison overcrowding: Implications for criminal justice policy, planning and research methods courses. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 11(1), 111-121.

Pontell, H.N. (2004). Incarceration as a deviant form of social control: Jail overcrowding in california. Crime and Delinquency, 40(1), 18.

Specter, D. (2010). Everything revolves around overcrowding: The state of california's prisons. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 22(3), 194-199.
View Full Essay

Role of Prisons in the Society I

Words: 1988 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37250638

role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.

A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).

The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…… [Read More]

References

Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.

Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].

Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.

MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
View Full Essay

Types of Evaluation Designs and 2 Types of Methodologies

Words: 2229 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35627993

criminal procedure and the idiosyncrasies of criminal practice vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction" (Jaros, 2010, p. 445). If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably true as well that evaluating the different circumstances surrounding the commission of crime is also widely diverse in its practice. There are a number of methodologies that are used in various research including studies relating to the study of criminal justice and different aspects of that arena; two of the more commonly used methodologies employ quantitative and qualitative methods of research.

The quantitative methodology is used by researchers who are seeking to quantify certain areas of study or the results of such studies. Quantifying involves numbers, percentages and numerically evaluated data. One of the benefits that can be derived when using quantitative evaluation is that such a method provides numerical data for comparative studies. Comparative studies show specific numbers calculated from participant…… [Read More]

References

Behavioral Sciences and the Law (2006) online accessed at Wiley Inter-Science on November 11, 2010, at www.interscience.wiley.com

Bhola, H.S. (1990) Evaluating 'literacy for development' projects, programs and campaigns: Evaluation planning, design and implementation, and utilization of evaluation results. UNESCO Institute for Education, xii

Bonta, J.; Wallace-Capretta, S.; Rooney, J.; McAnoy, K.; (2002) An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration, Contemporary Justice Review, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 319-338

Chaiken, J.M. & Chaiken, M.R.; (1982) Varieties of criminal behavior, Santa Monica: Rand Publishers
View Full Essay

Law Enforcement and Theories of Crime and Criminals

Words: 1165 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27529104

Schools of Criminology

Schools of Thought

Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will look after their own self-interest first. In other words, if a person is penniless and hungry, he will steal food because it is in his own self-interest to eat and stay alive, notwithstanding his crime

Classical School summary: In the 18th century philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that existing theories of crime (God or the devil determine what humans will do) were not relevant. They put forth the alternative idea that because humans have free will, they choose which behavior they will follow. Most humans respond to pleasure and pain, and if crime brings a person pleasure, that's what he will do; but being hungry can bring pain so a person will commit a crime to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gul, S.K. (2009). An Evaluation of the Rational Choice Theory in Criminology. Sociology & Applied Science, 4(8), 36-44.

Tibbetts, S.G., and Hemmens, C. (2009). Criminology Theory: A Text/Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Vito, G., and Maahs, J. (2011). Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy. Burlington, MA:

Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
View Full Essay

Jails and Prisons the General Characteristics of

Words: 892 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28372795

Jails and Prisons

The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place…… [Read More]

References

Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:

Belmont, CA.

Davies, C. (1989). "Goffman's concept of the total institution: Criticisms and revisions" Human

Studies, 12(1-2): 77-95.
View Full Essay

Golden Age of the Victim Golden Age

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83571439

Golden Age of the Victim

Golden Age Victim

An overview of the Golden Age of the Victim, including a comparison of victim mentalities of the 1960s era compared with the victim mentality of today's "victim" of crime. Synopsis of victim's assistance programs and victim advocates, including the methods they use to help victims and the laws enacted to provide victims with ongoing support within states and federal governing bodies.

Historically crime ran rampant throughout the nation. There wasn't much a person could do if they became a "victim" of crime. Many people took up arms and attempted to reconcile criminal activity on their own, helpless and subject to repeat offenses. During times of old, or the "Golden Age" of the victim, there was no help for someone defined as a victim, or burdened by crime. Crime was just as costly for many families as it is today, and with no…… [Read More]

References:

Barnes, Gilbert. 2011. Victim services. Office of Community Corrections, State Florida.

Retrieved: http://wwwdc.state.fl.us/oth/victasst/

Schmalleger, Frank & Armstrong, Gordon. 1997. Crime and the justice system in America.

Greenwood Publishing Group.
View Full Essay

How International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil

Words: 3190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3422744

International Organizations Impact Incarceration and Prison Management in Brazil

People incarcerated in prisons from developing countries like Brazil face long years of confinement in dirty and cramped quarters. Some of the harsh conditions the prisons present include inadequate hygiene, insufficient food allocations, and no clothing or other basic amenities. Even as the conditions do not form a pattern across the continent, the prevalence hits higher concerns requiring intervention from international organizations. The interactions allow resident prison managers to address inadequacies through prison reform and increased attention towards human rights. Various barriers include state secrecy, absence of public interest, and weak civil society inhibiting collection of sustainable information on the deplorable prisons. The veil of ignorance on the kinds of prison conditions that fuel abuse and neglect of people incarcerated makes it imperative for investigation of prison trends. International organizations generate information regarding issues that affect the penal system of the…… [Read More]

References

Adetula, G. A, Adetula, A., & Fatusin, A. (2010). The prison subsystem culture: Its attitudinal effects on operatives, convicts and the free society. Ife Psychologia. 18(1): 232-251

Austin, J.E. (2008). Strategic Management In Developing Countries. New York: Simon and Schuster

Baer, L.D., & Ravneberg, B. (2008). The outside and inside in Norwegian and English prisons. Geografiska Annaler Series B: Human Geography, 90(2), 205-216.

Friedman, A., & Parenti, C., (2013). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization and Human Rights. New York: SCB Distributors
View Full Essay

Philosophies Procedures of the Balanced

Words: 1815 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5330712



As a conclusion I must state that I agree with the philosophies of the ARJ method. I believe that all people must receive equal chances. I am sure that the children usually do not intend to act in a criminal way. I believe that those who adopt this type of conduct are either doing it because of the bad conditions within the family or because of the other influential factors (like the group of friends). However, no matter of the influence, the important fact is for the child to recover. ARJ offers him the change to gain certain skills and to be able to use them in the future, in the process of his professional development. In addition to that, by reestablishing the order inside the community and by letting the child do some community work, the court is making sure that there will be fewer chances for him to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pennsylvania Commission of Crime and Deliquency "Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ)" 25 Aug 2005, 10 Nov 2006 http://www.pccd.state.pa.us/pccd/cwp/view.asp?A=1387&Q=569712

Juvenile Law Center, Advancing the Rights and Well-being of Children in Jeopardy "Pennsylvania's Juvenile Justice System," 1996, 10 Nov 2006,  http://www.jlc.org/index.php/factsheets/pajj#ENT0 

Angeline Spain, Spotlight Pennsylvania, "The Case-Closing Project: an evaluation of BARJ in Pennsylvania," June 2004, 10 Nov 2006, http://www.neglected-delinquent.org/nd/resources/spotlight/spotlight200405b.asp

Peter Freivals, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet #42, Balanced and Restorative Justice Project (BARJ), July 1996, 11 Nov 2006 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/91415.pdf
View Full Essay

Marianta Undergoes Rehabilitation Punishment Is Not Going

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12534593

Marianta undergoes rehabilitation. Punishment is not going to help her. It will only stigmatize her and make her more likely repeat her crimes in the future, as well as reinforcing her impression that she is an addict and has a psychopathic personality; that that is a part of her and cannot be helped.

Rehabilitation -- or restorative judgment, on the other hand, believes that one should make a distinction between crimes perpetrated against society and crimes perpetrated against people. Zehr, for instance, claims that conventional criminal justice system views crime and justice through a retributive perspective where crime is seen as violating laws and justice is seen as condemning the other and demanding retribution (Zehr, 1990). In his own words, he describes "crime" as a "wound in human relationships," that "creates an obligation to restore and repair" (Zehr, 1990, 181) Restorative justice, on the other hand, according to Zehr, is…… [Read More]

Sources

Patterns and Characteristics of Codependence http://www.coda.org/tools4recovery/patterns-new.htm

The Twelve Traditions of Co-Dependents Anonymous

http://www.coda.org/tools4recovery/twelve-traditions.htm

Zehr, H. (1980) Changing lenses. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press
View Full Essay

Proactive Policing

Words: 6206 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42132239

Proactive Policing

There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.

Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.

Outline of the Paper

The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971

Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.

Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political

Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
View Full Essay

Goals of Corrections the Objective

Words: 2380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19065395

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.

RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS

Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm

Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387.

Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm.

Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
View Full Essay

Juvenile Recidivism Rates and Analysis

Words: 12874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40811758

Dugan: Should be on its own page.

Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]

References

Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
View Full Essay

Japanese Correctional System Compared to American Correctional System

Words: 1452 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78466168

Japanese Correctional System as Compared to the American Corrections System

The Japanese correctional system places a strong emphasis on rehabilitation and preparing the prisoner for being released once again into society. The Japanese correctional system "is intended to resocialize, reform, and rehabilitate offenders" rather than enforce a system of retributive justice along the lines of the American model (Coutsoukis, 2004). This is why most sociologists state that the restorative philosophy of corrections is the predominant approach practiced in Japan, that is, the main aim of the system is to restore the pre-existing social order rather than enact retribution against a particular individual, or even to protect victim's rights, or to punish an offender in a fair manner (Hosoi & Nishimura 1999: 4).

Much like the American system, Japanese prisoners after conviction are classified "according to gender, nationality, kind of penalty, length of sentence, degree of criminality, and state of physical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Debito, Arudou & Dave Aldwinckle. (2002). "Arrest and Detention Periods of Criminal Suspects Under Japanese Law

 http://www.debito.org/arrestperiods.html 

Coutsoukis, Photius. (10 Nov 2004). "Japan: The Penal System." CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at  http://www.photius.com/countries/japan/national_security/japan_national_security_the_penal_system.html 

Hosoi, Yoko & Haruo Nishimura. (1999). "The Role of Apology in the Japanese
View Full Essay

Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46175369

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
View Full Essay

Norway England Wales and the United States

Words: 2576 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19347119

.....criminal justice system protects the public from criminals and criminal activity by investigating, catching, and thwarting crime. Although some countries have similar methods of punishing criminals and preventing crime, many countries have different methods and strategies. Norway has its own way of handling criminals and criminal investigations that often involves a decentralized police and investigative force. The United States operates via tiered system: federal, state, and local (Cole, Smith, & DeJong, 2013). England offers a tiered system as well, with most investigative efforts occurring in London. This essay will highlight the differences and similarities of the criminal justice system in England/Wales, the United States, and Norway.

Body

The United States has only been a country for a few centuries. It operates with peace and justice in mind. Operating under three branches of government, the judiciary branch allows for the government to arrest, prosecute, and imprison criminals and criminal suspects. Other…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Unfairness American Judicial System

Words: 3777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62719450

Unfairness in the American Judicial System

The objective of this study is to examine unfairness in the American Judicial System. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of the literature in this area of inquiry that is academic and professional peer-reviewed literature.

There is an existing myth in today's American society that the American Judicial System is 'fair'. However; the belief of this myth is due to societal conditioning and traditionally held beliefs about the American Judicial System and is not based on the reality of today's American Judicial System and its practices, principles, and processes.

There is presently a high level of unfairness in the American Judicial System evidenced by diverse sentencing guidelines and laws and by the mass incarceration of individuals from vulnerable poverty stricken communities and specifically mass incarceration of those of a minority race and those who have committed drug offenses highlights the present…… [Read More]

References

Malese, M. (2013) Principles of Justice and Fairness. Original Publication July 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/principles-of-justice

Crossroad on Alliance for Justice (2011) Brennan Center for Justice. Retrieved from: https://www.brennancenter.org/blog/courts-matter-and-so-do-rules-keep-them-fair

Hang, N. (2012) RACE AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM: A STUDY OF RACIAL BIAS AND RACIAL INJUSTICE. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1104&context=socssp

Kozy, J. (2011) The American Legal System: A Ball Game Played by Lawyers and Jurists. Global Research. 15 Nov. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-american-legal-system-a-ball-game-played-by-lawyers-and-jurists/27684