115 results for “Restorative Justice”.
With the research conducted between the years 1997 and 1998 in the United States and Europe shows that the rate of crime was high and the culprits were never given any chance to defend themselves whenever they appeared before the court of law. This made the courts to be full and the prisons to be overcrowded as criminals saw that there was no justice in their rulings. It is through this that the judges, probation officers, prosecutors, lawyers, advocates and the police sat down and came up with a program that would enable the culprits to defend themselves and to feel that justice has been practiced.
The adopted measures have been considered under the restorative justice dialogue, which has become a common practice. While there are four forms of restorative justice, the emphasis of these programs has been to always involve victims and offenders in dialogue. Most of these forms…
Umbreit, M.S., Vos, B. & Coates, R.B. (2006, January 1). Restorative Justice Dialogue:
Evidence-Based Practice. Retrieved from Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking -- University of Minnesota website: http://www.cehd.umn.edu/ssw/rjp/PDFs/RJ_Dialogue_Evidence-based_Practice_1-06.pdf
"Victim-Offender Mediation." (2007, December 5). National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs website: http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/restorative-justice/promising-practices/victim-offender-mediation.htm
Individual restorative justice paper: Case study
Traditionally, the debate about the purpose of the justice system has revolved around the question of whether punishment should be retributive or rehabilitative in nature. Those who favor a retributive model stress the need for criminals to pay their debts to society and view the purpose of the justice system as primarily to punish convicts through confinement and forcing them to work. Those who advocate a rehabilitative model stress the need to reform prisoners, through measures such as education and counseling. They believe that imprisonment alone merely embitters prisoners and reinforces convict's sense of membership in an ostracized, criminal class. Also the desire for revenge, while understandable on the part of the victim, is not a base emotion that should necessarily be acknowledge by the justice system
The restorative model attempts to provide a different perspective of how to deal with criminals and criminality. The…
Van Ness, Dan. (2009). When Ed and David broke into Mildred's house and took things.
RJ City Phase 1 Final Report. Retrieved:
Variations of the area court model, such as teen courts, medicine courts, and household physical violence courts, focus on specific concerns in order to establish even more extensive options. The underlying presumption of neighborhood courts is that neighborhoods are deeply damaged by the sentencing procedure yet are seldom spoken with and associated with judicial results.
Community justice has actually been slowest to show up in the correctional industry. Maybe this is since the existing term, "community corrections," provides the impression of community justice. Under conventional techniques to this industry, corrections get in the neighborhood; however the neighborhood never ever makes it into corrections. However, numerous brand-new tasks have actually arisen that look for correctional outcomes that recover sufferers and offenders (Van Ness and Strong 1997; Galaway and Hudson 1996), while likewise including locals in setting sanctions and examining correctional concerns. An earlier publication by the American Probation and Parole Association…
American Probation and Parole Association. (1996). Restoring hope through community partnerships: The real deal in crime control. Perspectives 20:40 -- 42.
Bayley, DH (1994). Police for the future. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bazemore, G.,&Walgrave, L. (1999). Restorative juvenile justice: Repairing the harm of youth crime. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Boland, B. (1998). Community prosecution: Portland's experience. In Community justice: An emerging field, edited by David R. Karp. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
According to ichards (2004), however, the history of restorative justice outside of the specifically named restorative justice procedures that are littered throughout U.S. criminal justice history is difficult to determine. Although she cites work that suggests restorative justice has been around since the dawn of time, she argues that some histories are used as a means to convince others of the importance of restorative justice and, therefore, often exaggerate it to appear like a process that occurs naturally with little work (ichards, 2004). Thus, the history of restorative justice as a whole can be described as lengthy, but murky.
It is precisely for this reason that interdisciplinary study and research in pubic safety must focus on this topic. Although much is known as restorative justice and its supposed benefits, it is necessary to further establish its history, along with its effectiveness in certain situations. Through this continued research, it will…
Minnesota Department of Corrections. (2008, April). DOC Backgrounds: Criminal
Justice. Retrieved September 1, 2009, from the Minnesota Department of Corrections Web Site: http://www.doc.state.mn.us/rj/default.htm
National Institute of Justice (2007, Nov. 26). Restorative Justice. Retrieved September 1,
2009, from the U.S. Department of Justice Web Site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/topics/courts/restorative-justice/welcome.htm
However the law demands that the course of action should be experimented, and evaluated on the grounds that if they are reasonable, restorative, and respectful. The offenders should comply by the standards of safety, values, ethics, responsibility, accountability and civility. The offenders should be exposed to the same nature of crime experienced by the victims, and should be provided with the chance of learning empathy. Such an offender should be provided with opportunities to be productive member of society. The participation of the offender into social and community affairs should be well received and acknowledged. The offender should be equipped with the values and fundamentals required to be productive member of the society.
There are certain provisions in the law to implement follow-up and accountability structures, with the coordination of community. The law supports the notion of keeping agreement and parity with the community for creating trusting community. The role…
Lode Walgrave., Restorative Justice and the Law.
Gerry Johnstone., Restorative Justice: Ideas, Value, Debates.
Michael L. Hadley.,The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice.
Lode Walgrave., Repositioning Restorative Justice: Restorative Justice Criminal Justice and Social Context.
Ruth-Heffelbauer, D. (2006). Restorative Justice FAQ. Victim Offender Mediation Association. Online at http://www.voma.org/rjfaq.shtml
The source composed for the Victim Offender Mediation Association is a fact sheet and statement of purpose for the organization, detailing its efforts to bring about a greater acceptance of this methodology in mainstream legal contexts. Based in the United States, VOMA assembles legal experts and criminal justice advocates who view the benefits of restorative justice as tantamount to better preventing criminal recidivism and promoting a sense of redemption for the victim.
A contribution to the field is VOMA's service as a forum for restorative justice processes. The FAQ here provided would indicate that "Victim Offender Mediation is usually a face-to-face meeting, in the presence of a trained mediator, between the victim of a crime and the person who committed that crime. The practice is also called victim-offender dialogue, victim-offender conferencing, victim-offender reconciliation, or restorative justice dialogue. In some…
Braithwaite, J. (2002). Restorative Justice & Responsive Regulation. Oxford University Press.
Hopkins, B. (2004). Just Schools: A Whole School Approach to Restorative Justice. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Liebmann, M. (2007). Restorative Justice: How it Works. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Ruth-Heffelbauer, D. (2006). Restorative Justice FAQ. Victim Offender Mediation Association. Online at http://www.voma.org/rjfaq.shtml
Instead, Hadley (2001) argues that an understanding of the role of spirituality in restorative justice today can encourage peaceful communities both domestically and internationally. In fact, the spiritual component of restorative justice left lingering from its formation impacts today's attempts to practice restorative justice at the individual, communal, and international levels. In each scenario, components of spirituality remaining from the spiritual roots of restorative justice can help bring healing to a set of offenders and victims, in addition to fostering community cohesion.
On the individual level, the goal of restorative justice focuses on the individual who offended and his or her victim, although the entire community involved in the conflict can be brought in to the attempt to restore justice are often included. On the other hand, the community goal of restorative justice is bringing the community together in order to form a better functioning society. In her article, "The…
"Beyond crime and punishment: Restorative Justice grows." (2007, June 18). Retrieved
April 30, 2009, from Religion Link. Web Site: http://www.religionlink.com/tip_070618.php
Center for Restorative Justice. "Resources: Introduction to RJ." Retrieved April 30, 2009,
from the Center for Restorative Justice. Web Site: http://www.sfu.ca/crj/introrj.html
Marian told a group of incarcerated rapists that her sister had been gagged before being killed, and so she, Marian, wished to hear their truths. "One of the prisoners who had committed multiple rape said, '...Until you spoke I was just play at victim empathy,' and it clearly helped him to understand what he'd done." And moreover, Marian is planning to write a letter to one of the two persons (now in prison) responsible for the mass murders (and Lucy's murder). "Those who know her [the convicted co-murderer] have advised me that it is not yet time to suggest..." A meeting between the two. "Meanwhile, I am content to continue sending her compassion," Marian concluded.
Cavanagh, Tom. "Restorative Justice: Healing the Effects of Crime." (2006): Retrieved 22 Nov. 2006 at http://www.restorativejustice.com.
Madsen, Karin Sten. "Mediation as a way of empowering women exposed to sexual coercion."
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault.…
Cavanagh, Tom. "Restorative Justice: Healing the Effects of Crime." (2006): Retrieved 22 Nov. 2006 at http://www.restorativejustice.com .
Madsen, Karin Sten. "Mediation as a way of empowering women exposed to sexual coercion."
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault. (2004): Retrieved 23 Nov. 2006 at http://www.n-f-m.org/artikkel.asp?language=2&art=90.
Partington, Marian. "The Agony and the Empathy - Restorative Justice." Urban Dharma.org. Retrieved 23 Nov. 2006 at http://www.urbandharma.org/urharma8/agony.html (2001).
M6D2: estorative Justice
The criminal justice system not only seeks justice to the victims and criminals, but restorative justice. As much as the victim benefits from the process, the criminals too ought to learn something from the entire process. According to Hancock and Sharp, 2004, several strategies have been devised in determining a convenient approach of providing justice to the direct victim, since the state does not pose as the primary victim. As a mayor, the strategies that could be of most value are ensuring community safety and enhancing competency development as accounts of restorative justice. Community safety determines the progression of a society. Through restorative justice, societal members are expected to build working relationships whose empowerment will depict the responsibility of the community. It is through such a program that past criminal offenders comprehend of their role in ensuring community protection, and hence playing an important role in maintaining state…
Combs, D.T. (2011). Unwillingly Revealed: Registered Sex Offenders' Attitudes Toward the Sex Offender Registry. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 1-149.
Hess, K.M., Orthmann, C.H and Orthmann-Hess, C. (2009). Criminal Investigation. New York: Cengage Learning.
Restorative justice is not necessarily conservative in orientation, although this definition may make it seem so. It also focuses on transforming the traditional relationship between communities and their governments in responding to crime. It focuses on victim mediation and conferencing between convicted criminals and victims, and stresses the need to create opportunities for victims, offenders and community members to meet to discuss the crime and its aftermath, and the need for offenders to take active and constructive steps to repair the harm they have caused by making amends. Such steps may help heal the offenders as well as the victims, but ultimately restorative justice seeks to correct what advocates see as an imbalance in the system's emphasis and allocation of resources. Not only criminals but also victims must be made 'whole' again and helped to become contributing members of society. Victims have rights and needs too, and a stake in…
What is Restorative Justice?" (2005) Restorative Justice. Article retrieved from organization's official website on 19 Mar 2005. http://www.restorativejustice.org/rj3/intro_default.htm
Juvenile Justice System
Describe the Juvenile Justice System
The juvenile justice system is not just one department or building in a government facilities part of town. The juvenile justice system (JJS) is a "network of agencies that deal with juveniles whose conduct has brought them in conflict with the law" (3rd judicial district). In fact the JJS is composed of these components: police, prosecutor, detention, court, probation, and juvenile corrections facilities.
hen police arrest a juvenile after determining that a law has been broken, they actually have options (based on the juvenile's age and the crime); to return the adolescent to his parents; to refer him to the prosecutor's office; or to detain him in a juvenile detention center (3rd judicial district). In the event the juvenile committed a minor offense, the person could be handled informally through the probation department; but if the person had repeated previous offenses, he likely would be…
Bazemore, G., and Day, S.E. (1996). Restoring the Balance: Juvenile and Community Justice.
Juvenile Justice / Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Programs, III (1).
Clarke, Peter. (2010). Juvenile vs. Adult Criminal System. Legal Match. Retrieved August 8,
2015, from http://www.legalmatch.com .
Applied Research on Restorative Practice
Problem background and context
Many schools across the globe are currently applying restorative practice. According to Calhoun (2013), there has been much success since the schools introduced this practice. Some of the successful schools have even proceeded to train other schools and institutions. Restorative practice constitutes diverse aspects, whose impact can influence a number of fields in the education sector such as conflict resolution, truancy, behavioral management and mediation (Hemphill et al., 2014). Restorative practice calls for ownership by everyone involved. This promotes mutual responsibility and this creates such an atmosphere in which resolution can occur.
Bolitho (2012) states that managing student misbehavior is one of the most crucial issues facing most schools across the world. The current approach in discipline is quite punitive, so to say. Many schools tend to apply zero tolerance policies. Though well intended, such policies have not yielded good results. In fact, they…
CRIME VICTIMS Crime Victims: An IntroductionThe particular problems faced by persons who experience hare crime are broadly characterized by the trauma and fear they go through resulting from the crime (Reilich & Chermak, n.a.). The fear of visiting outside places might increase within the victims and his familys minds and he might be constrained to his home.The seriousness of cyberstalking could be estimated from the physical and mental effects it leaves on the victims. These could be seen in the form of upset stomach, trouble in sleeping, anger, fear, confusion, distress, and stress, etc. (Begotti & Maran, 2019).Law-abiding citizens should be concerned about inmate-on-inmate violence since the criminals in jail would eventually release from imprisonment. For a safe and better future of the society, it is necessary to have positive effects on the imprisoned person for having improved social and fiscal consequences (Zoukis, 2014).One side of the debate for the…
Amir, M. (1968). Victim precipitated forcible rape. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 58(4), 493-502.
Begotti, T. & Maran, D.A. (2019). Characteristics of cyber stalking behavior, consequences, and coping strategies: A cross-sectional study in a sample of Italian University students. Future Internet, 11(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/fi11050120
Bochetto Lentz. (2015, March 23). Criminal fraud vs. civil fraud: What’s the difference? https://www.bochettoandlentz.com/criminal-fraud-vs-civil-fraud-whats-difference/
Does Restorative Justice Reduce Recidivism?
Though restorative justice has become an increasingly popular practice in the criminal justice field, there is still no concise, universally acceptable definition of the concept. There is often confusion over what actually constitutes restorative justice, with the concept usually being used interchangeably with terms such as relational justice, peacemaking criminology, transformative justice, and community justice (Latimer, Dowden & Muise, 2005). Even so, restorative justice is essentially an approach to offender rehabilitation where the offender is reconciled with victim(s) and/or the larger community (Wenzel et al., 2008). In other words, all stakeholders in a certain offense jointly resolve how to deal with the consequences of the offense.
The fundamental idea behind restorative justice is that an offense constitutes a violation of not only the law, but also individuals and relationships (Stamatakis & Vandeviver, 2013). Restorative justice, therefore, seeks to mend this violation. It provides an opportunity for the…
2. Interventions for teens and wayward youths are such appealing programs because no one wants to assume that children and youths are born with deviant minds. Most agree that children and youths commit criminal acts because something has gone wrong in their lives. Most suggest that these things that go wrong have to do with parents, schools, and most often deviant peer groups. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that deviant peer groups are some of the largest contributions to youth delinquency. Most want to assume that, if the cause of juvenile delinquency could be found, an intervention could cure the cause and cure the teen. Thus, the innocent child would not be faced with a criminal's life, but would instead be able to be put on the right path to self-development. An exploration of intervention programs will allow students of criminology to understand why the rehabilitation program is…
Braithwaite, John. (2002). Does Restorative Justice Work? In EDITOR (ed.), Restorative
Justice & Responsive Regulation. (pp. 45-71). New York: Oxford University Press.
Braithwaite, John. (1998). Restorative Justice. In M. Tonry (ed.), the Handbook of Crime and Punishment. (pp. 433-454). New York: Oxford University Press.
Henggeler, Scott. (1997). Treating Serious Anti-Social Behavior in Youth: The MST
Restorative Justice in Education." In other words, how effective does the use of critical theory prove to be when applied to restorative justice in education? Author Dorothy Vaandering uses a logic and flow-driven narrative, which is informative and leaves a distinct impression that she has provided a worthwhile study for examination.
hat is restorative justice? Vaandering explains that restorative justice (RJ) is a process that eschews "punitive, managerial structures" in education -- that is, the "old school" system of hard core discipline that promises punishment if instructions are not followed -- and replaces those strategies with policies that "emphasize the building and repairing of relationships" (Vaandering, 2010, p. 145). Basically, RJ is a policy that allows the perpetrator of a wrongdoing to meet and interact with (and apologize to) the person harmed by those actions; and in the case of educational environments, the rather than just punish and isolate the…
Logic and Flow (2011). Bloom's Taxonomy.
Vaandering, Dorothy. (2010). The Significance of Critical Theory for Restorative Justice in Education. The Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, Vol. 32, 145-176.
Mandatory Minimum SentencingAbstractMandatory minimum sentencing requires that offenders serve a predefined term for certain crimes, commonly serious and violent offenses, and judges are bound by law to enforce them. Explain the reasons why there have been calls to repeal or reform mandatory minimum sentencing laws. Based on your findings, are you in favor of repealing mandatory minimum sentencing laws?IntroductionMandatory minimum sentencing was part of a set of strict guidelines implemented during a get tough on crime / War on Drugs era during the 1990s that resulted in an explosion of the prison population. By the 21st century, nearly half of all inmates in federal or state prison were incarcerated for non-violent crimes that resulted from this set of strict guidelines (Smith & Hattery, 2006). The cost of imprisonment had reached $10 billion annually (Smith & Hattery, 2006). Yet, alternative sentencing, such as restorative justice programs, has been found to be…
ReferencesBarkow, R. E. (2019). Categorical Mistakes: The Flawed Framework of the Armed Career Criminal Act and Mandatory Minimum Sentencing. Harv. L. Rev., 133, 200.Hammad, N. (2019). Shackled to economic appeal: How prison labor facilitates modern slavery while perpetuating poverty in Black communities. Va. J. Soc. Pol\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'y & L., 26, 65.Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.Peters, R. H., Wexler, H. K., & Lurigio, A. J. (2015). Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders in the criminal justice system: A new frontier of clinical practice and research. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(1), 1-6.Smith, E., & Hattery, A. (2006). The prison industrial complex. Sociation Today, 4(2), 1-28.
Future of estorative Justice
The most common form of criminal justice is retributive justice, which is based on an adversarial system that pits the offender against the victim (reviewed in Brownlee, 2010). In retributive justice, it is the offender's job, so to speak, to proclaim their innocence or diminish the seriousness of the offence. The state on behalf of the victim seeks to severely punish the victim through monetary penalties and prison terms. Both offender and victim are separated physically and emotionally from the very beginning of this process, once the offender has been identified and arrested. etributive justice ignores the Aristotelian principle of responsible agency, because the offender is expected to combat any and all criminal charges.
In contrast, restorative justice seeks to mend the harm caused by the commission of a crime by encouraging the offender to accept responsibility for his or her actions (Brownlee, 2010). estorative justice brings…
Brownlee, Kimberley. (2010). Retributive, restorative and ritualistic justice. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 30(2), 385-397.
de Beus, Kimberly and Rodriquez, Nancy. (2007). Restorative justice practice: An examination of program completion and recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35, 337-347.
Gumz, Edward J. And Grant, Cynthia L. (2009). Restorative justice: A systematic review of the social work literature. Families in Society, 90(1), 119-126.
Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Offending
Restorative justice is a new paradigm within the criminal justice, particularly in the context of youth offenders. The philosophy behind restorative justice is to consider the juvenile's interests to develop them into beneficial citizens, and it augments the principle behind juvenile justice and corrections. Restorative justice approaches provide the juvenile justice system with leniency when approaching youth offenders while at the same time holding the offenders accountable through rehabilitative approaches. The core elements of restorative justice include rehabilitating and restoring the youth offender, restoring and making restitution to the victim, and restoring the entire society. Programs employed in the restorative approaches can apply in both community correction centers and institutional treatment programs. Juvenile court and statutes aim to protect the child and not to punish them (Latimer, Dowden, & Muise, 2005).
However, juvenile justice has evolved over the centuries, and this has seen to the…
Bell, J. (1993). Doing Your Research Project. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Bynum, J.E., & Thompson, W.E. (2005). Juvenile Delinquency: A Sociological Approach (6th
ed.). New York: Pearson.
Dawson, C. (2009). Introduction to research methods: A practical guide for anyone undertaking a research project. Oxford, UK: How to Books, Spring Hill
Introduction: Overview of the Relevant Facts One of the problems of criminal justice today is the challenge of systemic racism that has been leveled by critics such as Angela Davis (2012) and numerous others. The charge is that the criminal justice system is inherently racist for a number of reasons (Lentin, 2020). These reasons include the existence of a for-profit private prison industrial complex that represents a clear conflict of interest to the system since the complex profits off incarcerations and businesses exploit the labor of the prisoners by paying them pennies on the dollar (Pelaez, 2019); and the fact that 37% of America’s prison population is black, yet blacks are only 12% of the total US population (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2014). On top of all this is the practice plea bargaining, which is pushed on those charged with a crime by prosecutors, essentially robbing the accused of due process…
Three different approaches and philosophies to the problem of crime
The three philosophical cornerstones of the corrections system are retribution, rehabilitation, and restoration. However, while most modern theorists of criminal justice believe that there must be some proportion of these elements in all forms of punishment, not all believe that they must be present to the same degree. This paper will advance the idea that ultimately the concepts of rehabilitation and restoration must be more present within the judicial system today while retribution should be deemphasized.
The concept of retribution in the justice system dates back to the classical theory of crime, which stressed that the punishment for a crime must exceed its likely rewards. "For a rational system of criminal justice to work, punishment must be certain, swift, and proportional. The ultimate goal was to insure that the benefits of crime never outweighed the potential pain from punishments the…
Greek, C. "The Classical School." FSU. 2005. 21 Apr 2014.
"Our broken justice system." Fair Sentencing of Youth. 21 Apr 2014.
Prisoners with Ties to TerrorismDescribe and Explain the unique challenges associated with the increase in prisoners with ties to terrorism and other extremist groups. Develop a plausible approach that prison administrators could implement in tackling some of the most significant challenges.One of the challenges associated with the increase in prisoners with ties to terrorism and other extremist groups is the problem of preventing terrorist recruitment in correctional institutions (Hamm, 2007). Another challenge is that prisons can often be where inmates are first introduced to radicalization (Siegel et al., 2019). However, as Jones (2014) notes, it is not necessarily a given outcome that terrorist prisoners will recruit or radicalize others; in fact, a lot of it depends on the type of programs the prison has available. An additional concern is the culture of the prison and whether or not it is giving inmates the dignity they require in order to have…
ReferencesBurdett, F., Gouliquer, L., & Poulin, C. (2018). Culture of corrections: The experiences of women correctional officers. Feminist Criminology, 13(3), 329-349.Hamm, M. S. (2007). Terrorist Recruitment in American Correctional Institutions: An Exploratory Study of Non-traditional Faith Groups; Final Report (pp. 1-128). Indiana State University, Department of Criminology.Jones, C. R. (2014). Are prisons really schools for terrorism? Challenging the rhetoric on prison radicalization. Punishment & Society, 16(1), 74-103.Siegel, A., Brickman, S., Goldberg, Z., & Pat-Horenczyk, R. (2019). Preventing future terrorism: Intervening on youth radicalization. An International Perspective on Disasters and Children\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Mental Health, 391-418.
The purpose of this article was to show that restorative justice is significantly more satisfying as compared to courts for both offenders and victims. This was achieved with a randomized experimental design known as eintergrative Shaming Experiments ISE. This project is used to compare the effects of standard court processing with those of restorative justice intervention known as conferencing. In the article, the ISE data is used to examine whether conferences are equally beneficial for juvenile victims and adult victims as well (Gal, T & Moyal, 201).
The research method that was used in this article is a stratified randomized experimental design that was used to compare the outcomes of court and conference cases that were held in Canberra, Australia between 1995 and 2000. Shoplifting, drinking, property crimes and violent crimes were assigned within each other randomly to the estorative Justice Conferences or traditional courts using a computer program. There…
Gal, T. & Moyal, S. (2011). Juvenile victims in restorative justice: Findings from the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments
(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame'
In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where he introduced his idea of restorative shaming (Braithwaite, 1997). The conventional criminal justice stigmatizes the individual in that it not only makes him a pariah of society thereby making it harder to reform himself, but also crushes his esteem, causing others to deride and shun him, accordingly often making him react in a reinforcing manner. Seeing himself as 'offender' and finding it extremely difficult to readjust and gain acceptance in society, the offender may be compelled to return to crime as way of livelihood to support himself and as a way of gaining the prestige and status that he m ay need and that he may, otherwise, not gain.
estorative justice, on the other hand, helps offender atone for his crime by…
Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame, and Reintegration New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Christie, N. (1977), Conflicts as Property, British Journal of Criminology, 17: 1-15.
Correctional Service of Canada. [Online] Retrieved from:
What do you Think
Paradigm of Laws
Paradigm of Laws
• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons
Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.
The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The inmates have the history of deviating…
Jensen, O.C., (1934), "Kant's Ethical Formalism," Philosophy, 9(34), 195-208
Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, (2009), Retrieved from:
S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).
Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…
Bottoms, A. And J. Tankebe. (2012). "Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice." The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 1.
McCrudden, C. (2008). "Human dignity and judicial interpretation of human rights." The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4.
"Responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration: a Catholic perspective on crime and criminal justice." United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/human-life-and-dignity/criminal-justice-restorative-justice/crime-and-criminal-justice.cfm
Biblical quotes/verses. Open Bible Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.openbible.info/
This section of the study describes the frequency distribution of the data collected during this study and idea of "central tendency, associated mean, median and mode." Various measures of dispersion are also reviewed, with an explanation of whether the research supports or disproves the hypotheses explored.
Variables - Independent and Dependent
The data collected reflects the independent and dependent variables explored for purposes of this study. The independent variables explored include: sex and gender of study participants, ethnicity of participants, socioeconomic status and religious or moral practices. The dependent variables explored include: participants age, the type of justice used (restorative model or correctional models).
The statistical analysis measures the frequency distribution for "numeric" discrete variables and "categorical variables" labeled (e.g. A_AGE) (USF, 2001:3). All variables are un-weighted for purposes of this study. Table 1.1 below provides the statistical analysis and distributions for the independent and dependent variables. ATYPE represents the type of…
Hopkins, B. (2004, March). Just schools: A whole school approach to restorative justice.
Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 200.
Nilsson, J.E., Love, K.M, Taylor, K.J., & Slusher, a.L. (2007). "A content and sample analysis of quantitative articles published in the Journal of Counseling & Development between 1991 and 2000." Journal of Counseling & Development, 85(3):357.
Smith, M.E. (2001, June). "What future for 'public safety' and 'restorative justice' in community corrections. U.S. Department of Justice, Sentencing and Corrections. 11(1): 1-8. Available:
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
criminal justice system by providing the essential definition of terms like Antidotal, Qualitative, and Quantitative Evidence. 'Justice' in the context criminal justice is also defined. The definitions in this study extend to include endnotes, footnotes, crime control, rehabilitative, due process, and nonintervention. The aspect of racial profiling like racism, bias, prejudice, bigotry, and discrimination in criminal justice is also addressed in detail.
Anecdotal evidence defines evidence established through anecdotes. The small sample allows for larger probabilities in realizing unreliable information due to non-representative or otherwise cherry-picked samples for typical cases. An example of anecdotal statement is 'There is proof that water can cure cancer. I read of a man suffering from cancer and was cured after drinking'. Qualitative evidence is sourced from methods of inquiry engaged in different academic disciplines and traditional forms of social sciences. However, it also includes further contexts and market research. Qualitative research aims at gathering…
Inciardi, James. Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2009. Print
Maxfield, Michael. And Babbie, Earl. Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print
Neubauer, David. And Fradella, Henry. America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print
Stojkovic, Stan, Kalinich, David, and John Klofas Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print
Christian Worldview of Law Enforcement
Forgiveness is a critical component of Christianity: humans are all imperfect and living in an imperfect, yet God-created world. Because of that, it is essential to view others with compassion and tolerance. Increasingly, the perspective of restorative rather than retributive justice has been infused into the philosophy of law enforcement today. "estorative justice is an idea that says, at its core, justice has to be about repairing or addressing the harm caused to social relationships when wrongdoing happens," ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). It often involves community service by the offender to mitigate the harm done to the wider environment or members of the law enforcement community facilitating dialogue between the aggrieved party and the offender in a constructive manner ("Defining restorative justice," 2015). The idea is to heal both perpetrator and victim through forgiveness and humanization.
Law officers themselves often find solace through scripture. According to one…
Defining restorative justice. (2015). Restorative Justice. Retrieved from:
Hall, G. (2013). Can a cop be a Christian? Law Enforcement Today. Retrieved from:
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.
Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.
ed Cross society
Nonprofit organizations have to be accountable and open,…
Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.
Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.
Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.
Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.
Organizational change in any sector implies moving away from the present state and "toward some desired future state" in order to increase the effectiveness of the organization (Lunenburg, 2010, p. 1). Change is typically driven by internal and/or external factors. The impetus for change could be a crisis or, in the case of criminal justice agencies, policy change. Changes to technology or financial resources are other examples of external forces of change that could impact a criminal justice agency. Criminal justice agencies also respond to internal forces of change, including demands to change organizational culture, policy, or procedure. The primary approaches to manage organizational change in criminal justice agencies include recognizing the need for change and the forces instigating it, planning effectively for change, and implementing change strategies that coincide with organizational goals and values.
When change has become inevitable in a criminal justice agency, it may also be helpful to…
Bodor, T., Thompson, F. & DemirAivi, F. (2004). Criminal justice cultures in the United States. Retrieved online: https://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/journals/hpa_2004_criminal/hpa_2004_criminal.pdf
Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Forces for and resistance to organizational change. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 27(4).
Stojkovic, S., Kalinch, D. & Klofas, J. (n.d.). Criminal Justice Organizations. Fifth Edition.
Umbreit, M.S. (2007). Restorative justice: Implications for organizational change. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved online: http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/restorative-justice/organizational-change/pages/implications.aspx
estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…
Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.
Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:
School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,
Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States
Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…
Alridge, D.P. (2005, Summer). Introduction: Hip hop in history: Past, present, and future. The Journal of African-American History, 90(3), 190-193.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boyd, T. (2002). The new H.N.I.C.: The death of civil rights and the reign of hip hop. New York:
Brookins, G.K. & Hirsch, J.A. (2002, Summer). Innocence lost: Case studies of children in the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 205-210.
5: Evaluating a research article.
In the study by Corsaro, Brunson and McGarrell (2009), the researchers use mixed-methodology of quantitative hierarchical growth curve models and qualitative interviews to measure whether problem-oriented policing strategies are effective. The researchers hypothesize that pulling levers can be an effective strategy for reducing drug-related crime. The researchers are able to evaluate the program of problem-oriented policing using quantitative models and qualitative interviews to combine data types in their study.
Ethical issues salient to the study were not explicitly identified and thus did not appear to make any impact on the study itself or its directives. However, one ethical principle that appears to be followed in the study is that identified by Llewellyn, Archibald, Clairmont and Crocker (2013): “the inclusion of dignity requires attention and respect for the diversity of ways of being that become clear when one approaches individuals in all their embedded and relational complexity” (p.…
"Anything goes" is an interesting way to describe the current state of the nation's approach to punishment. Do you feel it is accurate? If yes, why? If not, why not? What other aspects of our nation's current approach to sanctions -- besides those listed and discussed by Blomberg and Lucken -- do you feel bolsters your position?
I do not feel that the "Anything goes" penal strategy is accurate for the nation's approach punishment. It is not a perfect way of ensuring that there is justification especially after punishment. The main aim of punishment in the society is to promote justification, which will then lead to harmony within the people. However, the "anything goes" penal strategy involves the prisoners undergoing any type of punishment as regarded by the states (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010). The option of the punishment does not always involve the input of the citizens and other practitioners. This…
Blomberg, T.G., & Lucken, K. (2010). American penology: A history of control. New Brunswick [N.J.: AldineTransaction.
Goals of Corrections
The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who deliberately break the established rules of society (Schmalleger, 2009). Its purpose is nothing more than to satisfy those impulses, particularly on the part of the victims of criminal acts. The types of penal sentences that reflect pure retribution are long terms of incarceration and even hard labor and other forms of punishment that are expressly designed to be unpleasant for the offender. The types of crime control strategies dictated by this philosophy are those that make penal sentences as long and as unpleasant for offenders as is constitutionally permissible (Schmalleger, 2009). In many respects, this was the approach taken in American criminal justice prior to the revolutionary ideas first introduced by William Penn (Schmalleger, 2009). The only "advantages" of this approach…
Lynch, M.J. (1999). "Beating a Dead Horse: Is There Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrence Effect of Imprisonment?" Criminal Law & Social Change, Vol.
Nagin, D.S. (1998). "Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First
Century." Crime and Justice, Vol. 23.
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand, juveniles are also prosecuted for so-called…
Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html
Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann
Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,
Criminal Court System
estorative justice is the application a theory that puts emphasis on making amendments on the harm that has been caused by unjust behavior. This approach is practical and biblical when it comes to dealing with problems of punishment and crime to the society.it is based on simple principles whereby it recognizes that any crime committed caused harm to people meaning that it is not basically about breaking the law. The aim of the restorative justice system is therefore to amend injuries that result from crimes that are committed. The system also believes that crime is not just a matter between the individual offenders and the government rather it affects other members of the society as well. Since the victims of a crime and the entire community bear the burden of a crime they all have to actively take part in the this criminal justice processes (New Zealand Ministry…
RJcity.(2007). A Story about RJ City's Response to Crime, Victims and Offenders. Retrieved March 10, 2014 from http://www.rjcity.org/the-project/documents/Case%20Study%2030-10-09.pdf
New Zealand Ministry of Justice, (2014). Pre-sentence restorative justice court Process. Retrieved March 10, 2014 from http://www.justice.govt.nz/policy/criminal-justice/restorative-justice/restorative-justice-process-pre-sentence
Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).
Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?
The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are the preferred…
They began to outline an issue of the journal which they tentatively called Contemporary Criminology: A Journal of Ideas Predisposed Toward Radical Democratization. It was hoped that the first issue might arrive during the Fall of 1996.
About the same time, Sullivan and Tifft also spoke about creating a new association for scholars, activists, and practitioners that would serve as an alternative to the conventional academic criminology and criminal justice organizations. It was suggested that the members of this association might come together each year and share their ideas and discuss their current work in mostly plenary sessions. Great emphasis would be put on the participation of everyone present through extensive discussions. An invitation would be extended to all those associated with the restorative justice community who, though they met periodically around the globe, had no permanent home or community with which to share their ideas and find support.
Annual Report Fiscal Year 2004. Restorative Justice Program, Prince William County Office of Dispute Resolution. 2004.
Coser, Lewis. (2004). Crime Theories. Retrieved June 28, 2005 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect03.htm.
The Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis. Research and Statistics Division Methodological Series. Department of Justice Canada. 2001.
Gulati, Shruti Gola (1996). Healing the Circle: Exploring the Conjuncture of Peacemaking Criminology and Native Justice Initiatives. M.A. thesis. Department of Criminology. University of Ottawa. Retrieved June 29, 2005 from www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk3/ftp05/mq20919.pdf.
Secondly, the victim, being more involved with the crime and understanding of the situation as well as more intimate with it than the legislators is better able to articulate his opinion than they. Thirdly, it is only logical that the victim be involved and heard. After all he was the one who was hurt. And finally, victim advocates work towards the objective that victim's rights be granted constitutional protection so that average citizens will be aware that not only do offenders have rights but that victims have rights too and that these are equally as strong. For all these reasons, groups such as the Victims Constitutional Amendment Network is seeking to grant victims rights constitutional protection in order to increase the strength, enforceability, and permanence of victims' rights
Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame, and Reintegration…
Dignan, J. (2002) Restorative Justice and the Law: The case for an integrated, systematic approach, Stanford Law Review, 52, 168-190
Dignan, James (2003), Towards a Systemic Model of Restorative Justice, Stanford Law Review, 135-156,
The National Center for Victims of Crime. Rights of victims of crime http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32463
New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do with the corrections part of the criminal justice system are having prisons that are clearly overcrowded and not having enough in the budget to make some adjustments. If these concerns and issues are not talked about or even looked into, it is a strong possibility that they will continue to have some kind of an effect on operations in the near future of corrections. Community and restorative justice programs are options being looked at when it comes to the future of corrections as legislators, activists and administrators, debate philosophies to speak about these concerns and issues brought about from past and present trends.
The "get tough" approach against crime, long ago, was once preferred by the national political climate. It was thought…
Appelbaum, P.S. (2011). Law & psychiatry: Lost in the crowd: Prison mental health care, overcrowding, and the courts. Psychiatric Services, 62(10), 1121-3.
Pearl, N. (2009). A task force to reduce prison overcrowding: Implications for criminal justice policy, planning and research methods courses. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 11(1), 111-121.
Pontell, H.N. (2004). Incarceration as a deviant form of social control: Jail overcrowding in california. Crime and Delinquency, 40(1), 18.
Specter, D. (2010). Everything revolves around overcrowding: The state of california's prisons. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 22(3), 194-199.
role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.
A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).
The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes the…
Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.
Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.
MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
criminal procedure and the idiosyncrasies of criminal practice vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction" (Jaros, 2010, p. 445). If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably true as well that evaluating the different circumstances surrounding the commission of crime is also widely diverse in its practice. There are a number of methodologies that are used in various research including studies relating to the study of criminal justice and different aspects of that arena; two of the more commonly used methodologies employ quantitative and qualitative methods of research.
The quantitative methodology is used by researchers who are seeking to quantify certain areas of study or the results of such studies. Quantifying involves numbers, percentages and numerically evaluated data. One of the benefits that can be derived when using quantitative evaluation is that such a method provides numerical data for comparative studies. Comparative studies show specific numbers calculated from participant…
Behavioral Sciences and the Law (2006) online accessed at Wiley Inter-Science on November 11, 2010, at www.interscience.wiley.com
Bhola, H.S. (1990) Evaluating 'literacy for development' projects, programs and campaigns: Evaluation planning, design and implementation, and utilization of evaluation results. UNESCO Institute for Education, xii
Bonta, J.; Wallace-Capretta, S.; Rooney, J.; McAnoy, K.; (2002) An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration, Contemporary Justice Review, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 319-338
Chaiken, J.M. & Chaiken, M.R.; (1982) Varieties of criminal behavior, Santa Monica: Rand Publishers
Schools of Criminology
Schools of Thought
Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will look after their own self-interest first. In other words, if a person is penniless and hungry, he will steal food because it is in his own self-interest to eat and stay alive, notwithstanding his crime
Classical School summary: In the 18th century philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that existing theories of crime (God or the devil determine what humans will do) were not relevant. They put forth the alternative idea that because humans have free will, they choose which behavior they will follow. Most humans respond to pleasure and pain, and if crime brings a person pleasure, that's what he will do; but being hungry can bring pain so a person will commit a crime to avoid hunger. The…
Gul, S.K. (2009). An Evaluation of the Rational Choice Theory in Criminology. Sociology & Applied Science, 4(8), 36-44.
Tibbetts, S.G., and Hemmens, C. (2009). Criminology Theory: A Text/Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Vito, G., and Maahs, J. (2011). Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy. Burlington, MA:
Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Jails and Prisons
The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them is that whereas a prison holds convicted offenders who have sentences that are mostly beyond one year, offenders are locked in a jail either holding awaiting transportation to prison units or serving short-term sentences usually ranging from a few days to a year (Gaines and Miller, 2006). With reference to the United States of America criminal justice system the other difference is that prisons are under the jurisdiction of either federal or state while jails are controlled and used by local jurisdictions such as counties and cities. Due to the period of time that offenders take and the life they live in prisons, prisons have been considered to be total institutions. "A total institution can be defined as a place of…
Alarid, W.L. et al. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th ed. Thomson/Wadsworth:
Davies, C. (1989). "Goffman's concept of the total institution: Criticisms and revisions" Human
Studies, 12(1-2): 77-95.
Golden Age of the Victim
Golden Age Victim
An overview of the Golden Age of the Victim, including a comparison of victim mentalities of the 1960s era compared with the victim mentality of today's "victim" of crime. Synopsis of victim's assistance programs and victim advocates, including the methods they use to help victims and the laws enacted to provide victims with ongoing support within states and federal governing bodies.
Historically crime ran rampant throughout the nation. There wasn't much a person could do if they became a "victim" of crime. Many people took up arms and attempted to reconcile criminal activity on their own, helpless and subject to repeat offenses. During times of old, or the "Golden Age" of the victim, there was no help for someone defined as a victim, or burdened by crime. Crime was just as costly for many families as it is today, and with no support, financial or…
Barnes, Gilbert. 2011. Victim services. Office of Community Corrections, State Florida.
Schmalleger, Frank & Armstrong, Gordon. 1997. Crime and the justice system in America.
Greenwood Publishing Group.
As a conclusion I must state that I agree with the philosophies of the ARJ method. I believe that all people must receive equal chances. I am sure that the children usually do not intend to act in a criminal way. I believe that those who adopt this type of conduct are either doing it because of the bad conditions within the family or because of the other influential factors (like the group of friends). However, no matter of the influence, the important fact is for the child to recover. ARJ offers him the change to gain certain skills and to be able to use them in the future, in the process of his professional development. In addition to that, by reestablishing the order inside the community and by letting the child do some community work, the court is making sure that there will be fewer chances for him to…
Pennsylvania Commission of Crime and Deliquency "Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ)" 25 Aug 2005, 10 Nov 2006 http://www.pccd.state.pa.us/pccd/cwp/view.asp?A=1387&Q=569712
Juvenile Law Center, Advancing the Rights and Well-being of Children in Jeopardy "Pennsylvania's Juvenile Justice System," 1996, 10 Nov 2006, http://www.jlc.org/index.php/factsheets/pajj#ENT0
Angeline Spain, Spotlight Pennsylvania, "The Case-Closing Project: an evaluation of BARJ in Pennsylvania," June 2004, 10 Nov 2006, http://www.neglected-delinquent.org/nd/resources/spotlight/spotlight200405b.asp
Peter Freivals, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet #42, Balanced and Restorative Justice Project (BARJ), July 1996, 11 Nov 2006 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/91415.pdf
Marianta undergoes rehabilitation. Punishment is not going to help her. It will only stigmatize her and make her more likely repeat her crimes in the future, as well as reinforcing her impression that she is an addict and has a psychopathic personality; that that is a part of her and cannot be helped.
Rehabilitation -- or restorative judgment, on the other hand, believes that one should make a distinction between crimes perpetrated against society and crimes perpetrated against people. Zehr, for instance, claims that conventional criminal justice system views crime and justice through a retributive perspective where crime is seen as violating laws and justice is seen as condemning the other and demanding retribution (Zehr, 1990). In his own words, he describes "crime" as a "wound in human relationships," that "creates an obligation to restore and repair" (Zehr, 1990, 181) Restorative justice, on the other hand, according to Zehr, is…
Patterns and Characteristics of Codependence http://www.coda.org/tools4recovery/patterns-new.htm
The Twelve Traditions of Co-Dependents Anonymous
Zehr, H. (1980) Changing lenses. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early 90s to the modern…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately 20…
MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm
Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .
Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .
Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
Dugan: Should be on its own page.
Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important…
Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529
Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
Japanese Correctional System as Compared to the American Corrections System
The Japanese correctional system places a strong emphasis on rehabilitation and preparing the prisoner for being released once again into society. The Japanese correctional system "is intended to resocialize, reform, and rehabilitate offenders" rather than enforce a system of retributive justice along the lines of the American model (Coutsoukis, 2004). This is why most sociologists state that the restorative philosophy of corrections is the predominant approach practiced in Japan, that is, the main aim of the system is to restore the pre-existing social order rather than enact retribution against a particular individual, or even to protect victim's rights, or to punish an offender in a fair manner (Hosoi & Nishimura 1999: 4).
Much like the American system, Japanese prisoners after conviction are classified "according to gender, nationality, kind of penalty, length of sentence, degree of criminality, and state of physical and mental…
Debito, Arudou & Dave Aldwinckle. (2002). "Arrest and Detention Periods of Criminal Suspects Under Japanese Law
Coutsoukis, Photius. (10 Nov 2004). "Japan: The Penal System." CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 Feb 2008 at http://www.photius.com/countries/japan/national_security/japan_national_security_the_penal_system.html
Hosoi, Yoko & Haruo Nishimura. (1999). "The Role of Apology in the Japanese
.....criminal justice system protects the public from criminals and criminal activity by investigating, catching, and thwarting crime. Although some countries have similar methods of punishing criminals and preventing crime, many countries have different methods and strategies. Norway has its own way of handling criminals and criminal investigations that often involves a decentralized police and investigative force. The United States operates via tiered system: federal, state, and local (Cole, Smith, & DeJong, 2013). England offers a tiered system as well, with most investigative efforts occurring in London. This essay will highlight the differences and similarities of the criminal justice system in England/Wales, the United States, and Norway.
The United States has only been a country for a few centuries. It operates with peace and justice in mind. Operating under three branches of government, the judiciary branch allows for the government to arrest, prosecute, and imprison criminals and criminal suspects. Other government agencies,…
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime counts for eight Index crimes:…
Offender Reentry Program Proposal
The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)
It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of juvenile crime.
Wilkinson, R. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisoners using a restorative justice framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.
Wilkinson, R. (2000). Sex offender risk reduction center. In R. Wilkinson (Ed.), Correctional best practices. Directors' perspectives. Middleton, CT: The Association of State Correctional Administrators.
Wilson, D., Gallagher, C., & MacKenzie, D. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347-368.
History Of Corrections
Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what the…
Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.
King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at: http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf
Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Proponents of victim compensation have philosophical bases for believing that the government has the obligation to provide victim compensation. Choose two of these reasons and briefly discuss.
Victim compensation programs entail giving payments to the victims of violent crimes (Doerner & Lab 2014: 20). The intention behind them is to create a system which enforces justice and restores the victim as much as possible to his or her original state. Also, the victims of many violent crimes such as domestic violence and child abuse often suffer a profound psychological impact for which they need additional support, just to feel normal again. "The rationale for victim compensation rests on a moral concern for the welfare of the injured citizen, and the current lack of any effective compensation provisions results in punishment for crime victims" (Schultz 1975). Simply incarcerating the perpetrator does not undo the often irreparable harm to the victim in…
Doerner, W & Lab, S. (2014). Victimology Routledge, 2014
Schultz, L. g. (1975). Violated: A proposal to compensate victims of violent crime. From Considering the Victim. NCJ-27690
Victim compensation fund. (2015). Restorative Justice. Retrieved from:
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).
All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Significance of the Study
Every year more than 600,000 people are released from…
Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.
Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.
Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.
Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
Business - Law
estorative Justice: With the research conducted between the years 1997 and 1998 in the United States and Europe shows that the rate of crime was high and the culprits were…Read Full Paper ❯
estorative Justice Individual restorative justice paper: Case study Traditionally, the debate about the purpose of the justice system has revolved around the question of whether punishment should be retributive or rehabilitative…Read Full Paper ❯
Variations of the area court model, such as teen courts, medicine courts, and household physical violence courts, focus on specific concerns in order to establish even more extensive…Read Full Paper ❯
According to ichards (2004), however, the history of restorative justice outside of the specifically named restorative justice procedures that are littered throughout U.S. criminal justice history is difficult…Read Full Paper ❯
However the law demands that the course of action should be experimented, and evaluated on the grounds that if they are reasonable, restorative, and respectful. The offenders should…Read Full Paper ❯
Ruth-Heffelbauer, D. (2006). Restorative Justice FAQ. Victim Offender Mediation Association. Online at http://www.voma.org/rjfaq.shtml The source composed for the Victim Offender Mediation Association is a fact sheet and statement of purpose…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Instead, Hadley (2001) argues that an understanding of the role of spirituality in restorative justice today can encourage peaceful communities both domestically and internationally. In fact, the spiritual…Read Full Paper ❯
Marian told a group of incarcerated rapists that her sister had been gagged before being killed, and so she, Marian, wished to hear their truths. "One of the…Read Full Paper ❯
M6D2: estorative Justice The criminal justice system not only seeks justice to the victims and criminals, but restorative justice. As much as the victim benefits from the process, the criminals…Read Full Paper ❯
org) Restorative justice is not necessarily conservative in orientation, although this definition may make it seem so. It also focuses on transforming the traditional relationship between communities and their governments…Read Full Paper ❯
Juvenile Justice System Describe the Juvenile Justice System The juvenile justice system is not just one department or building in a government facilities part of town. The juvenile justice system (JJS)…Read Full Paper ❯
Applied Research on Restorative Practice Problem background and context Many schools across the globe are currently applying restorative practice. According to Calhoun (2013), there has been much success since the schools…Read Full Paper ❯
CRIME VICTIMS Crime Victims: An IntroductionThe particular problems faced by persons who experience hare crime are broadly characterized by the trauma and fear they go through resulting from the…Read Full Paper ❯
Does Restorative Justice Reduce Recidivism? Though restorative justice has become an increasingly popular practice in the criminal justice field, there is still no concise, universally acceptable definition of the concept.…Read Full Paper ❯
2. Interventions for teens and wayward youths are such appealing programs because no one wants to assume that children and youths are born with deviant minds. Most agree that…Read Full Paper ❯
Restorative Justice in Education." In other words, how effective does the use of critical theory prove to be when applied to restorative justice in education? Author Dorothy Vaandering…Read Full Paper ❯
Mandatory Minimum SentencingAbstractMandatory minimum sentencing requires that offenders serve a predefined term for certain crimes, commonly serious and violent offenses, and judges are bound by law to enforce them.…Read Full Paper ❯
Future of estorative Justice estorative Justice The most common form of criminal justice is retributive justice, which is based on an adversarial system that pits the offender against the victim (reviewed…Read Full Paper ❯
Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Offending Restorative justice is a new paradigm within the criminal justice, particularly in the context of youth offenders. The philosophy behind restorative justice is…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics / Morality
Introduction: Overview of the Relevant Facts One of the problems of criminal justice today is the challenge of systemic racism that has been leveled by critics such as Angela Davis…Read Full Paper ❯
Correctional System: Three different approaches and philosophies to the problem of crime The three philosophical cornerstones of the corrections system are retribution, rehabilitation, and restoration. However, while most modern theorists…Read Full Paper ❯
Prisoners with Ties to TerrorismDescribe and Explain the unique challenges associated with the increase in prisoners with ties to terrorism and other extremist groups. Develop a plausible approach that…Read Full Paper ❯
estorative Justice The purpose of this article was to show that restorative justice is significantly more satisfying as compared to courts for both offenders and victims. This was achieved with…Read Full Paper ❯
(d) etribution serves towards a constructive purpose of -- as Braithwhite calls it -- 'restorative shame' rather than 'stigmatizing shame' In 1988, John Braithwaite published "Crime, shame, and eintegration" where…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice What do you Think Paradigm of Laws Paradigm of Laws • the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a…Read Full Paper ❯
S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of…Read Full Paper ❯
esults Method This section of the study describes the frequency distribution of the data collected during this study and idea of "central tendency, associated mean, median and mode." Various measures of…Read Full Paper ❯
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function…Read Full Paper ❯
criminal justice system by providing the essential definition of terms like Antidotal, Qualitative, and Quantitative Evidence. 'Justice' in the context criminal justice is also defined. The definitions in…Read Full Paper ❯
Christian Worldview of Law Enforcement Forgiveness is a critical component of Christianity: humans are all imperfect and living in an imperfect, yet God-created world. Because of that, it is essential…Read Full Paper ❯
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government…Read Full Paper ❯
Organizational change in any sector implies moving away from the present state and "toward some desired future state" in order to increase the effectiveness of the organization (Lunenburg, 2010,…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice - Juveniles
estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right…Read Full Paper ❯
Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the…Read Full Paper ❯
5: Evaluating a research article. In the study by Corsaro, Brunson and McGarrell (2009), the researchers use mixed-methodology of quantitative hierarchical growth curve models and qualitative interviews to measure whether…Read Full Paper ❯
Punishment "Anything goes" is an interesting way to describe the current state of the nation's approach to punishment. Do you feel it is accurate? If yes, why? If not, why…Read Full Paper ❯
Goals of Corrections etribution The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who…Read Full Paper ❯
Juvenile Justice Juvenile delinquents Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims Juvenile justice: Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims The adult justice system in America has long…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Court System estorative justice is the application a theory that puts emphasis on making amendments on the harm that has been caused by unjust behavior. This approach is practical…Read Full Paper ❯
intermediate sanctions? Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also…Read Full Paper ❯
They began to outline an issue of the journal which they tentatively called Contemporary Criminology: A Journal of Ideas Predisposed Toward Radical Democratization. It was hoped that the…Read Full Paper ❯
Secondly, the victim, being more involved with the crime and understanding of the situation as well as more intimate with it than the legislators is better able to…Read Full Paper ❯
New viewpoints in regards to supporting the future development of corrections are being established because of past and present inclinations. The matters and concerns that have something to do…Read Full Paper ❯
role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and…Read Full Paper ❯
criminal procedure and the idiosyncrasies of criminal practice vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction" (Jaros, 2010, p. 445). If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably…Read Full Paper ❯
Schools of Criminology Schools of Thought Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will…Read Full Paper ❯
Jails and Prisons The general characteristics of prisons and jails are almost the same though they are considered as different entities in the criminal justice system. The main difference them…Read Full Paper ❯
Golden Age of the Victim Golden Age Victim An overview of the Golden Age of the Victim, including a comparison of victim mentalities of the 1960s era compared with the victim…Read Full Paper ❯
As a conclusion I must state that I agree with the philosophies of the ARJ method. I believe that all people must receive equal chances. I am sure that…Read Full Paper ❯
Marianta undergoes rehabilitation. Punishment is not going to help her. It will only stigmatize her and make her more likely repeat her crimes in the future, as well…Read Full Paper ❯
Proactive Policing There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged…Read Full Paper ❯
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program…Read Full Paper ❯
Dugan: Should be on its own page. Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims.…Read Full Paper ❯
Japanese Correctional System as Compared to the American Corrections System The Japanese correctional system places a strong emphasis on rehabilitation and preparing the prisoner for being released once again into…Read Full Paper ❯
.....criminal justice system protects the public from criminals and criminal activity by investigating, catching, and thwarting crime. Although some countries have similar methods of punishing criminals and preventing crime,…Read Full Paper ❯
UCR and NIBRS Introduction Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled…Read Full Paper ❯
Offender Reentry Program Proposal The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering…Read Full Paper ❯
History Of Corrections Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as…Read Full Paper ❯
Victim Compensation Proponents of victim compensation have philosophical bases for believing that the government has the obligation to provide victim compensation. Choose two of these reasons and briefly discuss. Victim compensation…Read Full Paper ❯
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003). The problems ex-offenders…Read Full Paper ❯