Successful Has America's Policy of Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:

The conditions during the Cold War period were exceptional and they asked for rather exceptional measures. The foreign policy of the U.S., as a hegemonic power of the world was under a tremendous amount of pressure. On one hand there were the fear of the worst possible enemies of democracy: communism and the fear of the atomic war that could have destroyed the world in minutes and on the other hand there were the economic factors that influenced a great deal of the U.S. policy making on the international arena and its role as the impartial judge in conflicts around the globe. The dream of helping building a democratic world where peace and justice, especially, social justice were at home were left in the utopian societies described in the books. The realities of the twentieth and the approaching twenty first Century were much more practical and lacked the romantic spirit of "democracy for everyone, at all costs."

The reality shows the U.S. implicated in wars to support authoritarian regimes because its policymakers at the time thought best in its personal interest and that of maintaining stability in a region with minimum costs. Economic advantages for the U.S. economy were often above civil liberties in the countries experiencing internal movements and thus authoritarian regimes that facilitated the foreign investments were supported for decades, even if they violated civil rights and favored the creation of insurmountable gaps between a small elite of the privileged and the rest of the society. One of the examples in this respect is that of Ferdinand Marcos. He used the U.S. support in the crisis determined the rebellion of the masses against his government, in 1972. The U.S. supported his regime that was highly authoritative during the 1970s and the first years of the 1980s. His government assured the stability need by the economic investors to penetrate and found businesses connected to the globalized economic world in the country. The decision makers in Washington changed their views after Marcos' the regime culminated his discretionary acts with the killing of the leader of the opposition, Benigno Aquino, Jr.,in 1983. Washington turned one hundred and eighty degrees and supported the opposition forces to win elections against Marcos. The change was not miraculous and the new government, led by Aquino's wife as president as in debt to the internal military forces as well as to those of the U.S. The new instrument of political aid developed at the beginning of the 1980s proved effective in Philippines. The success was far from being complete and undebatable. Further inquiries in the development of the country showed how politics remained a domain of the privileged and the inequities between social classes still in place. Chile, Nicaragua and Haiti are other countries that experiences authoritarian regimes supported by the U.S. For decades and then overthrown by the same U.S. when they became a real threat for the regional stability and for the global economy. Nicaragua and Chile finally came to see the light of the democracy after decades of authoritarian regime, the former under Pinochet and the latter under Samosa family first and then under the Sandinista government. Haiti is a special case that is still debated over and not yet eluded. After sustaining the Duvalier dictatorship and shifting in sides, the U.S. failed to help create the favorable conditions for installing a democracy. The void of power due to the lack of success in imposing either the authoritarian elite or the opposition perpetuated till today.

The world would certainly look different today if the U.S. stayed away from hundreds of domestic conflicts. The reconstruction of Germany and Japan due to massive economic aid from the U.S., the fall of the Berlin wall were bound to happen someday, but without the U.S. efforts in economic and political aid, that would have taken a few years or even decades more. Countries in Latin America had dictator reigning for decades with the explicit support of the U.S., but that cannot be blamed on the ill intentions of the hegemonic power in relationship with one nation. Self-interest and economic interest will always be difficult to overcome by ideological reasons. The numbers may not show a decisive result in the respect of success of the U.S. foreign policy to promote democracy around the world, but they are not showing the balance inclined the other way either. The world along with the U.S. still has to overcome experiences such as crimes against humanity and violation of the human rights that are still happening in some countries. Some of them surprisingly, on the right track of the globalization, but still under totalitarian regimes. The perfect instrument in fighting dictatorship has not been invented yet.


Meernik, J. United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy. Nov. 1996. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 33, No. 4. Pp. 391-402.

Robinson, W.I. 1996. Globalization, the World System, and "Democracy Promotion" in U.S. Foreign Policy. Theory and Society, Vol. 25, No. 5. Pp. 615-665

Ralph, J. Review. 2001. American Democracy and Democracy Promotion. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 77, No. 1. Pp 129-140

Blanton, S.L. 2000.Promoting Human Rights and Democracy in the Developing World: U.S. Rhetoric vs. U.S. Arms Exports. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 44, No. 1.Pp. 123-131

Von Hippel, K. 2000. Democracy by Force. Cambridge University Press.

O'Loughlin, J. et alii.1998. The Diffusion of Democracy, 1946-1994. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 88, No. 4. Pp. 545-574.

Bouvier. V.M.

Bouvier, V.M., 2002.ed. The Globalization of U.S.-Latin American Relations: Democracy, Intervention, and Human Rights. Westport, CT: Praeger,.

Carey, a. 1995.Taking the Risk out of Democracy: Propaganda in the U.S. And Australia. Ed. Andrew Lohrey. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales

Constable, P. And Arturo V. 1991. A Nation of Enemies: Chile Under Pinochet / . New York W.W. Norton.

Heywood, a. 2000. Key Concepts in Politics. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave

Joes, a.J. 1999. ed. Saving Democracies: U.S. Intervention in Threatened Democratic States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers

Solaun, M. 2005. U.S. Intervention and Regime Change in Nicaragua. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Watson, W.E.1998. The Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Wippman, D. 1997. "Defending Democracy through Foreign Intervention." Houston Journal of International Law 19.3 (1997): 659-687.[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Successful Has America's Policy Of" (2008, August 31) Retrieved December 4, 2016, from

"Successful Has America's Policy Of" 31 August 2008. Web.4 December. 2016. <>

"Successful Has America's Policy Of", 31 August 2008, Accessed.4 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • America s Decision to Stay Out

    The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations After the end of World War I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the

  • America s War on Terrorism Since the Attacks

    America's War on Terrorism since the attacks of September 11th, 2001. America's war on Terrorism since 9/11 has largely been conducted in intensifying domestic security in all areas. The highlight has been capturing Osama bin Laden, followed by a phased extraction of the American Army out of Iraq. Nonetheless, security alert is on an all-time high and Defense receives a high proportion of fiscal allocation and focus. government has also stepped

  • Policy Decision Case Study

    Public administrators now play an increasingly prominent role in policy decision-making. This is to the point where their names and likenesses become inadvertently attached by the media to a policy and its implications. A current case in point would be Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and the role he plays in shaping America's policy towards Iraq. Due to the media's focus on his opinions regarding that policy, the general public has

  • Barbary Terror America s 1815 War Against the

    Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa During the 19th century, pirates were far from an abstract threat on international seas. Nor was piracy merely due to the actions of some rogue elements. The nations of Algeria, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli used state-sponsored piracy to profit off of ransom money. Sailors who were not ransomed in a system of state-sponsored forced labor. European nations had

  • Kmart Is One of America s Most Well Known

    Kmart is one of America's most well-known retailing names, yet in the past ten years the company has fallen on hard times. Competition has come in multiple forms, from discounts like Wal-Mart and Costco, to category killers like Home Depot to online retailers like Struggling with declining sales and mounting debt, Kmart was purchased by equally struggling Sears Holdings in the latter's attempt to reshape its business and improve

  • Nixon s Policy Toward the U S S R

    When a progressive Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the fall of the Soviet Union was immanent and inevitable. After the fall of the Soviet Union under Reagan's watch, his Vice President Bush inherited the problem of dealing with a fragmented Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Bush Sr.'s foreign policy toward Moscow was largely passive, arguably much more passive than any of his predecessors were because the Cold War was

  • U S Policy Concerning Iraq War

    However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East. At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved