Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Democracy in America:
Analysis Of Government Actions In ecent Times
Tocqueville visited the United States back in 1800s and it was then that he wrote his masterpiece, Democracy in America. This book contains details of what the philosopher witnessed during this trip. His views and thoughts were then collected to form a theory of politics and art in connection with democracy and presented them in this book. Tocqueville thus is considered one of the most important authors to have written anything on the democratic system of the United States in philosophical terms. His book is similar to ancient philosophical works of Plato and Aristotle in nature and style even though the actually contents differ. Not only did Tocqueville talk about democratic form of government in our country, he also presented his views on how democracy affects the art and literature. It is in these passages that we get to hear…
Susan M. Akram, The Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America, Arab Studies Quarterly. Publication Year: 2002. Page Number: 61+.
Joyce Howard Price. Newspaper Title: Poll Shows Public Wants Saddam Targeted; Government Opinion Split, The Washington Times. October 26, 2001. 6.
John Gray. Happy to Be Handcuffed by the State: Liberals Refuse to Accept That the Greatest Threat to Freedom Comes Not from an Over-Mighty Government but One That Is Too Weak to Guarantee Its Citizens' Safety. New Statesman. Volume: 131. Issue: 4601. August 19, 2002. 20+.
Seymour Drescher, Dilemmas of Democracy: Tocqueville and Modernization. University of Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh. 1968.
America's constitution allowed for freedom of religion, which made religion centrally important in the lives of Americans in a way that it was often not given the state-enforced place of religion in Europe. Religions were diverse and thus a divisive force between citizens. American's 'dream of home ownership' and America's status as 'the most religious nation on earth,' underlines the importance of property and home ownership and the vital, personal importance of religion -- from Protestant evangelicalism to the self-help movement in the nation that still exists today. Capitalist land ownership, choice and independence, freedom from government-imposed rules were values celebrated in America even in Tocqueville's era.
The importance of a rule of law in a society without tradition makes lawyers especially powerful, observed Tocqueville. It is hard not to think of modern 'lawyer jokes,' when Tocqueville notes: "The French lawyer is simply a man extensively acquainted with the statutes…
Instead, our morals and civilization simply mask the truth, that the true nature of the world is darkness, and evil. Conrad wrote the Heart of Darkness when Europeans were engrossed with Imperialism.
Interestingly, the character of Kurtz goes mad when his light goes out. The light is symbolic of the civilized side of human nature in society. In contrast, the dark represents the savage or uncivilized side of our society and individual natures. In the dark, Kurtz begins to question the value of European society, and civilization. This is a direct challenge to the principles of the Enlightenment.
Conrad states, "The brown current ran swiftly out of the heart of darkness..." This describes the savage and uncivilized nature of the Congo that Marlow and Kurtz are attempting to escape. Interestingly, Kurtz is broken by staring into the "heart of the darkness," symbolizing mans' true evil nature. In contrast, staring into…
Although De Tocqueville incorrectly stereotypes Americans as being inordinately serious in Book 3, Chapter 15, he pinpoints the essence of the typical American: "Americans, who almost always preserve a staid demeanor and a frigid air, nevertheless frequently allow themselves to be borne away, far beyond the bounds of reason, by a sudden passion or a hasty opinion and sometimes gravely commit strange absurdities." De Tocqueville calls this "ignorance which originates in extreme publicity," and notes that in despotic states, the public is told how to act; they therefore act according to strict social norms of behavior. In the United States, however, people are "often obliged to do things which they have imperfectly learned, to say things which they imperfectly understand," (Book 3, Chapter 15). The segment on the Tonight Show called "Jaywalking" illustrates De Tocqueville's point exactly.
De Tocqueville's analysis of gender roles and relations in the United States has…
Democracy in America." Wikipedia. 7 July 2005. Retrieved online 22 July 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy_in_America
De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America. Hypertext version retrieved online 22 July 2005 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/toc_indx.html
However, in the pursuit of freedom and liberty through democratic government, the citizens of the state should not pursue an unattainable type of social equality. The United States, according to DeTocqueville, stresses equality. This stress on equality distinguishes America from the democracies that existed before it. Absolute equality is impossible to achieve and cannot be legislated. Rather than overly emphasize the majority rule as is commonly done in American democracy, citizens should value all opinions and allow for freedom of expression.
American democracy also differs from other democracies in that American culture fosters individuality in a way that was never practiced in the past. Part of the essence of the American culture is self-determination, the sense of entitlement that many Americans continue to exhibit. This sense of entitlement gave rise to the notion of "manifest destiny." DeTocqueville also shows how materialism in American society distinguishes its democracy from those before…
America was a wonderful experiment in freedom and democracy which had never before been attempted by any nation. Nations either tried to give power to the people in order to prevent monarchies from rising to despotic power, or they allowed monarchs, despots and other sole figure heads to rise to power. In the case of allowing the people to rule, Europe and European's had learned many times that unbridled power in the hands of the people was no more just than the rule of despots. obs could become just as dictatorial as individual monarchs who sat upon golden thrones. Until America came into existence, nations could only expect to exist for a short time before political turmoil would create change of government, and the nation would start over again.
So as America grew from a fledgling nation to a powerful and economically stable country, those who had watched democracy struggle…
Mill, John Stuart. Dissertations and Discussions. New York: classic Books. 2000.
Madison, James. Federalist paper #10. 1775
De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, essays on freedom. 1835. Accessed 21 May 2004. Website: http://www.tocqueville.org
Democracy in the United States [...] what type of democracy is the U.S. What are the most democratic and least democratic features of American national government? Do you believe that the U.S. presently embodies the core values of a democracy or do you believe that the U.S. has yet to attain the essence of democratic ideals? Democracy is one of the most sought after forms of government, and some form of democracy reaches far back into history, as far back as early Greece. American democracy is a model for the world.
First, to discuss democracy it is better to define democracy. "Democracy" comes from the Greek work "demos" which means "the common people," and "kratia" which means, "power" (O'Neil 149). Thus, democracy means the power actually lives in the people. However, this is too simply a definition of the word. Author O'Neil maintains the word means "political power exercised either…
Mueller, Dennis C. Constitutional Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
O'Neil, Patrick. Essentials of Comparative Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2004.
Putnam, Robert D. "Democracy in America at the End of the Twentieth Century." Participation and Democracy, East and West: Comparisons and Interpretations. Eds. Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Marilyn Rueschemeyer, and Bjorn Wittrock. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1998. 233-259.
America- Democracy or Plutocracy?
The United States of America is often hailed as the first and greatest modern democracy in the world. Most Americans believe that the United States is the example the rest of the world should emulate, and that it offers its citizens the power to make decisions through its free and fair elections. Yet at the same time, others say that the United States of America has ceased to be a democracy and instead become a plutocracy. A plutocracy is a state that is ruled by the wealthiest people, rather than by free and fair elections in which all citizens have an equal voice. Recent political developments have caused fear from those who believe the United States is moving toward plutocracy, but at the same time, other equally important developments have shown that it remains, at least for the time being, a democracy.
Although the United States…
"The Court's Blow to Democracy." Editorial. The New York Times. January 21, 2010. Web. April 26, 2011.
"Health Care Reform." The New York Times. . March 4, 2011. Web. April 27, 2011.
Rolnik, Guy. "Warren Buffet: The U.S. is moving toward plutocracy." TheMarker.com. March 4, 2011. Web. April 27, 2011.
Tremblay, Rodrigue. "The United States of Corporate America: From Democracy to Plutocracy." Global Research Canada. January 22, 2010. Web. April 26, 2011.
Democracy and Clientelism:
Political clientelism is basically considered as the distribution of discriminatory benefits to people or groups in exchange for political support. Clientelism is a form of personal exchange that is always characterized by uneven balance of power between those involved and a sense of compulsion. Throughout history, this term has continued to create confusion and controversy due to the broad and varied range of political exchanges that it contains. Since it's a way with which the uneven and hierarchical exchanges of a feudal society are described, clientelism is also a means of describing the relationships between patrons and clients. The theory of democracy explains that voters have the right of making their choices freely, particularly during political elections. This concept has created new platforms for representation and political accountability as well as the benefits for sustaining and cultivating clientelistic bonds (Szwarcberg, 2009). In places with weak democracies, clients…
De Sousa Luis. "Clientelism and the Quality(ies) of Democracy Public and Policy Aspects."
Central European University, 2008. http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00004462/01/discwp-2008-02.pdf (accessed April 12, 2011).
Gallego, Jorge Andres & Raciborski, Rafal. "Clientelism, Income Inequality, and Social
Preferences: and Evolutionary Approach to Poverty Traps." Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2008. http://www.javeriana.edu.co/fcea/area_economia/inv/documents/clientelismIncomeInequalityandSocialPreferences_000.pdf (accessed April 12, 2011).
America, without doubt the most powerful nation on earth and the sole super-power of the 21st century evokes vastly conflicting feelings in people around the world, depending on their individual paradigm: the lens through which they look at the world. While to most people, America is a symbol of prosperity, freedom and equal opportunity it also is a source of equally negative feelings for others who resent its prosperity, and its economic, cultural and military power. This Jekyll & Hyde image of the country in the world, though surprising to many Americans, is not difficult to understand if one examines the issue in its historical, political, and cultural perspective. In this essay we will discuss what America looks like to an outsider, and what it means to people from different countries of the world as a state, as a people, and as a geographic region. Into what larger ideas and…
Fowlie, Wallace. "Voltaire." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002
Johnson, Paul E. And Nancy Woloch. "United States (History). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
Nash, Gary B. "United States (Overview). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
Klepp, Susan E. "United States (People)." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
Democracy in U.S. And Scotland
Democracy in the United States
Different countries with widely disparate forms of government all lay claim to being a democracy. Many European parliamentary-style governments, for example, call themselves democracies. In contrast, more centralized, presidential governments claim to be democracies as well.
hat these forms of government have in common, however, are key basic ideals. Democracy is a form of government that is based on aggregative concepts of a "common good." This concept has its roots in philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau's "social contract theory," which states that a general will of the people gives rise to an unstated social contract. In a democratic form of government, decisions are made based on a "rationally identified common good" (Shapiro 2003: 3).
The United States has three main structures of government. The judiciary is tasked with interpreting and upholding the country's laws. The legislature, composed of the Lower House…
Brinkley, Alan. 2000. The Unfinished Nation. New York: McGraw-Hill Company.
Kagan, Robert. 2003. Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. New York: Knopf
Lace, William. 2001. Scotland. San Diego: Lucent Books.
Public Information Service. 2003. Factsheet on the Scottish Parliament. available at http://www.scottish.parliament.uk
Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry
At some point, all of us must have asked ourselves: Does poetry still have a place in the contemporary democratic society? Other questions arise from here of course: Does poetry play different roles in the different democracies? What is the difference between the role poetry plays in the American society and the role it plays in the European one? And from here on it may start the debate.
In the book, Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry, by Robert Pinsky, we may find some answers to these questions.
Robert Pinsky starts in the first chapter "Culture" considering the "voice of poetry"..."within the culture of American democracy." He remarks that the human society fears the most often since its early ages from the important things: the uniformisation, by globalization, centralization, loss of diversity and the possibility of disappearing from the collective memory. An…
1. Pinsky, Robert, Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry, Princeton University Press; (September 3, 2002)
Pinsky, Robert, Democracy, Culture and the Voice of Poetry, Princeton University Press; (September 3, 2002), pg.2 ibid, pg. 6 ibid, pg. 13
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
In this way there would be more teachers paying greater attention to students who would learn not more, but perhaps better. The level of education is one of the most important concepts in this discussion and it is directly connected to the required standards. If these are lowered then everyone will "pass," but this success is ephemeral and is not translated into capacities or resources which could be afterward used outside school in the real life. Excellence in education is a must for a strong democracy while at the same time, one of the most important challenges that democracy faces is that of finding a way to provide all the citizens with the opportunity to an education of excellent level.
Last but not least a measure which could help improve the present situation of the educational system is reducing the bureaucracy. The work of teachers and professors ought to be…
Barber, B.R. "America skips school: why we talk so much about education and do so little." Harper's Magazine, nov.1993, v287, n1722, p.39
"Where does the money go? How the average U.S. consumer spends their paycheck" in visualeconomics.com, Retrieved September 30, 2010 from http://www.visualeconomics.com/how-the-average-us-consumer-spends-their-paycheck/
America Legal System and Personal Peace and Security
American Legal system and personal peace and security
The American legal system generally was formulated with particular functions in mind. It is important to note that there is not a single legal system in the world that was put up to deny the citizens of that particular country peace and security. All legal systems even among the remote democracies and civilizations are geared towards giving peace to the occupants of that land. Indeed most of out laws are extracted from the principles of law of natural justice. The natural justice demands that every person is treated fairly in a bid to maintain the cosmic balance and tranquility.
The laws of the U.S.A. can be summarized as meant to serve the following purposes generally according to Messick (2011);
Deter Wrongful Conduct: since human beings tend to fear when a prohibition is placed…
Lectric Law Library, (2011). Fourth Amendment (U.S. Constitution). Retrieved March 21, 2011
Messick, R., (2001). Key Functions of Legal Systems with Suggested Performance Measures.
Retrieved March 21, 2011 from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAWJUSTINST/Resources/legaltoolkit.pdf
America has never been a nation to create solutions to problems that have yet to occur. The prevailing wisdom was that terrorism and the need for a unified intelligence gathering community geared specifically to detect and protect against terrorism was uneccessary because terrorism simply wasn't an American problem. This reasoning however has been proven to have been extremely naive. In the wake of 9/11, our nation has come to the very real understanding that bureaucratic infighting, territorial law and intelligence agencies, and a total complacence on the part of the U.S. citizenry left us wide open for attacks. All of the security measures now in place or being considered (all of which in some part are in place in virtually every other western nation) could have been in place long ago and could have prevented 9/11. But, as our government does not spend money on possibilities but rather in responses,…
"Age of Anxiety." The Nation. Dec 9, 2002. v275. i20. p3. Online Database: Infotrac. Info Acc, 5 Dec,2002.
"Homeland Insecurity." U.S. News & World Report. Dec 2, 2002. p64. Online Database: Infotrac. Info Acc, 5 Dec,2002.
Lefebure, Leo. "Muslim-Christian Dialogue" The Christian Century. 11 Sep, 2002. v119. i19. p8. Online Database: Infotrac. Info Acc, 5 Dec,2002.
"Report: Anti-Terror Powers Curtail Rights." United Press International. Nov 23, 2002. p1008327w4275. Online Database: Infotrac. Info Acc, 5 Dec,2002.
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
At the same time, democracy allows people ith different views come together on a particular subject they share an opinion, state their mind and make a positive change.
Q6. What does De Tocqueville mean by 'artificial solidarity'?
Artificial solidarity resembles a tailored feeling of solidarity based on a foundation that is not real and one which was applied to a society without real background that would support it in a true manner. It resembles an individual that is pious in clothes and behavior, but his house is full of luxurious belongings.
Q7. Why should democrats remember the 'utility of forms'?
Forms are tools through which barriers are set and rules are created. In a system that allows people to use their rights to freedom, it is important to have such forms and to respect them.
Q8. What is 'self-interest rightly understood'? Where does De Tocqueville derive this idea from? Why…
Political Philosophy II: Theories of Freedom
To answer the questions of why De Tocqueville and Mill think that democracy is a threat to the liberty of the individual and whether they are right, this paper will show that both De Tocqueville and Mill viewed democracy as a mechanism that could easily become tyrannical and thus overwhelm one's individual liberty. Considering that democracy in its various forms (direct, representative, constitutional) is capable of being corrupted (voters and/or representatives may be bribed, coerced, misinformed, misled, subjugated, harassed, mobbed, and so on), it is not difficult to see that both Tocqueville and Mill are correct in their arguments: democracy can be a threat to the liberty of the individual -- precisely because it is not necessarily predicated on truth, rightness, or goodness. Is there any system of government that does not represent a potential threat to the liberty of the individual when it…
Transforming commentaries on Government, Society, and Culture in American Life
Lapham, Lewis. Hotel America. New York: Verso, 1996.
Today, the idea of American democracy as a force of liberation abroad, in Iraq and in Afghanistan is almost universally accepted by both liberals and conservatives as a received truth, not merely a piece of skillfully crafted political rhetoric. But in Lewis Lapham's essay "Democracy in America?" The idea of a truly extant democratic system in America is posed as a question rather than as something to be accepted, and Lapham concludes that "the spirit of Democracy is becoming as defunct as Buffalo Bill" in the America to which he directs his essay. (10) Lapham stresses that because of a perceived unnecessary need for cohesion, in peacetime as well as wartime, and "not because of the malevolence or cunning of a foreign power (the Russians, the Japanese, the Colombian drug…
21st Century American 'Democracy': The Best Government that Money Can Buy
ithin polarized, interest group-dominated 21st century United States life, most Americans still cling to the idea, despite abundant evidence to the contrary, that we live in a democracy. In today's America, however, that idea is more quaint than accurate. Instead, as the article suggests, America is more a pseudo-democracy than a real one, in which special interest groups (and, as their representatives, high-priced lobbyists they can afford to hire) shape national political, social, economic, health, environmental, and most, if not all, other national agendas for us (although definitely not on our behalf). Meanwhile, a destructive combination of voter apathy (especially among, but not limited to, working-class individuals and minority group members, who feel especially detached) gives us, instead of democracy, the best government money can buy.
ebster's New American Dictionary defines "democracy" as: "1: government by the people; esp:…
"Democracy." Webster's New American Dictionary. New York: Merriam-
Webster, 1995, p. 138.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. New York: Signet, September
What he found, in contrast to Europe, was that the American social ethic was not based on aristocracy, and in fact Americans seemed to have a deep-seated fear and loathing of European titles (at least the middle and common classes). Instead, Americanism was based on a system in which hard work and money-making (e.g. aggressive capitalism) was the dominant ethic of the time. In this period of radical change and development, he perceived that the common (free) person never deferred to elites and where one was rewarded for being a greedy individualist. He writes: "Among a democratic people, where there is no hereditary wealth, every man works to earn a living… Labor is held in honor; the prejudice is not against but in its favor" (Ibid., 398).
What is also interesting is that, at times, no matter how unbiased a historical or sociological account portends, what is excluded is often…
Letters on American Slavery. (2006, June 5). Retrieved September 2010, from Anti-Slavery Literature: http://antislavery.eserver.org/tracts/lettersonamericanslavery/lettersonamericanslavery.html
Damrosch, L. (2010). Tocqueville's Discovery of America. New York: Farrar, Sraus, and Giroux.
de Tocqueville, A. (2007). Democracy in America. Stilwell, KS: Digireads Books.
Conceptions of American Freedom
Freedom is an extremely important aspect of American culture, history, and identity. The European settlers that sailed to what would later become the United States of America, came for key reasons, one of which was freedom of religion. The concept of freedom was in one way very important to the people of the United States. Certainly, the concept of freedom in America is fraught with conflict, tension, and paradox. It is common knowledge that the freedoms of one particular group of Americans was increased with the elimination of the freedoms of other groups in the United States. While white males enjoyed the most freedoms, and declared to have build a country heavily predicated on guaranteed freedoms, the freedoms of women, enslaved Africans, and the indigenous tribes of natives who lived in the country for thousands of years did not have many freedoms relative to theirs.
Democracy Web -- Comparative Studies in Freedom. 2012. The Idea of Freedom. Web, Available from: http://www.democracyweb.org/young/young1.php. [footnoteRef:3]2012 November 15. [3: ]
Maier, P. 1998. Sparring for Liberty. The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/11/01/reviews/981101.01maiert.html . 2012 November 18.
Shipley, C. 2012. Power to change -- What is True Freedom? Web, Available from: http://powertochange.com/students/truefreedom/ . 2012 November 16.
Spease. 2012. What is Freedom in America. Web, Available from: http://spease.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-Freedom-in-America . 2012 November 15.
America was not founded as a Democracy or as a Monarchy, for the educated and landed founding fathers felt assured that neither would provide the nation with rights for all and privilege for the few. America was founded as a Republic, and one might add as an ogliarchic republic at that. Those with the right gender, race, and wealth were represented through their while others were represented through the votes of their betters. Today, nearly-universal sufferage (age and past misbehavior are both barriers) assures that these factors do not determine whether a person can vote -- but an argument can still be made that the majority of the political process is determined by wealth. "The creators of America's constitution and government were among the wealthy aristocrats of their day. When they created their new government, the founders excluded democracy to the extent politically possible at the time. ..The great…
Bernstein, A. (1998) "Republican and Democratic -- The Identical Party? The Two Major Parties Are Becoming Dangerously Alike -- in Their Opposition to Individual Rights." Capitalism Magazine, Nov. 6. http://www.capmag.com/article.asp?ID=2020
Gitlin, T. (2000) "The Renaissance of anti-intellectualism." The Chronicle of Higher Education, Dec. 8. Archived at: http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i15/15b00701.htm
Grinning Planet. (2004) "INJECTING A SHOT OF REBEL YELL INTO OLD GLORY" http://www.grinningplanet.com/2004/11-11/direct-democracy-plutocracy-article.htm
Morgan, D. (2000) "Mercenaries For Big Business: Corporate Funding of Think Tanks Raises Question of Credibility" San Francisco Chronicle, Feb 16. Archived at: http://www.commondreams.org/views/021600-102.htm
Concerning civil rights and liberties, the U.S. can consider itself to be a free country indeed. According to a Freedom Hose eport which took into consideration the evolution of the countries of the world since 2001, the United States is considered to be a free country, with the ranking of one, as the highest in this report (Freedom House, 2006). However, an important element in this sense is the fact that throughout the period under analysis, the ranking remains the same, an element which suggests the fact that its positive evolution was constant.
Overall, it is important to say that the U.S. is one of the most democratic countries in the world, from a scale of one to ten; ten being the undemocratic limit, the U.S. is ranked one. It is not only the conclusion drawn from this basic analysis but rather a general belief on the situation in the…
Freedom House. Report. 2006. 6 February 2008. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=15
Presidential Pre-nomination campaign receipts through August 31. 2004. N. d.
Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 2, 2004. 2005. 6 February 2008. http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2004election.pdf
U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey. November 2004.
Democracy in America
Democracy is a term whose origin can be traced to Ancient Greece where it was used to refer to power or rule from people. Actually, the two Greek words which were used to create the term democracy combine to refer to rule by the people or individuals. Since its emergence, democracy has developed to become a multifaceted complex that focuses on guaranteeing the freedom of every individual or citizen in a country. Given its ever increasing role in governance systems across the globe, political theorists have developed several models that explain societal ideals in order to provide context and understanding of democracy. The different models or theories of democracy explain individual involvement in the political process, the basis for governmental involvement, and the link between government involvement and societal needs.
America's system of governance is characterized by a complex and multifaceted political process as well…
Chase, Harold. "Constitution of the United States, Part I: Its Genesis and Framework."
Scholastic. Scholastic Inc., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2015. .
Hacker, Kenneth L., and Jan Van Dijk. "MODELS OF DEMOCRACY AND CONCEPTS OF COMMUNICATION." Digital Democracy: Issues of Theory and Practice. London: SAGE, 2000. 1-20. Print.
Tocqueville, Alexis De., Henry Reeve, and John C. Spencer. Democracy in America: Volume 1.
Judicial review allows lawmakers to reflect changing morals and ideals when enacting legislation, but prevents them from allowing the hot-button topics of the moment to determine the laws of a nation. In fact, to really understand the success of judicial review, one need only look to the election in the Ukraine, where the Ukrainian Supreme Court may be the only body far-enough removed from party politics to ensure that Ukrainian voters have their say. If imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, Justice Marshall should be very flattered.
The Gathering Storm." John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. 2003. DuPage County Bar
Association. 9 Dec. 2004 http:dcba.org/brief/sepissue/1997/art20997.htm.
Hugo Lafayette Black." Arlington National Cemetery ebsite. 2004. Arlington National
Cemetery ebsite. 9 Dec. 2004 http:www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hlblack.htm.
Judicial review/Marbury v. Madison." National Legal Center for the Public Interest. 2002.
National Legal Center for the Public Interest 9 Dec. 2004 http://www.nlcpi.org/pdf/JudicialReviewMarburyvMadison.pdf#search='judicial%20review%20marbury'.
Linder, Doug. "Judicial…
The Gathering Storm." John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. 2003. DuPage County Bar
Association. 9 Dec. 2004 http:dcba.org/brief/sepissue/1997/art20997.htm.
Hugo Lafayette Black." Arlington National Cemetery Website. 2004. Arlington National
Cemetery Website. 9 Dec. 2004 http:www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hlblack.htm.
The criticisms that de Tocqueville levels against American society, and especially against some of the particulars of its governance, continue in his discussion of the potential tyranny of the majority. Americans regard the majority much as Europeans viewed their king, according to de Tocqueville: it can do no wrong, and any wrong it does do is only due to bad advice or information. This subservience, according to de Tocqueville, creates the potential for a majority to rob a minority of its rights through legal means. While this danger certainly exists, however, de Tocqueville fails to demonstrate how it is worse than the tyranny of a monarch.
In addition to the arguments and political observation that de Tocqueville makes, there are other key features of Democracy in America that stand out to the modern reader as interesting tidbits of information, and aspects of American history that have perhaps not been fully…
Healing the Heart of Democracy is a good one because it highlights the central ideas of Palmer's work, namely the need, in his eyes, for true bipartisanship and compassion towards one another. While this of course is idealistic and positive, the reality of democracy in America is much more sordid, as representatives are bought and sold by Big Money and are essentially unaccountable to the citizens they are supposed to represent. If enough Big Money backs them, they are bound to win elections as the mass of people in America are either indifferent to the corrupt politics of our time or else controlled by the media, which is also backed by the same Big Money that controls our politicians. Bipartisanship is not even a word that matters in reality; in idealistic heads, it is a great thing to strive towards; but in the real world it is just a talking…
democracy in detail. It discusses different forms of democracy. The difference between liberal democracy and democracy has also been analyzed in this paper. It puts light on the seven institutional guarantees of liberal democracy and examines each of the institutional guarantees in detail.
Most of the people around the globe are familiar to the word democracy but its meaning is often misunderstood by many at occasions when marshal law administrators, single-party governments and military groups acquire the support of millions of people by claiming that they are a democratic government. The word democracy has been derived from the Greek word 'demos' which means people. Democracy can be defined as a form of government in which the supreme power belongs to the people of the nation. In some forms of democracy, this power is exercised, directly, by the people of the nation. In other forms, however, this power is being exercised…
Carcasson, M., & Sprain, L. Colorado State University, Center for Public Deliberation. (2010). Key aspects of the deliberative democracy movement. Retrieved from Colorado State University website: http://www.cpd.colostate.edu/keyaspects.pdf
Cincotta, H.U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Information Programs. (2006).Democracy in brief. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website: http://photos.state.gov/libraries/korea/49271/dwoa_122709/Democracy-in-Brief.pdf
Howard, H. (2011). The challenge of third world development. (6th ed., pp. 28-40). London: Longman.
Macmillan Publishers Limited, (n.d.). Democracy. Retrieved from Macmillan Publishers Limited website: http://www.palgrave.com/politics/hague/site/docs/samplechapter.pdf
America and the Great War" and "The New Era"
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. Vol. 2: A Concise History of the American People .4th Edition. McGraw-Hill 2004.
What were the causes of WWI in Europe in 1914? Why was President Wilson so reluctant for the U.S. To get involved until 1917 and what finally put the U.S. "over the edge" and decide to enter the conflict directly?
Nationalism, imperialism, and secret treaties all played a role in the instigation of WWI in Europe, but President Wilson was initially reluctant to become involved, because of a long history of American isolationism in regards to entangling European affairs, particularly the secret alliances that stimulated the conflict. His refusal to involve the U.S. In WWI became a crucial part of his re-election campaign. But President Wilson began to protest German violations of American neutrality more vehemently in his public rhetoric than British violations,…
democracy and representative government central inspirations for European feminists in the 19th and early 20th centuries? Were there other issues that inspired the feminists?
urning in the heart of each person is the desire to be free and to be recognized as a valuable part of society while at the same time receiving recognition as an individual. This desire is not trained into us by our society, because regardless of the social organization, or culture, all men and women feel this burning desire equally. The desire to be free, independent and recognized as valuable is a part of what separated men and women from animals. We are important, and our contribution to the social order is an important process by which we make carve out our own identify, and self-worth.
However, this desire for identity and recognition should not be confused with, nor forcibly molded into a desire for sameness…
Sources of the Western Tradition: From the Renaissance to the Present, 5th edition, Volume 2 - written by Marvin Perry, Joseph R. Peden & Theodore H. Von Laue - 2003
History of World Societies: Since 1500, 6th Edition, Volume 2 - Written by John P. McKay, Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Patricia Buckley Ebrey - 2004
The book, The Crucial Decade and After: America 1945-1960, published in 1966, is about the transformation of the post-orld ar II peace into the globalization of the Cold ar. It was first written in 1956 and then edited and more sections added in 1966. Much of the material written in 1956 seems incomplete, or unfinished. The 1966 additions attempted to fill in some of the missing holes and unclear thoughts. It is mainly a historical anthology. He gives a greatly detailed account of McCarthyism. Goldman blames McCarthy for creating the cold war through protectionist politics and defensive trade positions of the between the United States. This paper will demonstrate, that while Eric Goldman is valuable as a source of details about the era, his work holds little value as a historical piece of work.
Eric Goldman was a Professor at a Princeton University who had served Mr. Johnson…
Goldman, Eric Frederick. The crucial decade -- and after; America, 1945-1960. New York, Knopf, 1966 .
History Book Review
America, states' rights are a hot topic. Can states legalize gay marriage, or is that something that is better left to the federal government? Can states make their own gun laws, or should we have a general law by the U.S. government about them? These are just a few examples of issues where states' rights are disputed. Religion is a hot topic as well; can students pray at football games and graduation ceremonies? Can a person's religious beliefs make taking an otherwise illegal drug legal? Foreign affairs gets a lot of coverage, as well: should America be concerned about democracy in other nations? Should we use force to patrol the world, perhaps making it a more secure place?
These all seem like very modern questions, and in many ways, they are. Football games and gay marriage were hardly relevant during the colonial period of American history. But the events of…
America has been blamed for its implementation of imperialistic strategies, which made it the major decider in the global economy and the primary generator of the changes in the work characteristics. The activists and other protestors argued that the American model of forced democracy, which extended beyond the boundaries of the state, hurt the freedom of the countries with which the U.S. was interacting, but also that of the American workers, who were often prevented from forming unions that would protect their rights (Friedberg and owley, 2000).
Democracy allowed the U.S. employers to take the actions they considered suitable for the achievement of their profitability goals; this often activated in the detriment of the employees' interest. But despite this however, democracy also allowed the dissatisfied workers to voice their concerns and, through freedom of speech, they were able to join forces and demand the resolution of their stringent issues. The…
Archbar, M., Abbot, J. (Directors), 2003, The Corporation, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pin8fbdGV9Y&feature=PlayList&p=FA50FBC214A6CE87&index=0lastaccessed on February 25, 2009
Cohen, P.N., 1998, Replacing Housework in the Service Economy: Gender, Class and Race-Ethnicity in Service Spending, Gender and Society, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp.219-231
Friedberg, J., Rowley, R., (film directors) 2000, This Is What Democracy Looks Like, http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=this+is+what+democracy+looks+like&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&sa=X&oi=video_result_group&resnum=4&ct=title#lastaccessed on February 25, 2009
Greenwald, R. (Director), 2005, Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3GINui9LdIQlastaccessed on February 25, 2009
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/programs
Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.
Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.
Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.
Critically assess the extent to which deliberative democracy, neo-conservatism and/or neo-liberalism promote and/or restrict democratization for groups that are excluded and marginalized. Please refer to the debates presented in the attached readings to make your points and cite your sources.
Civil society may make up a place for democratization, owing to its ability to enable individuals to decide on living their public life and resolving common issues. Individuals who consider deliberation to be the soul of democracy ought to be drawn to a broad form of public domain. Postmodernists, who hold rather divergent views, conceptualizing democracy with regard to agonistic regard formed via identity and difference negotiations, ought to similarly be drawn to pluralism. Democrats ought to support, in general, a state complete in key elements, as appropriately organized exclusion may prove beneficial to democratization and democracy, even from excluded parties' standpoint. All historical decisions taken by governments to ensure…
democratic system for governing a group of people, small or large, must maintain the best interests of all the individuals involved. This general criterion must be upheld regardless of whether specifically what these best interests are cannot be unanimously agreed upon. Ideally, a democracy allows everyone involved an equal voice and vote regarding every decision that concerns that organization. Robert Dahl identifies the five primary components of the ideal democracy: "1. Effective participation. 2. Equality in voting. 3. Gaining enlightened understanding. 4. Exercising final control over the agenda. 5. Inclusion of adults." (Dahl 38). Essentially, along every step of the decision-making process each member of this association must have an equal opportunity to voice their opinions, vote, learn about the issues, choose what matters are to be considered, and everyone of age must be involved.
These somewhat rigid requirements can be difficult for even small organizations to uphold, and nearly…
Dahl, Robert A. On Democracy. Harrisonburg: Yale University Press, 1998.
Downing, David. Democracy. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2003.
Green, Robert. China: Modern Nations of the World. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1999.
Roberts, J.A.G. Modern China: An Illustrated History. Phoenix: Sutton Publishing Limited, 1998.
stand on the same level as the French Revolution or the Russian Revolution of 1917, because the changes that it implied were not achieved by the thorough bloodshed that these two encountered, there were many keen to develop the subject of radicalism in the American Revolution, mainly through the changes it implied after its achievement rather than through the means these changes were obtained during the Revolution itself.
In this sense, perhaps the first idea we should be referring to when discussing the Radicalism of the American Revolution is the fact that it was a "catalyst of social change"
The American society up to the Revolution was characterized by the same hierarchical structures that dominated every territory of the ritish Empire. As a colony, the American territories were ruled by the King's representative, who was on top of the pyramid. The aristocracy, mostly ritish, subsequently followed down the line, including…
1. Gordon S. Wood. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. First Vintage Books Edition. 1993. Quote from the Internet, at http://www.brothersjudd.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/reviews.detail/book_id/1275/Radicalism%20o.htm
Regional Strategy on Somalia
Endstate: Describe the desired U.S. endstate for Somalia.
The Comprehensive Regional Strategy for Somalia was developed within the context of America's policy for Horn of Africa countries as well as Arabian Peninsula countries. The report was also developed on the premise that Somalis have a tremendous opportunity to redevelop their country after over a dozen years. The redevelopment initiatives are also focused on restoration of representative and effective central governance institutions. This opportunity emerges after the several years of internal conflicts and fight in Somalia, which hindered national development and affected the ability of the country to establish effective central governance institutions. America's policy towards Somalia based on its strategy for engagement is geared towards taking advantage of this opportunity through working with Somalis to promote national development and central national governance.
Consequently, the desired United States endstate for Somalia is to remove the threat of…
standardized, national testing is implemented for students in elementary schools and secondary schools, the United States government will be making a statement that American students will leave their elementary and secondary schools having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, history, and geography. In route to this, it will be shown that every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy. One of the methods that the government has adopted with hopes of assistance in reaching these goals is to apply, nationally throughout the school system, standardized assessments of each student's progress, which can subsequently offer some statistical proof on how well plans of education reform have worked.
This is an important matter, cause although the intentions of using standardized testing seem to be…
Bennett, William J. In Education, Character As Important As Skills. USA Today, http://www.empoweramerica.org/stories/storyReader$237?print-friendly=true.1997 .
Democracy in America
Tocqueville's Democracy in America provided a useful interpretation of American and American values in the early to mid 19th century. As a Frenchman, Tocqueville became interested in applying the historic significance of the development of America and how it related to a larger frame of societal evolution. Freedom of the press and the ability to express discontent with the authority figures of society became an important theme for this author as he found it key to developing and sustaining healthy and worthwhile societies. The purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the applicability and validity of Tocquville's explicit and demonstrative support for a useful press in the present context of electronic and social media.
In today's world, social media and electronic communication has altered the methods of freedom of expression. Jacobson claimed in today's world" engagement through social platforms like Twitter and Facebook is getting in the…
Jacobson, Paul. " Anti-Social Media." Slobreaker website 25 May 2011. Web.
Tocqueville, Alexis de: Democracy in America. ASGRP 1997. Web.25 May 2011.
limits to democracy in the early republic, as its first president George ashington reflected the elitist view of the federalists in his approach to the executive branch of government. As Patrick Henry stated in 1788, "The Constitution is said to have beautiful features, but when I come to examine these features…they appear to me horridly frightful…it squints towards monarchy," (p. 146). According to Henry, the "President may easily become King," a fact that should "raise indignation in the breast of every American," (p. 146). Henry was himself not concerned with issues related to race, class, or gender, but he did understand the ideals of the democracy when he lamented, "hither is the spirit of America gone? hither is the genius of America fled?" (146). This question can easily be posed to point out the gross hypocrisy in denying Constitutional rights to more than half the population living in the borders…
Bailey, Ronald. "The Other Side of Slavery." Agricultural History. Vol 62, No. 2, 1994.
Hershberger, Mary. "Mobilizing Women, Anticipating Abolition." The Journal of American History. Vol 86, No. 1, June 1999.
Matthaei, Julie A. "An economic history of women in America: Women's work, the sexual division of labor, and the development of capitalism." Schocken Books, 1982.
All Primary Source Material from: Major Problems in American History:
This really depends upon which actor is selected as the begining point, the responses to the following questions will not be the same. hy is there so much beef with this website leaking information? ikiLeaks -- as it talks about on the website -- 'bring[s] significant news and info to those in the community. They give an groundbreaking, protected and anonymous way for sources to leak material to journalists' (Thomas 2012).
EMEA government organizations with no documented security. (2010). International Journal of Micrographics & Optical Technology, 28(6), 8-8.
OMB issues first report on federal information technology security. (2002). The Journal of Government Financial Management, 51(2), 8-8.
Bajaj, a., & Ram, S. (2007). A comprehensive framework towards information sharing between government agencies. International Journal of Electronic Government Research, 3(2), 29-44.
Batley, S. (2007). The I in information architecture: The challenge of content management. Aslib Proceedings, 59(2), 139-151.
Brito, Jerry. "Improving…
Brito, Jerry. "Improving Government Transparency Online." Public Manager 17, no. 3 (2008): 22-26.
Galason, Peter. "What We Have Learned about Limiting Knowledge in a Democracy." Social Research, 2010: 23-34.
This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government. (Wolf, 2005)
How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment?
Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. A capitalist is opposed to these kinds of programs and believes that charities / private enterprises can address these issues.
In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not?
Yes, the government should provide health care. The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…
2012 Puerto Rico Statehood Amendment. (2012). Boards. Retrieved from: http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showthread.php?p=77582334
Commerce Clause. (2012). Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/127865/commerce-clause
Principles of Constitutional Construction. (2010). Constitution.org. Retrieved from: http://constitution.org/cons/prin_cons.htm
Sin Taxes. (2005). Six Taxes. Connecticut Voices for Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ctkidslink.org/publications/bud05sintax02.pdf
59-84). A lack of rule of law equates to lawlessness and high levels of violence and theft.
In aggregate the factors of investment, fertility, schooling, and socio-political openness to new venture create statistically significant differences in economic performance between the regions. What De Gregorio (et. al.) also found was Latin American nations are continually coming in and out of economic crises, which makes their banking system, money supply and balance-of-payments highly risky and difficult to invest in even when there is a growth opportunity. Latin America's greatest challenge will be in overcoming the tendency to continually cycle from one economic crisis to another.
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth…
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth in Latin America." De Gregorio, Jose Journal of Development Economics 39(1): 59-84.
railroad industrialized America, a Track That Unified a Nation
How the railroad industrialized America
In the nineteenth century, the railroad system of the United States of America came to life. The systems' sole purpose was to transport people and goods across the country. Railroad system in the country began on the East and moved westwards. The move to the west resulted in development of towns, which further made the system branch to meet other regions in the state. These resulted in a web like rail system over the country. These had an impact on the life, culture and the way of life for the people of America. The railroad system in America in the nineteenth century interconnected various societies. The railroad systems at that time decreased work time since people were able to travel easier. People were able to travel great distances with the invention of the railroad system.
William Thomas, 2011 . "Railroads and the Making of Modern America." Railroads.unl.edu.
John F. Stover, 1997. "American railroads.," Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press
Albro Martin., 1992. "Railroads triumphant: the growth, rejection, and rebirth of a vital American force." New York: Oxford University Press.
H. Roger Grant and Charles W. Bohi., 1978. "The Country Railroad Station in America."
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
It also makes note of the fact that the census of 2000 marked the first time that it was possible for a respondent to choose more than one race. This article is particularly interesting as it speculates on a future when it is no longer possible to separate people into minorities on the basis of race, simply because of cross culturalism.
an Juan, E. "Asian-American melting pot" Asia Times. June 14, 2005. This short article states there is an automatic prejudice against Asians within the United tates, laughing at the idea of any kind of homogeneity of the Asian-Americans and referring to both near and far history in which Asians have been discriminated against in the United tates. The author deals with the stereotype of Asians as the "model minority" and decries the change of something once considered to be exotic into a "plain American pie" the author is strong…
Shinjo, Iwao. "Learning multiculturalism from yesterday, today and tomorrow." Multicultural Education Summer 2003. This teacher's journal gives an interesting look into how multiculturalism may be taught in our schools, specifically to a group of fourth graders. Some of the insights gained on essentially a report on the implementation of a project give a bird's eye view into how multiculturalism is being deployed, and is it effective in its goal.
Okin, Susan Moller. "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?" Princeton New Jersey, University Press. 1999. A controversial paper on the feminist view of multiculturalism, somewhat extreme in its ideas. Okin compares the place of women in the multicultural society to that of puppets subjected to the whims of men. She has particularly strong feelings about the place of religion in multiculturalism, stating it is all in essence patriarchal and as such demeaning to women.
Zayd, Nasr Hamid. "Modernity, democracy are only for the privileged." Qantara Feb. 21, 2003. This Egyptian scholar reviews the idea of multiculturalism from a worldwide perspective, describing the pros and cons, as well as its impact on business and Third World Countries alike. He makes the interesting observation that it would seem the dominant world culture is one based on capitalism, wondering if this is inevitable or inherent. It describes the cultural reversion of Muslim nationalists as a response to the fear of losing ethnic identity, but then admits that much of the reversion in Islamic republics has not been based on a reasonable form of government but rather reactivity. It poses the idea that human rights and democracy are not rights, but only available for the privileged.
The conditions during the Cold War period were exceptional and they asked for rather exceptional measures. The foreign policy of the U.S., as a hegemonic power of the world was under a tremendous amount of pressure. On one hand there were the fear of the worst possible enemies of democracy: communism and the fear of the atomic war that could have destroyed the world in minutes and on the other hand there were the economic factors that influenced a great deal of the U.S. policy making on the international arena and its role as the impartial judge in conflicts around the globe. The dream of helping building a democratic world where peace and justice, especially, social justice were at home were left in the utopian societies described in the books. The realities of the twentieth and the approaching twenty first Century were much more practical and lacked the romantic spirit…
Meernik, J. United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy. Nov. 1996. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 33, No. 4. Pp. 391-402.
Robinson, W.I. 1996. Globalization, the World System, and "Democracy Promotion" in U.S. Foreign Policy. Theory and Society, Vol. 25, No. 5. Pp. 615-665
Ralph, J. Review. 2001. American Democracy and Democracy Promotion. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 77, No. 1. Pp 129-140
Blanton, S.L. 2000.Promoting Human Rights and Democracy in the Developing World: U.S. Rhetoric vs. U.S. Arms Exports. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 44, No. 1.Pp. 123-131
Nichols and McChesney (2013) write about election spending and the negative effect that it has on democracy and governance in America in their book Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America.. They have divided the book into central themes, including the concept of privilege, spending by the very wealthy, advertising and the role of the media in the election machine, finally arriving at some suggestions for reform to restore balance to the democratic system of the United States.
The book opens with an explanation of one of the core principles that underpins their arguments, that America is a society driven by class differences. Those with privilege consistently seek to use that privilege to enhance it. The authors make the case that such practices at this point are so rampant that "the United States is now rapidly approaching a point where the electoral process itself ceases to function as…
Nichols, J. & McChesney, R. (2013). Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America. New York: Nation Books.
" Granted, even Dahl admitted that no state or nation would ever be able to create a totally fair and just society. In his essay "Justifying Democracy" he acknowledged that "…the values and goals I advocate and hope will prevail will always be strongly contested" (Dahl, 47). He goes on to say that he is not at all confident that his values "…will necessarily predominate," but they will not become reality "…if those who believe in these goals fail to support them as best they can" (47).
Certainly his goal for a fair and just America does not include support for the draconian policies put forward by those who seek to limit the voters purely out of a corrupt passion for power. That having been said, every sincere leader of every democratic state should have as a top priority the desire to make democracy work for all citizens. Every leader…
Dahl, R.A. (1995). Justifying Democracy. Society, 32(3), 43-49.
Dahl, R.A. (2000). On Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hudson, W. (2012). Election 2012: Voter ID Laws, Suppression, and Equality. Huff Post
Politics. Retrieved July 16, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
This rationale may prove correct to some degree, but only in those areas where the villagers have no means of communication between villages and thus no way of exchanging opinions and finding out about irregularities and breaking of the law. Kolhammer is pointing out that the declared official role of the organic law of Village Committees is only going to be put in practice after the villagers will be aware of the right they have according to it and act accordingly.
There is no possibility that one can draw the conclusion that peasants in most villages in China are not aware of their rights in terms of electing their village leader and Village Committee. The degree of knowledge in this sense may vary, but a country that has experienced huge economic changes after the death of Mao could not have remained immobile to significant social and political changes. The political…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113359016
Ding, Yijiang. Chinese Democracy after Tiananmen. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Questia. 18 Aug. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113359114 .
Kelliher, Daniel. The Chinese Debate over Village Self-Government.The China Journal, No 37(January 1997): 63-86
Kennedy, John James. The Face of "Grassroots Democracy" in Rural China. Asian Survey, Vol. 42, No. 3, (May - Jun., 2002),: 456-482
Kolhammar, Jens. Democracy outmanoeuvred: Village self-governance in China: A case study. China Elections and Governance. Posted June 7, 2008. Retrieved: Aug 20, 2008. http://en.chinaelections.org/NewsInfo.asp?NewsID=18373
assumes the notion that it would be best to have "a system of economic
enterprises collectively owned and democratically governed by all the
people who work in them," meaning that he differs from the notions of Okun
and the Friedman's by proposing something radically different to promote
the ultimate goal of democracy (Dahl 92). Neither equality nor freedom is
necessary to fix the relationship between the economy and democracy, but
rather a completely different and even radical outlook on the relationship
between the economy and government can solve the dilemma. Furthermore Dahl
argues to how it is possible to retain the democratic principle within
firms, and prevent problems such as oligarchy. These notions in which the
economy becomes compatible with the political notions are completely
different than the Friedman's and Okun's notion that there lies a problem
with democracy. Dahl is even casting serious doubt on Tocqueville's long…
Education is a social system in itself, influencing the landscape of society, defining a nation's people based on the kind of education available to them. In looking over the important documents on the educational systems established during the inception of an independent America, Benjamin Rush's works provided a "glimpse" into the dynamics of education taking place in American society during the late 18th to mid-19th centuries.
Benjamin Rush wrote two important documents discussing issues on the educational system in America. One document focused on the issue of the public school system, and the other centered on the issue of female education.
In "A plan for the establishment of public schools," Rush proposed that an effective educational system will be established in the country if this educational system will be based on religion. In arguing his point, Rush posited that this need is based on the fact that the new nation…
Salvaging Democracy consent of the governed) then one is not in a democracy, though democratic elements may exist. America, for example, was founded as a republic and not as a democracy (though with time it has shifted towards being more ogliarchical in some aspects and more democratic in others). The more traditional definition of democracy needs to be understood if one is to approach the philosophy of the classical Greek philosophers. Ancient Greece, one must understand, is one of the few places in the world or in history where democracy has actually been practiced in a state setting. The polises of Greece such as Athens were frequently democratic, and all citizens had a right to vote on issues ranging from laws to criminal trials. True Democracy has only thrived in classical Greece, yet the greatest Greek philosophers condemned it in favor of a more Republican or even Aristocratic regime that…
Aristotle. Politics. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. New York: Dover Publications, 2000.
Plato. The Republic. Trans. G.M. Grube. New York: Hackett Publishing Company, 1992.
Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War (excerpt). Trans. Richard Crawley. Archived at http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_thucydides_funeral.htm
Patrick J. Buchanan is a conservative political leader in the United States. The article Deconstructing America was published in his 2007 book, Day of Reckoning. Buchanan says "America is today less a nation than an encampment of politics and power.." Although the rhetoric surrounding the creation of the nation did focus on themes such as equality, democracy, and diversity, in practice there were certainly more superficial ideologies at play.
"The United States, the greatest republic since Rome and the British Empire may be said to have risen from that three-cornered for the Jamestown settlers began to build the day they arrived. But that republic and that empire did not rise because the settlers and those who followed believed in diversity, equality, and democracy (Buckanan)."
The settlers were in no way worried about equality within their own groups or especially with the natives. The pilgrim's societies were based…
Buckanan, P. Deconstructing America. 2007. Print.
Renshon, S. "Multiculturalism in the U.S.: Cultural Narcissism and the Politics of Recognition." 8 February 2011. Center for Immagration Studies. Online. 29 July 2014.
Scruton, R. "MULTICULTURALISM, R.I.P." December 2010. The American Spectator. Online. 29 July 2014.
Taylor, S. "The Challenge of 'Multiculturalism' In How Americans View the Past and the Future." The Journal of Historical Review (2013): 159-164. Online.
.." And with that that party "controls the spoils of office" by appointing people friendly to the president's election to positions of influence and by keeping the party's masses happy by giving them what they asked for.
In defining HO and HY, and UNDER HAT CONDITIONS the CHANGE CAME on the national political scene that vaulted Andrew Jackson (a roughneck frontier and war hero with little sophistication vis-a-vis national politics and diplomatic elitism) - i.e., Jacksonian Democracy - into the hite House, University of Chicago social science professor Marvin Meyers writes in American Quarterly (Meyers 1953) that there are three distinct phases to examine. Put in the context of published volumes that would cover these three phases, Meyers lays it out: one, "the revolt of the urban masses against a business aristocracy"; two, "simple farming folk rise against the chicanery of capitalist slickers"; and three, "...tense with the struggle of…
Aldrich, John H. Why Parties? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology and the Second Party System." Historian 62.1 (1999):
Eldersveld, Samuel J.; & Walton, Hanes. Political Parties in American Society. Boston: Bedford/
Fabianism and Social Democracy
Fabianism and social justice
Fabianism was an early form of socialism that was espoused by many 19th century intellectuals, including George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde. The 19th century was an era of tremendous social injustice. Capitalism was virtually unregulated, and it was not unusual for men and women to work ten hour days or more. Child labor was widespread. It was accepted that there would be a chasm between the haves and have-nots, in terms of income, rights, and quality of life. One response to this state of injustice was Marxism or a vision of a classless society after a violent overthrow of the ruling classes. In contrast, the Fabian brand of socialism was a gradualist vision, which viewed reform from within as the best method of realizing social justice. Fabians believed that by agitating for the rights of the working classes, women, and oppressed…