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Companies that are seeking to enter this market are likely to find it a difficult undertaking because the society remains backward. A company cannot sell products to a people who have no money, and that is the situation in China today. It is also the situation in Central America, but Central America would be much more responsive to the entry of outside companies offering funds for development and providing jobs for the people than is China. Helping develop the society, and especially including more women in the process, could also help with the difficult task of reducing the stranglehold some authoritarian regimes still have. Those regimes might be resistant, but they are also eager to have external investment that would benefit them. Business has to make certain that investment also benefits the people and contributes to change in a positive direction.
One of the women who helped bring the plight…
Razavi, Shahrashoub and Carol Miller. " From WID to GAD: conceptual shifts in the women and development discourse." United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (1 Feb 1995). July 11, 2007. (http://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/httpNetITFramePDF-ReadForm&parentunid=D9C3FCA78D3DB32E80256B67005B6AB5&parentdoctype=paper&netitpath=80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpAuxPages)/D9C3FCA78D3DB32E80256B67005B6AB5/$file/opb1.pdf.
Sainz, Juan Pablo Perez. From the Finca to the Maquila: Labor and Capitalist Development in Central America. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1999.
Staudt, Kathleen. Women, International Development, and Politics: The Bureaucratic Mire. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997.
A ik, Steven. "Historical perspectives on Latin American underdevelopment." The History Teacher (August 1987), 545-559.
S.A. preferred to move the responsibility of assistance from the arms of the state and pass in unto the ones of the private sectors.
The trade capacity building assistance has its focus upon three main areas. The first area is represented by the reinforcement of the negotiating capacity of the five countries which adhered to the CAFTA agreement. The second one referred to then strengthening of the institutions which were responsible for the implementation of all the CAFTA decisions. The third one meant solving the problem of the costs implied by the consequences of the agreement. None of the declared purposes was fully reached until today.
There were environmental obligations, as well as labour ones, but they had to be implemented by the parties themselves with little if any help from the outside. Under the circumstances in which the unity of the Central American party had been destroyed by tye…
Acosta E., "Central America- CAFTA and the U.S. Patron-Client relationship with Dominican republic and Central America," Alterinfos, [online] available at http://www.alterinfos.org/spip.php?article1385
CAFTA, Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, [online] available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAFTA
CAFTA Agreement misses implementation date," Global Exchange, [online] available at http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/cafta/
CAFTA, Fact sheet, [online] available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020116-11.html
Food History Of Central American Cuisine
What is the geographical location of Central America and why it has an effect on the Central America cuisine? (i.e., what is the weather condition in Central America and does that play an affect as to why they eat the foods they eat and what foods do they eat mostly).
The geographical location of Central America has just about everything to do with the cuisine of the countries that make up the area. The countries include Belize, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa ica, and Panama. The countries form an isthmus that connects Mexico with Latin America. They enjoy a tropical climate, which means a wide variety of plants thrive there, and this of course adds to the diet and the cuisine. For example, tropical plants such as plantains are popular in the cooking of the region, and coffee is one of the staples of…
Jones, Diana Nelson. "Latin Legends: Black Beans for Breakfast, Plantains for Lunch, Ceviche for Dinner. Post-Gazette.com. 23 June, 2002. 1 Nov. 2005.
Keegan, Christopher W. "Latin Cuisine." Food Product Design. Oct. 2004. 1 Nov. 2005.
H.B. Fuller Case Study
H.B. Fuller Company, a company based out of Minnesota that prides itself for being a socially responsible business, is a worldwide manufacturer of adhesives, sealants, and paint coatings. Since the early 1980's, H.B. Fuller has been marketing a solvent-based glue, known as Resistol, in Latin America. In 1996, a wrongful death lawsuit was filed against H.B. Fuller by the parents of Joel de Jesus, who claimed that the harmful solvent-based glue was the cause of their child's death.
Fuller marketed the glue despite knowledge that the product was being abused by thousands of street children in Latin American countries. The glue contained toluene, a sweet smelling, addictive chemical that is highly toxic. Toluene destroys the thin layers of fat that surround the nerves, causing them to die. It also causes nosebleeds, rashes, severe neurological dysfunction, brain atrophy, loss of liver and kidney functions, loss of sight…
Social Housing in Central America
One of the major issues confronting the developing world is that of housing, with homelessness and sub-standard dwellings experienced by a large number of the world's impoverished citizens. Even the developed world experiences come problems in this regard, however it is in the nations and regions of the world that still have limited economic activity and infrastructure that this problem is most severe. Much of Central America is in such a position, with a lack of infrastructure, economic distress, and governmental and social instabilities contributing to the perpetuation of problems securing appropriate housing for all citizens. Social housing, or housing programs facilitated by governmental and/or non-profit organizations with the specific purpose of providing low-cost housing that meets basic standards, is one way that many nations of the region are attempting to address this issue.
Panama is in a somewhat better position than certain other countries…
Habitat for Humanity. (2012). Accessed 20 July 2012. http://www.habitat.org/
History of Central America
Central America is a distinctive region comprising of five small countries namely Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa ica. Economically speaking, the region is well-known for coffee production but political speaking, the words crisis, conflict and trouble define the region. The five countries have encountered more than their fair share of political chaos and turmoil beginning from the times of colonial occupation. Central American countries like many other regions of the world were unfortunately not an enlightened section and thus became the target of Spanish imperialism in the 16th century. European imperialism that had dominated the entire world including North America originated from deep cultural division and the fact that Europe was the so-called educated and enlightened lot while the rest of the world was still going through Dark Ages. This lack of enlightenment had become an excuse for Europeans to occupy other parts of…
John A. Booth, Thomas W. Walker: Understanding Central America. Publisher: Westview Press. Boulder, CO.1999.
In the early 16th century the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua was settled by Panamanians as a Spanish colony but the country gained its independence from Spain in 1821, according to the CIA orld Factbook. Daniel Ortega and his wife Murillo hold power in Nicaragua and Ortega convinced the Supreme Court and the national assembly to change the rule that a president has term limits, so for the time being, they are unopposed, approaching a dictatorship. A civil war erupted which brought Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power in 1979, and the United States became involved in funding the anti-Sandinista movement, which led to a major scandal in the Reagan Administration (more on that later in this paper).
There is only one Latin American nation that is poorer than Nicaragua, and that is Haiti. As of July, 2014, there were approximately 5,848,641 people living in Nicaragua and the breakdown…
Ambrecht, Jaclyn. "Education in Nicaragua." Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://borgenproject.org . 2014.
Briney, Amanda. "Geography of Nicaragua." About.com. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://geography.about.com . 2009.
Brown University. "Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs." Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.brown.edu . 2002.
CIA World Factbook. "Nicaraguan Economy 2015." Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.theordora.com. 2010.
Maya vs. Aztecs
hen it comes to civilizations that have come and gone over the years, there are many that can be mentioned. Many people point to the Ottoman Empire, the Romans and others. However, there are other civilizations that are often skipped and the lost home of these civilizations is often the est. Just two of those would be the Aztecs and the Maya. There are many similarities between these two civilizations including where they were generally located and the patterns they took on when it came to their existence and prospering. However, there were also some marked differences including how long they lasted and the specifics of what ended up happening to their existence on this planet. This report will focus on one aspect of both cultures and how they were alike and different. For this report, that shall be religion. hile the Aztecs and Maya were very…
Carrasco, David. The Aztecs: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, USA,
Johnston-Britton, Dawn. "The Maya Heritage of Belize." Caribbean Quarterly, Vol. 59,
University of the West Indies, School of Continuing Studies, Kingston, 2013.
This represented a sharp turn in public beliefs, and it represented a new type of America that no longer welcomed immigrants with open arms, and that has continued unchecked to the present day.
This shift in public thought and government legislation resulted in the first immigration law to exclude immigrants because of their race and class, and laws continued to tighten until after World War II ended in 1945. Potential immigrants were screened for health problems, but they were also interviewed, tracked, and monitored, something new to immigrants in the country. They began being treated as if they were second-class citizens, and they started settling in specific areas of a city or town, and keeping to themselves, attempting to hold on to their culture and way of life for as long as possible (Lee). This regulation resulted in many more laws governing who could immigrate and why, and led to…
Katzenstein, Krissy A. "Reinventing American Immigration Policy for the 21st Century." Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 41.1 (2008): 269+.
Lee, Erika. "Echoes of the Chinese Exclusion Era in Post-9/11 America." Chinese America: History and Perspectives (2005): 1+..
Although Friedman claims that the use of religion as a common bond among early Americans is no longer relevant, there are scores of Americans who still believe that the nation is essentially a Christian one. The identity of Tea Party people is inextricably tied into an identity that may seem outmoded to many Americans. Yet to the Tea Party, their identity is more American than any apple pie.
Most Americans throughout most of American history considered it perfectly fine to deny half the (white) population the right to vote on the basis of gender. Being female was considered a handicap, which systematically denied women the right to be Americans even if they identified with the culture of the United States. Asian men who worked on the railroads in nineteenth century America were not even permitted to start families because their Otherness was too much for the ASP majority. Now, Asians…
Alba, Richard. Ethnic Identity. Yale University Press, 1992.
Friedman, Michael J. "American Identity: Ideas, Not Ethnicity." 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307154033ebyessedo0.5349237.html
Huntington, Samuel P. Who Are We: The Challenges of America's National Identity.
Rorty, Richard. Achieving Our Country. Harvard, 1998.
Central Intelligence Agency
The civilian intelligence agency of United States has given the name of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The fundamental objective of this agency is to collect, assess and publicize foreign intelligence that provides national security intelligence assessment to the senior United States policy makers. The CIA is also involved in secret agenda at the request of President of United States.[footnoteRef:1]The establishment of CIA was in succession of the Office of Strategic Service (OSS) being operative in World War II. [1: Caroline Wilbert. "How the CIA Works." Available from http://people.howstuffworks.com/cia.htm; accessed Aug 3rd 2011]
On the government side CIA works fundamentally with the House Permanent select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. These two committees and the Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs and Armed Services committee are responsible to authorize the CIA's program and oversee the CIA. The funding and budgeting system of the CIA…
Wilbert, Caroline,: How the CIA works," Available at http://people.howstuffworks.com/cia.htm . Internet; accessed 3rd August 2011
Kent, Sherman, "Kent Centers Occasional Papers 2004." Available at https://www.cia.gov/library/kent-center-occasional-papers/pdf/OPV3No1.pdf . Internet, accessed 3rd August 2011
Hennessey, Kathleen, "Petraeus Confirmed as CIA Director." American Forces Press Service, Department of Defense (2011-07-01) Available at. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=64540 . Internet; access, 3rd August 2011
Mazzetti, Mark "C.I.A. Tells of Changes for Its Internal Inquiries." New York Times, (February 2, 2008). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/02/washington/02intel.html . Internet; accessed, 3rd Aug 2011
America was a wonderful experiment in freedom and democracy which had never before been attempted by any nation. Nations either tried to give power to the people in order to prevent monarchies from rising to despotic power, or they allowed monarchs, despots and other sole figure heads to rise to power. In the case of allowing the people to rule, Europe and European's had learned many times that unbridled power in the hands of the people was no more just than the rule of despots. obs could become just as dictatorial as individual monarchs who sat upon golden thrones. Until America came into existence, nations could only expect to exist for a short time before political turmoil would create change of government, and the nation would start over again.
So as America grew from a fledgling nation to a powerful and economically stable country, those who had watched democracy struggle…
Mill, John Stuart. Dissertations and Discussions. New York: classic Books. 2000.
Madison, James. Federalist paper #10. 1775
De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, essays on freedom. 1835. Accessed 21 May 2004. Website: http://www.tocqueville.org
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
On the other hand there is a growing consensus that these reasons do not fully explain the failure to deal with a problem like the Holocaust when the dimensions of the situation were known at a relatively early stage. The weight of the argument would the therefore be inclined towards critics such as Wyman who see political reasons for this lack of action based on anti-Semitic sentiment in the county at the time. This seems to be supported by the fact that strict immigration laws were implemented in a time of crisis
Abzug . America and the Holocaust. etrieved April 23, 2007, at http://www.utexas.edu/opa/pubs/discovery/disc1997v14n2/disc-holocaust.html
Ambrose S. How America Abandoned the Jews in World War II. etrieved April 23, 2007, at http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=395061 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Barnett, V.J. (1999). Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. etrieved April 23, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Brustein W.I. (2003) oots of…
Abzug R. America and the Holocaust. Retrieved April 23, 2007, at http://www.utexas.edu/opa/pubs/discovery/disc1997v14n2/disc-holocaust.html
Ambrose S. How America Abandoned the Jews in World War II. Retrieved April 23, 2007, at http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=395061 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709
Barnett, V.J. (1999). Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved April 23, 2007, from Questia database:
America Moves West
econstruction is the name for the period in United States history that covers the post-Civil War era, roughly 1865-1877. Technically, it refers to the policies that focused on the aftermath of the war; abolishing slavery, defeating the Confederacy, and putting legislation in effect to restore the nation -- per the Constitution. Most contemporary historians view econstruction as a failure with ramifications that lasted at least 100 years later: issues surrounding the Civil ights were still being debated in the 1970s, corrupt northern businessmen "carpetbaggers" brought scandal and economic corruption, monetary and tariff policies were retributive and had legal results in the north as well. Despite the failure of this period as an equalizer or integrator of races in the Old South, there was an equally robust push westward that not only encouraged individuals of all ethnicities to move, but changed the political and economic texture of the…
Immigration and Labor. (2009). Encarta.MSN. Retrieved from: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552683_11/new_york.html.
Railroads Following the Panic. (2001). U.S. History.com. 2001. Retrieved from:
Teaching With Documents: The Homestead Act of 1862. (2007). National Archives.
America and the Great War
How the Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism, and Militarism Irrevocably Led to World War I
At face value, it can be concluded that WW started as a result of increasing military power in the participating European nations. It may also be argued that the arms race played a role too. However, an in-depth interrogation of the circumstances that surrounded the outbreak of the war reveals that there were more reasons why countries rose against each other.
To begin with, countries in Europe experienced a strong sense of nationalism that set them apart from the rest. This euphoric nationalistic tendencies and patriotism was also the seed for hatred for other countries. It seemed to the people of that age that for one to excel, the other must be under subjugation or eliminated altogether. Economic competition that existed at the time also played a major role in fuelling…
Wilson, W. (1914). President Wilson's Declaration of Neutrality, issued by The World War I. Retrieved from http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson%27s_Declaration_of_Neutrality
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was founded in1947 out of the Office of Strategic Services, or OSS, and its purpose was to act as a civilian foreign intelligence agency that dealt with threats to American interests abroad. hile initially born at the onset of the Cold ar era in which espionage and the threat of nuclear war was high, the CIA has developed over the years to be something more than its initial mandate set out. By participating in various black operations geared towards effecting regime change, the CIA quickly became known as a cloak and dagger agency very much in the tradition of the OSS.
The organizational structure of the CIA is situated in five directorates, all of which help to coordinate intelligence: the Directorate of Digital Innovation, of Analysis, of Operations, of Support, and of Science and Technology. The Director of the CIA oversees all of these directorates and…
Tyler, Patrick. A World of Trouble: The White House and the Middle East. NY: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 2010. Print.
Weiner, Tim. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. NY: Anchor Books, 2008.
Industrialization in America
The process of industrialization can be categorized as the first step towards a social and economic transformation which affected the whole world in ways beyond comprehension. In a nutshell, the world we live in today was nowhere near what it is today before industrialization changed the face of the world. America too greatly adapted to this change and saw itself changing and advancing in the face of the new inventions and advancements. However, with the benefits of the phenomenon came some drawbacks which could not be ignored. The next sections focus on two ways in which industrialization proved to be a blessing for the Americans as well as two ways that it created problems (Alonso, 1994).
One industry that saw phenomenal changes after industrialization came about was the American agricultural industry. The farming techniques became greatly advanced and mechanization made things much easier and reduced the…
Alonso, I.T. (1994). Trade, Industrialization and Integration in the 20th-Century Central America. Praeger Publications.
Amsden, A.H. (2000). The Rise of the Rest: Challenges to the West from Late-Industrialization Economies. Oxford University Press.
Walker, R. (2004). The roots of American Industrialization. The Geographical Review .
indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most…
Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico by Stuart B. Schwartz Hardcover: 272 pages; Dimensions (in inches): 0.77 x 8.58 x 5.77
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; (March 2000)
S. from the preparation and supervision of the coming elections . . . during this period, the training of Iraqi forces might, of necessity, remain a coalition task, but it ought to be monitored and supervised by the U.N." (Hoffmann & Bozo, 113)
It is clear though that at this juncture, the world community is not yet prepared to take control of the operation. The presence of U.S. forces is a reality prompted by the aggressive lead in to war and the obligations thereby created. And quite certainly, no nation or organization has stepped up to take the lion's share of responsibility which the U.S. has taken for contending with Hussein and his legacy. Thus, Obama's plan does not fully withdraw troops, instead maintaining a significant American presence that suggests the war is not truly yet ended. Accordingly, his 'exit' plan "would leave in Iraq a residual force of as…
Ewens, M. (2006). Casualties in Iraq. AntiWar. Online at http://antiwar.com/casualties/#count .
Hoffmann, S. & Bozo, F. (2006). Gulliver Unbound: America's Imperial Temptation and the War in Iraq. Rowman & Littlefield.
The Nation. (2009). Obama's Iraq Exit. Thenation.com.
Perle, R. (2002). Statement Before the House Armed Services Committee. American Enterprise Institute.
Civilizations of Latin America
Human beings have always expressed themselves through culture; throughout history. The achievements made are a product of continued refinement over the ages. They are an inherited product of a diverse modified and complex evolution from the past through time. The Latin American case is a complex one. There is plenty of diversity exemplified but there are contradictions too. The complication arises from the fact that there is a remarkable cultural diversity in the vast continent; spanning Patagonia to Mesoamerica and from the past to modern day. The Latin American region has been full of controversies, disagreements, legends and mysteries that show the reasons why the continent should exist despite great pressure mounted by the West[footnoteef:1]. In order to understand our existence as unique people, and for a clear coexistence attitude embedded in a social fabric, we must study, live and imagine the cultural orientations of Latin…
Kahn, J.S. El concepto de cultura: Textos fundamentales. Anagrama. (1974)
Nanda, Serena. Antropologia cultural. Adaptaciones socioculturales. Mexico. 1987
Navarrete Orta, Lu's. Literatura e ideas en la Historia hispanoamericana. Cuadernos Lagoven. 1991
Zea, Leopoldo. La esencia de lo americano. Mexico. 1971
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…
1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America
University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971
2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard
University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
The article remarks with respect to asphalt that "a baseball will get ruined on a surface like this: it's too dense and hard for asphalt or brick, and the canvas-like surface of the ball will get chewed up. Not to mention other problems: in densely populated areas, there are a lot houses near school yards with glass windows, and we all know what happens when a baseball hits a glass window. To sum it up: while baseball is a romantically American game, and was without question our most popular pastime for about 50 years, you can't play it in the city." (Beccary, 1) Foregoing this blanket statement -- given the evolution of inner-city athletic youth programs in recent decades -- the point of Beccary's remarks remains useful. Namely, the unique game that was stickball would come to fruition in response to the desire to play baseball and the absence of…
Beccary, G. (2007). A Complete History of Stickball. Greg's Words of Wisdom. Online at http://gregswords.wordpress.com/2007/04/07/a-complete-history-of-stickball/
Curry, J. (1989). Beyond Nostalgia: Reviving a Tough Game of Stickball. The New York Times. Online at http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/09/nyregion/beyond-nostalgia-reviving-a-tough-game-of-stickball.html
Devlin, B. (2009). Making a Phillies Fan: Always Imagining You Were a Phillie. The New York Times. Online at http://bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/30/making-a-phillies-fan-always-imagining-you-were-a-phillie/
Greene, M. (2004). Stickball Hall of Fame. Streetplay. Online at http://www.streetplay.com/stickball/halloffame/
ceremonies of the Hopi tribe of the American Southwest, and the Assiniboine of the Northern Plains. The Assiniboine engage in the Sun Dance as one of their major ceremonies, while the Hopi engage in the Snake Dance as one of theirs. These dance ceremonies share many commonalities, but they contain major differences, as well. The Hopi were largely agricultural, living on mesas devoid of much moisture, while the Assiniboine were hunters, subsisting off the buffalo of the plains. These differences make up the disparity in their ceremonies, and they are important clues to their identity and way of life.
The Hopi Nation is one of the oldest Native American tribes in North America. They can trace their history in Northern Arizona, where their reservation is located, back to the 12th century, but they believe their history goes back much further than that. They are believed to have migrated to the…
Psychology -- Central Park ogger
Matthew ohnson's The Central Park ogger Case - Police coercion and secrecy in interrogation (ohnson, 2003), posits the reasonable theory that police interrogation is "ripe for abusive treatment" and the equally reasonable position that custodial questioning should be entirely recorded and preserved. While ohnson was wise to focus on the Central Park ogger case and place it in historical/cultural context, he focused so intently on race considerations that he made some logically weak assertions about the race factor and omitted or glossed over equally effective supporting points about legal principles and the impact of adolescence on false confessions. The results of ohnson's approach are a reasonable theory and a tenable position that could be supported by far stronger arguments.
The problem of false confessions remains a significant problem in the American criminal justice system, particularly when the Defendant is a nonwhite adolescent. As the…
Johnson illustrates his points by placing the CPJ case in historical and cultural context.
Historically, European colonialism of America involved enslavement and genocide. Even after passage of the Emancipation Proclamation, slave states continued to enslave by criminalizing various activities of African-Americans and forcing them to labor on plantations, for other private businesses and for the state; the CPJ case occurred during a time of increased youthful lawlessness (Johnson, 2003). Culturally, Johnson points to the "unique racialized fears of Manhattan, and its pristine Central Park, being overrun by lawless, inner-city, black and Latino youths" (Johnson, 2003), but even more broadly: the U.S. is the world leader in incarceration; it is used race-related slavery in its recent past; it gives police broad powers in investigation, apprehension and interrogation; the U.S. is "captivated by crime"; our society essentially leaves police unsupervised; there is a prevailing attitude that as long as you do not look "criminal" you do not have to worry about the police, with the result that suspects are regarded as criminals. In Johnson's estimation, this results in a combination of police coercive powers and secrecy that often contaminate the interrogation process and thus criminal justice proceedings.
Johnson also briefly mentions 3 types of false confessions: voluntary, coerced-compliant, and coerced-internalized (Johnson, 2003). A "voluntary" false confession is
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), its creation and the different roles it plays. The duties of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) are also highlighted in the paper. The paper also highlights the Intelligence eform Act of 2004 and the amendments that were made after the date of enactment. Lastly, the paper discusses the major components of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the roles played by them in order to guarantee the efficient running of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Central Intelligence Agency
The CIA is an independent agency, whose functions are not disrupted by the United States government without any necessity. This agency is dedicated towards providing national security intelligence to the senior policy makers of the United States of America. ("CIA vision, mission," 2013)
The Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA), is responsible for collecting and analyzing information in relation to the plans and strategies of the enemies…
About CIA. (2013, January 10). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html
Canon, D. (1980). Intelligence and ethics: the CIA's covert operations. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 4(2), 198-199. Retrieved from http://mises.org/journals/jls/4_2/4_2_6.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), (2003). National strategy for combating terrorism. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) website: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/cia-the-war-on-terrorism/Counter_Terrorism_Strategy.pdf
Cia.gov (2009). Components of the CIA -- Central Intelligence Agency. [online] Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/additional-publications/the-work-of-a-nation/cia-director-and-principles/components-of-the-cia.html.
He is not longer alienated from the sector of society that she represents. Their relationship bridges the gap and provides the fuel to take the country into a new direction.
However, things are not all rosy for the couple. They have to overcome the prejudices that each group, Mexican and African-American, has for each other as well as battling prejudice and stereotypes from whites.
To recap, the author has considered the novel America by John Debrizzi. hat makes this a bit more difficult to digest the novel's contents is that Debrizzi is a sociologist. To properly understand the novel, one must understand the social theory behind it. Therefore, the author first considered the theoretical implications, specifically Debrizzi's working out of Mills dichotomy between individual and society. In this, they considered how the Marxist dialectic and the alienation from the means of production apply. Finally, they considered the novel, particularly the…
Debrizzi, John . America. Withita Falls, KS: Outskirts Press, 2009.
Mills, C. Wright. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1959.
Velasquez, Manuel. Philosophy. 8th. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth, 2001.
America's War on Terrorism since the attacks of eptember 11th, 2001.
America's war on Terrorism since 9/11 has largely been conducted in intensifying domestic security in all areas. The highlight has been capturing Osama bin Laden, followed by a phased extraction of the American Army out of Iraq. Nonetheless, security alert is on an all-time high and Defense receives a high proportion of fiscal allocation and focus.
government has also stepped up its surveillance system constructing a highly intricate and controversial eavesdropping data-system base that is run by the National ecurity Agency and contains trillions of e-mails, web searches and commercial transactions." (McGregor 2011)). A similar system, on as massive a scale, will almost be complete in an Antonio, Texas. Both of these systems support the NA's headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland and house everything "from records of phone calls to and from Iran to credit card purchases by potential…
Some see U.S. policy after 9/11 as being driven by an ebullient arrogant stance of force rather than talk and by a hubris that came from their knocking down Saddam Hussein. McGregor (2011), however, concludes that "ten years after 9/11, the U.S. is war-weary and introspective in a way it has not been for a generation." The federal budget has been depleted, and the country is insecure. Nonetheless, positive things have occurred as a result. The different government departments have been brought together, new ones have been constructed, and old ones reformed. And the country is watched over as it has never been before.
McGregor, R (September 6, 2011) America after 9/11: A nation fixated with its security. Analysis http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/60886c9e-d892-11e0-8f0a-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2923vp4uc
Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Amar, a. (2005). America's Constitution: A Biography. New York: Random House.
Bailyn, B., ed. (1993). The Debate on the Constitution. Library of America Press.
Beeman, R. (2009). Plain, Honest Men: The Making of the American Constitution.
America has been blamed for its implementation of imperialistic strategies, which made it the major decider in the global economy and the primary generator of the changes in the work characteristics. The activists and other protestors argued that the American model of forced democracy, which extended beyond the boundaries of the state, hurt the freedom of the countries with which the U.S. was interacting, but also that of the American workers, who were often prevented from forming unions that would protect their rights (Friedberg and owley, 2000).
Democracy allowed the U.S. employers to take the actions they considered suitable for the achievement of their profitability goals; this often activated in the detriment of the employees' interest. But despite this however, democracy also allowed the dissatisfied workers to voice their concerns and, through freedom of speech, they were able to join forces and demand the resolution of their stringent issues. The…
Archbar, M., Abbot, J. (Directors), 2003, The Corporation, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pin8fbdGV9Y&feature=PlayList&p=FA50FBC214A6CE87&index=0lastaccessed on February 25, 2009
Cohen, P.N., 1998, Replacing Housework in the Service Economy: Gender, Class and Race-Ethnicity in Service Spending, Gender and Society, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp.219-231
Friedberg, J., Rowley, R., (film directors) 2000, This Is What Democracy Looks Like, http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=this+is+what+democracy+looks+like&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&sa=X&oi=video_result_group&resnum=4&ct=title#lastaccessed on February 25, 2009
Greenwald, R. (Director), 2005, Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3GINui9LdIQlastaccessed on February 25, 2009
What is America's role in the world? Considering that America was in many ways founded experimentally, it is only natural to imagine that outside observers are constantly looking to America as an example or a source of guidance. In particular, America's early status as an experiment in religious tolerance has led to the popularity of the phrase and image of "the city on a hill." Derived from Jesus Christ's Sermon on the Mount -- where Christ tells his followers "You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden" (Matt. 5:14) -- the notion of America as both a model and a source of immense scrutiny is popular even to this day. In this paper I would like to examine three ways in which the notion of America as a "city on a hill" was persuasive in the period of…
Take the case of skating, for instance. Int the 18th and 18th century, skating was seen as a romantic pursuit where the timorous girl skated whilst leaning on the shoulder of her assistant male. Initially, a separate pond was planned for women and unwelcome men were banned. Park officers maintained 'perfect order' and this included exclusion of all public flirting. How different the park has become today! Not only would the so-called flirtation of then not be considered so now, but contemporary displays of overt love including 'necking' may well have caused their perpetrators to be jailed or penalized in some way.
Even the entire official way in which the park was originally organized with paramilitary salutes totally contradicts contemporary protocol. Today, manners are a relaxed as can be with all demarcation broken down between class and culture and the park being more of a public than a private space.…
Regional Strategy on Somalia
Endstate: Describe the desired U.S. endstate for Somalia.
The Comprehensive Regional Strategy for Somalia was developed within the context of America's policy for Horn of Africa countries as well as Arabian Peninsula countries. The report was also developed on the premise that Somalis have a tremendous opportunity to redevelop their country after over a dozen years. The redevelopment initiatives are also focused on restoration of representative and effective central governance institutions. This opportunity emerges after the several years of internal conflicts and fight in Somalia, which hindered national development and affected the ability of the country to establish effective central governance institutions. America's policy towards Somalia based on its strategy for engagement is geared towards taking advantage of this opportunity through working with Somalis to promote national development and central national governance.
Consequently, the desired United States endstate for Somalia is to remove the threat of…
railroad industrialized America, a Track That Unified a Nation
How the railroad industrialized America
In the nineteenth century, the railroad system of the United States of America came to life. The systems' sole purpose was to transport people and goods across the country. Railroad system in the country began on the East and moved westwards. The move to the west resulted in development of towns, which further made the system branch to meet other regions in the state. These resulted in a web like rail system over the country. These had an impact on the life, culture and the way of life for the people of America. The railroad system in America in the nineteenth century interconnected various societies. The railroad systems at that time decreased work time since people were able to travel easier. People were able to travel great distances with the invention of the railroad system.
William Thomas, 2011 . "Railroads and the Making of Modern America." Railroads.unl.edu.
John F. Stover, 1997. "American railroads.," Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press
Albro Martin., 1992. "Railroads triumphant: the growth, rejection, and rebirth of a vital American force." New York: Oxford University Press.
H. Roger Grant and Charles W. Bohi., 1978. "The Country Railroad Station in America."
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
his is because of the fact that Chrysler is now getting back its success, as well as because of the fact that the company now is becoming more and more known worldwide. he utilization of Clint Eastwood was also a stroke of genius. His voice is not only well-known but also authoritative and emotional in a way that only adds credibility to the brand.
he ethos here is thus found on two fronts: the subject of the commercial as well as the way in which it is delivered by Eastwood. When he speaks about Detroit, Eastwood utilizes personal as well-known anecdotes that the country can recognize and that can rally it towards a common goal. In fact, the word 'rally' and the phrase 'acted as one' is utilized many times, as Eastwood stresses, time and again his faith in the strength of the country, as well as its ability to…
The commercial, in my view, is quite successful. This is because it makes use of fantastic appeals processes, especially pathos and ethos. Eastwood's voice also contributes to this feeling, as it is the perfect voice to deliver a message of hope and of togetherness. One needs only watch this ad to feel truly that Chrysler can come back, and can make a difference in America. And one can also feel that the overall message of hope will truly be true, as America will get back on its feet and will truly overcome the current economic crisis.
The advertisement analyzed here can be found at the following link:
Another concern is represented by the fact that the massive imports from China materialize in cheaper consumer products, which render the domestically produced items less competitive. Other issues include currency fluctuations which impact the fiscal stability of the countries, as well as security concerns, as the Chinese gain more access to American resources (Singh, 2012).
The economy of the United States is shaped by a wide array of elements, such as political measures, the economic recession, the access to credits, the socio-demographic changes and so on. One important piece in the economic puzzle is represented by the state of international trade operations completed by the country. In this sense, the current project has assessed the issues of international trade as they relate to the impacts on employment, unemployment, incomes and equality, as well as the national concerns regarding the country's trade partners (Japan, Mexico and China).
Aradhyula, a., Rahman, T., Seenivasan, K., (2007). Impact of international trade on income and income inequality. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/9999/1/sp07ar03.pdf accessed on January 17, 2013
Feenstra, R.C. (2000). The impact of international trade on wages. University of Chicago Press.
Mcteer, B. (2008). The impact of foreign trade on the economy. http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/12/10/the-impact-of-foreign-trade-on-the-economy / accessed on January 17, 2013
Singh, P.P. (2012). U.S.-China relations: trade flashpoints. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-20177210 accessed on January 18, 2013
Formally, 'Aparthied' may have been dispersed inside the United States and South Africa. On the other hand, there is still the illegal version, in every way that is still bad, every bit as evil and just as belittling as all segregation was destined to be.
In "Little Rock Central: 50 Years Later," HBO's 2007 which was a documentary concerning the present-day Little Rock Central High School, a teenage girl mentions, "You [Caucasians] have it all fed on a silver spoon from the day you were born." The writer Jonathan Kozol makes this affirmation in his statement that was in a 2005 article from Harper's Magazine: "The current per-pupil expenditure level in the New York City [public] schools is $12,700, which can be linked with a per-pupil expenses equal in the additional of $23,000 in the wealthy suburban region of Manhasset, Long Island." Furthermore, he mentions that New York City schools…
6 Baer, Frances Lisa. Resistance to Public School Desegregation: Little Rock, Arkansas, and Beyond. 2008. 328.
7 Beals, M.P. "Warriors don't cry: A searing memoir of the battle to integrate little rock's central high." Simon & Schuster, 1994. 17
8 Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal (1997)
Conservatism in America
Intellectually, it is indeed correct that post-orld ar II can be divided into two periods of conservatism: the period which emerged directly after the war (1945-1990) and the period from 1990 onwards. Traditionally as Ball explained, conservatism in America were opposed to rapid development and industrialization in the early 20th century: "From their point-of-view, this new mass society posed the same threat that democracy had always posed -- the threat that the masses would throw society first into chaos and then in despotism. In arguments similar to those of Plato, Aristotle, and more recently Alexis de Tocqueville, traditional conservatives maintained that the common people were too weak and too ignorant to take charge of government" (Ball, 108). Essentially, this meant that conservatism in the twentieth century revolved around the notion of self-restraint and a core belief pervades that only a small majority are suitable to govern, while…
Ball, Terry and Richard Dagger. Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal. London: Pearson, 2014. Print. .
Boland, Joseph. U.S. Political Thought: Lecture 2. 28 September 1995. website. 2013.
Carey, George, W. "The American Founding and Limited Government." Retrieved from: The Imaginative Conservative. Web.
Crick, Bernard. "The Strange Quest for An American Conservatism." The Review of Politics (1955): 359-376. print. .
Globally, the United States has been known as "a nation of immigrants" almost from its inception. Beginning in the 1600s with English Puritans and continuing today, America is a melting pot of culture and ethnicity. In fact, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, immigration was the major source of U.S. population growth. Looking over our 200+ years we find that to clearly be true, with approximately 1 million immigrants coming to America during the 17th and 18th century. Almost 3 million arrived during the 1860s, and another 3 million in the 1870s. In the next four decades, the number of immigrants rose to over 25 million people, most from various European nations, most arriving in New York or one of the Eastern seaports (Damon, 1981). Despite the politicization, as of 2006, the United States actually was the number one country globally to accept legal immigrants into…
Anderson, S. (2010). Immigration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Brooks, P. (2004). Immigration. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library.
Damon, A. (1981, December). Immigration: A Look at the Record. AmericanHeritage.com.
Retrieved from: http://www.americanheritage.com/immigration/articles / magazine/ah/1981/1/1981_1_50.shtml
alt hitman's Vision
hitman's favorite subject was most likely America, as well as the various concepts he believed that it embodied. He was radical in the sense that he used prose that was an example of free verse that had didn't fit in any pre-made template. I his poem "I Hear America Singing" he portrayed his transcendent beliefs about the people and work[footnoteRef:1]. [1: (hitman, N.d.)]
I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear,
Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be blithe and strong, The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam,
The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work,
The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat, the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck,
The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter singing as he stands, The wood-cutter's…
McHugh, H. (N.d.). What He Thought. Retrieved from Poets.org: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15450
Whitman, W. (N.d.). I Hear America Singing. Retrieved from Poets.org: http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15752
Sixties in America
60s in America
Debating the easons for the U.S. Entry into the Vietnam War
From 1960s to late 1970s, American army experienced the Vietnam War, which was not well understood irrespective of lasting for many years. There were no clear consensus to its purpose, and it divided the country at a time when it most needed to be unified. The war left scars to many Americans that will take long to heal. There are no clear information regarding the reasons behind the war but historical records indicate that the war started with the sending of American advisors to train the South Vietnam army. The intentions were to assist the South Vietnamese army resist aggression from the north. The roles later changed, and it turned out to be an American led and financed war. From the late 1960s, the American government realized the war would be endless and…
Porta, G. Perils of Dominance: Imbalance of Power and the Road to war in Vietnam. London:
University of California Press, 2006. Print
Weist, A.A. The Vietnam War. New York: Rosen Publishing Group Inc., 2009. Print
Christopher, R. The Vietnam War / the American War: Images and Representation in Euro-
Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…
Chudacoff H. & J.E. Smith. (2005) The Evolution of American Society,
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-189824
Jacobs, Jane. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New
York, Vintage Books. ISBN:067974195X
Massey, D. and N. Denton. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…
Bloom, Alexander and Breines, Wini, (Editors). "Takin' It to the Streets "u: A Sixties ?Reader. Third edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life?
New York and Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. Print.
Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. Sixth edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
History of Multi-Cultural America
Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America - Ronald Takaki
What was the result of the 1903 Supreme Court Lone Wolf Decision and the 190 Burke Act? The Lone Wolf Decision came about partly in response to a law passed by Congress in 1902. That law "accelerated the transfer of lands from Indians to whites," according to Takaki (237). The provisions of the 1902 law required that those who inherited the land must sell all allotted lands at public auctions - once the original owners had passed away. Basically, this meant that unless an Indian had the money to purchase their own family lands, they would lose what had been their property. The President (Theodore Roosevelt) was informed that this new law would ensure that all Indian lands will pass into the hands of settlers within a short few years.
But, notwithstanding this injustice, when Chief…
6) Why do you think the author named this chapter, "Through a Glass Darkly"? One can see that the tumultuous times following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor were "dark" times in more ways than one. First, the fear and loathing generated against Japan by the sneak attack on Hawaii was nearly universal and immediate among the American population. And secondly, it is a dark time indeed in American history when pure paranoia is the motivation for "interring" (e.g., placing in concentration camps) tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans. Even so-called responsible media members such as the LA Times (380) behaved with racist spite; "A viper is nonetheless a viper wherever the egg is hatched," the Times editorialized. "So a Japanese-American, born of Japanese parents - grows up to be a Japanese, not an American."
7) To what was the NAACP responding when they said, "A Jim Crow army cannot fight for a free world"? Discuss the effect of the 1941 Executive Order 8802 on the U.S. labor force. The NAACP statement was responding to the fact that a) many blacks felt that they didn't really enjoy all the fruits of democracy in American anyway, so why would they shed their blood to "save democracy" from the Nazis; and b) while fighting for the U.S. In WWII blacks were in general assigned to segregated units because, according to the War Department, "social relationships" between blacks and whites had "been established...through custom and habit." Racial segregation is very much akin to Jim Crow laws from the South's history. When FDR instituted Executive Order #8802, it in effect allowed over a million blacks to take jobs in the defense industry during the war. But more than that, it set in motion the movement of many blacks from the South to better paying jobs in the industrial north.
8) List three (3) things you learned from your cross-cultural presentation and one (1) you learned from someone else's cross-cultural presentation.
The conditions during the Cold War period were exceptional and they asked for rather exceptional measures. The foreign policy of the U.S., as a hegemonic power of the world was under a tremendous amount of pressure. On one hand there were the fear of the worst possible enemies of democracy: communism and the fear of the atomic war that could have destroyed the world in minutes and on the other hand there were the economic factors that influenced a great deal of the U.S. policy making on the international arena and its role as the impartial judge in conflicts around the globe. The dream of helping building a democratic world where peace and justice, especially, social justice were at home were left in the utopian societies described in the books. The realities of the twentieth and the approaching twenty first Century were much more practical and lacked the romantic spirit…
Meernik, J. United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy. Nov. 1996. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 33, No. 4. Pp. 391-402.
Robinson, W.I. 1996. Globalization, the World System, and "Democracy Promotion" in U.S. Foreign Policy. Theory and Society, Vol. 25, No. 5. Pp. 615-665
Ralph, J. Review. 2001. American Democracy and Democracy Promotion. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 77, No. 1. Pp 129-140
Blanton, S.L. 2000.Promoting Human Rights and Democracy in the Developing World: U.S. Rhetoric vs. U.S. Arms Exports. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 44, No. 1.Pp. 123-131
Karen people of Burma are made up of a number of separate ethnic groups that do not share common culture or language. The majority of the Karen people live in Karen State located in southern and southeastern Myanmar and make up roughly 7% or five million of the Burmese population. The majority of the Karen population have settled around or near the Thailand-Myanmar border. The Karen people have a rich history with some under leadership of the KNU or Karen National Union. Those influenced by the KNU have waged war since 1949 against the chief Burmese government, seeking independence. This has led to some Karen people leaving the country and moving to the United States as Refugees.
This literature review aims to understand the nature of the problem that resulted in migration of Karen people to other countries like the United States, what barriers they meet when they are relocated,…
Sinking Fund #7
Mortgage bonds #15
Accounts payable #5
Unfunded pension liability #6
General obligation debt #8
Revenue debt #4
Special authority debt #17
Lease-backed debt #16
Traditional capital financing #1
Public-private capital financing #12
Creative capital financing #18
Financial engineering #20
Operating Budget #3
Capital Budget #14
Question 2. There are several warning signs that a municipality is in financial trouble. One is unfunded pension obligations. If the municipality is not putting enough money into its pension fund, it may be having difficulty covering regular operating expenses. Likewise, if the municipality has a sinking fund that it is no longer contributing to, this could be a sign of distress. If the municipality's debt rating is reduced, this is another sign. It means that the municipality's balance sheet is believed to have deteriorated.
There are other signs of…
Volunteers America's involvement responsibilityto community. Summarize factors influenced social responsibility
The social responsibility strategies of the Volunteers of America were shaped by a number of interrelated factors. The most eminent of these pertained to Christianity. The organization was conceived as a means of propagating Christianity's notions of goodwill towards all when it was initiated in 1897 by Maud and Ballington Booth. Christianity is a religion that focuses on social responsibility and is extremely community oriented. It was this aspect of this religion that led the founders of this organization to attempt to have a volunteer-based organization to carry out the goals of the religion, which became largely synonymous with the goals of the organization.
Specifically, factors relating to the strategies for social responsibility for Volunteers of America, have to do with social reform as conceived by Methodists during the 18th century. Social reform movements that were religiously inspired in the…
McGee, T. (2012). "Nonprofit groups essential for disadvantaged residents." www.triblive.com. Retrieved from http://triblive.com/neighborhoods/yourfoxchapel/yourfoxchapelmore/3131196-74/needs-christmas-area#axzz2MXRsBHXP
No author. (2013). "Volunteers of America." www.voa.org. Retrieved from http://www.voa.org/About-Us/Our-Statement-of-Values-and-Code-of-Ethics
Magic as a Central Theme in "Moses, Man of the Mountain"
There has been magic in the world since time began. Even in the scientific world that has little to do with metaphysics, magic has a significant place because how can a scientist explain the tiny bit of matter that became the universe unless they do so with magic. Throughout history it has had a significant place because there are many things about this world that people still cannot explain, so they reason that there must be some unseen force behind it. Zora Neale Hurston saw this in the Biblical story of Moses, as have many others. He was able to do wondrous things with the staff he carried, the rod of power (Hurston), because of its magic. This paper discusses a central theme, magic, as it is developed in Hurston's book "Moses: Man of the Mountain" from the perspective…
Elrod, Eileen R. "Moses and the Egyptian: Religious Authority in Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative." African-American Review 35.3 (2001): 409-427. Web.
Hurston, Zora N. Moses: Man of the Mountain. New York: Harper Collins, 2008. Print.
Mark, D. "Moses, Man of the Mountain -- Zora Neale Hurston." A Noble Theme, 2011. Web.
Osahon, Naiwu. "The Jews Lied Against Africa to Ascend." Modern Ghana, 2009. Web.
1. Black/White binary been central to the discussion of race?
Black/White binary been has been central to the discussion of race because of Perceived racial discrimination (PRD). This is even more so with Black women. Precisely, there has been a decline in obvious racial discriminatory conduct (segregation, rights to vote) and quick rise in subtle racial discriminatory behavior. At the center of these issues for Black women is a struggle over nationality, power, and control that rotates around not just, but gender.
Black/White binary has been central to the discussion of race because indirect racial discrimination has likewise been theorized as racial microaggressions. Racial microaggressions are defined as an everyday exchange that sends demeaning messages to individuals of color for the reason that they belong to a racial minority class. All these conceptualizations highlight the secondary nature of this new racism that is entrenched in undecided attitudes in the direction…
I know that the case you cite, of Dr. Drake, has been a common one. The religion-builders have so distorted and deformed the doctrines of Jesus, so muffled them in mysticisms, fancies and falsehoods, have caricatured them into forms so monstrous and inconceivable, as to shock reasonable thinkers, to revolt them against the whole, and drive them rashly to pronounce its Founder an impostor. Had there never been a commentator, there never would have been an infidel.... I have little doubt that the whole of our country will soon be rallied to the unity of the Creator, and, I hope, to the pure doctrines of Jesus also (Jefferson, 1854).
American Transcendentalism -- the transcendentalist movement was a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century as a generalized protest against the general state of intellectualism and…
Benedict, Ruth. (2007). Zuni Mythology. Martino Publishing.
Coffey, J. And P. Lim. (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism.
Cowley, G. (Fall/Winter 1991). "The Great Disease Migration." Newsweek. Cited in:
' The film suggests that assimilation does come at some cost, though, like to the lawyer Memo, who marries an Anglo woman and must play down his Mexican heritage to fit in with his in-laws. But overall the movie suggests that Latino participation in the American dream is both comparable to that of other ethnic groups. Living as a Mexican-American is possible, and the second generation does not have to entirely sacrifice family and heritage to become a part of the American mosaic, contrary to what was suggested in earlier Hollywood images, chronicled in "The Bronze Screen."
The film "Real omen Have Curves" (2002) even more convincingly demonstrates that Latino struggles with American identity are not necessarily always negative. The protagonist Ana must overcome images of the estern media to find a sense of peace and security. She is ambitious professionally, and does not just want to get married, as…
The Bronze Screen: 100 Years of the Latino Image in Hollywood." (2002). Directed by Alberto Dom'nguez (IV) and Nancy De Los Santos.
Mi Familia." (1995). Directed by Gregory Nava.
Real Women Have Curves." (2002). Directed by Patricia Cardoso.
Despite all the above-mentioned fact, I was still able to find a counter-argument concerning the influence of elites, and this is in relationship with the political world. Thus, it can be easily noticed that many of the American's elected representatives come from the high strata of the society; this fact has been analyzed for many times and the most commonly-assumed conclusion was that people perceive them as being better-prepared for positions of the kind this being the reason for which they elect them. In addition, many of them seems to deal quite well with the situations they have to face and they also seem quite patient in listening to people and to their problems.
In his book, "Who's running America," Thomas Dye has as well treated the issue of the executive power, mainly the presidential status; he brings into discussion the statute of the Kennedy and ush families and the…
Thomas R. Dye, "Who's running America. The Bush restoration," Oxford University Press, 7th edition, 1993
Book summaries," Politics in America," at http://www.thomasrdye.com/book_summaries.htm
Thomas R. Dye, "Who's running America. The Bush restoration," Oxford University Press, 7th edition, 1993
Book summaries, "Politics in America," at http://www.thomasrdye.com/book_summaries.htm
While some readers of the book accuse the authors of seeing racism around every corner, this particular book actually pinpoints so many similarities between the coming American militia and other White Supremist groups that there can be no question of its validity.
If one wishes to test the thesis strength of this book one only has to research many of the militia beliefs and recent movements and hold them against former group movements like the KKK and others to see that they are scarily similar.
One of the strongest examples of coming militia movements in America used in the book is the Oklahoma bombings (Dees, 1999). Within the Okalahoma bombings ran a constant undercurrent of fear and anger at anything that was not white in skin color and attitude.
The fact that they were willing to bomb and kill a building that had a daycare center in it because that…
Dees, Morris (1999) Gathering Storm: America's Militia Threat [CLV] (Hardcover)
DIANE Publishing Company (May 1, 1999)
United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).
Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).
On the other hand, Conservatism deems…
Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.
Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. USA: Ron Lipsman.
Watts, D. (2006). Understanding American Government and Politics: Second Edition. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.
Conceptions of American Freedom
Freedom is an extremely important aspect of American culture, history, and identity. The European settlers that sailed to what would later become the United States of America, came for key reasons, one of which was freedom of religion. The concept of freedom was in one way very important to the people of the United States. Certainly, the concept of freedom in America is fraught with conflict, tension, and paradox. It is common knowledge that the freedoms of one particular group of Americans was increased with the elimination of the freedoms of other groups in the United States. While white males enjoyed the most freedoms, and declared to have build a country heavily predicated on guaranteed freedoms, the freedoms of women, enslaved Africans, and the indigenous tribes of natives who lived in the country for thousands of years did not have many freedoms relative to theirs.
Democracy Web -- Comparative Studies in Freedom. 2012. The Idea of Freedom. Web, Available from: http://www.democracyweb.org/young/young1.php. [footnoteRef:3]2012 November 15. [3: ]
Maier, P. 1998. Sparring for Liberty. The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/11/01/reviews/981101.01maiert.html . 2012 November 18.
Shipley, C. 2012. Power to change -- What is True Freedom? Web, Available from: http://powertochange.com/students/truefreedom/ . 2012 November 16.
Spease. 2012. What is Freedom in America. Web, Available from: http://spease.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-Freedom-in-America . 2012 November 15.
This makes it possible for the general public to comprehend that a community that seems to be strong can easily be divided by people's personal beliefs and by their backgrounds. It is very likely for individuals to express interest in detaching themselves from a group that they are associated with as a consequence of feeling that they do not actually belong to the respective community (Verdery, 232).
Jewish groups in Palestine considered that they were exposed to a series of threats as a result of the fact that they lived in mixed neighborhoods. They believe that they would be stronger if they had the opportunity to unite in a community that would no longer accept to be persecuted. Even with this, many Jews were hesitant about getting involved in a group that would act against Ottoman principles and feared that they would suffer if they adopted a nationalist attitude. The…
Baumgarten, Elias, "Zionism, Nationalism, and Morality," Retrieved December 19, 2011, from the Web Environment Website: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~elias/zionism.htm
Campos, Michelle U. "BETW EEN "BELOVED OTTOMANIA" AND
"THE LAND OF ISRAEL": THE STRUGGLE
OVER OTTOMANISM AND ZIONISM AMONG
Thus, investors are taxed at low rates and CEOs receive high pay specifically because they deserve it.
Thus, the facts are not contested by any side of this debate. The reality is that one must draw the line somewhere with respect to what sort of society one prefers to live in. The wealthy seek political power because they want to design a society in which they receive most of the benefits of opportunity while avoiding as much of the cost (taxation, regulation) as possible. Their ideal society probably already exists somewhere in the developing world, but alas American voters have sought to strike a more balanced approach to opportunity and cost. Many Americans -- some of them among the wealthy -- argue that too much wealth disparity is harmful to the country. First, as many Americans as possible should have the opportunity to succeed, something that does not come from…
Domhoff, B. (no date). Who rules America: Wealth, income and power. In possession of the author.
Buffett, W. (2011). Stop coddling the super-rich. New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/15/opinion/stop-coddling-the-super-rich.html
Allen, F. (2012). Sarbanes-Oxley 10 years later: Boards are still the problem. Forbes. Retrieved September 22, 2012 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/frederickallen/2012/07/29/sarbanes-oxley-10-years-later-boards-are-still-the-problem/
Slavery pattern in North America took a funny trend since initially the blacks had some social positions and had a voice in the running of the community. his however later changed and the North also started to own slaves at a higher rate. here are several factors that led to this change in events in the north that made it to fancy slavery just as much as the South was with its plantations.
It is worth noting the background of the slavery trend in order to fully comprehend the drastic shift in slavery from the class servitude to racial slavery which was predominantly in the late 17th century and early 18th century. he black laborers and white laborers from the working class used to work on the same level and the Europeans used to be allowed to have slaves from the non-Christians population regardless of the color. he class determined…
The Emancipation Proclamation was a categorical document that sought to spell out the status of the U.S.A. As concerns slavery. It was to declare the people who had hitherto been held as slaves, free and forever would remain free and be protected by the executive and the military and the naval authority of the U.S.A., as well as being granted the freedom and not suppressed just like any other American who was not a slave there before. It however had the exemption states in the south where the slaves were not immediately emancipated but the proclamation was a beginning to the quest for the freedom of the slaves.
The South and their leaders believed that each state had a right just like the nation to manage its domestic affairs without external influence and one of these is the issue of slavery, that each state must be given the chance to decide whether slavery is good for their state or not, actually he advocated for the autonomy of each state to decide their internal matters independently without external influences, (National Park Service, (2007).
4. From the early colonial period to the Civil War, enslaved people -- who were descended from many African nationalities and ethnicities -- managed to construct a broadly common culture and ethnic identity of their own. Explain how they did this, what cultural resources they drew on, and what the main forms of this culture were. Evaluate the importance of the emergence of African-American culture under slavery to the history of African-Americans and to the U.S.