Even with under reporting, approximately 5% of elder women are likely abused to the point where they seek medical attention at least annually. These women are often well-known in their communities, so when they come into the emergency room with some story of malady, they know everyone will want to about what happened. In some cases, the trend is becoming more supportive, though. As educational programs transend economic barriers; more rural women are believed to have access to community services that are less than judgemental. They may have to travel to the next community, but there are still services that will, at the very least, intercede and find them a safer environment. This research concludes, based on qualitative and literature analysis, that it is even more difficult for rural women to get into the system. The women who go to their local clinics or Regional Medical Centers are seriously enough hurt that medical attention was required, nnot donated. and, because of their pyschologically vulnerable state, they are also more at risk for HIV infection middle aged urban women (Sormanti & Shibusawa, 2008).
Most of the studies under review point out that there are a number of disconnects in rural areas regarding agencies that will work with the elderly on issues such as this. Research shows that older people actually respond quite well to traditional practice intervention; but that is not always possible in a robust way within rural America. There are, however, resources that may be provided for older people, regardless of demographic or psychographic issues, that will at least help elders get some care (Roberts, 2007).
Finally, we must not forget the thousands of elder rural Americans who, while not necessarily part of a drastic physical abuse situation, are, in fact, part of a psychological depressive issue and, because of finances, stigma from rural communities and health professionals, and fear of exclusion, do not get the care they need. Depression is often difficult to diagnose,…… [Read More]
GAO report showed that one in every five nursing homes across the country was found deficient in terms of its care practices. It was also discovered that some of the abuse incidents had been serious enough to put the resident's life in jeopardy. In many cases, abuse was not even reported though it should have been "classified as actual harm or worse. These included such problems as serious avoidable pressure sores, severe weight loss, and multiple falls resulting in broken bones and other injuries" (p. 31). The report also explained what is meant by sufficient staff. According to CMS guidelines, "determination of sufficient staff is to be made based on the staff's ability to provide needed care to residents. The staff must be able to provide residents with sufficient care so they may reach their highest practicable physical, mental, and . . . well being." (Corzine, p. 32)
Hawes (2002) found that despite many complaints against the staff in nursing homes, it was found that some of the people employed in such facilities blamed the residents for provoking them and hence thought this justified their abusive behavior. "…many staff viewed resident behaviors as purposive, intentional. Thus, a resident who resisted care or struck out at staff was often viewed as intending to harm the staff or as deliberately "being difficult." Given these views, some staff believed that treating such residents 'roughly' was acceptable, particularly if the staff member had been "startled" by the resident or if, in their view, the resident might hurt the staff member." (p. 10). This showed how inadequate training results in abusive behavior in nursing homes. With nursing staff being unaware of what constitutes abuse, there is always a chance that someone would be hurt or harmed in their care.
The problem of elderly abuse is well documented. Even though there may be a shortage of researches on the subject, there is enough data available through surveys, complaints and federal and state investigations to indicate the high prevalence of neglect and abuse in nursing homes nationwide. It is however unfortunate that many of these cases go unreported as elderly are either…… [Read More]
Abuses of Power Relative to Elite Athletes
It is often the case that elite athletes are subjected to rigors and standards that are far beyond what is expected of the majority of the general public. There are many issues that are common among elite athletes that are known to affect either their bodies or their minds. For instance, some athletes are subjected to such high levels of discipline from either coaches or parents that the experience can be considered emotional harassment or even abuse. Coaches and parents can also use and abuse an elite athletes' bodies in many different ways. There is often a fine line between an eating disorder and attempts to maintain a body in a state of being able to achieve peak performance. Females athletes often attempt to suppress weight gain while it is more common for males to attempt to gain weight by increasing muscle weight and density. Similarly, narrow thresholds exist between training and overtraining elite athletes. However, even more extreme examples of abuse can be found in this population such as the case with sexual harassment or abuse. This study will conduct a literature review that focuses on the various forms of abuses of power that can be common among elite athletes.
Weight-control behavior is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance; nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behavior and clinically relevant eating disorders (Werner, 2013). It has been estimated that female elite athletes represent an at-risk population relative to developing eating disorders during elite sports training periods, during times of competition, and later in life. One meta-analysis on weight-control behaviors found inconsistent results that vary along the lines of factors such as age, gender, and the type of sport that is played.
There are…… [Read More]
The safe harbors do not cover every area of permissible behavior, and an arrangement may not qualify as a safe harbor, but still not subject someone to the risk of prosecution.
In fact, the courts have interpreted the Federal Anti-Kickback Law relatively narrowly. The court in Feldstein v. Nash Community Health Servs., 51 F. Supp.2d 673 (E.D.N.C. 1999), implied that the government has to show that a defendant knowingly intended to violate the anti-kickback law. However, the court did not go so far as to permit ignorance of the law to form a defense to the charge; on the contrary, the court expected the health-care providers to know the content of fraud alerts issued by the regulatory agency. The Feldstein court was building on earlier similar decisions in Hanlester Network v. Shalala, 51 F.3d 1390 (9th Cir. 1995) and United States v. Bay State Ambulance & Hosp. Rental Serv. Inc., 874 F.2d 20 (1st Cir. 1989).
The Office of Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Department of Health is in charge of enforcing the Federal Anti-Kickback Law. The OIG has developed regulations to help ensure compliance with the Law, but is also aware that many contemplated arrangements may not fall within the safe harbors, but still would not violate the Law. Therefore, the OIG will provide advisory opinions about specific proposed business arrangements. Moreover, while these opinions cannot be used as legal precedent, the OIG does publish the opinions, to help provide guidance to people in determining whether a specific arrangement would violate the Federal Anti-Kickback Law. It also publishes fraud alerts, which highlight specific areas of concern.
The proposed arrangement appears to be one that might violate the Federal Anti-Kickback Law, though it appears that the doctors would be bona fide employees and that they would not be receiving bonuses specifically for referrals for Medicaid patients. Because there is a possibility that the arrangement would violate the applicable laws, it appears foolish to proceed without further research. Because entering into such an agreement would make me personally liable for violation of a federal felony, I would not do so without obtaining further information about the legality of the proposed arrangement. I would urge the board of directors to obtain an advisory opinion from the OIG regarding the proposed business arrangement, to make sure that nothing in the arrangement violated the Federal Anti-Kickback Law. At the…… [Read More]
Furthermore, we cannot forge a safe harbor under 42 C.F.R. §1001.952(p), because Sundown Community Hospital is not a physician's group (Altshuler, Creekpaum, & Fang, 2008). Finally, the proposed arrangement does not fall within the safe harbor provided for investments in group practice because the hospital would not meet the criteria of: equity interests held by licensed professionals; equity interests being in the entire practice; unified business with unified decision making and pooling of financial interests; and revenues from ancillary services coming only from in-office ancillary services (Altshuler, Creekpaum, & Fang, 2008). Consequently, the proposed arrangement would fall outside of the safe harbor provisions of the Medicaid Anti-Kickback Statutes; however, the proposed arrangement may fall within the exceptions to the Stark Statute.
Reviewing the Stark Statute, no physician may refer Medicare or Medicaid patients to an entity (here, the hospital) to which he/she has a financial relationship unless the transaction falls under one of the exceptions (Altshuler, Creekpaum, & Fang, 2008). The proposed joint venture does not meet any of the exceptions to the Stark Statute that might allow Medicaid/Medicare referrals, such as: ownership/investment interests and compensation arrangements; ownership only or investment interests only; compensation arrangements only. Furthermore, since the Stark Statute is a "strict liability" Statute requiring no fraudulent intent, it is possible to run afoul of the Stark Statute despite an utter lack of intent to abuse or defraud (Altshuler, Creekpaum, & Fang, 2008).
Given the lack of a "safe harbor" under the Medicaid Anti-Kickback Statute and the lack of an exception under the Stark Statute that would allow the physicians to make Medicaid/Medicare referrals to the hospital, I would recommend that the board of directors abandon its plans to enter a joint venture with the physician's group practice. Their chief contribution, given the composition of their practice, would be Medicare patients and it does not appear that the proposed arrangement would satisfy the requirements of either or both statutes. An alternative might be contract that does not involve joint ownership/investment interests in which the contract…… [Read More]
Physical Abuse of Older People by Their Families
When grandpa and grandma are getting on in years and they are living with their children, the data from reliable sources shows that in far too many cases, physical abuse is visited upon the elderly family members by their own children or grandchildren. This is a travesty but moreover it is a felony to physically abuse older people, and family members guilty of those attacks need to be advised that no matter how angry or un-happy they may be by an elderly family member's behaviors, violence is unacceptable.
The fact that Americans are growing older and that many of them are being physically abused -- in numerous cases by their own families -- is a great cause for concern. This paper references scholarly sources that point out the frequency of physical abuses that the elderly are subjected to, and the reasons why they are physically abused.
The first premise of this paper: a report on the frequency, seriousness, perpetrators of and definition of the kinds of physical violence that visited upon elderly people by their own families.
The National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) -- a division of the U.S. Administration on Aging -- reports that abusers of older adults are both women and men, and in fact family members are "more often the abusers than any other group" (NCEA). The data obtained by NCEA shows that the most common abusers are the adult children of older people. Also, the most common perpetrators are "spouses" according to the data from NCEA.
The harming of an aged father or mother is on the one hand a family issue, but on the other hand it is unlawful to harm an older person. In most states, the NCEA points out, there are several laws relating to this problem, and some states have "increased penalties for those who victimize older adults," and across the country law enforcement professionals and prosecutors have received training on the incidences of elder abuse.
The more knowledge that law enforcement officers have regarding their state's penalties and codes the more likely that elderly people that have been abused can receive help and justice. The study that this publication of the NCEA has conducted shows that "…only 16% of the abusive situations are referred for help" and that means that about 84% of situations where elderly…… [Read More]
Violence against pregnant women is a commonplace phenomenon and this research paper will explain the background of violence against pregnant women. Women undergo different forms of violence for instance, beating, threats, raping and unwilling prostitution. Some years back, it wasn't a big issue as approach towards women was a tad bit different back then. Men were treated as the dominant sex due to their physical strength. So is the case with education and men. It is common for men to get educated while women remain undereducated. With the passage of time, this created a genuine gap for women in the society as they were being undermined. Now violence against women, in general, is red flagged especially in Asia where women are treated very poorly. Now the circumstances for women are improving slowly and gradually in Asia but not completely (Jasinsk, 2004).
Violence against pregnant women isn't just limited to developing countries; it is commonly seen all over the world, even in western countries. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan spoke way back in 1999, that, 'violence against pregnant women is a crime which has no boundaries and spreads over boundaries, geographies, cultures and entails wealth. It is a shameful form of violation of human rights'. Then he went on further to say that, 'it's quite pervasive'. Women are vulnerable to violence and many resort to activities even they didn't deem fit for themselves for instance, prostitution to work for basic human needs such a food, clothes and shelter. Men have sex and pay them for their services as such women have no alternative choice. Women have been subjected to different forms of domestic violence as La Shawn R. Jefferson states that, 'There isn't proper policy regarding violence against women in the developing world which poses a serious threat (Jasinsk, 2004).
In the current scenario, which is presented by UNHCR, the primary principle is not to negate the violence against pregnant women at all. The human rights groups have criticized the governments in the developing world and policy makers for being incompetent and negating an escalating issue. Governments should protect its public against the dangers of sexual violence and physical assault. Some families have a track record of generations and generations of sexual and physical violence. Now both women and children are accustomed to it. Children watching their mothers getting beaten up by their…… [Read More]
Angela's case study illuminates several aspects of domestic violence. The case shows how domestic violence progresses from what was originally a normal relationship, through stages of escalating violence. Each section shows how persons outside the family might have the opportunity to intervene or offer support. What was most interesting about this case was the different legal obligations of health care workers, educators, and colleagues. Not all people are obliged to report suspected domestic violence. It is important to understand one's role and whether or not reporting is appropriate.
Reporting is appropriate and warranted when there are obvious gunshot wounds or gunpowder burns, and also when an early childhood educator suspects domestic violence being perpetrated on a child (Minnesota Statutes, 2015). Each segment of the case study shows how complex the issue is, and how each person has a different role to play and different levels of responsibility. The main things to keep in mind include being supportive of Angela, encouraging her to empower herself and to not feel like anything is her fault, and help steer her in the direction of information and support.
The people who are most in the position of being able to help Angela also have specific roles to play and procedures to follow. For example, an a nurse who sees Angela and notices a bruise cannot and should not jump to conclusions and suspect domestic violence. However, the preschool teacher working with Katie or the school counselor working with Jacob and Angela can be more forthright because they have more information and are in the position of using that information to encourage Angela to develop a personal safety plan. Because Sam has threatened to kill, the situation must be taken very seriously.
The police have a special role to play. Often police are reluctant to get involved at…… [Read More]
In fact, one study suggested that if a fruit or vegetable could not be harvested mechanically, it would not be grown in the United States after 1975 (Braceros: History, Compensation).
Workers in the Bracero Program faced a great amount of worker exploitation in the form of low pay and lost wages, both from the United States government as well as their own home government in Mexico. Currently, the governments of both participating countries are working to compensate the families of the bracero workers for the lost wages garnished during that time. However, despite the U.S. government's efforts to right its wrongs in past situations, the fact remains that exploitation of immigrant and undocumented workers in the United States is still a problem that is faced today. Today, undocumented and immigrant workers face a new set of challenges. For example, in a survey, 25% of workers whose employers found out that they were undocumented were not fired until they complained about worksite conditions (Mehta, Theodore, and Hincapie). Furthermore, another 21% of workers said their employers used their unauthorized status to fire them in retaliation for trying to organize a union (Mehta, Theodore, and Hincapie). Other workers reported that their employers didn't fire them when they discovered that they were unauthorized to work, but instead they continued to employ them while cutting their wages and benefits (Mehta, Theodore, and Hincapie). Through these facts, it is clear that exploitation continues to exist in workplaces across the United States, and must be stamped out immediately, but for the good of the worker, and for the economy as a whole.
"Braceros: History, Compensation." Rural Migration News. 12.2 (2006). Web. 10 Dec. 2010.
Ester, Jon. "Exploring Exploitation." The Journal of Peace Research. 15.1 (1978): 3-17. Web.
10 Dec. 2010.
Hoivik, Tord. "Three Approaches to Exploitation: Markets Products, and Communities." the
Journal of Peace Research. 9.3 (1972): 261-70. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.
Marcell, Ronald O. "Bracero Program Hurt Domestic Farm Workers." Borderlands. 12 (1994):
13-14. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.
Mehta, Chirag, Nik Theodore,…… [Read More]
Domestic Abuse: Information and Evidence-Based Practice
Domestic abuse is an issue that has plagued society since nearly the beginning of mankind. Even ancient societies and civilizations have dealt with and depicted those who engage in this behavior. There are few things that work for every person who gets involved in domestic abuse, even though there are many different treatment options. Some people respond to drug treatment when they are medicated for an underlying issue that might be triggering their anger. Others respond to medical interventions such as therapy or anger management courses. Still other individuals only respond to law enforcement and punishment - and even then there is no guarantee that person will not reoffend. Discussed here is domestic abuse from the standpoint of evidence-based practice. What researchers and therapists have said (and are still saying) about people who are domestic abusers is important to analyze, so that new and better treatments can be offered to these individuals and their families. Understanding the reasons behind the violence and the history of what has been done to help offenders in the past can provide insight toward what should be done in the future so that the incidents of domestic abuse that are commonly seen can be reduced or avoided.
Domestic Abuse: Information and Evidence-Based Practice
Introduction and Background
Domestic abuse has always been a part of society. In the past generations, it was more accepted than it is in current times, because people used to see it as a means of correcting a wife or a child, especially if a man believed that his wife was not showing him the level of respect to which he was entitled (Hardesty, 2002). Times have changed, though, and domestic abuse is a crime now. Law enforcement officers will not allow it to go on and it will not be…… [Read More]
Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention
Diversity and How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries
There is developing debate regarding the suitable combination of programs and polices needed to react to concerns of child abuse and neglect. Child neglect and abuse hold significant effects for prospective health and mental health of a child. As a result, it is imperative to comprehend connections among different forms of maltreatment, family and child factors and connect with the systems for children welfare. The child abuse prevention programs and polices adopted in the New York State are generic and appears to be meant for the majority in the society. The programs are not cultural specific and hence, cannot benefit the minority group in the society. For instance, the Asian immigrants present an increased rate of child abuse. However, according to the Asian culture, worldviews, values and perspectives, suffering is an inevitable element of life. In this view, Asian-American cannot therefore, benefit from a universal child abuse protection programs and policies used in the state. The minority and the poor communities in the society disproportionally experience the effects of ineffective child abuse prevention programs. More children get corporeal and poignant injuries leaving more families torn asunder and more children placed in juvenile detention or foster care while more adults face imprisonment for avertable actions. Although child maltreatment is a grim and pervasive social problem, the prevention of this problem is not feasible given the diverse nature of most countries and the lack of cultural specific "child abuse" prevention programs and policies.
Child abuse has been in art, science and literature in various parts of the world. Reports of mutilation, infanticide, abandonment, and other types of violence against children date back to the primordial civilizations. The historical accounts holds reports of weak, malnourished, unkempt children cast out of their families to fend for themselves. Moreover, the historical accounts hold record of sexually abused children (Normam, 2012). Charitable groups and other people concerned with the well-being of children, and who support the protection of children assist abused children. Professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, doctors, authorities and other social workers help the abused children in the society. Nevertheless, different countries have their own distinct ways of handling child abuse through different systems to protect children from different types of maltreatment, helping families to…… [Read More]
"Although it is extremely important when interviewing children about alleged abuse to determine whether the abuse was single or repeated… we have little information about how children judge the frequency of events… [and] overall children were very accurate at judging the frequency of a single event, but much less so for repeated events." (Sharman, et al., 2011).
Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) reports that in the year 2010 there were approximately 3.3 million referrals of "suspected abuse pertaining to six million children" in the United States (Samuels, 2011). The HHS data reflects that many children are being abused through neglect, through physical abuse (including sexual abuse), or through medical or educational neglect, and other forms of abuse. This paper delves into the problems associated with child abuse, the actions that professionals should take, the way to tell abuse has been done, and the overall impact on society when children are abused at a young age.
Why is this topic important to contemporary families?
This topic is important because reports of abuse to children are widespread throughout the world. Bringing attention to this problem is necessary. For example, a study in Malaysia, while not very surprising, points to the many negatives that result from a child being abused. Young victims of physical abuse, according to professor Samah of the Universiti Putra Malaysia, "…routinely experience emotional disturbance" including: "feelings of isolation, shame, fear, anxiety and even suicide ideation" (Samah, 2011, p. 230). Abused children are also known to show: a) low self-esteem; b) long-term developmental problems; c) depression; d) physical aggression; e) school failure; f) excessive uneasiness; g) passive behavior; h) poor communication skills; i) poor resiliency skills" (Samah, 230).
Secondarily, in the Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology the authors conducted a study using 113 adults that were receiving outpatient treatment for substance abuse issues. The 113 participants were given several questionnaires to determine if they had been sexually or otherwise physically abused -- or neglected -- as children. The point was: empirical data reflects the fact that "previous experience and intensity of negative…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse Treatment Analysis of David Ruffin
Most people today probably recognize his signing voice from his hits such as "My Girl," but few may remember David Ruffin of The Temptations music group from the latter half of the 20th century. Like many of his contemporaries, Ruffin fell victim to the ravages of drug abuse during the height of his career, leaving his millions of fans with a musical void in their lives. To gain some further insights into his untimely death from an overdose of cocaine, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop a background and an overview of Ruffin, his use of drugs, and an appropriate screening instrument that could be used to evaluate a similar client's stage of dependence, change or recovery. An application of this diagnostic tool to Ruffin's unique circumstances is followed by a discussion concerning possible placement options and treatment modalities for clients with Ruffin's diagnosis, and the rationale in support of their choice based upon a personal conceptualization and etiology of addiction. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview of David Ruffin
The hit soul group, "The Temptations," consisted of members Mel Franklin, Otis Williams, Eddie Kendricks, Paul Williams, Dennis Edwards and David Ruffin who began their professional recording careers with Motown Corporation in Detroit in 1962 (Claghorn, 1993). Born in January 1941 in Whynot, Mississippi, one of his biographers reports that "David Ruffin was one of the most recognizable vocalists to have emerged from the Motown Records stable. He was the younger brother of Jimmy Ruffin and the cousin of Melvin Franklin of The Temptations" (Walker, 2012, para. 2). The son of a minister, Ruffin began his musical career singing with a gospel group, the "Dixie Nightingales"; in addition, he also performed with other groups before joining up with "The Temptations" as well as recording as a solo artist in 1960 (Walker, 2012). His connections with the group and his established track record of success thus far led to his joining "The Temptations" in January 1964 as the tenor vocalist (Walker, 2012) and later as lead singer (Friedlander, 1996).
As a result, like many of his contemporaries such as…… [Read More]
Satanic Abuse Representations in the Media and Social Science Literature
Throughout history, few things have been able to literally scare the bejabbers out of people as much as reports of satanic abuse in general and in their own communities in particular. Indeed, based on various reports from Europe and North American over the past four centuries, it would seem that when Satan fell from Heaven, he fell directly into many peoples' lives. Even today, isolated but sensationalized reports of satanic abuse can still create the widespread perception that these practices are commonplace and are increasing in prevalence. The hysterical reaction that can sweep through entire communities is proof positive of the continuing relevance of this phenomenon today. Irrespective of the actual reality of the satanic entity, the implications of these reactions for some people are profound and severe and may even cause some people to experience potentially life-threatening mental health issues as a result. To gain some additional insights into these reactions, this paper provides a comparison of satanic abuse representations in the popular media and social science literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
During the past three decades or so, clinicians have reported an increase in the numbers of psychiatric patients who have reported suffering some type of satanic ritual abuse in the past, a trend that has fueled a limited amount of research in this area (Leavitt & Labott 1998). In spite of increasing public concern and a heated debate regarding satanic ritual abuse, there remains a dearth of timely and relevant studies concerning this controversial issue (Leavitt 1994). The research to date, though, does seem to indicate that satanic ritual abuse victims share some commonalities that bear further investigation (Leavitt & Labott 1998; Leavitt 1994). Nevertheless, the findings from the studies thus far have been mixed and there remains some dispute concerning the actual factors that contribute to public reactions to reports of satanic abuse and some people appear to be much more susceptible to such reports than others (Kent 1993).
Confounding the analysis of these trends has been the spurious nature of much of the evidence that has been involved. For instance, a study contemporary to the North American…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse Group Psychotherapy Proposal for a Diverse Homeless Population
We find several problems associated with substance abuse people in our environment. Researches show that men are more likely to develop a substance abuse personality. As a result they lose jobs and homes. Uncountable homeless families depend on substance abuse men. A variety of group treatments are employed to meet the needs of such people during the recovery process. This essay is a substance abuse psychotherapy proposal for a diverse homeless population. A group of male gender, having age in between 35 to 44, can be treated employing an activity.
A Substance Abuse Group Psychotherapy Proposal for a Diverse Homeless Population
Substance abuse is a killing habit and it often begins early in the lives of men. During the teen or young adult years, men often start using drugs and alcohol. Initially it is just limited as a casual or social use but slowly it turns to abuse and addiction. There are several reasons behind substance abuse in men. It is not only harmful to the man himself but also to the people associated with him. The purpose of writing this substance abuse psychotherapy proposal is to identify the stages of recovery in substance abuse homeless men of age in between 35 to 44.
Risks of using drugs or drinking too much include suicide, anxiety, depression, employment problems, risky sexual behavior, violence, health problems and addiction (physical dependence and uncontrollable cravings). Substance abuse men become violent against their loved ones and they encounter health problems such as HIV and cancer.
The rationale for recovery of a substance abuse group is to provide the right treatment divided in to several sessions. "Treatment as a time-dependent process should be the guiding principle when working with people with addictions in group…what works for the client without addictions will not always work with a client with addictions" (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). We are considering…… [Read More]
Aboriginal Elder Abuse
Elder abuse is a catch-all phrase that refers to a variety of ways by which caregivers and other people in power-positions relative to the elderly can mistreat them. Elder abuse includes, but is not limited to: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, spiritual abuse financial abuse, abandonment and neglect. Elders refer to seniors, though the definition of senior can be fluid. In the general populations, seniors are generally those age 65 and older, but because of differential life expectancies and cultural differences, some researchers refer to elders in the aboriginal community as those aged 55 and older (Dumont-Smith, 2002). Abandonment is "abuse that occurs when the person who assumes the responsibility for providing care or who has physical custody abandons his or her duties to the elder" (Dumont-Smith, 2002). Physical abuse is "the use of physical force that can result in injury, pain and/or impairment" (Dumont-Smith, 2002). Emotional abuse refers to "activities that cause anguish, pain or distress through verbal or nonverbal acts, which could include: verbal assault, social isolation, threats, humiliation, treating an elder like a child, lack of affection or denying seniors the chance to participate in decisions with respect to their own lives" (Dumont-Smith, 2002). "Financial abuse refers to the illegal or improper use of an elder person's money, property or other assets" (Dumont-Smith, 2002). "Sexual abuse occurs as the result of any non-consensual sexual contact of any kind with an elder (Dumont-Smith, 2002). Neglect can result in any of the above-mentioned types of abuse, and generally refers to a "refusal or failure to provide the elder person with the basic necessities of life" (Dumont-Smith, 2002). Finally, spiritual abuse, which is particularly relevant when discussing an aboriginal population, is the breakdown of a person's cultural or religious belief systems (Dumont-Smith, 2002).
Elder abuse is a complex phenomenon that does not have a simple cause or a simple solution. There is no single cause for elder abuse; instead, there are a variety of risk factors that increase the chances that elder abuse will occur including: "the personality traits of the abuser, intergenerational violence, and degree of dependency, stress and ageism" (Dumont-Smith, 2002). There…… [Read More]
For some, there will be a denial and minimization of the substance habit as being inconsequential, purely recreational or extremely intermittent. This response is akin to the young adult asserting that there is no problem. For other homeless youths, their drug or alcohol habit maybe viewed as a form of survival: these drugs help these teenagers bear life on the street. In that sense the substance is attributed as beneficial for the escapism necessary to survival. "Using, even abusing substances is often viewed as a 'normal' practice by those identifying with street culture. Homeless young people report using drugs and alcohol as a coping strategy and often have more favorable attitudes toward drug use than their non-homeless peers" (Gomez et al., 2010). Thus, there could be a complete difficulty in making any assessments, since many homeless youths won't see their substance abuse as a problem at all, and won't seek treatment, viewing it instead as merely an indelible feature of life on the street.
For other youths, making accurate clinical assessments becomes even more difficult because of the varying reasons for why the youth is homeless. For some youths, the homelessness is a result of the fact that they had to leave a bad home situation and find life on the streets to be an improvement. As one youth described her home life: "I'm just tired of it all, and I don't want to be in my house anymore," she said, explaining why she had run away. "One month there is money, and the next month there is none. One day, she is taking it out on me and hitting me, and the next day she is ignoring me. it's more stable out here" (Urbina, 2009).
Another issue which makes assessment difficult is that some researchers have found that the drug use of homeless youths to be all over the map. Some became homeless because of their addiction problem, some became addicted as a result of living on the street, and others became addicted because of exposure to parental drug use and others because of environmental or situational factors.
Impact of Drug Use on Homeless Youths
Drugs and drug abuse don't solve problems they create new ones and for homeless youths this is particularly the case. Drug abuse with…… [Read More]
SPECIAL POPULATION & SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Special Population and Substance Abuse
Prison inmates and substance abuse
Drug courses or rehabilitation programs for drug offenders
The reoffender issue
Drawbacks of not providing rehab treatments and facilities
Cost vs. benefit analysis if rehabilitation programs and imprisonment
Drug abuse or substance abuse is a major issue in the U.S. It is the addictive and patterned use of drugs in quantities that are not approved by the health and medication regulating bodies, neither administered under the supervision of any clinician. Substance abuse covers wide categories of drugs used without the prescription of health administrators with excessive and often dangerous consumption levels. Substance abuse includes the use of performance enhancing and psychoactive drugs. The leading organizations that issue the standards and symptoms of drug and substance abuse are World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases, American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and ICRIS Medical organization Related Health Problems (ICD). Substance abuse is a blanket term used to describe excessive and illegal use of any drug not being allowed to the user. World Health Organization (WHO) defines substance abuse as "Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use" (WHO).
The research paper is aimed to present an informed discussion on substance abuse in context of prison inmates. There are large percentages of prisoners in each U.S. state that fall within the category of substance abuse according to the DSM IV medical criteria. Section two of the paper will discuss substance abuse in context of prisoners and the current findings of leading health organizations in this regard. Section III will highlight the significance of drug courses or rehabilitation programs for drug offender inmates. Section IV will include discussion on the reoffender issue followed by analysis of rehabilitation programs in section V along with drawbacks of non-provisionof rehab treatments and facilities to inmates. Sections VI and VII shall describe the…… [Read More]
Meth Addiction and Abuse Problems
Meth Crystal Addiction and Abuse Problems in Los Angeles County
Meth addiction and abuse problems are on a rise in Los Angeles County and many other places in other countries. Its use and abuse has become so common that some people have started referring to it as the new heroin. Just like any other drug, the use of this drug above its therapeutic dose has produced toxicities that have been proven to be hazardous to human health.
When people find themselves in addiction and abuse problems of Meth crystals, they then turn to the health care institutions and other rehab centers, which increase the responsibility of nurses as well as counselors. In this paper we shall look at some of the complications of addiction and abuse problems in Los Angeles County. We shall also see its impacts on the human health and health care systems. Furthermore, we shall bring into limelight the role that nursing has to play in this whole scenario and what is being done at the government and private level to make people give up this drug.
Also known as metamfetamine, meth, crystal, ice, glass, tik, methylamphetamine, N-methyl amphetamine and desoxyephedrine, methamphetamine is a known psycho stimulant (Drug Profiles, 2011). It is known to occur in two enantiomers and is rarely prescribed (Castle, Aubert, Khalid & Einstein, 2007).
Normally, the crystal meth is used by people is form of smoke in glass pipes that are similar to the way cocaine is used. Furthermore, it can also be injected, dry as well as in dissolved form. It can also be swallowed, sniffed and it can also be inserted in the urethra and anus.
When given in low dosages, meth can cause increased alertness, energy in tired and fatigued individuals and concentration. However, when given in high doses, this drug is capable of inducing mania that is accompanied by euphoria, sentiments of high self-esteem along with increased libido (Mack, Frances and Miller, 2005).
This drug also has poses a threat for addiction and abuse problems because it activates the psychological reward system in the brain. It…… [Read More]
Domestic Violence Elder Abuse Policy
Elder Abuse Policy
In the last three decades, the events of elder abuse have increased greatly which leads to the increase in the needs of victims and further develops a need for having a sound policy combating this situation. Hence, a structure is required which can help in educating public, training professional specializing in this field, increasing necessary measures required for adult protection, increasing prosecution and reduction of barriers in promulgation of this policy.
In order to devise a policy for elder abuse, it is necessary to understand the definition of it:
"a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person"
As per the definition presented by police and prosecution, any crime involving the abuse of individuals exceeding the age of sixty. These cases are filed under the regime of general offenses, financial exploitation and criminal acts.
Financial exploitation is defined as the improper and unauthorized use of victims assets, be it o financial nature or physical form. Furthermore, the domestic violence is an act of violence done by any family member or the caretaker against the victim.
As per New York Penal Law,
"Elder abuse defines the acts comprising of felonies, demeanors, violence against the individuals of and exceeding the age of sixty."
Out of all these, felony is of most serious nature as it involves endangering the welfare of the elder citizen by possession of weapon, sexual abuse, stolen property, embezzlement etc.
As per the fact sheet presented by World Health Organization in 2011,
The elder abuse is a common problem in developing as well developed countries of the world; however this issue has been unaddressed globally. As per the findings of WHO, approximately 4-6% of elder citizens experience violence and abuse of different level domestically. This maltreatment has a tendency of causing serious physical harm and mental distress as well which may last for long-term. With the increase in the elder population, this population is expected to worsen (WHO, 2011).
As per WHO, from 1995 till 2025, the elder population of the world will grow twice its size. The number of elder generation by 2025 is estimated to be 1.2 billion.
MAGNITUDE OF ELDER ABUSE
As far as…… [Read More]