Lastly, children that are abused and neglect tend to turn to spousal abuse and battering or intimate partner violence in adult life. The studies associate intimate partner violence with exposure to neglect, abuse, and witnessing parental violence in childhood (Widom & White, 2003). Moreover, children exposed to violence at home develop the same behaviors, by becoming more aggressive, and violence. This violence and aggression is alter turned to their peers and intimate partners in adult life.
Overall, children are abused and neglected in different forms, which have diverse negative effects in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A child is said to be abused or neglected if there is physical evidence of abandonment, physical harm that causes injury or death, and lack of emotional and psychological support. Parents also neglect their children by exposing them to hazardous environments in the home, sexual activity, forced prostitution, or denying them basic needs like education, food, clothing, and shelter.… [Read More]
Effects of abuse in children
Abuse: Effects and Impacts on Children
The purpose of this paper is to research the subject of childhood abuse in view of what is suffered both immediately and on the long-term basis in relation to the child's psychological, biological and social development.
Child abuse is all too common in today's world and is a subject that is almost daily splashed across the news. Physical abuse is by Merck Manual as being "battery'. Battery has the same meaning as physical violence to the body. Further the manual reveals that it is an element in every race and throughout every layer of societal structure leaving no one race, sex, group, or religion unscathed by its' effects. Two million children are abused in the United States each year; the numbers are likely much higher with 2000 to 5000 children dying each year as a result of abuse or neglect.
Indeed, child abuse may occur in the most unlikely of families leaving scars for the duration of the life of the individual who was abused.
I .Statistical Information:
Although every representative individual sector and subset group in society has to death with this issue sooner or later, statistical information reveals that of all children the children of poor families are twelve times more likely to be a victim of abuse. One-fourth of children that are abused are older than two years of age. In a survey performed by the United States in 2002 revealed that 53% of the cases involved neglect, physical abuse was present in 26% of confirmed cases, 14% was sexual abuse cases and 5% emotional abuse. The male and female children were equally effected and 20% of the children were permanently injured. In fact, the report stated that each year somewhere between the number of one-thousand and twelve-hundred children die from abuse.
II. The Pediatric Doctor: Responsibility to Report to Authorities:
The attending physician of a child is generally required to report suspected abuse to the authorities. Child abuse is not always easy to detect. According to the Merck Manual:
'Abuse: Generally abuse is caused by the breakdown of…… [Read More]
There are many factors that must be considered when evaluating a possible abuse situation. The first thing that must be done is that all parties involved must be committed to taking the situation seriously, but also committed to acting without prejudice. Instances of abuse should neither be ignored nor falsely identified. "Because childhood molestation has been hidden for decades, our quick suspicions are well founded. But there can be backlash: innocent acts by parents are often falsely misconstrued as sexual abuse." (Heller) When approached by the teachers, I would ensure her that coming to speak to me was a good action to take.
In this situation, the family in question is not culturally American. It must be considered, first, that there are many cultural differences between a Chinese family and an American family. Communication and social interaction is definitely affected by this cultural difference. For example, this child is very quiet and withdrawn. In China, children are taught to be very quiet and respectful, and in comparison to the wild American children in the class, this might appear to be abnormal behavior in that setting. However, the child might be acting in a perfectly normal way for his culture. Second, the concerns about the step-father's physical affection with the child must also be taken within social context. The level of physical contact that is socially acceptable between parents and children in America is vastly different from many Asian cultures. For example, studies have also shown that family baths shared by the parents and children can be a very positive experience, and is in fact a norm in some Asian countries. "Nudity, openness, and affection within the family can teach children and adults that the body is not shameful and inferior, but rather is a source of beauty and sensuality through which we emotionally relate to one another. Physical affection involving touching, holding, and caressing should not be equated with sexual stimulation, which is a special type of physical affection." (Gambil) What may at first seem like signs of sexual abuse might in fact be a loving parent.
There are many other factors…… [Read More]
Even with under reporting, approximately 5% of elder women are likely abused to the point where they seek medical attention at least annually. These women are often well-known in their communities, so when they come into the emergency room with some story of malady, they know everyone will want to about what happened. In some cases, the trend is becoming more supportive, though. As educational programs transend economic barriers; more rural women are believed to have access to community services that are less than judgemental. They may have to travel to the next community, but there are still services that will, at the very least, intercede and find them a safer environment. This research concludes, based on qualitative and literature analysis, that it is even more difficult for rural women to get into the system. The women who go to their local clinics or Regional Medical Centers are seriously enough hurt that medical attention was required, nnot donated. and, because of their pyschologically vulnerable state, they are also more at risk for HIV infection middle aged urban women (Sormanti & Shibusawa, 2008).
Most of the studies under review point out that there are a number of disconnects in rural areas regarding agencies that will work with the elderly on issues such as this. Research shows that older people actually respond quite well to traditional practice intervention; but that is not always possible in a robust way within rural America. There are, however, resources that may be provided for older people, regardless of demographic or psychographic issues, that will at least help elders get some care (Roberts, 2007).
Finally, we must not forget the thousands of elder rural Americans who, while not necessarily part of a drastic physical abuse situation, are, in fact, part of a psychological depressive issue and, because of finances, stigma from rural communities and health professionals, and fear of exclusion, do not get the care they need. Depression is often difficult to diagnose, and the health care industry contributes to the overlooking of depression in the elderly because of the overwhelming desire to keep costs down. The factors of depression are open…… [Read More]
GAO report showed that one in every five nursing homes across the country was found deficient in terms of its care practices. It was also discovered that some of the abuse incidents had been serious enough to put the resident's life in jeopardy. In many cases, abuse was not even reported though it should have been "classified as actual harm or worse. These included such problems as serious avoidable pressure sores, severe weight loss, and multiple falls resulting in broken bones and other injuries" (p. 31). The report also explained what is meant by sufficient staff. According to CMS guidelines, "determination of sufficient staff is to be made based on the staff's ability to provide needed care to residents. The staff must be able to provide residents with sufficient care so they may reach their highest practicable physical, mental, and . . . well being." (Corzine, p. 32)
Hawes (2002) found that despite many complaints against the staff in nursing homes, it was found that some of the people employed in such facilities blamed the residents for provoking them and hence thought this justified their abusive behavior. "…many staff viewed resident behaviors as purposive, intentional. Thus, a resident who resisted care or struck out at staff was often viewed as intending to harm the staff or as deliberately "being difficult." Given these views, some staff believed that treating such residents 'roughly' was acceptable, particularly if the staff member had been "startled" by the resident or if, in their view, the resident might hurt the staff member." (p. 10). This showed how inadequate training results in abusive behavior in nursing homes. With nursing staff being unaware of what constitutes abuse, there is always a chance that someone would be hurt or harmed in their care.
The problem of elderly abuse is well documented. Even though there may be a shortage of researches on the subject, there is enough data available through surveys, complaints and federal and state investigations to indicate the high prevalence of neglect and abuse in nursing homes nationwide. It is however unfortunate that many of these cases go unreported as elderly are either too frail to understand what is happening or there is no easy way of filing a complaint. But the complaints that have made it to the concerned authorities indicate…… [Read More]
The safe harbors do not cover every area of permissible behavior, and an arrangement may not qualify as a safe harbor, but still not subject someone to the risk of prosecution.
In fact, the courts have interpreted the Federal Anti-Kickback Law relatively narrowly. The court in Feldstein v. Nash Community Health Servs., 51 F. Supp.2d 673 (E.D.N.C. 1999), implied that the government has to show that a defendant knowingly intended to violate the anti-kickback law. However, the court did not go so far as to permit ignorance of the law to form a defense to the charge; on the contrary, the court expected the health-care providers to know the content of fraud alerts issued by the regulatory agency. The Feldstein court was building on earlier similar decisions in Hanlester Network v. Shalala, 51 F.3d 1390 (9th Cir. 1995) and United States v. Bay State Ambulance & Hosp. Rental Serv. Inc., 874 F.2d 20 (1st Cir. 1989).
The Office of Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Department of Health is in charge of enforcing the Federal Anti-Kickback Law. The OIG has developed regulations to help ensure compliance with the Law, but is also aware that many contemplated arrangements may not fall within the safe harbors, but still would not violate the Law. Therefore, the OIG will provide advisory opinions about specific proposed business arrangements. Moreover, while these opinions cannot be used as legal precedent, the OIG does publish the opinions, to help provide guidance to people in determining whether a specific arrangement would violate the Federal Anti-Kickback Law. It also publishes fraud alerts, which highlight specific areas of concern.
The proposed arrangement appears to be one that might violate the Federal Anti-Kickback Law, though it appears that the doctors would be bona fide employees and that they would not be receiving bonuses specifically for referrals for Medicaid patients. Because there is a possibility that the arrangement would violate the applicable laws, it appears foolish to proceed without further research. Because entering into such an agreement would make me personally liable for violation of a federal felony, I would not do so without obtaining further information about the legality of the proposed arrangement. I would urge the board of directors to obtain an advisory opinion from the OIG regarding the proposed business arrangement, to make sure that nothing in the arrangement violated…… [Read More]
abuse of women has grown to near epidemic levels. Some professionals think this may be because women are finally reporting the abuse that has always been. Abuse can start out as actions as seemingly harmless as name-calling or pushing, but over time may turn into something far more dangerous. There are many emotional dynamics at play in an abusive relationship. These emotions propel the abused toward staying in a relationship that she knows is unhealthy. In her heart, however, the abused feels it almost impossible to break free. Over time she forgets about her wants and needs, and learns only to react to the abuser's feelings and emotions. Her very survival may depend on how well she reacts to the demands of her abuser. Abused women often learn at a very early age how to feel normal and adjust to an abusive environment. They stay with their abuser because it is what they have always known, and their self-esteem has been torn down by years of abuse. If one does leave an abusive relationship, she often leaves not out of love and nurturing of herself, but out of care and concern for another - such as a child.
What are the emotional dynamics involved in an abusive relationship?
A woman involved in an abusive relationship often grew up being abused. Therefore, she has learned how to cope with the abuse - even seeing the abuse as almost "normal" or an "acceptable" part of everyday life. In Anna Quindlen's book Black and Blue, the main character, Frannie Flynn Benedetto, states, "There are ways and ways of dying, and some of them leave you walking around. I'd learned that from watching my father, and my husband, too" (Quindlen, p. 13). Frannie Flynn Benedetto makes a comparison between the behavior of her father and her abusive husband. One may…… [Read More]
abuses in every system, whether it be capitalism, communism or socialism and such abuses are primarily due to one specific motivating factor; greed. Greed is not just a few individuals who woke up one morning and decided to move their businesses to other countries because they could make more money, this is actually a societal problem of immense proportions. One recent study determined that "issues are generated in response to the dynamics of the social system and unfold within the larger structural and historical contexts where the character of the individual takes shape" (Hansen, Movahedi, 2010, p. 367). In other words the individual's greed is influenced by society, and not vice versa. The study also asserted that "the most popular explanation of the (recent) contemporary financial crisis with its disastrous social and economic consequences is personal greed" (p.367). Whether it is society's greed or the individual's greed makes no difference, the results seem to be catastrophic no matter what. However, the book states that "many of today's organizations are demonstrating what is known as corporate social responsibility -- not only attempting to meet prevailing legal and ethical standards but also exceeding them by embracing values that promote the greater welfare of society at large" (p. 37) which is an excellent example of the individual and corporations placing more emphasis on social welfare than on the inherent greed that can often lead to disastrous results.
2) Apple; like most major corporations, must walk a fine line between satisfying its shareholders and its customers while at the same time satisfying its corporate social responsibilities that many demand must be met.
Due to its muscle in the marketplace Apple can accomplish many things that other firms might not have the capability of accomplishing. Some of these things that can be accomplished include ensuring that employees are well treated. On the other hand, if employees are not treated well at FoxComm then it is likely that the employees will leave the firm for greener pastures elsewhere. Is…… [Read More]
Furthermore, we cannot forge a safe harbor under 42 C.F.R. §1001.952(p), because Sundown Community Hospital is not a physician's group (Altshuler, Creekpaum, & Fang, 2008). Finally, the proposed arrangement does not fall within the safe harbor provided for investments in group practice because the hospital would not meet the criteria of: equity interests held by licensed professionals; equity interests being in the entire practice; unified business with unified decision making and pooling of financial interests; and revenues from ancillary services coming only from in-office ancillary services (Altshuler, Creekpaum, & Fang, 2008). Consequently, the proposed arrangement would fall outside of the safe harbor provisions of the Medicaid Anti-Kickback Statutes; however, the proposed arrangement may fall within the exceptions to the Stark Statute.
Reviewing the Stark Statute, no physician may refer Medicare or Medicaid patients to an entity (here, the hospital) to which he/she has a financial relationship unless the transaction falls under one of the exceptions (Altshuler, Creekpaum, & Fang, 2008). The proposed joint venture does not meet any of the exceptions to the Stark Statute that might allow Medicaid/Medicare referrals, such as: ownership/investment interests and compensation arrangements; ownership only or investment interests only; compensation arrangements only. Furthermore, since the Stark Statute is a "strict liability" Statute requiring no fraudulent intent, it is possible to run afoul of the Stark Statute despite an utter lack of intent to abuse or defraud (Altshuler, Creekpaum, & Fang, 2008).
Given the lack of a "safe harbor" under the Medicaid Anti-Kickback Statute and the lack of an exception under the Stark Statute that would allow the physicians to make Medicaid/Medicare referrals to the hospital, I would recommend that the board of directors abandon its plans to enter a joint venture with the physician's group practice. Their chief contribution, given the composition of their practice, would be Medicare patients and it does not appear that the proposed arrangement would satisfy the requirements of either or both statutes. An alternative might be contract that does not involve joint ownership/investment interests in which the contract clearly enunciates that the parties…… [Read More]
Because numerous clinics decline to offer sleeping medication to the individual withdrawing from opiates, many addicts discharge themselves early from the treatment process (Carver). In regard to treatment, Carver notes:
Detoxification technology is being transformed in an increasing number of countries by the introduction of rapid opiate detoxification (ROD) techniques. Instead of discontinuing opiates abruptly or over a few days and allowing withdrawal symptoms to develop (a technique which adds the stress of anticipation to the actual pains of withdrawal), an alternative technique is to precipitate acute withdrawal over a space of three to four hours by administering opiate antagonists. These drive all opiates off the opiate receptors but also start the process of normalising the receptors so that the worst symptoms of withdrawal are over in two to three days rather than the two to three weeks which is typical in conventional programmes for most patients (Brewer 1997). Naltrexone is the usual opiate antagonist used. As well as being more efficient and humane, these techniques are also more cost-effective than conventional methods. (Lahej et al. 2000; Carreno et al. 2002, as cited in Carver, 2004, p. 102)
Starting Over Grace Rountree, 18-years old, Paul S. Martinez (2007) reports in "Former pill addict gets a new lease on life," comes from a "good Christian family." As she was home schooled, Rountree was not routinely exposed to drugs as many youth who attend public school may be. At the age of sixteen, however a friend, at Rountree's local church, and a relative introduced her to prescription drugs. In time, she not only began to abuse the prescription drugs, she also started selling them after she learned she could receive four to six dollars a pill (Martinez). To obtain the drugs, Rountree met individuals suffering with real health issues, and subsequently went into pain management clinics to obtain the prescription drugs. From Rountree's prescription drug business, she discovered she can spend $150 on the doctor visits plus the prescription, and then easily transform that amount into $1,500 (Martinez, 2007). Each day, the group Rountree worked with would "visit' several different clinics, as well as routinely travel to Houston to hit more clinics. The cost for the easy profit, however, hit home to Rountree, when she finally got caught. Currently, she is on…… [Read More]
Physical Abuse of Older People by Their Families
When grandpa and grandma are getting on in years and they are living with their children, the data from reliable sources shows that in far too many cases, physical abuse is visited upon the elderly family members by their own children or grandchildren. This is a travesty but moreover it is a felony to physically abuse older people, and family members guilty of those attacks need to be advised that no matter how angry or un-happy they may be by an elderly family member's behaviors, violence is unacceptable.
The fact that Americans are growing older and that many of them are being physically abused -- in numerous cases by their own families -- is a great cause for concern. This paper references scholarly sources that point out the frequency of physical abuses that the elderly are subjected to, and the reasons why they are physically abused.
The first premise of this paper: a report on the frequency, seriousness, perpetrators of and definition of the kinds of physical violence that visited upon elderly people by their own families.
The National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) -- a division of the U.S. Administration on Aging -- reports that abusers of older adults are both women and men, and in fact family members are "more often the abusers than any other group" (NCEA). The data obtained by NCEA shows that the most common abusers are the adult children of older people. Also, the most common perpetrators are "spouses" according to the data from NCEA.
The harming of an aged father or mother is on the one hand a family issue, but on the other hand it is unlawful to harm an older person. In most states, the NCEA points out, there are several laws relating to this problem, and some states have "increased penalties for those who victimize older adults,"…… [Read More]
In fact, one study suggested that if a fruit or vegetable could not be harvested mechanically, it would not be grown in the United States after 1975 (Braceros: History, Compensation).
Workers in the Bracero Program faced a great amount of worker exploitation in the form of low pay and lost wages, both from the United States government as well as their own home government in Mexico. Currently, the governments of both participating countries are working to compensate the families of the bracero workers for the lost wages garnished during that time. However, despite the U.S. government's efforts to right its wrongs in past situations, the fact remains that exploitation of immigrant and undocumented workers in the United States is still a problem that is faced today. Today, undocumented and immigrant workers face a new set of challenges. For example, in a survey, 25% of workers whose employers found out that they were undocumented were not fired until they complained about worksite conditions (Mehta, Theodore, and Hincapie). Furthermore, another 21% of workers said their employers used their unauthorized status to fire them in retaliation for trying to organize a union (Mehta, Theodore, and Hincapie). Other workers reported that their employers didn't fire them when they discovered that they were unauthorized to work, but instead they continued to employ them while cutting their wages and benefits (Mehta, Theodore, and Hincapie). Through these facts, it is clear that exploitation continues to exist in workplaces across the United States, and must be stamped out immediately, but for the good of the worker, and for the economy as a whole.
"Braceros: History, Compensation." Rural Migration News. 12.2 (2006). Web. 10 Dec. 2010.
Ester, Jon. "Exploring Exploitation." The Journal of Peace Research. 15.1 (1978): 3-17. Web.
10 Dec. 2010.
Hoivik, Tord. "Three Approaches to Exploitation: Markets Products, and Communities." the
Journal of Peace Research. 9.3 (1972): 261-70. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.
Marcell, Ronald O. "Bracero Program Hurt Domestic Farm Workers." Borderlands. 12 (1994):
13-14. Web. 10 Dec. 2010.
Mehta, Chirag, Nik Theodore, and Marielena Hincapie. Social Security Administration's No
Match Letter Program: Implications for Immigration Enforcement and Workers' Rights.
Center for Urban Economic Development, the University of Illinois at Chicago, 2003.
Web. 10 Dec. 2010.
Millner, Caille. "The long-lost promises to the braceros." SFGate,…… [Read More]
Abused children develop antisocial behavior that persists through three continuous generations. Such behavior grows out of angry, aggressive parenting and an overall negative home environment, perpetuated by sibling collusion, economic and biological factors. These children exhibit this in preschool by committing at least one antisocial behavior each day in class. As dysfunctional adolescents, their romantic lives and eventual marriages also fail. African-American children suffer from the affliction than Caucasian children. The current level of knowledge and efforts requires effective and efficient mechanisms at home, in school and the community in the crucial formative childhood years.
Understanding the Connection between Child Abuse and the Development of Antisocial Behavior
Abused children eventually become problem adults who are a burden to society.
Recent studies reveal the significance of parenting in the cross-generational transmission of aggressive or problem behavior up to three continuous generations. Stable evidence has long recognized and documented the negative effects of aggressive or harsh and inconsistent parenting and identified the need for interventions that would foster better parenting skills (Dubow 2003). These new findings provide the direct link between the incidence of child abuse and the emergence of problem behavior later in life.
Child abuse may be physical, emotional, sexual or through neglect. Child Protective agencies received and investigated three million reports of maltreatment of close to four million children in 1999 (Black 2004), 54% of which were due to neglect. But because most of the victims were too young and too afraid to speak out, these agencies believed that the actual incidence was greater than reported. While it occurred in all social, ethnic and income groups, child abuse was most common among poor, under-educated and dysfunctional families and committed mostly by parents themselves who were young, unmarried or separated, lonely and coping with life's stresses but not criminal or psychotic (Black). Un-addressed incidence of child abuse increases the risk of criminality, academic failure and failed social relationships in later life (Conger 2003).
This paper will endeavor to inquire into, and understand, the details that link child abuse with the development of problem behavior and what approaches can be made in addressing this reality.
Present literature presents conclusive findings that parent-toddler relationship directly affects the toddler's problem behavior, with deviant or aggressive maternal behavioral attitudes…… [Read More]
Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention
Diversity and How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries
There is developing debate regarding the suitable combination of programs and polices needed to react to concerns of child abuse and neglect. Child neglect and abuse hold significant effects for prospective health and mental health of a child. As a result, it is imperative to comprehend connections among different forms of maltreatment, family and child factors and connect with the systems for children welfare. The child abuse prevention programs and polices adopted in the New York State are generic and appears to be meant for the majority in the society. The programs are not cultural specific and hence, cannot benefit the minority group in the society. For instance, the Asian immigrants present an increased rate of child abuse. However, according to the Asian culture, worldviews, values and perspectives, suffering is an inevitable element of life. In this view, Asian-American cannot therefore, benefit from a universal child abuse protection programs and policies used in the state. The minority and the poor communities in the society disproportionally experience the effects of ineffective child abuse prevention programs. More children get corporeal and poignant injuries leaving more families torn asunder and more children placed in juvenile detention or foster care while more adults face imprisonment for avertable actions. Although child maltreatment is a grim and pervasive social problem, the prevention of this problem is not feasible given the diverse nature of most countries and the lack of cultural specific "child abuse" prevention programs and policies.
Child abuse has been in art, science and literature in various parts of the world. Reports of mutilation, infanticide, abandonment, and other types of violence against children date back to the primordial civilizations. The historical accounts holds reports of weak, malnourished, unkempt children cast out of their families to fend for themselves. Moreover, the historical accounts hold record of sexually abused children (Normam, 2012). Charitable groups and other people concerned with the well-being of children, and who support the protection of children assist abused children. Professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, doctors, authorities…… [Read More]
Satanic Abuse Representations in the Media and Social Science Literature
Throughout history, few things have been able to literally scare the bejabbers out of people as much as reports of satanic abuse in general and in their own communities in particular. Indeed, based on various reports from Europe and North American over the past four centuries, it would seem that when Satan fell from Heaven, he fell directly into many peoples' lives. Even today, isolated but sensationalized reports of satanic abuse can still create the widespread perception that these practices are commonplace and are increasing in prevalence. The hysterical reaction that can sweep through entire communities is proof positive of the continuing relevance of this phenomenon today. Irrespective of the actual reality of the satanic entity, the implications of these reactions for some people are profound and severe and may even cause some people to experience potentially life-threatening mental health issues as a result. To gain some additional insights into these reactions, this paper provides a comparison of satanic abuse representations in the popular media and social science literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
During the past three decades or so, clinicians have reported an increase in the numbers of psychiatric patients who have reported suffering some type of satanic ritual abuse in the past, a trend that has fueled a limited amount of research in this area (Leavitt & Labott 1998). In spite of increasing public concern and a heated debate regarding satanic ritual abuse, there remains a dearth of timely and relevant studies concerning this controversial issue (Leavitt 1994). The research to date, though, does seem to indicate that satanic ritual abuse victims share some commonalities that bear further investigation (Leavitt & Labott 1998; Leavitt 1994). Nevertheless, the findings from the studies thus far have been mixed and there remains some dispute concerning the actual factors that contribute to public reactions to reports…… [Read More]
Abuses of Power Relative to Elite Athletes
It is often the case that elite athletes are subjected to rigors and standards that are far beyond what is expected of the majority of the general public. There are many issues that are common among elite athletes that are known to affect either their bodies or their minds. For instance, some athletes are subjected to such high levels of discipline from either coaches or parents that the experience can be considered emotional harassment or even abuse. Coaches and parents can also use and abuse an elite athletes' bodies in many different ways. There is often a fine line between an eating disorder and attempts to maintain a body in a state of being able to achieve peak performance. Females athletes often attempt to suppress weight gain while it is more common for males to attempt to gain weight by increasing muscle weight and density. Similarly, narrow thresholds exist between training and overtraining elite athletes. However, even more extreme examples of abuse can be found in this population such as the case with sexual harassment or abuse. This study will conduct a literature review that focuses on the various forms of abuses of power that can be common among elite athletes.
Weight-control behavior is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance; nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behavior and clinically relevant eating disorders (Werner, 2013). It has been estimated that female elite athletes represent an at-risk population relative to developing eating disorders during elite sports training periods, during times of competition, and later in life. One meta-analysis on weight-control behaviors found inconsistent results that vary along the lines of factors such as age, gender, and the type of sport that is played.
There are many sports that are considered "leanness sports" in which the athletes are expected to…… [Read More]
Violence against pregnant women is a commonplace phenomenon and this research paper will explain the background of violence against pregnant women. Women undergo different forms of violence for instance, beating, threats, raping and unwilling prostitution. Some years back, it wasn't a big issue as approach towards women was a tad bit different back then. Men were treated as the dominant sex due to their physical strength. So is the case with education and men. It is common for men to get educated while women remain undereducated. With the passage of time, this created a genuine gap for women in the society as they were being undermined. Now violence against women, in general, is red flagged especially in Asia where women are treated very poorly. Now the circumstances for women are improving slowly and gradually in Asia but not completely (Jasinsk, 2004).
Violence against pregnant women isn't just limited to developing countries; it is commonly seen all over the world, even in western countries. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan spoke way back in 1999, that, 'violence against pregnant women is a crime which has no boundaries and spreads over boundaries, geographies, cultures and entails wealth. It is a shameful form of violation of human rights'. Then he went on further to say that, 'it's quite pervasive'. Women are vulnerable to violence and many resort to activities even they didn't deem fit for themselves for instance, prostitution to work for basic human needs such a food, clothes and shelter. Men have sex and pay them for their services as such women have no alternative choice. Women have been subjected to different forms of domestic violence as La Shawn R. Jefferson states that, 'There isn't proper policy regarding violence against women in the developing world which poses a serious threat (Jasinsk, 2004).
In the current scenario, which is presented by UNHCR, the primary principle is not to negate the violence against pregnant women at all.…… [Read More]
Angela's case study illuminates several aspects of domestic violence. The case shows how domestic violence progresses from what was originally a normal relationship, through stages of escalating violence. Each section shows how persons outside the family might have the opportunity to intervene or offer support. What was most interesting about this case was the different legal obligations of health care workers, educators, and colleagues. Not all people are obliged to report suspected domestic violence. It is important to understand one's role and whether or not reporting is appropriate.
Reporting is appropriate and warranted when there are obvious gunshot wounds or gunpowder burns, and also when an early childhood educator suspects domestic violence being perpetrated on a child (Minnesota Statutes, 2015). Each segment of the case study shows how complex the issue is, and how each person has a different role to play and different levels of responsibility. The main things to keep in mind include being supportive of Angela, encouraging her to empower herself and to not feel like anything is her fault, and help steer her in the direction of information and support.
The people who are most in the position of being able to help Angela also have specific roles to play and procedures to follow. For example, an a nurse who sees Angela and notices a bruise cannot and should not jump to conclusions and suspect domestic violence. However, the preschool teacher working with Katie or the school counselor working with Jacob and Angela can be more forthright because they have more information and are in the position of using that information to encourage Angela to develop a personal safety plan. Because Sam has threatened to kill, the situation must be taken very seriously.
The police have a special role to play. Often police are reluctant to get involved at certain stages, but there are stages of domestic violence escalation when the case needs to be treated as a criminal one. Police do have a legal responsibility…… [Read More]
Domestic Abuse: Information and Evidence-Based Practice
Domestic abuse is an issue that has plagued society since nearly the beginning of mankind. Even ancient societies and civilizations have dealt with and depicted those who engage in this behavior. There are few things that work for every person who gets involved in domestic abuse, even though there are many different treatment options. Some people respond to drug treatment when they are medicated for an underlying issue that might be triggering their anger. Others respond to medical interventions such as therapy or anger management courses. Still other individuals only respond to law enforcement and punishment - and even then there is no guarantee that person will not reoffend. Discussed here is domestic abuse from the standpoint of evidence-based practice. What researchers and therapists have said (and are still saying) about people who are domestic abusers is important to analyze, so that new and better treatments can be offered to these individuals and their families. Understanding the reasons behind the violence and the history of what has been done to help offenders in the past can provide insight toward what should be done in the future so that the incidents of domestic abuse that are commonly seen can be reduced or avoided.
Domestic Abuse: Information and Evidence-Based Practice
Introduction and Background
Domestic abuse has always been a part of society. In the past generations, it was more accepted than it is in current times, because people used to see it as a means of correcting a wife or a child, especially if a man believed that his wife was not showing him the level of respect to which he was entitled (Hardesty, 2002). Times have changed, though, and domestic abuse is a crime now. Law enforcement officers will not allow it to go on and it will not be tolerated by the justice system. Additionally, there are many ways of treating those who are domestic abusers, including therapy and medication. Here, evidence-based practice will be explored through providing information about domestic abuse, how it is handled through the criminal justice system, and what case study information says about those who abuse and those who have been abused in the past. One of the most significant things that information about domestic abuse is bringing to light is that it is not just a problem for…… [Read More]
Substance Abuse Treatment Analysis of David Ruffin
Most people today probably recognize his signing voice from his hits such as "My Girl," but few may remember David Ruffin of The Temptations music group from the latter half of the 20th century. Like many of his contemporaries, Ruffin fell victim to the ravages of drug abuse during the height of his career, leaving his millions of fans with a musical void in their lives. To gain some further insights into his untimely death from an overdose of cocaine, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop a background and an overview of Ruffin, his use of drugs, and an appropriate screening instrument that could be used to evaluate a similar client's stage of dependence, change or recovery. An application of this diagnostic tool to Ruffin's unique circumstances is followed by a discussion concerning possible placement options and treatment modalities for clients with Ruffin's diagnosis, and the rationale in support of their choice based upon a personal conceptualization and etiology of addiction. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview of David Ruffin
The hit soul group, "The Temptations," consisted of members Mel Franklin, Otis Williams, Eddie Kendricks, Paul Williams, Dennis Edwards and David Ruffin who began their professional recording careers with Motown Corporation in Detroit in 1962 (Claghorn, 1993). Born in January 1941 in Whynot, Mississippi, one of his biographers reports that "David Ruffin was one of the most recognizable vocalists to have emerged from the Motown Records stable. He was the younger brother of Jimmy Ruffin and the cousin of Melvin Franklin of The Temptations" (Walker, 2012, para. 2). The son of a minister, Ruffin began his musical career singing with a gospel group, the "Dixie Nightingales"; in addition, he also…… [Read More]